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1. To use the calibration curve method, 0.

2M of NiSO₄ was diluted into 5 different concentration


into a 25 ml standard volumetric flask respectively.
2. The volume of stock solution 0.2M NiSO₄ required for pipetting into the volumetric flask was
calculated using M1V1=M2V2 formula.
3. Distilled water was used to mark up the standard volumetric flask until the calibration line is
achieved and the flask was thoroughly mixed.
4. One of the cuvettes was rinsed and filled with distilled water. The cuvette was placed in the
sample compartment. The wavelength was set at 394nm and the absorbance was then set to
zero.
5. The second cuvette was filled with the lowest concentration of the NiSO₄ and the absorbance
value was recorded. This step was repeated with the second lowest concentration until highest
concentration.
6. Step 1 to 5 was repeated using CuSo₄ and CoSO₄ and the wavelength of each solution was reset
to 811nm and 511nm respectively.
7. A calibration curve of concentration against absorbance was plotted.
8. Absorbance of metal in unknown sample 2 and 3 from part 2 was compared with respective
graphs.
9. Concentration of unknown metal was determined using the calibration curve.

Concentration 0.200 0.150 0.100 0.050 0.025


Of NiSO₄
(M)
Volume of NiSO₄ 25.00 18.75 12.50 6.25 3.125
(ml)
Volume of water 0.00 6.25 12.50 18.75 21.875
(ml)
Total Volume 25 25 25 25 25
(ml)

Concentration 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04


Of CuSO₄
(M)
Volume of 10.00 8.75 7.50 6.25 5.00
NiSO₄ (ml)
Volume of 15.00 16.25 17.50 18.75 20.00
water (ml)
Total Volume 25 25 25 25 25
(ml)
Concentration 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04
Of CoSO₄
( M)
Volume of 10.00 8.75 7.50 6.25 5.00
NiSO₄ (ml)
Volume of 15.00 16.25 17.50 18.75 20.00
water (ml)
Total Volume 25 25 25 25 25
(ml)

Concentration 0.200 0.150 0.100 0.050 0.025


of NiSO₄
( M)
Absorbance 0.993 0.746 0.632 0.300 0.131
(Lmol⁻1cm⁻1)

Concentration 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04


of CuSO₄
( M)
Absorbance 0.933 0.829 0.730 0.632 0.504

Concentration 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04


of CuSO₄
( M)
Absorbance 0.388 0.347 0.298 0.238 0.190