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Home Tribology_Index Friction Factors Note: I have tried to include a wide range of relevant information on this topic. It will be noted that friction values in one section do not necessarily agree with values in another section...Please use the linked references at the bottom of the page for more detailed information. Factors Affecting friction..... Static Friction..... Sliding/dynamic/kinetic friction..... Coefficients of Friction..... Rolling Friction..... Plain Bearings Friction..... Rolling Bearing Friction..... Clutch Brake Friction..... Bolted Joints..... Power Screws..... Press Fits.... Test Methods.... Linked Reference Info
Factors affecting the friction between surfaces Dry surfaces 1. For low surface pressures the friction is directly proportional to the pressure between the surfaces. As the pressure rises the friction factor rises slightly. At very high pressure the friction factor then quickly increases to seizing 2. For low surface pressures the coefficient of friction is independent of surface area. 3. At low velocities the friction is independent of the relative surface velocity. At higher velocities the coefficent of friction decreases. Well lubricated surfaces 1. The friction resistance is almost independent of the specific pressure between the surfaces. 2. At low pressures the friction varies directly as the relative surface speed 3. At high pressures the friction is high at low velocities falling as the velocity increases to a minimum at about 0,6m/s. The friction then rises in proportion the velocity 2. 4. The friction is not so dependent of the surface materials 5. The friction is related to the temperature which affects the viscosity of the lubricant Please refer to... Surface Friction Notes
Static Coefficient of Friction The static friction coefficient (μ) between two solid surfaces is defined as the ratio of the tangential force (F) required to produce sliding divided by the normal force between the surfaces (N)
μ = F /N
For a horizontal surface the horizontal force (F) to move a solid resting on a flat surface F= μ x mass of solid x g. If a body rests on an incline plane the body is prevented from sliding down because of the frictional resistance. If the angle of the plane is increased there will be an angle at which the body begins to slide down the plane. This is the angle of repose and the tangent of this angle is the same as the coefficient of friction. . Sliding Coefficient of Friction When the tangential force F overcomes the frictional force between two surfaces then the surfaces begins to slide relative to each other. In the case of a body resting on a flat surface the body starts to move. The sliding frictional resistance is normally different to the static frictional resistance. The coefficient of sliding friction is expressed using the same formula as the static coefficient and is generally lower than the static coefficient of friction..
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0012m Wood on Wood f = 0. Various values are provided on the following linked page Clutch/Brake Materials Friction coefficient Bolted Joints The coefficient of friction is required in calculating tightening torques and resulting bolt tensile forces and stress and in calculating the resulting friction between the connected surfaces.co. In many cases the degree of contamination is perhaps the most important single variable. The sliding/lubricated values must be used with extreme care.0021m Iron on Wood f = 0. Coefficients of friction are sensitive to atmospheric dust and humidity.Coefficients Of Friction http://www. The values are only representative values and should be confirmed against other sources of 2 of 7 9/28/2010 2:47 PM . Below are provided a small number of values showing approximate values of friction coefficients to be used for steel screw fastened connections.uk/Useful_Tables/Tribology/co_of_frict. vibration. surface finish.015 -0. If W is the weight of the cylinder converted to force. center>F = f x W/R f is the coefficient of rolling friction and has the same unit of length as the radius R -in the example below m (metres) Typical values for f are listed below Note: Values for rolling friction from various sources are not consistent and the following values should only be used for approximate calculations. and R is radius of the cylinder and F is the force required to overcome the rolling friction then.0005m Wood on Steel f = 0. and extent of contamination.0077m Hardrubber on Concrete f = 0. The only way to determine the accurate coefficient of friction between two materials is to conduct experiments.035m Plain Bearing Friction factors For values of rolling bearing friction Plain Bearing Friction Values Rolling Bearing Friction For values of rolling bearing friction Rolling Bearing Friction Values Clutch . velocity of sliding.roymech.01 -0. Link Test Methods Rolling Friction When a cylinder rolls on a surface the force resisting motion is termed rolling friction.htm Friction Coefficients A table below shows approximate friction coefficients for various materials.002m Hardrubber on Steel f = 0.. This factor can also affect the results.0015m Iron on iron f = 0. Steel on Steel f = 0.02m Rubber on Concrete f = 0. Link Table of Coefficients of Friction The friction values provided are obtained by different test methods under different ambient conditions.Brake Friction Values The coefficient of friction value is important in the design and brakes and clutches. or the force between the cylinder and the flat surface. All values are approximate and are only suitable for guidance only. Rolling friction is generally considerably less than sliding friction.00051m Iron on granite f = 0. temperature. oxide films.0056m Polymer on steel f = 0.
15-0.15-0.06-0.18 0.Coefficients Of Friction http://www. materials.16 0.0.09 ..14 .18 0.3 0. Contact Surfaces Steel On Steel.16 Moving 0. A different value result if the shaft is forced into the hub (force fit) compared to the value if the assemble is completed by heating the hub or freezing the shaft prior to assembly (shrink fit).16 0.0.15 0.0.11-0.08 . surface coatings etc.09 3 of 7 9/28/2010 2:47 PM .09 0..10 .18 0.25 Male screw Coefficient of Friction Nut/Bolt Face against Clamped surface Clamped Surface = Steel Friction Coeffient (Dry) Friction Coefficient(Lub.15 0.23 Galvanised steel 0.10 .48 .19 .25 0. The coefficient of friction is also dependent on the method of installation.11-0.23 0. Coefficient of Friction for screw threads Female Thread -Nut or Tapped Hole in steel(untreated) Friction Coefficient Friction Coefficient (lub) (Dry) Untreated Steel 0.0.15.0. of Friction = 0.17 Cadmium Plated Steel 0.0. Steel Shaft unlubricated .C.0.18 0.18 .10 .0.19 0.17 0.08 Nut Material Brass Bronze 0. These keyless shaft/hub connections all transfer torque by friction.14 . The coefficient of friction used for designing these types of connections is dependent on the interface pressure.0.09 .08-0.Machined (Degreased) Grit -Sandblasted surfaces Friction Factors for Power Screws The following factors are typical friction factors for power screw torque and efficiency calculations.0.25 0. Various values of relevant coefficients of friction are provided below.10 .17 Phosphated Steel 0.04-0.htm information and preferably testing.12 Cast Iron 0.0.18 0.0.) Untreated Steel 0.14 .08 .18 0.10 0.force fit .2 Degreased steel 0.12 .25 Female Thread -Nut or Tapped Hole in steel(Galvanised) Male screw Friction Coeffient (Dry) Friction Coefficient(Lub.2 0.Machined (Degreased) Steel On Cast Iron.1 .14 0.06 slip coefficient 0.2 Degreased steel 0.12 . the taper lock bush and hydraulic fit bush.06 Starting 0.17 0.0.0.roymech.0.16 .15-0.0.25 0..25 0.10 .0.18 Phosphated Steel 0.0.0.0.22 0.0.15 Galvanised steel 0.0.2 0.23 0.) 0.15 .18 Bolt/Nut Mat'l Untreated Steel Phosphated Steel Galvanised steel Bolt/Nut Mat'l Untreated Steel Phosphated Steel Galvanised steel Coefficient of friction between surfaces clamped by bolts /screws.08 .08 -0.0..12 0.12 .No treatment Steel On Cast Iron.18 Clamped Surface -Galvanised Steel Friction Coefficient Friction Coefficient (lub) (Dry) 0.17 0.0.15 0..12 .18 0.uk/Useful_Tables/Tribology/co_of_frict.14 .0.25 0.0.15 0.12 .12. Steel Hub .15 0.08 0.0.No treatment Steel On Steel.07 to 0.15-0.can be applied to collar friction(μc) Screw Material Steel(Dry) Steel (Lubricated) Bronze (Lubricated) 2) Thrust collar Friction values (μc) Surface Combinations Soft Steel on Cast Iron Hard Steel on Cast Iron Soft Steel on Bronze Hard Steel on Bronze Press Fit Mechanical Joints In mechanical engineering rotary motion can be transferred by mechanical connections between a shaft and hub using only a tight fit.10-0.18 Cadmium Plated Steel 0.2 0.08 .0.09 . surface condition.0.19 .55 Steel 0.co. 1) Screw Thread Friction values (μs) (Friction factors apply mainly for screw thread friction (μs) .10 .0.0.10-0.09 .15 0. Methods of achieving this type of connection include the engineered interference fit.0.10 .0.0.12 . These values allow calculation of the shear force necessary to cause slip between surfaces when clamped by bolts.
A short table is included above the main table to illustrate how the coefficient of friction is affected by surface films.C. coefficient of friction to 0.5 0.3 1.76 Sulfide Film 0.12 Steel Hub .d2.0. The same table includes a value for mild steel on mild steel of 0.12 for lightly oiled connections and 0. Coefficient of Friction Extreme care is needed in using friction coefficients and additional independent references should be used. These companies can provide surface coating fluids containing particles to increase the coefficient of friction i.press fit calculatgor Testing Methods There are a number of test methods for coefficient of frictions as some of which are listed below Flat block pressed against a OD of rotating ring (FOR) Flat block against another flat block (FOF) Flat block sliding down an inclined runway(IS) Pin pressed against a OD of rotating ring (POR Reciprocating loaded spherical end pin pressed on a flat surface(RSOF) It is clear that the different test methods provide different friction results.π. Steel Shaft unlubricated .roymech.4 0.25 to 0. Calculators are available for obtaining the transmitted toque very conveniently... of Friction = 0. Coefficient Of Friction Material 1 Material 2 Static Aluminum Aluminum Brake Material Brake Material Brass Brick Bronze Bronze Cadmium Aluminum Mild Steel Cast Iron Cast Iron (Wet) Cast Iron Wood Cast Iron Steel Cadmium 0.0.0.1) includes values (0. of Friction = 0. When a metal surface is perfectly clean in a vacuum .12-0. Tribology -abc Engineers edge . Steel Shaft greased . The surface pressure Pc is calculated typically using lame's equation.15.for steel 1032? on steel 1032?).The links below the tables provide further information.Shrink fit . When calculated the torque to be transmitted it is generally sufficient to use the simple equation T= μ. Effect of oxide film etc on coefficient of static friction Material Steel-Steel Copper-Copper Clean Dry 0..47 DRY Sliding 0.force fit .e.05 to 0.27 0...78 1.. of Friction = 0.10.23 sliding . Steel Shaft greased .42 sliding) Gieck( 7th ed) provides values of (0.4 0. Concise Metals Data Handbook by J.uk/Useful_Tables/Tribology/co_of_frict.05 1... the friction is much higher than the normal accepted value and seizure can easily occur.co.30 Static .74 The level of uncertainty of the information below is indicated by using steel on steel as an example.05-1.R.C.30 sliding)..15-0.Pc/2 d= the shaft diameter L is the length of the interference joint.16 0.61 0.35 0.Shrink fit .74 Static..L.Coefficients Of Friction http://www.39 0.22 0.15 for dry assemblies.3.3 Static Greasy Sliding Test method 4 of 7 9/28/2010 2:47 PM . (ref links 1 below) The American Gear Manufactures Association (AGMA) recommends a value of between 0.2 0.25 Steel Hub . Davis (table 14.31 static -0.(0.C.htm Steel Hub . . Various reference sources provide values similar to the values below.08 to 0..6 0.15 for hydraulically expanded hubs and 0.16 The manufacturers of the proprietary keyless hub/shaft systems indicate that their products are based on a coefficient of friction of 0.0.....20 for shrink or press fit hubs.. For any specific application the ideal method of determining the coefficient of friction is by trials.62 sliding.15 to 0..21 Thick Oxide Film 0.
2 1.5 0.09 0.1 0.1 0.16 0.21 0.8 0.2 0.0.75 0.52 0.1 0.3-0.36 0.19 0.16 0.uk/Useful_Tables/Tribology/co_of_frict. 0.5 0.8 0.95 0.4 .roymech.56 0.0.1 .1 0.55 0.05 .3 .3 0.64.1.34 0.5 .15 .5-0.51 0.co.0 .0 0.6-0.05 1.74 0.1 0.15 .8 0.0.12 .3-0.0.62 0.4 0.25 0.28 0.95 0.35 0.29 0.133 0.13 -0.75 0.0.173 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.45 0.3 0.6 0.12 0.9 .075 5 of 7 9/28/2010 2:47 PM .4 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.35 0.11 .183 0.178 SPOF 0.43 1.34 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.21 0.0.0 0.53 0.5 .0 0. Bros Phos Bros Polythened Polystyrene Steel (Mild) Steel (Mild) 0.07 0.44 0.23 0.14 1.7 0.3-0.0.22 0.0.5 0.45-0.145 0.2 0.19 FOR 0.09-0.2 0.09-0.0.14 0.23 0.6 0.4 .57 0.2 0.49 0.4.41 1.62 0.78 0.0 0.4 1.Coefficients Of Friction http://www.1 0.5 0.6 0.14 0.1 0.46 0.15 0.35 0.0.35 0.21 0.15 0.3-0.54 1.08 0.7-1.4 0.8 0.htm Cadmium Cast Iron Cast Iron Chromium Copper Copper Copper Copper Copper Copper-Lead Alloy Diamond Diamond Glass Glass Glass Graphite Graphite Graphite (In vacuum) Hard Carbon Hard Carbon Iron Lead Lead Leather Leather Leather Leather Magnesium Nickel Nickel Nylon Oak Oak Platinum Plexiglas Plexiglas Polystyrene Polystyrene Polythene Rubber Rubber Rubber Rubber Saphire Silver Sintered Bronze Solids Steel Steel Steel(Mild) Steel (Mild) Steel Steel Steel (Hard) Steel Steel (Mild) Steel (Mild) Steel Steel(Hard) Steel(Hard) Steel (Mild) Steel (Mild) Mild Steel Cast Iron Oak Chromium Cast Iron Copper Mild Steel Steel Steel (304 stainless) Steel Diamond Metal Glass Metal Nickel Graphite Steel Graphite (In vacuum) Hard Carbon Steel Iron Cast Iron Steel Wood Metal(Clean) Metal(Wet) Oak (Parallel grain) Magnesium Nickel Mild Steel Nylon Oak (parallel grain) Oak (cross grain) Platinum Plexiglas Steel Polystyrene Steel Steel Asphalt (Dry) Asphalt (Wet) Concrete (Dry) Concrete (Wet) Saphire Silver Steel Rubber Aluminium Bros Brass Brass Cast Iron Cast Iron Copper Lead Alloy Graphite Graphite Lead Phos.08 0.25 0.0.12 0.35 0.32 0.0.85 0.2 .1 -0.18 SPOF FOF 0.25-0.22 0.072 0.35 0.48 0.61 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.53 1.
1980.5 0.30 0.029-.0.27 0.78 0.42 0.38 0.roymech. FOF = Flat against flat.04 0.6 0.56 0.45 0.04 .12 0.85 0.41 0.SPOF Spherical end pin on flat.05 -0.04 0.41 0.56 0. The values are checked against a variety of internet and literature sources including the links below eg Link 6-Page 16.79 0.6 0..5 0.8 0.2 FOF FOF FOF FOR = Flat against rotating Cylinder.55 0. I have referred to books including Machinerys Handbook Eighteenth edition.(Good source of referenced data) and Kurt Giecks Engineering Formulas 7th Edition.52 0.44 0. Kempes Engineers Year Book 1980. IS = inclined surface.49 0.11 0.36 0.36 0.62 0.2 0.53 0.48 0.04 0. Concise Metals Handbook by J. (50% relative humidity) Fixed Surface Moving Block Friction coefficient Static Sliding Test Method Silver (Ag) Silver (Ag) Gold(Au) Copper(Cu) Iron(Fe) 0.htm Steel(Hard) Steel Teflon Teflon Tin Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V(Grade 5) Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V(Grade 5) Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V(Grade 5) Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide Wood Wood Wood Wood Wood Wood Zinc Zinc Material 1 Steel (Hard) Zinc (Plated on steel) Steel Teflon Cast Iron Aluminium Alloy 6061-T6 Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V(Grade 5) Bronze Tungsten Carbide Steel Copper Iron Wood(clean) Wood (Wet) Metals(Clean) Metals (Wet) Brick Concrete Zinc Cast Iron Material 2 0.0. It can be seen that values are generally different to the values in the table above.2 0.53 0.49 0.46 0.08 .50 0..04 0.12 0.2-0..41 0. Source of above values.32 0.Davis ASM .co.35 0.5 0.04 0.2-0.R.uk/Useful_Tables/Tribology/co_of_frict.6 0..41 0.Coefficients Of Friction http://www.0. Friction tests in air at room temperature. etc etc Table of friction Values for elements I provide the table below as a consistent set of values for simple elements using the simplest of test methods.04 0..6 0..46 0.54 0.48 Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Aluminium(Al) Gold(au) Cadmium(Cd) Cobalt(Co) Chromium(Cr) Copper(Cu) Aluminium(Al) Titanium (Ti) Silver (Ag) Gold(Au) Cadmium(Cd) Iron(Fe) Cobalt(Co) Chromium(Cr) Cobalt(Co) Chromium(Cr) Cobalt(Co) Chromium(Cr) Copper(Cu) Iron(Fe) Nickel(Ni) Zinc(Zn) Iron(Fe) Cobalt(Co) Chromium(Cr) 6 of 7 9/28/2010 2:47 PM .49 0.25 .4 .25 0.21 Coefficient Of Friction DRY Static Sliding LUBRICATED Static Sliding Test method 0. POF = Pin on flat.57 0.
Paper Download .6 Mbyte pdf file) Includes comprehensive table with friction values. Friction Coefficients 2.61 0.51 0.. Bolt Council.64 0. Fund'ls of Friction and Wear of Automobile Brake Materials ...73 0..55 0.90 0..(6...Very informative document 12.Coefficients Of Friction http://www. Fastener Design Manual. School for Champions.. Supercivilcd Com... Info on Slip coefficients (P.55 0.Lots of very useful Notes 7. Coefficient of Sliding Friction for various civil Materials 3.49 0.roymech.41 0.htm Iron(Fe) Maganese(Mg) Molybdenum(Mo) Titanium(Ti) Tungsten(W) Zinc(Zn) Indium(In) Maganese(Mg) Molybdenum(Mo) Niobium(Nb) Nickel(Ni) Indium(In) Maganese(Mg) Iron(Fe) Molybdenum(Mo) Niobium(Nb) Chromium(Cr) Nickel(Ni) Platinum(Pt) Lead(Pb) Silver (Ag) Gold(Au) Copper(Cu) Chromium(Cr) Iron(Fe) Lead(Pb) Platinum(Pt) Tin(Sn) Titanium(Ti) Tungsten(W) Nickel(Ni) Platinum(Pt) Iron(Fe) Tin(Sn) Aluminium(Al) Titanium(Ti) Copper(Cu) Iron(Fe) Tungsten(W) Zinc(Zn) Copper(Cu) Iron(Fe) Zinc(Zn) 0..74 0. MD Metric. Friction coefficients in "Rail.uk/Useful_Tables/Tribology/co_of_frict.55 0.. 13.55 1.co... 4.59 0.82) etc 8.51 0.54 0.Datasheet for PTFE 9... Engineers Edge..56 0.. 12 Friction...47 0. Physlinks .46 0.54 0..Brown University-Division of Engineering.Wheel" contacts .64 0.uk Last Updated 10/09/2010 7 of 7 9/28/2010 2:47 PM ..A Table of Friction Coefficients 5..75 Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Flat Sliding Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Incline Plane Links to Friction Information 1....A Table of Friction Coefficients 6.50 0...co.Physics Factbook .Downloadable paper providing very theoretical information 10.A very simple and clear description of what determines the coefficient of friction..7 Mbyte pdf ). Rolling Friction.A page inlcuding a number of very good (school) articles on coe-fficents of friction of different materials 11...Coefficient of Friction.46 0.53 0...Very useful notes on rolling friction Ads by Google Steel A 2 Steel Steel I Beam Steel Post Box This Page is being developed Home Tribology_Index Please Send Comments to Roy@roymech.51 0.NASA GRC RP-1228 (9..Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints. Classical Friction.44 0. Hypertextbooks _Physics Factbooks..46 0..55 0.55 0.46 0.Coefficient of Friction.47 0. Carbide Depot.69 0.Very clear document on friction 14.
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