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Any holistic view of communication management must take into account that certain variablesthoughts; feelings, values, beliefs, and attitudes-may never become accessible as data sources for interpreting communicative acts or events. People's perceptions of why others communicate as they do are therefore always likely to derive from imperfect information. On the other hand, the 4 approaches provide some structure for people to interpret and explain how and why interpersonal communication processes are managed. Again, it is highly probable communication competence can be defined, although situational variables may make this difficult if general rules for excellence are expected. An important point is that communication competence is closely linked with understanding relationships since it is in relationships that our competence in communication is often determined by others. A person s communicative competence may very much depend on the eye of the beholder. Thus, the competence and the relational perspectives outlined in this chapter may be considered complementary. Individually constructed meanings of self, of others, and of self with others, form the bases for strategic choices in interpersonal encounters. Finally, the strength or weakness of any relationship influences how accurately people construct meaning.
Judul: Communication making connections. Fifth Edition Pengarang: William T Seiler; Melisa L. Beal Review: Dialectical Theory: Push and Pull
Relationships consist of many forces that push and pull them in many different directions. These forces are referred to as contradictions. The contradictory impulses or dialectics that push and pull us in conflicting directions with others. The desire for being connected and having autonomy is one of three most commonly identified dialectical tensions in the research. the other two dialectical tensions are openness-clossedness and novelty-predictability.
Predictability is a comfort to most of us because we know what to expect. such that we feel entrapped and controlled by the relationship. When there is too much emphasis on connection or integration in a relationship. intellectually. and others. thus requiring a call for something unique or different. there is a counterforce that cautions against revealing too much too soon about ourselves. however. When the trust that exist between partners is violated. particularly television. and conclusions like when you greet someone.. Thus we need relationships in which we know that we can count on a certain amount of predictability. but it does not mean or require a complete loss of self. mass media taking a role to give information to communicant and communicant just accept that information without doing something else. virtually control people s thoughts and lives. Heath and Jennings Bryant Review: A theory differs from a Hypothesis argues that is more encompassing statement of many facts. Relationships grow on the strength of the trust that is established between partners. when we are seeking as much information as we can about the other person. Too much predictability in some aspects of a relationship. and physically. it may lead to the feeling of being smothered or consumed by a partner. may make the relationships routine and boring. by revealing private information or by telling a partner something he or she is not prepared to hear. but this does not mean that we want to sacrifice our individuality or control over who we are. events. Novelty-Predictability Without some stability or constancy. Judul: Human Communication Theories and Research Pengarang: Robert L. . there is too much potential for uncertainty and ambivalence for a long-term relationship to survive.Connection-Autonomy Relationships require both the desire to connect to another person and the desire to retain autonomy as an individual. relationships. the relationship is at risk for deterioration or termination. thus leaving us with no life of our town. This tension between self-disclosing and keeping our privacy continues throughout the various stages of relationship development. intimacy as its highest level does require a bonding that connects us with another person emotionally. friend. So. Relationships that move too far in one direction or the other in terms of control versus autonomy are usually relationships that are extremely unstable and potentially destructive Openness-Closedness At the beginning of new relationships. There us as desire for our close relationships to be defined as "us". you ll say Hey Bullet theory proposes media.
Elaine D. Someone will do better because basically human love that praises. Judul: Applying Communicatgion Theory for Proffesional Life Pengarang: Marianne Dainton. The nature of reality. and principles of some aspects of human experience. Zelley Review: Expectancy violations theory is effects of violations of expectations depend on the reward value of the elevator. Any organized set of concepts. while actually there was sme truth to these descriptions. what is knowable. Agenda-setting theory: the media do not tell is what to think but what to think about. Social hermeneutics is a theory seeking to understand how those in an observed social situation interpret their own lot in that situation Critical theory seeking emancipation and change in dominant social order . Baran. There was no sudden or fundamental change in the way s cholars regarded media. they also tended to oversimplify earlier understandungs if media influence. Hermeneutic Theory is the study of understanding. Judul: Mass Communication Theory Pengarang: Stanley J. Davis Review: Magic bullet theory or the hypodermic needle model is labelling the mass media theory. Most of the thinking about media that guided research in the 1960s was in facct developed during the 1930s and 1940s. Postpositivist theory is based on empirical observation guided by the scientific method. explanations. This theory told us that mass media give biggest influence to its audiences.Facilities Social Theory argues that people will do something better if they get praise when he reach something good. Rather there was a gradual shift in how reseaechers connceptualized media and media use. Grand theory in mass communication is a theory designed to describe and explain all aspects of a given phenomenon Defining theory. Dennis K. especially by interpreting action and text.
technology and society Pengarang: David Holmes Review: The sociological theory that the loss of the support of objectively established religion. In other words. but in virtual reality. Therorist of the second media age aegue that both broadcast and inter active communication apparatuses have together constitued the primary forms of cultural meadiation in information societies since the Second World War. radio.Normative theory explain how a media system should operate in order to conform to or realize a set of ideal social values. Films. and magazines make up a system which is uniform as a whole and in evry part (Adorno and Horkheimer. have led to cultural chaos is disproved every day. in the conclusion. In broadcast theory. So. the dissolution of the last remnants of precapitalism. because he maintains that a single person does not exist in cyberspace. this book tell us that there are some plusses and some minusses between each theories. 1993:30) In cybersociety theory part. We can only judge the worth of a given media system in comparison to the ideal espoused by the particular social system in which it operates. Ostwald argues the critical component of any definition of cyberspace is the element of community . Study of a media system or parts of it is undertaken in the explicit belief that there is an iseal mode of operation based in the values of the social system. David Mortensen . together with technological and social differentiation and specialization. And how theories developed to developed to address important questions about the role of media-enduring questions that will again become quite important as new media continue to be introduced and as we deal with a world reordered and the ongoing war on terrorism. for culture now impresses the same stamp on everything. the power of broadcast media is one that is most forcefully put by second media age therorists. We must be aware of how the radical changes in media hat took place inn the past are related to the changes taking place now. what is real about a media system is real only for the specific social systam in which that system exist. Judul: Communication theory: media. Judul: Communication Theory Pengarang: C.
. On a different point. say and do is subject to direct/indiirect influence from their wider contracts with second and third parties who are located withhin or beyond the scope or province if the local community. Strategic connections between messenger and message occur insofar as the conduct of a influnces the responses of (A<->B) and as the conduct of B influences the responses of (A<->B). Much emphasis is placed on shared conditions of mutual influence. Five broad performance considerations provide tentative starting points for suitaned inquiry. After all. remains that free communication is unlikely to foster relations of trust and respect unledd the participants are obliged to attend respectfully to contributions and perspectives from radically different forms of human life. In effect. At issue is what it means for speaking subjects to initially become communicatively cmpetent and eventually prove to be relationally compatible. to promote better understanding of how striving individuals establish strong connections with one another. Sociological theory provides the third dimension of the great triangle. The conceptual framework of communication theory is grounded in utilitarian standards of efficiacy. Strivinng subjects may produce a wide array synchronous and dyachronic patterns of collective outcome. therefore. High standards of communicative competence do not guarantee that optimal conditions of relational compatibility will be achieved. individuals do not come into direct or mediated contact with each other in a social or cultural vacuum. what participants feel. Judul: Pengarang: Review: Mass media communication theory in this book has a general point. It is necessary. think. however.Review: Communication theory may be described as a transactional paradigm. The interplay of speakinng subjects and topical subjects remains an object of focus. the idea od the long revolution builds a strong argument in favour of more local and national forms of cultural provision. and progressive outcome. The general point. effectiveness.
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