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EN 1992-2

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Published on October 2005

P lit

Politecnico

i di T

Torino

i

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 2

application rules for the design of bridges

in addition to those stated in EN 1992-1-1

plain/reinforced/prestressed concrete

made with normal/light weight aggregates

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 3

Section 3 MATERIALS

C30/37 C70/85

(Durability) (Ductility)

- cc coefficient

ffi i t for

f long

l term

t effects

ff t andd unfavourable

f bl

effects resulting from the way the load is applied

“B” and “C”

(Ductility reduction with corrosion / Ductility for bending and shear mechanisms)

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 4

reinforcement

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 5

components in i concrete

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 6

Deterioration of concrete

Corrosion of reinforcement by chloride penetration

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 7

Design

g criteria

- Aggressivity of environment

- Specified service life

Design measures

- Sufficient cover thickness

- Sufficiently

y low permeability

p y of concrete ((in combination with cover

thickness)

- Avoiding harmfull cracks parallel to reinforcing bars

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 8

• The exposure classes are defined in EN206-1. The main classes are:

• XC – risk of carbonation induced corrosion

• XD – risk of chloride-induced corrosion (other than sea water)

• XS – risk of chloride induced corrosion (sea water)

• XF – risk of freeze thaw attack

• XA – chemical attack

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 9

Further specification of main exposure classes in subclasses (I)

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 10

EC-2 leaves the choice of cmin,dur to the countries, but gives the following

recommendation:

The value

Th l cmin,dur depends

d d on the

h ““structurall class”,

l ” which

hi h h

has to bbe

determined first. If the specified service life is 50 years, the structural class

is defined as 4. The “structural class” can be modified in case of the

following conditions:

- The service life is 100 years instead of 50 years

- The concrete strength is higher than necessary

- Sl b (position

Slabs ( iti off reinforcement

i f t nott affected

ff t d by

b construction

t ti process

- Special quality control measures apply

4.3N

3N

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 11

g final Structural Class

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 12

class and the exposure class:

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 13

Special considerations

reduced. The value of the reduction is left to the decision

of the countries (0 if no further specification).

specification)

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 14

waterproofing

carriage way and supports under expansion

jjoints: directlyy affected byy de-icing

g salt

- When de-icing

salt is used Recommended classes for surfaces directly

affectd by de-icing salt: XD3 – XF2 – XF4,

XF4 with

covers given in tables 4.4N and 4.5N for XD

classes

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 15

and bending-shear interaction

0.85

0 85 (recommended value)

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 16

- Plastic analysis

interaction:

0 15 ffor concrete

0.15 t strength

t th classes

l C50/60

xu

d 0.10 for concrete strength classes C55/67

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 17

- Rotation capacity

g

interaction:

in plastic

hinges

0.30 for concrete strength classes C50/60

xu

d 0.23 for concrete strength classes C55/67

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 18

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 19

S i modified

difi d

mean values

1 1 fyk

1.1 1 1 k fyk

1.1 1 1 fpk

1.1

cf fck

cf = 1.1 s / c

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 20

Design format

G Gk + Q Q in the same step

peak strength of the structure, in corrispondance

of ultimate load qud

global safety factor 0

qud

R

0

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 21

qud

Rd E G G Q Q R

O

qud

E GG QQ R

Rd . O

qud

(i.e.) R

O'

qud

Rd Sd E g G q Q R

O

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 22

With Sd = 1.15 partial factor for model uncertainties (actions side)

0 = 1.20 structural safety factor

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 23

Safety format

and underproportional structural behaviour

E,R

R qud E A

O D

R qud O

Rd F’ G’

R qud O F’’

F G’’

G

Rd Sd

H’’ H’ C B

G

q

g

m

a

x

qud qud

G

O

G

m

a

x

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 24

Safety format

and overproportional structural behaviour

ER

E,R

R

qud

O E D

R qud O F’ G’

Rd

F’’ G’’

R qud O

Rd Sd

H’’ H’ C B

G

qu

q

g

d

m

a

x

qud

G

O

G

m

a

x

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 25

Safety format

actions and underproportional structural behaviour

M sd,M

M rd

IAP

M q ud

q

M ud

O A

B

q D

M ud

O C

Rd a

O q N q ud N sd,N rd

N ud

O

Rd q

N ud

O

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 26

Safety format

actions and overproportional structural behaviour

M sd ,M

M rd

a IAP

M qud A

b

q

M ud

O B

C

D

N

qu

q O

q N sd,N

d

rd

M ud N ud Rd

O

Rd

O

q

N ud

O

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 27

check is satisfied if:

qud

M ED M Rd

0'

and

qudd

N ED N Rd

0'

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 28

shear

h crack

kddevelops

l ffrom fl

flexurall crack

k

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 29

crack occurs in web in region uncracked in flexure

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 30

reinforcement

i f t is

i necessary in

i elements

l t

unreinforced in shear (general limit)

k size factor = 1 + √(200/d) with d in meter

l longitudinal

g reinforcement ratio ( ≤0,02)

, )

fck characteristic concrete compressive strength

bw smallest web width

d effective height of cross section

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 31

reinforcement

i f t is

i necessary in

i elements

l t

unreinforced in shear (general limit)

VRd,c = vmin bw d

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 32

A powerfull tool to design 2D elements

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 33

moments in the outer layer

y

twisting moments in the outer layer

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 34

Out of plane shear forces vEdx and vEdy are applied to the inner layer

with lever arm zc, determined with reference to the centroid of the

appropriate layers of reinforcement.

For the design of the inner layer the principal shear vEdo and its

direction o should be evaluated as follows:

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 35

beam and the appropriate design rules should therefore be applied.

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 36

resulting from the truss model VEdo·cotθ gives rise to the following

membrane forces in x and y directions:

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 37

the design rules of clause 6 (109) and Annex F.

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 38

Edy

Edxy

Edxy

Edx

Edxy

Edxy

Edy

of principal stresses

1 3,80

cd max 0.85 f cd

1

2

principal stresses ( 1)

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 39

and at least one principal stress is in tension and no

reinforcement

i f yields

i ld

s

cd max f cd 0,85 0,85

f yd

is the maximum tensile stress

value in the reinforcement

reinforcement

is the angle to the X axis of plastic

compression field at ULS iis the

h iinclination

li i to theh X axis

i off

(principal compressive stress) principal compressive stress in

el 15 degrees the elastic analysis

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 40

stresses

t is

i correlated

l t d tto th

the angular

l d deviation

i ti

between angle el which identifies the

principal compressive stresses in incipient

cracking and angle u which identifies the

inclination of compression stress field in

concrete at ULS

progressively and strength is reduced accordingly

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 41

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 42

0.50

0.45 Eq. 70

0.40 Eq. 72

Eq. 71

0.35

0.30 Eq. 69 x = 0.16

v 0.25 y = 0.06

0.20 nx = ny = -0.17

0.15 el = 45°

0.10 Eq. 73

0.05

0.00

0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0

pl

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 43

E

Experimental

i t l versus calculated

l l t d panell strenght

t ht bby M

Martiti andd K

Kaufmann

f ((a))

and by Carbone, Giordano and Mancini (b)

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 44

Skew reinforcement

yr

xyr

Plates

xr xr conventions

Y

r

xyr

yr

X

Thickness = tr

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 45

br

r sr br

1

Equilibrium of the

xr sinr

r sr ar

sinr section parallel to

the compression

ar xyr sinr field

r

xyr cosr

yr cosr

cosr

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 46

br ’

cr

r ar ’ Equilibrium of the

xr cosr section orthogonal to

r sr ar

’

xyr cosr 1 field

xyr

y sinr yyr sinr

sinr

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 47

reinforcement and concrete verification

y

Stability: find correct results also if the starting

gppoint is very

y

far from the actual solution

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 48

classes XD, XF, XS (Microcracking)

k1 = 0.66

0 66 in confined concrete (recommemded value)

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 49

- Crack control

Reinforced members and Prestressed members with

Exposure

prestressed members with bonded tendons

Class

unbonded tendons

Quasi-permanent load

Frequent load combination

combination

XC2 XC3,

XC2, XC3 XC4 0,2

0 22

0,3

XD1, XD2, XD3

Decompression

XS1, XS2, XS3

Note 1: For X0, XC1 exposure classes, crack width has no influence on durability and

this limit is set to guarantee acceptable appearance. In the absence of

appearance conditions this limit may be relaxed.

Note 2: For these exposure classes, in addition, decompression should be checked

under the quasi-permanent combination of loads.

of 100 mm (recommended value) from bondend tendons

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 50

the

h ffollowing

ll i expression

i ffor the

h may b be used:

d

1

cos sin

srm

srm,x

rm x srmrm,y

y

where srm,x and srm,y are the mean spacing between the cracks

in two ideal ties arranged in the x and y directions

directions. The mean

opening of cracks can than evaluated as:

w m srm ( c,

c )

where and c, represent the total mean strain and the mean

concrete strain

strain, evaluated in the direction orthogonal to the crack

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 51

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 52

crack, the total strain and the corresponding stresses in

reinforcement in x and y directions may be evaluated, as

a function of the displacements components w and vv,

respectively orthogonal and parallel to the crack direction.

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 53

orthogonal forces along the crack take place, that can be

evaluated by the use of a proper model able to describe

the interlock effect.

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 54

internal actions and forces along the crack, a nonlinear

system of two equations in the unknowns w and v may be

derived, from which those variables can be evaluated.

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 55

without

ih silica

ili ffume

creep is different

Autogenous shrinkage:

Distiction between related to process of hydratation

Drying shrinkage:

related to humidity exchanges

weight)

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 56

- Autogenous shrinkage

f cm t ca t , f ck 0

0.1

f ck

f cm t f cm (t )

0.1

01 ca t , f ck f ck 20 2.2

22 2 106

00.2

f ck f ck

For t 28 days

within 3 mounths

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 57

046 f ck ) 75 RH t ts 106

K( f ck ) 72 exp((00.046

cd (t , ts , f ck , h0 , RH )

(t ts ) cd h0 2

K ( f ck ) 30 0.

0.21 f ck if fck > 55 MPa

cd

0.021 for non silica fume concrete

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 58

- Creep

t0

cc t , t0 b t , t0 d t , t0

Ec 28

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 59

- Basic creep

t t0

b t , t0 , f ck , f cm t0 b 0

t t0 bc

3.6

f t 0,37 for silica fume concrete

with: b0 cm 0

1.4 for non silica fume concrete

fcm t 0

0.37 exp 2.8 for silica fume concrete

fck

bc

0.4 exp 3.1 fcm t 0 for non silica fume concrete

f

ck

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 60

- Drying creep

d (t , ts , t0 , f ck , RH , h0 ) d 0 cd (t , ts ) cd (t0 , ts )

with: d 0

3200 for non silica - fume concrete

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 61

At least 6 months

Experimental

Formulae

determination

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 62

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 63

d

dependent

d t behaviour

b h i off

concrete

the section

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 64

application

General and incremental step-by-step

step by step These are general methods and are

method applicable to all structures. Particularly

useful for verification at intermediate

stages of construction in structures in

which properties vary along the length

(e.g.) cantilever construction.

Methods based on the theorems of linear Applicable to homogeneous structures with

viscoelasticityy rigid

g restraints.

The ageing coefficient method This mehod will be useful when only the

long -term distribution of forces and

stresses are required.

required Applicable to

bridges with composite sections (precast

beams and in-situ concrete slabs).

changes in support conditions (e.g.) span-

to- span or free cantilever construction.

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 65

- General method

0 1 0 n (t , ti )

c (t ) (t , t0 ) ti cs t , ts

Ec (t0 ) Ec ((28)) i 1 Ec ti Ec ((28))

- Incremental method

the potential creep strain cc(t) and the creep rate are

derived from the whole load history

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 66

d cc (t ) d (, t )

dt dt Ec 28

t te

cc(t) are obtained

cc t c t , te cc t

curve for te

d cc (t ) c t , te

cc t

dt t

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 67

d ccMax (t ) cc (t ) c t , te

ccMax (t ) cc (t )

dt t

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 68

of concrete

S (t ) Sel t

t

D(t ) EC J t , dDel

0

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 69

D(t ) Del t

1 t

S (t ) R t , dSel

EC 0

Structure subjected to imposed constant loads whose initial

statical scheme (1) is modified into the final scheme (2) by

i t d ti off additional

introduction dditi l restraints time t1 t0

t i t att ti

S 2 t Sel ,1 t , t0 , t1 Sel ,1

t

t , t0 , t1 R t , dJ , t0

t1

R t , t0

t , t0 , t

0 1 E t

C 0

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 70

ti t0, the stress variation byy effect of restrain j introduced at

tj is indipendent of the history of restraints added at ti < tj

j

S j 1 Sell ,11 t , t0 , ti Sell ,i

i 1

- Ageing

A i coefficient

ffi i t method

th d

Integration in a single step and correction by means of

(

t Ec (28) Ec (28)

E ( ) 28 t , d E (t ) t , t0 28 t , t0 t0 t

t0 c c 0

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 71

- Simplified formulae

S S0 S1 S0

1 , t1 Ec (t0 )

final statical scheme

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 72

EN 1992-

conceiving more and more

enhanced

h d concrete

t bridges

b id

EUROCODE 2 – Design of concrete structures

Concrete bridges: design and detailing rules

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 73

kind attention

EUROCODES

Bridges: Background and applications

Application to the design example

Emmanuel Bouchon

Sétra

Contents

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 2

1. Durability

y – cover to reinforcement

2. Verifications of the transverse reinforcement

• ULS – bending resistance

• SLS – stress limitations

• SLS – crackk control

t l

• ULS – vertical shear force

• ULS – longitudinal shear strees – interaction with transverse bending

• ULS – fatigue

g of the reinforcement under transverse bending g

3. Punching

4. Combination of global and local effects in longitudinal direction

2. Second order effects in high piers

3. Strut and tie models for the design of pier

heads

Local justification of the concrete slab

Durability – cover to reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 3

cmin = max {cmin,b; cmin,dur ; 10 mm}

• cmin,b

i b (bond) is given in table 4.2

cmin,b = diameter of bar (max aggregate size ≤ 32 mm

cmin,b = 20 mm on top face of the slab

cmin,b = 25 mm on bottom face at mid span between

the steel main girders

the exposure class (table 4.1)

the structural class (table 4.3N)

Local justification of the concrete slab

Durability – cover to reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 4

Top face of the slab : Bottom face of the slab :

XC3 XC4

Final class : 3 4

Local justification of the concrete slab

Durability – cover to reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 5

Top face of the slab : Bottom face of the slab :

XC3 – str. class S3 XC4 – str. class S4

Local justification of the concrete slab

Durability – cover to reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 6

4 4 1 3 (3))

• in case of quality assurance system with measurements of the

concrete cover, the recommended value is:

10 mm ≥ c

dev ≥ 5 mm

Top face of the slab 20 20 10 30

Bottom face of the slab 25 30 10 40

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 7

shear are performed on an equivalent beam

representing a 1-m-wide slab strip.

• Analysis:

y

• For permanent loads, which are uniformly distributed over the length of

the deck, the internal forces may be calculated on a simplified model:

isostatic beam on two supports.

• For traffic loads, it is necessary to take into account the 2-dimensional

behaviour of the slab. For the design example, the extreme values of

transverse internal forces and moments are obtained reading charts

established

t bli h d bby S

Setra

t ffor th

the llocall b

bending

di off th

the slab

l b iin ttwin-girder

i id

composite bridges. These charts are derived from the calculation of

influence surfaces on a finite element model of a typical composite

deck slab

slab.

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 8

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 9

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 10

transverse moment above

the main girder

transverse moment

above the main girder vs.

width of the cantilever

Position of UDL

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 11

Combination of actions

Quasi

Characteristic

M (kNm/m)

(kN / ) permanentt F

Frequent

t SLS

SLS

ULS

SLS

Section above

the main

girder

-46

46 -156

156 -204

204 -275

275

Section at

mid-span 24 132 184 248

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 12

Stress-strain relationships:

• for the concrete, a simplified

p rectangular

g stress distribution:

λ = 0,80 and η = 1,00 as fck = 35 MPa ≤ 50 MPa

fcd = 19,8 MPa (with αcc = 0,85 – recommended value)

εcu3 = 3,5 mm/m

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 13

Stress-strain relationships:

• for the reinforcement, a bi-linear stress-strain relationship with strain

hardening (Class B steel bars according to Annex C to EN1992-1-1):

fyd = 435 Mpa, k = 1,08 , εud = 0,9.εuk = 45 mm/m (recommended value)

• for s ≥ fyd / Es s = fyd + (k – 1) fyd(s – fyd / Es)/ (uk – fyd / Es)

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 14

• s = cu3 (d – x)/x

• s = fyd + (k – 1) fyd (s – fyd / Es)/ (uk – fyd / Es) (inclined

(i li d ttop b

branch)

h)

• Equilibrium : NEd = 0 Ass = 0,8b.x.fcd where b = 1 m

quadratic equation

q q

0,8x • The resistant bending moment

is given by:

d z

MRd = 0,8b.x.fcd(d – 0,4x)

= Ass(d – 0,4x)

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 15

Section above the main steel girder (absolute values of moments)

• with

ith d = 0,36

0 36 m and

d As= 18,48

18 48 cm2 (20 every 0

0,17

17 m):

)

• x = 0,052 m , s = 20,6 mm/m (< ud) and s = 448 Mpa

• Therefore MRd = 0,281

0 281 MN.m

MN m > MEd = 0,275

0 275 MN.m

MN m

Section at mid

mid-span

span between the main steel girder

• with d = 0,26 m and As= 28,87 cm2 (25 every 0,17 m):

, m , s = 7,9

• x = 0,08 ( ud) and s = 439 MPa

, mm/m (<

• Therefore MRd = 0,289 MN.m > MEd = 0,248 MN.m

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 16

EN 1992-1-1, 7.1(2):

(2) In the calculation of stresses and deflections, cross-sections should be

assumed to be uncracked provided that the flexural tensile stress does

not exceed fct,eff. The value of fct,eff maybe taken as fctm or fctm,fl provided

th t the

that th calculation

l l ti ffor minimum

i i ttension

i reinforcement

i f t iis also

l b basedd on

the same value. For the purposes of calculating crack widths and tension

stiffening fctm should be used.

If the flexural tensile stress is not greater than fctm (3,2 Mpa for C35/45),

then it is not necessary to perform a calculation of normal stresses in

the cracked section.

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 17

• The following limitations should be checked (EN1992-1-1, 7.2(5) and

7.2(2)) :

σs ≤ k3fyk = 0,8x500 = 400 MPa

σc ≤ k1fck = 0,6x35 = 21 MPa

where k1 and k3 are defined by the National Annex to EN1992-1-1

th recommended

the d d values

l are k1 = 0,6

0 6 and

d k3 = 0,8

08

concrete contribution.

contribution The most unfavourable tensile stresses σs in

the reinforcement are generally provided by the long-term

calculations, performed with a modular ratio n

(reinforcement/concrete) equal to 15. The most unfavourable

compressive stresses σc in the concrete are generally provided by

the short-term calculations, performed with a modular ratio

n = Es/Ecm = 5,9 ((Es = 200 GPa for reinforcing

g steel and Ecm = 34 GPa

for concrete C35/45).

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 18

• The design example in the section above the steel main girder gives

d = 0,36 m, As = 18,48 cm2 and M = 0,204 MN.m.

Using n = 15, σs = 344 MPa < 400 MPa is obtained.

Using n = 5,9, σc = 15,6 MPa < 21 MPa is obtained.

main girders gives d = 0,26 m, As = 28,87 cm2 and M = 0,184 MN.m.

Using n = 15,

15 σs = 287 MPa < 400 MPa is obtained

obtained.

Using n = 5,9, σc = 20,0 MPa < 21 MPa is obtained.

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 19

crack width should not be greater than 0,3 mm under quasi

permanent combination of actions, for reinforced concrete,

whatever the exposure class.

Exposure

members with unbonded tendons bonded tendons

Class

0,3

XD1, XD2, XD3 XS1,

Decompression

XS2, XS3

Note 1: For X0, XC1 exposure classes, crack width has no influence on durability and this limit is set to

guarantee acceptable appearance. In the absence of appearance conditions this limit may

b relaxed.

be l d

Note 2: For these exposure classes, in addition, decompression should be checked under the quasi-

permanent combination of loads.

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 20

• In the design

g example,

p transverse bending

g is mainly

y caused by

y live

loads, the bending moment under quasi-permanent combination is

far lesser than the moment under characteristic combinations. It is

the same for the tension in reinforcing steel. Therefore, ther is no

problem with the control of cracking.

• The concrete stresses due to transverse bending under quasi

permanent combination, are as follows:

• above the steel main girder:

M = - 46 kNm/m c = ± 1,7 MPa

• at mid-span between the main girders:

M = 24 kNm/m c = ± 1,5

1 5 MPa

• Since c > - fctm , the sections are assumed to be uncracked

(EN1992-1-1, 7.1(2)) and there is no need to check the crack

openings. A minimum amount of bonded reinforcement is required

in areas where tension is expected (EN1992-1-1, 7.3.2)

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 21

• Minimum reinforcement areas (EN1992-1-1 and EN1992-2 , 7.3.2)

(1)P If crack control is required, a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement

is required to control cracking in areas where tension is expected

expected. The

amount may be estimated from equilibrium between the tensile force in

concrete just before cracking and the tensile force in reinforcement at

yielding or at a lower stress if necessary to limit the crack width

• As,min

s min is the minimum area of reinforcing steel within the tensile zone…

• Act is the area of concrete within tensile zone...

• σs is the absolute value of the maximum stress permitted in the reinforcement

immediately after formation of the crack...

• fct,eff

t ff is the mean value of the tensile strength of the concrete effective at the time

when the cracks may first be expected to occur: fct,eff = fctm or lower,…

• k is the coefficient which allows for the effect of non-uniform self-equilibrating

which lead to a reduction of restraint forces…

• kc is a coefficient which takes account of the stress distribution within the section

immediately prior to cracking and of the change of the lever arm…

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 22

• Minimum reinforcement areas (EN1992-1-1 and EN1992-2 , 7.3.2)

• Act = bh/2 (b = 1 m ; h = 0,40

0 40 m above main girder and 0 0,32

32 m at mid

mid-span)

span)

• σs = fyk (lower value only when control of cracking is ensured by limiting bar

size or spacing according to 7.3.3)

• fct,eff

ct eff = 3,2 MPa (

(= fctm)

• k = 0,65 (flanges with width ≥ 800 mm)

• kc = 0,4 ( expression 7.2 with σc – mean stress of the concrete = 0)

• As,min = 5,12 cm2/m on top face of the slab above the main girder

• As,min = 4,10 cm2/m on bottom face of the slab at mid-span

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 23

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 24

• Asl is the area of reinforcement in tension (see Figure 6.3 in EN1992-

1-1 for the provisions that have to be fulfilled by this reinforcement).

For the design example, Asl represents the transverse reinforcing

steel bars of the upper layer in the studied section above the steel

main girder. bw is the smallest width of the studied section in the

t

tensile

il area. In

I the

th studied

t di d slab

l b bw = 1000 mm iin order

d tto obtain

bt i a

resistance VRd,c to vertical shear for a 1-m-wide slab strip

(rectangular section).

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 25

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 26

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 27

near the main girders. With vertical shear reinforcement, the shear

design is based on a truss model (EN1992-1-1 and 1992-2, 6.2.3, fig.

6 5)

6.5):

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 28

• For vertical reinforcement ( = 90°),

), the resistance VRd is the smaller

value of:

VRd,s = (Asw/s).z.fywd.cot and

Rd max = cw bw z 1 fcd/(cot + tan)

VRd,max

where:

• z is the inner lever arm (z = 0,9d may normally be used for members

without axial force)

• is the angle of the compression strut with the horizontal

horizontal, must be

chosen such as 1 ≤ cot ≤ 2,5

• Asw is the cross-sectional area of the shear reinforcement

• s is the spacing of the stirrups

• fywdd is the design yield strength of the shear reinforcement

• 1 is a strength reduction factor for concrete cracked in shear, the

recommended value of 1 is = 0,6(1-fck/250)

• αcw is a coefficient taking account of the interaction of the stress in the

compression chord and any applied axial compressive stress; the

recommended value of αcw is 1 for non prestressed members.

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 29

• In the design

g example, g cot = 2,5,

p , choosing , , with a shear

reinforcement area Asw/s = 6,8 cm2/m for a 1-m-wide slab strip:

VRd,s

, = 0,00068x(0,9x0,36)x435x2,5 = 240 kN/m > VEd

= 2,02 MN/m > Ved

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 30

The longitudinal shear force per unit length at the steel/concrete

i t f

interface is

i determined

d t i d by

b an elastic

l ti analysis

l i att characteristic

h t i ti SLS and d

at ULS. The number of shear connectors is designed thereof, to resist

to this shear force per unit length and thus to ensure the longitudinal

composite behaviour of the deck

deck.

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 31

At ULS this longitudinal shear stress should also be resisted to for any

potential

t ti l surface

f off longitudinal

l it di l shear

h failure

f il within

ithi the

th slab.

l b

Two potential surfaces of shear failure are defined in EN1994-2, 6.6.6.1,

fig 6.15:

• surface a-a holing only once by

the two transverse

reinforcement layers,

As = Asup + Ainf

there are 2 surfaces a-a.

• surface

f b-b

b b holing

h li twice

t i by

b the

th

lower transverse reinforcement

layers, As = 2.Ainf

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 32

The maximum longitudinal shear force per unit length resisted to by

the shear connectors is equal to 1,41 4 MN/m

MN/m. This value is used here for

verifying shear failure within the slab. The shear force and on each

potential failure surface is as follows

side : 0,59 MN/m

• surface aa-a,

a on the central slab

side : 0,81 MN/m

• surface b-b

bb:11,4

4 MN/m

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 33

Failure surfaces a-a:

• The shear resistance is determined according to EN1994-2, 6.6.6.2(2), which

refers to EN1992-1-1, 6.2.4, fig. 6.7 (see below), the resulting shear stress is :

vEd = Fd/(hf ڄx)

where:

hf is the thickness of flange at the junctions

x is the length under consideration, see Figure 6.7

Fd is the change of the normal force in the flange over the length x.

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 34

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 35

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 36

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 37

The traffic load models are such that they can be arranged on the

pavementt tto provide

id a maximum

i llongitudinal

it di l shear

h flow

fl and

da

maximum transverse bending moment simultaneously. EN1992-2,

6.2.4 (105) sets the following rules to take account of this

concomitance:

• the criterion for preventing the crushing in the compressive struts is

verified with a height hf reduced by the depth of the compressive

zone considered in the transverse bending assessment (as this

concrete is worn out under compression, it cannot simultaneously

take up the shear stress);

• the total reinforcement area should be not less than Aflex + Ashear/2

where Aflex is the reinforcement area needed for the pure bending

assessment and Ashear is the reinforcement area needed for the pure

longitudinal shear flow.

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 38

Crushing in the compressive struts

The compression in the struts is much lower than the limit limit. The reduction in hf

is not a problem therefore.

• shear plane a-a:

hf,red = hf − xULS = 0,40-0,05 = 0,35 m

vEd,red = vEd.hf/hred = 0,81/0,35 = 2,31 MPa ≤ 6,02 MPa

• shear plane b-b:

hf,red = hf − 2xULS = 1,185 – 2x0,.05 = 1,085 m

vEd,red = vEd.hhf/hred = 1,4/1,085

1 4/1 085 = 1,29

1 29 MPa ≤ 6,02

6 02 Mpa

Aflex = 18,1 cm2/m required

Ashear = 14,9 cm2/m required

Ashear /2 + Aflex = 25,6 cm2/m

As = 30,3 cm2/m : the criterion is saatisfied

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 39

The slow lane is assumed to be close to the safety barrier and the the

fatigue load is centered on this lane

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 40

Fatigue load model FLM3 is used. Verification are performed by the damage

equivalent stress range method (EN1992-1-1,

(EN1992 1 1 6 6.8.5

8 5 and EN1992

EN1992-2,

2 Annex NN)

moment above main steel 39 kN.m/m

girder during the passage of

FLM 3

s(FLM3) = 63 Mpa

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 41

Damage equivalent stress range method

EN1992-1-1, 6.8.5:

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 42

Damage equivalent stress range method

th partial

ti l factor

f t forf fatigue

f ti l d (EN1992-1-1,

load (EN1992 1 1 2

2.4.2.3)

4 2 3) . Th

The

recommended value is 1,0

• Rsk (N*) = 162,5 MPa (EN1992-1-1, table 6.3N)

• s,fat is the partial factor for reinforcing steel (EN1992-1-1, 2.4.2.4). The

recommended value is 1,15.

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 43

Annex NN – NN.2.1 (102)

s,equ = s,Ec.s

where

s,Ec = s(1,4.FLM3)

(1 4 FLM3) ((stress

t range d

due tto 1

1,4

4 times

ti FLM3

FLM3, iin th

the case

of pure bending, it is equal to 1,4 s(FLM3) . For a verification of fatigue

on intermediate supports of continuous bridges, the axle loads of FLM3

are multiplied by 1 1,75

75

s is the damage coefficient.

s = fat.s,1. s,2. s,3. s,4

where fat is a dynamic magnification factor

s,1 takes account of the type of member and the length of the influence

line or surface

s,2 takes account of the volume of traffic

s,3 takes account of the design working life

s,4 takes account of the number of loaded lanes

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 44

Annex NN – NN.2.1 (104)

s,1 is given by figure NN.2, curve 3c) . In the design example, the length

of the influence line is 2,5 m. Therefore s,1 1,1

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 45

Annex NN – NN.2.1 (105)

); Nobs = 0,5.10

, 6 ((EN1991-2,, table 4.5);

); Q = 0,94

,

s,2 = 0,81

Local justification of the concrete slab

Verification of the transverse reinforcement

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 46

Annex NN – NN.2.1 (106) and (107)

s,4 = 1 (different from one if more than one lane are loaded)

fat = 1,0

1 0 except for the areas close to the expansion joints

where fat = 1,3

It comes:

s = 0,89 (1,16 near the expaxsion joints)

s,Ec = 1,4x63 = 88 MPa

Rsk / s,fat = 162,5/1,15 = 141 MPa > 102 MPa

The resistance of reinforcement to fatigue under transverse bending is

verified

Second order effects in the high piers

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 47

Pier height : 40 m

Pier shaft

• external diameter : 4 m

• wall thickness : 0,40

• longitudinal

g reinforcement: 1,5%

,

• Ac = 4,52 m2

• Ic = 7,42 m4

• As = 678 cm2

• Is = 0,110 m4

Pier head:

• volume : 54 m 3

• Weight

W i ht : 1,35

1 35 MN

Concrete

• C35/45

• fck = 35 MPa

• Ecm = 34000 MPa

Second order effects in the high piers

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 48

that the inertia of the piers is equal to 1/3 of the uncracked inertia.

Two ULS combinations are taken into account:

• Comb 1: 1,35G + 1,35(UDL + TS) + 1,5(0,6FwkT) (transverse

direction)

• Comb 2: 1,35G

, + 1,35(0,4UDL+

, ( , 0,75TS

, + braking)

g) + 1,5(0,6T

, ( , k)

(longitudinal direction)

Fz (vertical) Fy (trans.) Fx (long.) Mx(trans.)

G 14 12 MN

14,12 0 0 0

UDL 3,51 MN 0 0 8,44 MN.m

TS 1,21 MN 0 0 2,42 MN.m

Braking 0 0 0,45 MN 0

FwkT (wind on trafic) 0 0,036 MN 0 0,11 MN.m

TK 0 0 0,06 MN 0

Comb 1 25,43 MN 0,032 MN 0 14,76 MN.m

Comb 2 22,18 MN 0 0,66 MN 7,01 MN.m

Second order effects in the high piers

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 49

method: EN1992-1-1, 5.8.7 - method based on nominal

stiffness The analysis is performed in longitudinal

stiffness.

direction.

Geometric imperfection (EN1992-1-1, 5.2(5):

l = 0 h

where

0 = 1/200 ((recommended value))

h = 2/l1/2 ; 2/3 ≤ h ≤ 1

l is the height of the pier = 40 m

permanent combination M0Eqp = 1,12 MN.m at the

base of the pier

Second order effects in the high piers

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 50

• M0Ed = 1,35 M0Ed + 1,35 Fz (0,4UDL + 0,75TS).l.l

+ 1,35

1 35 Fx(braking).l

(braking) l +1,5(0,6F

+1 5(0 6Fx(Tk).l

)l

M0Ed = 28,2 MN.m

Second order effects in the high piers

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 51

Ic = 7,42 m4

Es = 200000 MPa

Is = 0,110 m4

Ks = 1

Second order effects in the high piers

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 52

Second order effects in the high piers

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 53

= 0,015

,

k1 = 1,32

NEd = 22,18

n = 22,18/(4,52.19,8) = 0,25

= l0/i ; l0 = 1,43.l = 57,20 m (taking into account the

rigidity of the second pier) ; i = (Ic/Ac)0,5 = 1,28 m

= 45

k2 = 0,25.(45/170) = 0,066

Kc = 1

1,32x0,066/1,08

32x0 066/1 08 = 0

0,081

081

Second order effects in the high piers

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 54

Second order effects in the high piers

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 55

M0Ed = 28,2

28 2 MN

MN.mm

= 0,85 (c0 = 12)

NB = 2EI/l02 = 118 MN

NEd = 26 MN (mean value on the height of the pier)

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 56

Thank y

you for y

your kind attention

EUROCODES

Bridges: Background and applications

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Ing Gabriele Bertagnoli

Ing.

Politecnico di Torino

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 2

Span Distribution

&

Basic geometry of cross

section

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 3

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 4

comparedd with

i h 4 diff

different solutions

l i with

i h externall

prestressing.

1. SLU bending and axial force verification during construction

phases and in service

2 SLU Fatigue

2. F ti verification

ifi ti

3. SLS crack control

1. Reduction of steel girder

2. Reduction of slab longitudinal ordinary steel

3 Avoiding cracks in the upper slab

3.

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 5

4x22 0.6” strand tendons on green layout

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 6

2x22 0.6” strand tendons on green layout

2x22 0.6

0 6” strand tendons red dashed layout

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 7

4x22 0.6” strand tendons on green layout

50% prestressing applied to steel composite section

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 8

2x22 0.6” strand tendons on green layout

2x22 0.6

0 6” strand tendons red dashed layout

50% p

prestressing

g applied

pp to composite

p section

2.5

1.5

0.5

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 9

‐120

MNm

MN Mmax

‐100

MN Mmin

‐80 Resistant bending moment(Mmax)

N(Mmax)

‐60

N(M i )

N(Mmin)

‐40

‐20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0

20

40

60

80

100

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 10

‐120

MNm

MN

‐100 Mmax

MN Mmin

‐80 Resistant bending moment(Mmax)

N(Mmax)

‐60

60

N(Mmin)

‐40

‐20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0

20

40

60

80

100

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 11

‐120

120

MNm

MN

Mmax

MN ‐100

Mmin

‐80 Resistant bending moment(Mmax)

N(Mmax)

‐60

60 N(Mmin)

‐40

‐20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0

20

40

60

80

100

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 12

‐120

MNm

MN

‐100 Mmax

MN

Mmin

‐80 Resistant bending moment(Mmax)

N(Mmax)

60

‐60

N(Mmin)

‐40

‐20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0

20

40

60

80

100

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 13

MN

MNm ‐120

MN ‐100 Mmax

Mmin

‐80 Resistant bending moment(Mmax)

N(Mmax)

‐60

N(Mmin)

‐40

‐20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0

20

40

60

80

100

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 14

Conclusions

The following quantities have been obtained

No Prestressing layout

Quantities

prestr. 1 2 3 4

Girder steel [kg/m2] 256 202 194 190 201

Prestressing steel [kg/m2] 0 16.0 11.6 16.0 11.6

Slab longitudinal ordinary

reinforcement [kg/m2] 51 51 51 13 1

13.1 13 1

13.1

[status] cracked cracked cracked

combination sed sed

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 15

Conclusions

Steel cross section [m2]: comparison between not

prestressed solution and 4th layout solution

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0 20

0.20

Prestressed 4th layout

not prestressed

0.25

0.30

0.35

Application of external prestressing to

steel--concrete composite two girder bridge

steel

Dissemination of information for training – Vienna, 4-6 October 2010 16

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