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Combustion basics...

T. Poinsot

poinsot@imft.fr

Only the things you should know to


understand the following courses

Mainly elements of laminar flame theory


for premixed and diffusion flames

1 Copyright Dr T. Poinsot 2013

We are discussing gaseous combustion in


a mixture of perfect gases containing N
species indexed with k=1 to N:

Ch. 1

2
STOECHIOMETRY AND Ch. 1
EQUIVALENCE RATIO:

Stoechiometric ratio

Equivalence ratio

4
FUEL / AIR COMBUSTION COMPOSITION
AT EQUIVALENCE RATIO φ

With air, combustible mixtures contain typically more than 90 % of...


air ! This will be useful for theory: a combustible mixture will essentially
have the same properties (density, viscosity, conductivity) as pure air.

In a combustion code:
 In a non reacting compressible flow (aerodynamics), we
have 5 variables:
 3 velocities
 pressure or temperature or enthalpy or entropy
 density
 In combustion, we have 5 + (N-1) unknown 3D fields to
determine:
 3 velocities
 pressure or temperature or enthalpy or entropy
 N species -> actually N-1 since their sum is unity
 density

 We need 5 + (N-1) equations:


 Momentum (3)
 Energy, or enthalpy or entropy or temperature
 Continuity for each species (or for N-1 species + total mass)
6
Continuity equations (N):

for k = 1 to N

Summing them from 1 to N MUST give the continuity equation:

So that we need:

=0

Ch. 1 Sec 1.1.4


Diffusion velocities: careful...
(Williams 1985 or Ern and Giovangigli 1994)
 The Vk’s are obtained by solving this system:

 This is the diffusion matrix which must be inverted at


each point at each instant... but almost no one does it.
We use simplified forms

Vk = −Dk ∇Y
Yk
k Vk = −Dk ∇X
Xk
k

 FICK’s law  HIRSCHFELDER’s law

8
What are the Dk’s?

 The diffusion coefficients of species k in the MIXTURE


 Not the binary diffusion coefficients Dij of kinetic gas theory
 Obtained by:

 All Dk’s are different in general...


 Dk’s vary significantly but their ratios to thermal diffusivity
Dth vary much less. They are measured by the Lewis number
of each species:

Lewis numbers are not intrinsic parameters


of a species. They depend on the mixture

Lewis numbers of main species in a


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stoechiometric CH4/air premixed flame
The need for correction velocities if
Lewis numbers are different:
The Dk’s are not equal if Lek differ

∇Xk
Vk = −Dk
Xk
Summing the species equations with Fick’s law:
� N

∂ρ ∂ρui ∂ � Wk ∂Xk
+ = ρ Dk
∂t ∂xi ∂xi W ∂xi
k=1
which is not zero if all Lewis numbers are not equal.

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A correction velocity Vc is required:

Replace:

By:

Adding all species equations gives:

12
� N

∂ρ ∂ρui ∂ � Wk ∂Xk
+ = ρ Dk − ρVic
∂t ∂xi ∂xi W ∂xi
k=1
Vc can be chosen to ensure mass conservation:

and the proper expression of the diffusion velocity is:

Conclusion: careful of codes using simplified expressions


for diffusion velocities with non-equal Lewis numbers.
13

Ch. 1 Sec 1.1.2


Momentum equations (3)

Same form in non-reacting flows. Except that:


- density here has very strong gradients
- viscosity changes rapidly with temperature

14
Last but not least: energy Ch. 1, Sec. 1.1.5

 Each code uses a different form for energy, enthalpy or


temperature

 All forms of course are equivalent (should be...)

 The trick is not to confuse them and beware of simplified


forms...

 Compressible vs incompressible is one source of


confusion

 Total versus other forms of energy is another one

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 Full summary in PV2011 Chapter 1

Energy: 4 forms.
Ch. 1, Sec. 1.1.5
Enthalpy: 4 forms + one (T)

Cp depends both on temperature (through the Cpk’s) and on the


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composition (the Yk’s)
7 Cm
pk /R CO2
Scaled molar heat capacity

6
H2O

CO
5

4
Ideal diatomic gas
H2
3.5 N2

Perfect
500 1000 1500 2000 2500
gas limit Temperature (K)

Molar heat capacity of each species change with temperature

 Good starting point: total energy et

careful with the heat flux. It is not:

but is also includes the flux transported by species diffusion:

18
Pick up the right one...

The heat release and the reaction


rates of species

 There are N reaction rates ω̇k in the species equations


(one for each species)

 But only one heat release term:


N

ω̇T = − ω̇k ∆Hf0k
k=1

20
Many authors also like to work with the
temperature equation.
If pressure is constant:

Careful with this new ‘heat release’

21

Two reaction rate terms: same name in


the literature but NOT equal
� �
∂ρE ∂ ∂ ∂T ∂
+ (ρui E) = ω̇T + λ + ∂x (σij ui )
∂t ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi j

�N
ω̇T = − ω̇k ∆Hf0k
k=1

N
� N
� N

ω̇T� = − hk ω̇k = − hsk ω̇k − ∆Hf0k ω̇k
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k=1 k=1 k=1
N
� N
� N
� N

ω̇T� =− hk ω̇k = − hsk ω̇k − ∆Hf0k ω̇k =− hsk ω̇k + ω̇T
k=1 k=1 k=1 k=1

If the Cp,k s are equal: Cp,k = Cp

� �
hsk = Cpk dT = Cp dT = hk

so that ΣN
k=1 h sk ω̇ k = h k Σ N
k=1 ω̇k = 0

ω̇T = ω̇T�
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And if the Cp,k s are equal: Cp,k = Cp


N
� N

Cp,k Yk Vk,i = Cp Yk Vk,i = 0
k=1 k=1

so that the temperature equation:

becomes:

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SUMMARY:
 We have the basic equations
 We can solve them numerically for real flames
 Before we do that, we anticipate that we are going to
have difficulties with:
 Kinetics
 Turbulence
 Very large domains
 We are going to need models. Better: we are going to
need understanding...otherwise the work is impossible
 To do this we need to study a few academic (canonical)
cases even if it means simplifying things a little bit.

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So... canonical cases are needed to


understand the basic flame features:

 The premixed laminar flame Ch. 2

 The laminar diffusion flame Ch. 3

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PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAME Ch. 2

 Under certain assumptions, an explicit resolution of the


previous equations is possible
 This is the case for the premixed laminar flame

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A one-dimensional steady problem in


the reference frame of the flame
Ch. 2, Sec 2.3

No momentum equation needed: we need it only to find pressure changes


This equation can be solved for a large number of species numerically
(CHEMKIN, COSILAB, CANTERA, FLAME MASTER)

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But doing so does not tell us much. Let us keep simplifying
29

Additional assumptions Ch. 2 Sec 2.4

 Single reaction limited by fuel (lean). Instead of N mass


fractions, we can track one only: Yf. We assume that Yo=ct
 All Lewis numbers equal to unity

 Can solve this by hand ! -> famous field for mathematicians/


combustion experts (Williams, Linan, Matalon)
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Ch 2 used in Ch. 4, 5, 6
Simplest solutions

 If Lewis = 1 temperature and fuel mass fractions are


directly linked if properly scaled:

 Then: θ+Y =1
 We are left with only one variable to solve for: the
reduced temperature (also called the progress variable)
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Master equation for laminar


premixed flames:

ω̇T

This is where asymptotics enter the


field. Not the topic of present lectures.

Let us summarize the results.


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In this simplified world, a flame is:
 dominated by a strongly non linear reaction rate:

ω̇T

33

 decomposed in two zones: a preheating region and a


reaction zone

ω̇T Preheating

Reaction

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 has a thickness given by

1
λ1 Dth Heat diffusivity in the fresh gas
δ= =
ρ1 C p s L sL

 or

δsL
1 =1
Dth
 The Reynolds number of the flame is unity:

δs0L
Reflame = =1
35
ν

 has a flame speed which depends on the form assumed for


reaction rate and molecular diffusion:

 You can find the results in TNC 2011 and the derivations in
asymptotic papers but let us focus on an important result:
36
In all premixed flame speed expressions:

Ch. 2 Sec 2.4.6

Heat diffusivity Kinetics constant

 Multiply the kinetics constant by 4 : it will increase the flame


speed by two

 Without diffusivity... no premixed flame

 Flame propagation is the combination of both diffusion and


reaction

37

Flame propagation :
T(to)

T(t1)
DIFFUSION

T(t1)
COMBUSTION

38
A useful feature of premixed flames:

Ch. 5 Sec 5.4.3

Heat diffusivity Kinetics constant

 Divide the kinetics constant by a factor F>1 and multiply


the diffusivity by F. You will get the same flame speed.
 But the thickness will be larger by a factor F:

1
1
Dth FDth
δ= δ=
sL sL
39

A useful property in codes: thicken the


flame (O’Rourke and Bracco JCP 1979+ CERFACS 90s)
1
" "Yk Ta Dth
d / dt( !Yk ) = ( !D ) + A!Y 1Y 2...Yn exp(# ) δ=
"xi "xi T sL
1
" "Yk A Ta FD th
d / dt( !Yk ) = ( !DF ) + !Y 1Y 2... Yn exp(# ) δ=
"xi "xi F T sL

Same flame speeds with both equations !

40
In a numerical world where we fight with
resolution... this can help !

2000

Non thickened
Thickened 20 times
1500
Temperature

Temperature!
1000

500

-3
0 10 20 30 40 50x10
Abscissa

Thickened and unthickened flames for


CH4/air. F=20
41

For heat release: it is much easier


when the flame is thick...
1000

800

Non thickened
Thickened 20 times
Reaction rate

600

400 Heat release!


200

0
-3
0 10 20 30 40 50x10
Abscissa

42
DIFFUSION FLAME
Ch. 3
STRUCTURE

The other case where theory can be developed and is heavily used.
Most approaches rely on passive scalars and on the mixture fraction z.

43

WHAT IS A PASSIVE SCALAR ?

 A scalar quantity which does NOT have a source term (ie


not a chemical species or a temperature)

∂ρZ ∂ρui Z ∂ ∂Z
+ = (ρD )
∂t ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi

Ch. 2 Sec 3.2.1

44
A USEFUL PROPERTY OF PASSIVE
SCALARS:
 IF TWO PASSIVE SCALARS Z1 and Z2 HAVE THE SAME
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:
 IF THEY ARE EQUAL AT t=0, THEY WILL ALWAYS REMAIN EQUAL
 IF THEY DIFFER AT t=0, THEY WILL CONVERGE TO THE SAME
VALUE AFTER A FEW CHARACTERISTIC TIMES

 DEMO: by considering the norm of (Z2-Z1) OR by intuition

45

INTUITIVE DEMO:
∂ρZ ∂ρui Z ∂ ∂Z
+ = (ρD )
∂t ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi
can also be written:

DZ ∂ ∂z
ρ = (ρD )
Dt ∂xi ∂xi
where D/Dt is the total derivative (the variations along the
trajectories)

46
Consider two passive scalars Z1 and Z2.
Along trajectories Z=Z2-Z1 changes only
because of diffusion
DZ ∂ ∂z
ρ = (ρD )
Dt ∂xi ∂xi
 with boundary condition: Z=0
 If the initial condition is Z=0,
all gradients are zero and Z
will remain 0
 If the initial condition is not
Z=0, any non zero fluid
element will go to Z=0 rapidly.

47

Ch. 3 Sec 3.2.2.


WHAT IS MIXTURE FRACTION ?
 A PASSIVE SCALAR WHICH GOES FROM 1 IN THE FUEL
TO 0 IN OXIDIZER STREAM

∂ρz ∂ρui z ∂ ∂z
+ = (ρD )
∂t ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi

z=1 z=0

ANY PASSIVE SCALAR GOING FROM 1 IN THE FUEL TO 0 IN


THE OXIDIZER IS EQUAL TO THE MIXTURE FRACTION

48
WHAT DOES IT TAKE TO BE ABLE TO
CONSTRUCT A MIXTURE FRACTION ?
 H1: Constant pressure and equal Cp’s Ch. 2 Sec 3.2.1
 H2: All Lewis numbers equal to unity
 H3: Global single step reaction

 So that we can track only T, YF and YO


49

IN THE ABSENCE OF COMBUSTION :


PURE MIXING

THREE PASSIVE SCALARS WITH THE SAME EQUATION.


IF WE CAN NORMALIZE THEM TO HAVE THE SAME
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS, THEY ARE EQUAL TO z
50
NORMALIZE THE PASSIVE SCALARS:

/YF0
/Y00

/(TF0 − TO0 )

51

THREE SCALED PASSIVE SCALARS:

FUEL OXI
Z1 = YF /YF0
1 0
Z1
Z2 = 1 − YO /YO0 Z2 1 0

1 0
Z3 = (T − TO0 )/(TF0 − TO0 ) Z3

THREE PASSIVE SCALARS WITH THE SAME EQUATION


AND SAME BC: THEY ARE EQUAL. WE CALL THEM THE
MIXTURE FRACTION z Z1 = Z2 = Z3 = z
52
THE MIXING LINES
(NO COMBUSTION)

Ch. 2 Sec 3.2.5

53

INTERPRETATION OF z: A MASS
WEIGHTED MEASUREMENT OF MIXING

z=1 z=0

•At a given point in the chamber:


• mass coming from stream 1 = m1
• mass of fuel = m1 YF0
• mass coming from stream 2 = m2
• total mass= m1+m2
• fuel mass fraction YF= m1 YF0/ (m1+m2)
• mixture fraction z = YF/YF0 = m1/(m1+m2)
54
INTERPRETATION OF z:

z=1 z=0

If the mixture fraction at this point at time t is z, it means that


at this point, in 1 kg of mixture:
• z kg come from stream 1
• (1-z) kg come from stream 2
Careful: this works only if all Lewis numbers are equal
55

With combustion, z can also be introduced:

Combining them two by two to eliminate source terms


and normalizing to have the same boundary conditions
leads to three passive scalars with identical bcs: they
are all equal to the mixture fraction
56
z
The mixture fraction z:

In these expressions, only YF, YF and T are variable.

All other quantities are fixed:


- s is the stoichiometric ratio
- YF0 and YF0 are the fuel and oxidizer inlet mass fractions in
stream 1 and 2 respectively
- Q is the heat of reaction per unit mass

57

Another property of the mixture fraction


z: it does not change in a reacting zone
sYF1 − YO1 + YO0
State 1: YF1 , YO1 z1 =
sYF0 + YO0
State 2: YF1 − ∆YF1 , YO1 − s∆YF1

s(YF1 − ∆Yf1 ) − (YO1 − s∆YF1 ) + YO0


z2 = 0 0 = z1
sYF + YO

58
How can we use the mixture fraction z ?:

Nice to have a quantity without source term

But not sufficient. We can compute z in multiple flows but from z


we cannot obtain T, YF and YO : in the above expressions, we have
relations for couples of variables but not for individual variables.

We need additional assumptions: the simplest one is the infinitely


fast assumption
59

The infinitely fast chemistry assumption


 Suppose that kinetics are faster than all flow processes:
fuel and oxidizer cannot co exist. There will be a ‘fuel’
side (YF =0) and an oxidizer side (YO =0)

 That is enough to close the problem. For example, on the


fuel side:

60
The z diagram
with infinitely
fast chemistry
and unity
Lewis numbers
EQUILIBRIUM LINES +
MIXING LINES (NO
COMBUSTION)

61

There are multiple other z diagrams


of growing complexity Ch. 3, Sect 3.5

Strained flamelet

62
Reversible single step Flamelet strained assumption
OK we have T, Yk = f(z). So what ?

 What we really want is to have T and all Yk’s as functions


of time and spatial positions. Does z help us ?

 Yes: the introduction of z represents a significant


simplification as described now:

63

Instead of solving:

Z diagram structure:
T(z)
Only solve the z equation:
� � YF(z)
∂ρz ∂ ∂ ∂z Yo(z)
+ (ρui z) = ρD
∂t ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi

And read T and Yk in the z


diagram. We ll use this in
64
turbulent flames
Think of the z diagram as trajectories:
MIXING PHASE: First you mix and reach
a given z...

65

Combustion phase: after mixing, you


burn. And you stop burning when you
reach the equilibrium lines

66
Possible states: cant be outside the
triangle limited by equilibrium and
mixing lines

POSSIBLE STATES

67

Parenthesis - a useful tool for codes:

 In 3D codes, one often needs to know the local equivalence


ratio
φ = sYF /YO
 SinceYF and YO change because of combustion, the above
expression cannot be used to know the local equivalence ratio
except in the unburnt gases

 Mixing lines allow to do this: wherever you are in a reacting


flow, if you know z, you can find the local equivalence ratio

sYF0 z
φ= 0 ONLY IF LEWIS =1
68
YO (1 − z)
Example: Ch. 2 Sec 3.2.5

 Through a premixed flame front, z does not change but the


local equivalence ratio does change from the fresh gas
equivalence ratio to 0 in the burnt gas (for lean flames)

φ = sYF /YO
 Since z does not change through the flame front, we can
compute the equivalence ratio of the mixture before
combustion (on the mixing line) with:

sYF0 z sYF0 sYF − Y0 + Y00


φ= 0 or φ= 0
YO (1 − z) YO s(YF0 − YF ) + YO

69

Simple exercice: using Cantera,


Cosilab or Chemkin

 Compute a 1D premixed flame with Lewis not equal for a


chosen equivalence ratio φ1
 Compute z =(sYF-Yo+Yo0)/(sYF0+Yo0)
 Plot z versus x: it will be constant
sYF0 z
 Compute the equivalence ratio from z: φ =
YO0 (1 − z)
 And check it is equal to φ1

 Repeat with real (non equal) values of Lewis numbers...

70
Will also work in 3D to know the local equivalence ratio in a code
(useful for diffusion, partially premixed or spray flames):
BEFORE COMBUSTION. EASY. What is the
equivalence ratio of the gases in the fresh gas ?
φ = sYF /YO

AFTER COMBUSTION: cant use the same formula. Compute z then get
the equivalence ratio:
sYF0 z
φ= 0
71
YO (1 − z)

The limits of the z diagram

 The concept of splitting the resolution of diffusion flame


structures in two parts (z diagram and mixing problem) is
common in many codes, even for turbulent diffusion flames

 But can we really do this ? can we base all our models


on z ? let us come back to the assumptions required to
define a mixture fraction z.

72
Equal Lewis numbers ??
 Never happens. Lewis numbers are not equal and not equal to
unity. Lewis numbers measured in a 1D premixed flame

73

Alternative definitions for z ? Ch. 3 Sec 3.6.2

 The literature contains multiple ‘improved’ definitions of


z (based on elements, or on combination of elements).
 The mixture fraction defined using a single step global
reaction is of course limited. For H2+1/2O2 -> H2O,
define a mixture fraction z1:

 We know that this is not a good definition in practice


since in the real world, we have more than one reaction
 Solution: work on elements (C, H or O) because elements
are always conserved. Generalized mixture fractions
74
Other mixture fractions:

 For example, build a passive scalar on H atom:

 and a mixture fraction from it:

 See Bilger, Barlow, Pope’s papers for other extensions.


For example in the TNF workshop, Bilger’s definition is:

zB=

75

But all mixture fractions are ... different:

 Measurements of various mixture fractions (based on C


and H) in a piloted diffusion flame vs Bilger’s z:

76
Alternative definitions for z ?

 In the end, ‘there is no such thing as a real mixture


fraction’ because nothing (species or elements) diffuses
at the same speed in a multispecies gas.

 This leads to multiple problems in practice since the


multiple definitions of z lead to z’s which are not equal...

77

Last comment on Lewis numbers

When we will discuss turbulent flames, we will see that


many authors use unity Lewis number assumptions. Why ?

 It seems to work better...

 It may be vaguely justified by the fact that small scale


turbulence leads to turbulent transport which dominates
transport and is the same for all species, thereby justifying
the equal Lewis number assumption

78
Stretch and scalar dissipation

 All previous derivations for premixed like diffusion cases use


assumptions which are too simple. In practice, at least one
additional notion is required for turbulent flames: stretch
 Stretch applies to any flame (premixed or diffusion) and
measures the rate at which the flame area increases:

1 dA
κ=
A dt
 Intuition tells us that ‘stretching’ a flame must have a limit.
The flame is affected by stretch (see Williams book or Pr
Matalon’s course).
 This effect is different for premixed and diffusion flames
79

Stretch and premixed flames


Strain in the tangent Strain due to flame
plane to the flame propagation

Displacement Front
speed curvature

Ch. 2.6
S. M. Candel and T. Poinsot. Flame stretch and the balance equation for the
flame surface area. Combust. Sci. Tech., 70:1-15, 1990.

80
Examples of stretched premixed flames

81

Evaluations of stretch:

U1 + U2
κ=
d
This is an average value: stretch is not constant along the
flame normal
Defining flame stretch at the flame location is difficult

82
Flame location in a stagnation point flow:
Flame thickness

83

Evaluations of stretch: spherical flames

A = 4πr2

Stretch is constant on the flame front


Knowing r(t) gives directly stretch
Stretch changes like 1/r: very large at initial times
84
Variations of flame speeds with stretch

 Premixed flames are affected by stretch.


 Theory can be used to derive the variations of speeds:

Markstein length Markstein number

 Measuring Markstein numbers is extremely difficult...


 But the dependence of premixed flame speeds on stretch
is not very strong, compared to diffusion flames
85

Flame speeds versus stretch: depend


on the Lewis number of the deficient
reactant AND on heat losses:

ADIABATIC Lewis=1

86
ADIABATIC Lewis < 1

NON ADIABATIC Lewis > 1

87

Stretch and diffusion flames:


In diffusion flames, flame strain is often replaced by a more useful
quantity called ‘scalar dissipation’:

Why ?
- Scalar dissipation does not depend on the flame orientation (as flame
stretch does).
- For simple cases (stretched diffusion flame), stretch and scalar
dissipation are directly linked.

Ch. 3.2.2

88
The diffusion flame with infinitely
fast chemistry:

Flame stretch YF0


φ=s 0
YO

Scalar dissipation on
the flame front
89 We can work with stretch OR with scalar dissipation

90
Diffusion flames are VERY sensitive
to stretch (or scalar dissipation)

Ch. 3.4.2

Total fuel consumption in a Flame stretch


stretched diffusion flame

When you stretch a diffusion flame, it burns more: we all know we


must blow on fires...: we just bring them more air

If you stretch it too much, you can quench it: we also know that you
should not blow too much on a candle, otherwise you kill it...
91

Stretching a diffusion flame:

Total fuel Ch. 3.5.2


consumption

92
Implications for turbulent flames:

 In turbulent flames, the unsteady velocity field will


induce strain and therefore stretch:

Strain in the tangent Strain due to flame


plane to the flame propagation

93

In turbulent flames:

 We will need to establish a link between the velocity field


(created by an ensemble of vortices) and the flame
stretch:

94
Are all flames premixed or non-premixed ?

 No and two other cases must be


mentioned:
 triple flames
 partially premixed flames

95

TRIPLE FLAMES: THE STRUCTURE WHICH SEPARATES


IGNITED FROM NON IGNITED DIFFUSION LAYERS

COMBUSTION
MIXING

Ch. 6 Sec 6.2.3

In  any  flame  where  you  inject  pure  fuel  and  pure  oxidizer,  you  can  be  
either  on  the  mixing  line  or  on  the  combusFon  line.  How  do  you  go  from  
one  to  the  other  ?  (in  other  words:  how  do  you  ignite  a  diffusion  flame  96?)
TRIPLE FLAMES: THE STRUCTURE WHICH SEPARATES
IGNITED FROM NON IGNITED DIFFUSION LAYERS

Fuel
T T

Oxidizer

MIXING  STATE BURNING  STATE


Kioni  flame
Premixing zone Diffusion flame
Rich premixed flame
Fuel

Oxidizer
Lean premixed flame

97

TRIPLE FLAME POINTS IN A z DIAGRAM:

Infinitely
Mixing  lines fast  chemistry

Premixing zone Rich premixed flame Diffusion flame


Fuel

Oxidizer
Lean premixed flame

98
1/ TRIPLE FLAMES PROPAGATE.
2/ THEY PROPAGATE FASTER THAN PREMIXED FLAMES

• A TRIPLE FLAME SPEED SCALES LIKE:



ρ1
sT riple = s0L
ρ2

Stoechiometric   Density  raFo


laminar  flame  speed 99

Partially premixed flames


 Almost noone uses perfectly premixed flames: too dangerous
 And almost noone uses pure diffusion flames: not efficient
 Most flames will be produced in devices where we TRY to mix
at the last moment to reach premixed conditions but never
really make it.... Partially premixed flames

Mean equivalence ratio


1.0

0.8 Real distribution on flame front


0.6
PDF

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2
100 Equivalence ratio
Example: the PRECCINSTA burner (DLR)

101