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SPE 544
!PedmicalI’?ote

-WATER CONING
-—

ced aid use’-@


... formula which
., enable to ::::i-L!?:Jz
late the maximum permissible pressure drop at
the bottom of th.:jJwell,
and consequently the
maximum with~,draw’#.
rate of hydrocarbgm from
1
‘thewell.
b

‘)) 00 ((

;:6’
All--canfsSWthat in the literature since ,
some years were puhli.shed,rnanypapers de%lirvT’
with water coning in the wells. Irlsome of
thosepapers Iuthors’arrive at final.rel~.=
tibnships more or less complicated which~im

production of liquid.or g&eous hydrocarbons,


.I?e-tween
all those relationships we’have
found one which””isvery tia~yto use,, in cm=

t’o~ee some LMlmow aspect of coning. ● .-’ 1-

..
,
,.

-2-= Ok@mioal Note F/F

.,,
We will present only ‘thefinal formula,
explfain how to use it, Eor its derivation
refer to the Mtsrature cited at the end of
this ‘Noten.
Lapuk, Brudno and Somov [l] , utilizing
M.Muskat and A.I. Ciarneiss results, arrive
at the following simple fomitik t

(1)

. .

The author Uevide the coning zone (fig.1) “


in two parts which the~ call exterior and in=
t6rioF.
~.
&mbol~ of relatioqs~ip (l),haY@the
s /’ !

drop in the exterior zone


Ay(iwz)
;..
drop in the interior zone

I
h;= total *Y formation he+gth - Cm (from . ~ ‘
water contaot to the *~P) ;
z = dist~C!e from well Of’zOne $3eparatiO~
(?ig.“1 ) “-cm -;.’
3
. -..4A.L *.ma?tiW!.pr?du.ti~n,~te
.. - cm /seo. ; .- —..
,

-,
3- TeohnicalNote F/F

s
A = resistance coefficient given by iuro,v’e

xnensionsare that of th!!reverse of pro=


em -.
ductivity index - f

APE s maximum permissible pressure drop at the


bottom of the we12.

Equation (1) has the ohamcteristic of


+,,. 5Xltn70
dividing the total pressure drop
parts$ the first of’’thd~ei# static one, id.

the pressure’
I

drop due to the imperfect well, id. to the

degree of well penetration into forllia%ion$


ank to the number and degree of pe@omtionE

‘ II-L equation (1) one can see that well

. .
. .’

-4 - Technicalnote F/%’

%hL
Ii’we
rat,eQlti which wo~d
-T-’
PU* well i~pr~ductio~ with the
@ve a Press~e drop
,A p as say us eqaation (1) -d practically r
P“
drop is”more th= APP thiswould
the pressure.
meiinthat there is an ~additive skin-effect”
superposed to the ~apparent skin-effectn. ~
This additive skin-effect g#atly
-— affeat water
coning, and remedial works as acidizing ‘U*;
fracturing jobs will sensibly reduce the water
coriingtowards ‘th~bottom of the welle
We must note that remedial works many
times increase also the pefiorationsyenetr-
,- tion into formation reducing apparent skin- ,- i
,...
.effectso that in many practical cases, effecti=
: we reachsitua”tions :as that
vely exp’ertenced$ .>
,’
illustrated in fik. 10.
The maximuk allowble ‘~~te ’21* is given
by z

~.h2~
v
cm 3/see (2)
,Qlti = , q lim .,
,,
, P
.

where
permeability of formation, de~ermined
,..-.
f&~m.pre&uZe build-up cm.r@
,.-..
. -“darcy.-;
-- ...,-..: ,,. .
. . -. . .- ........ . .. .. . .
1
.-’ -:.:

,-
.
,,,

-5- ‘2edm$caZNote
. . F/F

—.

..
f*qi.._2. ._._. ... . .

‘,

‘d
cJ = h’
(3)
.
where
drainage radius, which can be calcuWt63d
‘d =
from pressure build-up curve or which

/
-. ,,
i
>7
, ,,
/.,,,/
;

cm5
(3)
kg-see
.2~Kh ‘
,.

“. where “ ,
;,. t
“’ Jk*”’cp.’”:
.’”-““” “’”’ ““ - . ..’ . -.
./
..
.. . ..- .. ----- .-.
../.
, /.’”
L

,!
,.

‘.
. ●

-6- TechnicalNote” F/F

K = darcy ;
h= cm;
rd= drainage radius -cm;
rw = well (M.t) radius - cm ;
C = Muskatls coefficien~ of imperfect well
which is easily determined from Surov-ts
Cumresc .

Summ drop unto two parts the coefficient


+
C k (!1+ C2 where C2 refers to the penetration.
degree of the well into formation (fig.9), atid
(31refers to the number and pemetratiqn of’
perforations;!l?.his
latter can be read in the
litterzi~ure,
but can be also evaluatedusing
a ~low equation written in this”form : ,.

i
-Ap= “
aQ+b3.
“2
foi liquids
/
,,
i (4) -

,, ,
(
where
Ap = ~,8- Pf =. m-~d @oy at the bottom
a ,.
Of the well” kg/cm2 ;

a, b = constants; .3
“Q = rate of “productIon- ‘=/@w ●- t “’
. ..
,,

- 3ZLVERA1’LM:“
,.
. .

- 8- Technical190te F/F ‘

d~ ‘= diameter created by bullets ~ 0,02+


.. m , thorn
,,
dV
f-d
dG— = 0,054 ●

,,.,
d= 0,054 (curve ‘htweenj and 4) we”rea~ Cl A’4 .
Than C= 6+4=10, ,.
<J,
<
woin fig. 2 with ‘~= 4976 and ht = 0,453-~;iead
,,
= otlo9
qlim ●

i FrO~ $ig. 3 with“qzti= o~lW” and ,p = 4s76 “ “


.~
-.
.’-,.
,.
we read Z = 0,805.
= 0,8~5 xh x 34 metezw”. Thi& means

:l*Z stance of 34 meters from the WG~l ~t~r is


,.
already 8 m’etersup original.ga~-=ter contact~
Maximum rate of production Qlti is
4
. . I
,
..
*
Kh?j~ 0,07.7’x422 X 0,000925-104
Qlm = —“ql~= , , . x
/w “0,016 “
/>
t
,.
: 8560” cm3/see.,at Tormatiqn confii.tions$
‘x (),10$3 .igdo
> ..

.. -..: .-
,,
,.,:’ .. .’ . .
,,-, I?/l?
9- !i%chnical
Note

.r
d
—--+-c! )=
rw

4200 X 0,000925

6,28.
,-

A.l?. ACVU=Z) = 0$000925 ( 4200 -’3400 ) =


,,
A. = I :

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, ..!-.
. ..-..— .-:. .--. —... . .... . ..
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