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Publisher’s Letter
Publisher’s Letter
We Urgently Need Robust Cold Chains
he final report of one of the studies; titled ‘Assessment of Quantitative Harvest and Post-Harvest

T Losses of Major Crops and Commodities in India’ by ICAR – Central Institute of Post-Harvest
Engineering and Technology; was submitted on 31.03.2015. Accordingly, it was estimated that
annual value of harvest and post-harvest losses of major agricultural produces at national level was of
the order of Rs. 92,651 crore. The latest available annual figures on food loss are: fruits and vegetables
together – Rs. 60,000 crore; and cereals, meat, pulses and flowers together Rs. 2,50,000 crore.
What are we supposed to do immediately? I know the unanimously accepted answer is: we have
to improve our cold chain segment. The recent report of the pilot study initiated by Carrier is also
echoing the same thought, i.e., investment in the cold chain – specifically pre-cooling and transport
refrigeration equipment – can reduce food loss by 76% and carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2E)
by 16%.
Kinnow is a high yield mandarin hybrid, which is avaialable in bulk quantity in and near Punjab. This
area stands as the world’s second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, however quite unfortunately,
it accounts for just 1.5% of global produce exports due to losses running as high as 20 - 50% of the
total production. Through their pilot study, Carrier tried to identify how modified cold chain technology
could improve supply of these fruits – to upgrade their end-point quality, to widen their reach and to
enhance profitability out of their sales in all seasons, including the off season.
Interestingly, the study has brought out positive values for all stakeholders along the supply chain
– growers, aggregators, transporters, distributors and retailers. It has also recctified the false notions
like: cold chain needs a complex set-up from farm to retail, it is dependent on other stakeholders to
invest along the supply chain and it needs a high cost of investment.
In 2016, India ranked 22 in the Global Hunger Index (GHI value: 28.5, where values beyond 20.0
indicate serious hunger…). We need to address this issue immediately. Twenty-five irradiation centres
are coming up in the country under the India-Russia collaboration programme – as low dosage of
radiation frees agro products from germs and insects, increasing their longevity and shelf-life. However,
there is a strong opposition from several quarters on distributing irradiated food items in the country.
Then, in order to ensure sustainability of the food supply system, why not to put additional impetus only
Subscribing on improving Cold Chains?
Cooling India is now a
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Pravita Iyer
Publisher & Director

4 | Cooling India | January 2017

Articles Interviews
Vol. 12 No. 6, January 2017

A Path to Inclusive Growth 24 “Govt needs to

– Rumi Engineer
focus on reefer
Are We Breathing Well? 30
– Ashish K Jain

Improving Energy Efficiency 40

– Dr Mahesh Kumar, Dr B V C Mahajan, Dr Swati Kapoor

Cooled Headgear for Qatar Workers 46 Sateesh Kulkarni

Director, Corporate Catalyst India

Hermetically Sealed Refrigeration Systems 54

– Chilukuri Maheshwar “We lack effective
cold chain”
Exceeding Customer Expectations 62
– Mike Treas

Grameen Fridge 64
– Er Kapil K Samar, Surendra Rajoria

Enhancing Performance of Cooling Tower

– N Rajkumar
Gubba Nagender Rao
Managing Director, Gubba Cold Storage Limited

New Trends in HVAC 72

– Dr OmPrakash G Kulkarni “Indian Government
is helping to create
demand for green

Mahesh Ramanujam
President and Chief Executive Officer, USGBC

“We intend to
introduce Wi-Fi
CPU controllers”

Roshan Sirohia
Director, Cruise Appliances

6 Cooling India January 2017

312, Prakashdeep, Tolstoy Marg, Connaught Place, New Delhi 110001
Tel : 011 43629500
Contents Vol. 12 No. 6, January 2017

Water Vapor Driven Vapor Absorption Machine 78
– P Babu

REFRIGERANTS – Past, Present & Future 54

– Bijan Kumar Mandal, Madhu Sruthi Emani, Ranendra Roy

Next Generation Refrigerants 90

– Dr Jahar Sarkar

Optimal Use of Available Resources

in Industries & Agriculture 94
– Prof Gaurang Sharma

Achievements of Ministry of Food

Processing Industries 98

Launching Zero Energy School in US 100

Thermal Storage for Shopping Mall 102

– Firoj Jena

Sustainable Cooling with R723 104

Sustainable Buildings 106

Terminologies in AC & Refrigeration 108

– Ramesh Paranjpey

4 Publisher’s Letter
6 Contents
10 Editorial
12 News
20 Appointments
22 Awards
113 Product Profile
116 Pre-event Report - Acrex 2017
117 Index to Advertisers
118 Cooling Museum

8 Cooling India January 2017

Towards Environment-friendly Refrigeration
lthough lots of measures have already been adopted and Mahadevan Iyer

A many are being proposed worldwide, the sure and certain

control on the process of global warming is yet to be
determined. Refrigeration is one of the high potential areas that
Pravita Iyer
Pravita Iyer
offers a wide scope for innovation, owing to this fact, globally
Mahadevan Iyer
many organisations are trying to develop the most environment-
Editorial Coordinator
friendly way of refrigeration that will not only be effective in slowing
Nafisa Kaisar
down the environmental decay, but also simplify the refrigeration
process as a whole.
Advertising Manager
Any refrigeration system consists of three major and active Jigar Padachh
components, namely: Compressor, Condenser and Cooler. Next to
them, the most vital role in the system is played by the Refrigerant, Design
which literally holds the key to make the system environment- Nilesh Nimkar
friendly. Out of many research and development projects that have

Out of many been undertaken by the refrigeration community, some are highly Subscription Department
significant owing to their multiple targets. To be a bit more Nafisa Khan
research and descriptive, let me cite here two instances.

development In 2016, the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Systems Center (NSSC) Accounts
Dattakumar Barge
has awarded S-RAM Dynamics a contract for $1 million to build
projects that have and test a mobile refrigeration system demonstration prototype

been undertaken using the new S-RAM energy recovery compressor that utilises the Customer Care
Sonali Pugaonkar
natural refrigerant Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The target of the R&D
by the refrigeration project is reduction of the Army’s mobile refrigeration assets in

community, some excess of 50%, decreasing fuel consumption for forward operating Cooling India is also available online on
bases without using synthetic refrigerants. The mobile CO2
are highly demonstration refrigeration system will be installed on the army’s
For online enquiries contact:

significant owing to Multi-Temperature Refrigerated Container System (MTRCS). Chary Publications Pvt Ltd
Obviously, success of this project will make a big impact in the field
their multiple
Editorial, Subscription & Advt. Office:
905-906, The Corporate Park,
of mobile refrigeration. Plot No. 14 & 15, Sector - 18,
targets… The vapour compression process of refrigeration consumes lot Opp. Sanpada Railway Station,
Vashi, Navi Mumbai - 400 703.
of power, but there are several materials that can produce cooling Tel.: (022) 2777 7170
when acted upon by magnetic, electric or mechanical forces.
` 100/- Per Copy
However, owing to their low efficiency and failure to be cost- ` 1000/- Annual Subscription
effective, those have not so far witnessed commercial exploitation Disclaimer: Chary Publications does not take
in mass scale. Last year, scientists and engineers of CaloriCool; a responsibility for claims made by advertisers
material research consortium led by the Ames Laboratory, Iowa relating to ownership, patents, and use of
trademarks, copyrights and such other rights. While
State University; have initiated a research programme targeting to all efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy
improve the energy-efficiency of refrigeration technology by 20 to of the information in this magazine, opinions
expressed and images are those of the authors,
30% within a decade through the use of caloric materials for and do not necessarily reflect the views/collection
cooling. of the owner, publisher, editor or the editorial team.
Chary Publications shall not be held responsible/
Obviously, at this point of time, we can expect that within the liable for any consequences; in the event, such
next decade several such initiatives will yield positive results, and claims are found - not to be true. All objections,
disputes, differences, claims and proceedings are
those will radically change the scenario in the refrigeration subject to Mumbai jurisdiction only.
segment. Printed by Pravita Iyer and Published by Pravita
iyer on behalf of Chary Publications Pvt Ltd.,
and Printed at Print Tech, C-18, Royal Ind. Est.,
Pl. send your views at Naigaum Cross Road, Wadala, Mumbai 400031
and Published at 906, The Corporate Park, Plot
14&15, Sector - 18, Vashi, Navi Mumbai - 400 703.
Editor: Mahadevan Iyer

10 | Cooling India | January 2017


Tata Steel gets ‘Greenco Platinum’ rating Panasonic to set up

ata Steel's Jamshedpur unit has refrigerator plant in Haryana

T won the platinum rating for

sustainable practices. Tata Steel
has always been committed to the Tata H
ome appliances and consumer
electronics company Panasonic
India said it has invested Rs 115
Value of Responsibility and has been a crore to set up a manufacturing plant at
trendsetter in the country in creating Jhajjar, Haryana, to produce refrigerators
sustainable values for all its stakeholders. locally. The factory spread across
The underlying belief has always been to receive Platinum Greenco rating. In 1,50,000 sq ft, with an annual production
go beyond compliance and regulatory addition, among the ten assessment capacity of five
requirements in caring for people and the criteria, Tata Steel has received the highest lakh units will
planet. In line with its vision and scores in eight criteria as compared to the be operational
commitment to improve and protect other Greenco rated companies. Speaking in November 2017 and the company
environment performance as an integral on the achievement, T V Narendran, MD, expects the sales from the facility to start
way of doing business, Tata Steel has Tata Steel India & South East Asia, “We from April 2018. “This will fill the balance
become India’s first steel manufacturing believe that our vision of making steel and pie that was missing from Panasonics
company to receive Greenco platinum building sustainable communities is a locally manufactured product portfolio in
rating by CII Green Building Council (GBC). major foundation of a sustainable world India. Refrigerators to a large extent will be
This recognition is testimony to the that can be achieved through resource manufactured in India except the large
perseverance of Tata Steel employees and efficiency and reduction of the capacity refrigerator,” said Panasonic India
of the aspirational leadership which environmental impact over the lifecycle of and South Asia President and CEO Manish
ensured actions for improvements the products. Having achieved this Sharma. Panasonic currently imports
resulting in getting a Platinum Rating in the leadership position in Greenco, Tata Steel fridges from Thailand, Indonesia and
first assessment. This makes Tata Steel realizes its responsibility to seek further Vietnam and will continue to import the
the first integrated steel plant in the country daunting targets in its journey of large-capacity refrigerators.
and the first company in the Tata Group to Sustainable Business Development.”

Indian pharmaceutical plant Fisher Construction wins Built by the Best Award
gets LEED Gold rating isher Construction Group was chosen as the winner of this prestigious

he Indian Green Building Council
(IGBC) LEED-India has awarded its
prestigious gold level rating to
F named the winner of the International
Association for Cold Storage
Construction (IACSC) Built by the Best
award,” said Scott Guimond, Project
Manager, Fisher Construction Group. “The
project certainly had its challenges and we
Phase 2 of ACG's capsule manufacturing Award for their project with Lineage are happy we found the solutions needed
plant in Pithampur, Madhya Pradesh. Logistics and Titan Frozen to help Titan meet the
The award was presented to ACG Fruit. deadlines around a crucial
representatives at the IGBC Convention Lineage Logistics berry harvest time.”
recently held at Mumbai. ACG ACPL, contracted with Fisher With the capacity to
Phase 2, Pithampur implemented various Construction Group to build blast freeze one million
sustainable measures, such as a 216,777 sq ft LEED pounds of product per day,
infrastructure for rainwater harvesting, certified facility, which includes 151,000 the state-of-the-art facility will play a
usage of recyclable material during sq ft of cold storage and dock space, and major role in meeting the expanding food
construction, optimal usage of natural 65,000 sq ft dedicated to onsite food processing needs in the Santa Maria,
resources and installation of energy processing for Lineage’s tenant Titan California region.
efficient equipment or systems. The Frozen Fruit. Fisher developed solutions to One of the most unique factors of the
management employed methods for challenges during the construction of the project is the shared resources between
preventing soil erosion or carryover of soil LEED-certified facility, at times managing the third-party logistics company (Lineage
from site during construction. It also over 120 workers in 10 trades to allow Logistics) and the food processor (Titan
provided various amenities or facilities for Titan Frozen Fruit to start processing Frozen Fruit). The partnered facility gives
employees in and around the site like strawberries just seven months after Titan the benefit of a shared refrigeration
public transport, courier services, bank or ground breaking. system and having their refrigeration
ATM services, prayer areas and medical “I speak for the entire project team in needs managed by onsite refrigeration
assistance. saying that we are honoured to have been expert Lineage Logistics.

12 | Cooling India | January 2017







Danfoss and the EurActiv discuss energy efficiency in Europe Star Renewable Energy to
anfoss motor systems. receive two awards

D and the
Institute hosted a
And, with the IEA
identifying that
4% of total S
tar Renewable Energy, part of
UK-based Star Refrigeration, has
been shortlisted to receive two ACR
high-level forum worldwide and Heat Pump Awards at a ceremony on
to discuss taking electricity is used 26 January 2017. The shortlisted heat
a more holistic in the water and pumps, based on ammonia, are used in
and system- wastewater district heating. The first heat pump to be
oriented approach sector, it’s clear formally recognised is the Neatpump Air
to energy efficiency. The European that the importance of finding cost- Source Heat Pump. The technology can
Commission recently presented its ‘winter effective solutions to meet global energy- heat water above 60 degree Celsius, and
package’ which included a revision of the efficiency targets has never been higher on paves the way to low carbon, affordable
Electricity Market Design legislation, the the agenda. For decades, Danfoss Drives heating and hot water for vulnerable
Renewable Energy Directive, the Energy has been at the forefront of developing AC households. Designed in partnership with
Performance of Buildings Directive and the drives that optimize the energy efficiency Glasgow Housing Association, this is the
Energy Efficiency Directive. And, in its of electric motor systems to reduce energy first community air source heat pump
freshly published ‘World Energy Outlook’ bills. Of the total energy reduction potential, installation in Great Britain to provide
report, the International Energy Agency 30% can be addressed by using AC drives renewable as a source of central heating
(IEA) identified the efficiency potential of to adapt the variable load. for residential high-rise buildings. Star is
electric motor systems and the capacity And, looking into an industry-specific shortlisted twice in the Heat Pump Product
for energy neutrality in the water sector. example, providing proven technologies category, next for its Water Source Heat
According to the IEA, electric motor can create an energy-neutral water cycle, Pump which is being used to supply heat
systems consume more than 50% of the significantly reduce the electricity bill of and hot water to one of the largest town’s
global electricity consumption; almost municipalities, and help to establish smart district heating schemes in the country.
30% of that is consumed by industrial energy systems.

Mitsubishi Electric Hydronics Cold Chain Market explores new opportunities by 2020
& IT Cooling Systems S.p.A. old chain involves proper logistic
comes to life
limaveneta S.p.A., RC Group C planning of temperature sensitive
products through thermal and

C S.p.A., and DeLclima Finance S.r.l.

resolved to merge the three
companies into a new company, that is
refrigerated packaging methods. The
application of cold chain is mainly applied
to chilled and frozen foods to increase
their self-life and maintain quality standard
now called Mitsubishi Electric Hydronics &
IT Cooling Systems S.p.A. (MEHITS). The for long duration of time. Cold chain
new company will also integrate the entire specifically helps in maintaining the bio-
staff of MELCO Hydronics and IT Cooling chemical and physical properties of the
S.p.A., the former corporate operational frozen foods and regulating market price in there need a proper cold chain logistics
entity, previously known as DeLclima off-season. It also helps to prevent the system. This leads to helps in the growth
S.p.A. This transaction represents a further product from loss and reduce the waste, of cold chain market across the globe.
step in the integration process of DeLclima which ultimately increases the overall The global cold chain market is growing
within the Mitsubishi Electric Group, and income of manufacturer or producer. with a high potential. North America is the
aims at simplifying the legal structure, After economic slowdown in 2010, largest market for cold chain. The growth
reducing unnecessary costs for the many big players increased the investment in demand of frozen chilled and frozen
corporate bodies and their relative on frozen food industry, which leads to foods in western counties triggered the
administrative tasks, and streamlining and directly impacted overall cold chain cold chain market in North America.
strengthening business support services. market. Use of cold chain involves in many Increasing demand of daily products,
Vincenzo Maragliano, designated CFO, industries such as fruits & vegetables, vegetables and fruits heading towards
observed, “Our company structure will bakery, confectionery, dairy, frozen more export form one reason to another.
become leaner and even more effective. desserts, fish, meat and seafood. In order This has also led to boost the cold chain
We are combining all of our resources." to maintain these food fresh for long run, market.

14 | Cooling India | January 2017


Linde & Praxair announce intention to merge Daikin acquires air filter
inde AG and Praxair announced that development and delivery of more manufacturer Dinair

L the companies intend to combine in

a merger of equals under a new
holding company through an all-stock
innovative products and services to
customers. “The strategic combination
between Linde and Praxair would leverage
Daikin Industries announces the
acquisition of Dinair AB, an air filter
manufacturer in Sweden, by American Air
transaction. The companies have signed a the complementary strengths of each Filter Company Inc, (hereinafter referred to
non-binding term sheet and expect to across a larger global footprint and create as ‘AAF’), a Daikin subsidiary involved in
execute a definitive Business Combination a more resilient portfolio with increased the filter business. The acquisition of
Agreement as soon as practicable. The exposure to long-term macro growth Dinair was performed through AAF-
combination would create a company with trends,” said Steve Angel, Praxair’s Lufttechnik GmbH, an AAF Group company
pro forma revenues of approximately $30 Chairman and CEO. “We consider this to in Germany, and all procedures have been
billion (EUR 28 billion), prior to any be a true strategic merger, as it brings completed.Dinair has been expanding its
divestitures, and a current market value in together the capabilities, talented people business focused primarily on Northern
excess of $65 billion (EUR 61 billion). and best-in-class processes of both Europe in the countries of Sweden,
The proposed merger would bring companies, creating a unique and Norway, and Finland. In addition to its
together two leading companies in the compelling opportunity for all of our headquarters in Sweden, Dinair has
global industrial gas industry, leveraging stakeholders.” production facilities in Finland and Latvia
the proven strengths of each. The “Under the Linde brand, we want to and is engaged in manufacturing and sale
transaction would unite Linde’s long-held combine our companies’ business and of air filters for residential and commercial
leadership in technology with Praxair’s technology capabilities and form a global use air conditioners. In terms of scale, the
efficient operating model, creating a global industrial gas leader. Beyond the strategic European air filter market ranks only
leader. The combined company would fit, the compelling, value-creating behind that of the United States, and more
enjoy strong positions in all key combination would achieve a robust than 30 percent of the market is occupied
geographies and end markets and create a balance sheet and cash flow and generate by Germany and Northern Europe in
more diverse and balanced global portfolio. financial flexibility,” said Professor Dr Aldo particular.
Additionally, it would enable the Belloni, CEO of Linde.

LG USA recalls 500,000 UAE AC Market to Grow at CAGR 9% till 2021

portables ccording to TechSci Research noise, high effectiveness in extreme

he US arm of Korean manufacturer
LG has recalled over 500,000
portable air conditioning units after
A report, “UAE Air Conditioners
Market By Product Type, By End
Use Sector, Competition Forecast &
climate conditions, integration of latest
technologies and high energy efficiency.
Moreover, residential sector is the largest
reports of fire. Opportunities, 2011 - 2021”, air demand generator for air conditioners in
The recall conditioners market in the UAE is forecast the UAE due to increasing population base
i n v o l v e s to grow at a CAGR of over 9% during and rising number of household units.
4 6 6 , 0 0 0 2016-2021, on account of implementation Various measures are being adopted by
models sold in of government initiatives to improve the the government to diversify into non-oil
the USA and country’s infrastructure, due to upcoming sectors by 2030 and increase investments
36,000 sold in events such as World Expo 2020, Dubai in transportation, manufacturing, retail,
C a n a d a Plan 2021 and Abu Dhabi Vision 2030. hospitality and real estate sectors.
between February 2011 and August 2016. These developments are anticipated to Consequently, these initiatives are
LG Electronics USA is said to have received drive infrastructural developments such as anticipated to boost construction of private
four reports of fires that have caused expansion of shopping malls, hotels and and public infrastructure and drive sales of
$380,000 in property damage. No injuries tourist sites, construction of residential air conditioners in the country in the
have been reported. The models involved spaces, stadiums, etc. coming years.
are 7,000 and 8,000 BTU models with New residential and commercial Abu Dhabi and Dubai are major cities
model numbers LP0711WNR, infrastructural development is expected to that have witnessed growth in number of
LP0813WNR, and LP0814WNR. steer demand for air conditioners in the houses and gross leasable office area and
Consumers have been advised to stop UAE. this trend is anticipated to grow during the
using the recalled portable air conditioners UAE air conditioners market is forecast period. Dubai, the most populous
and contact LG to schedule a free repair at dominated by split air conditioners due to city in the UAE and comprises 50% of the
an authorised service centre. various features such as less operating total construction activities.

16 | Cooling India | January 2017

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Modine offers latest in classroom HVAC noise reduction Alfa Laval wins SEK 150 mn
odine Manufacturing Company, ventilation systems, leading to fewer order in Middle East

M a leader in technology in the

HVAC industry, has introduced
the STUDY Package, an upgrade to their
distractions in the classroom.” The noise
reduction features of the ClassMate with
STUDY Package include: A
lfa Laval – a world leader in heat
transfer, centrifugal separation and
fluid handling – has won an order
ClassMate vertical unit which achieves the • Improved acoustic insulation with to supply compact heat exchangers to a
highest standard for noise reduction in its barrier natural gas plant in the Middle East. The
class. With a order, booked in the Energy & Process
redesigned segment late December, has a value of
cabinet to approximately
reduce air flow SEK 150 million
velocity, and a and delivery is
redesigned scheduled for
baffle for 2017 and 2018.
improved air The order comprises the delivery
flow path, the of compact heat exchangers which will be
ClassMate with STUDY Package was • Redesigned acoustic plenum to used to recover energy in the gas cleaning
developed to meet background noise pre- improve noise reduction process, thereby bringing down the plant’s
requisites for LEED-designed facilities. • Up to 7dB(A) improvement power consumption and CO2 emissions.
“We conducted extensive sound “The ClassMate with STUDY Package “These heat exchangers are commonly
attenuation research to provide the best sets the bar for high acoustical used in demanding applications as they
noise-reduction features possible,” performance," said Raduenz. "Even in are both safe and reliable,” says Svante
said Kimberly Raduenz, marketing challenging noise conditions, this unit is Karlsson, President of the Process
communications manager for Modine. perfect for any situation that is looking for Technology division in Alfa Laval. “The
“The result is the ultimate noise reduction efficient operation and wants the quietest order confirms Alfa Laval’s position as a
solution for classroom heating and cooling unit possible.” reliable partner for the oil and gas industry.”

Blueprint for Ecoliving Industry seeks support from Government at ICA in Mumbai
GoodEarth Malhar is an eco-village nternational Copper worldwide’. ICA India
located at Kengeri, Bangalore. The project
has been developed in phases and will
have a total of 500 homes once finished. It
I Association India
(ICA India) in
association with
contributes mainly
through its catalytic
role, accelerating
is being built in smaller communities of Hindalco Industries Ltd changes and
60-90 homes. There are already two and Vedanta Ltd transforming the long-
communities that are completed and about organised the prestigious India Copper term markets for Copper in a sustainable
60 families have made Malhar their home. Forum recently in Mumbai. The event way through its major initiatives such as
The campus is built being sensitive brought together experts and thought electrical safety and energy efficiency. ICA
towards the environment. Materials & leaders from the copper fraternity on one India’s activities focus on helping end
techniques which make the spaces more platform for deliberations on opportunities, users to better understand and appreciate
comfortable and impact the environment challenges and future of the country with the positive attributes of copper.
less have been used. Natural resources copper. Since 2000, India’s domestic copper
are conserved and the design works to The International Copper Association usage has registered a very healthy growth
reduce energy consumption. Rainwater is India (ICA India) is a member of Copper rate which is in-line with the robust GDP
harvested and ground water recharged. Alliance and the Indian arm of the growth witnessed by India during the
The sewage is recycled and the water International Copper Association, the same period. As per ICA India’s estimates,
used for flushing and gardening. As the leading not-for-profit organization for the the copper usage in India grew at CAGR of
communities take shape, it motivates us to promotion of copper worldwide. ICA India 5.3% from 2006 to 2015 to reach 1.2
see resident initiatives towards cultural is driven by the same objective as that of million tonnes in 2015. However, India’s
activities and garbage management, its parent organization, which is to ‘defend per capita copper usage is around 0.8 kg
sports activities like cricket clubs arising and grow markets for copper based on its whereas the world average is 3.7 kgs,
spontaneously and not promoted by the superior technical performance and its indicates clearly that there is a huge
builder but by the community. contribution to a higher quality of life potential for growth.

18 | Cooling India | January 2017

For further details contact:
Sekisui Foam International Representatives
Bangalore. Tel.: 080-26538257 Fax: 080-26538273 Mob.: 09880666600

M/s. Thorobuildcare, Pune. Tel.: 080-40542000 Fax: 30525952

Orient Traders, Bangalore. Tel.: 080-40542000 Fax: 40542005
Seven Star Aircon Ancillaries Pvt. Ltd., Chennai. Tel.: 044-42124014 Fax: 044-42124016
M/s. Revolve Engineers Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad. Tel.: 040-44545113 Fax: 040-44545125

Airedale appoints Adam Yarrington as Product Development Director

iredale has appointed Adam Yarrington as as Vodacom’s award winning containerised data

A Product Development Director. Adam will

take over the reins from George Hannah who
has occupied the position for the past six years.
centre solution, and a project to design manufacture
and install chillers that involved two 40-minute
helicopter lifts onto the roof of the London offices of
Adam joined Airedale in September 2005 after a global professional-services firm.
graduating from the University of Leeds with a MEng In this new strategic role, Adam will lead the
Degree in Automotive Engineering. During the last development of Airedale’s design, engineering and
eleven years Adam has progressed from Test Adam Yarrington research offering to underpin their growth strategy.
Engineer to Customer Services Manager working in Commenting on his new role as Product
various departments and achieving Chartered Engineer status Development Director, Adam said, “With more than ten years’
along the way. In his most recent role as Customer Services experience in product development to draw upon, I hope to
Manager, Adam was responsible for the applications continue George’s excellent work in helping Airedale to
engineering, contracts, sales order processing, project continue to progress and evolve as part of a changing HVAC
engineering and drawing office teams. His remit included the sector which is going through a period of rapid technological
design of customised units for complex projects such change.” 

GSS selects Ralph Weir as new CEO

as Sensing Solutions (GSS), the leading years and is a well established international

G designer and manufacturer of low power,

high speed Non-Dispersive Infrared
(NDIR) carbon dioxide gas sensors, has a new
supplier of proven technology.
“The challenge now is to take the company
and scale it into hyper growth, enabled by world-
CEO. Ralph Weir will work closely with GSS beating products, significant manufacturing
Founder Alan Henderson, to scale the business, capacity and quality systems. The Far East is a
building on the platform of world beating particularly buoyant market for us and we will be
technology and products developed to date to Alan Henderson with focused on making major inroads there over the
drive its global expansion. Ralph Weir next couple of years.”
Ralph is a seasoned CEO with extensive Alan Henderson, founder of GSS, welcomed
experience of building up high-growth technology companies. Ralph's appointment, saying, “Ralph's arrival allows me to
He has been CEO at Cambridge Nanotherm, phase vision and focus on the aspects of the business I've always enjoyed the
growth consultants Actiri. His earlier career includes commercial best – working with key customers, supporting the growth of
leadership roles in fast-growing business such as Mirics GSS by expanding our OEM customers base and further
Semiconductor, Elixent and Blue Wave Systems – all of whom developing exciting growth markets like China.”
enjoyed significant success across Asia, Europe and the GSS has already delivered hundreds of thousands of
US. Speaking at the ‘Sensing The Air We Breathe’ conference sensors globally. In addition to being a national winner of the
in Glasgow, organised by GSS in partnership with The Institute of Physics award for Innovation in July 2014, GSS
Innovation Centre for Sensor and Imaging Systems (CENSIS), won first prize in the Shell Springboard awards in 2012, John
Ralph said, “GSS is a business that has been around for 10 Logie Baird Innovation award in 2008 and five TSB Awards. 

Steve Gowing joins Stonegrove Refrigeration

ndustrial refrigeration contractor Stonegrove sound projects.”

I Refrigeration has appointed Steve Gowing as

design and project engineer. Steve has worked
for a number of industrial contractors, most recently
Stonegrove Refrigeration is a leading independent
refrigeration company in the UK, capable of designing,
installing, servicing and maintaining all types of
EJM. refrigeration systems. The firm has completed a
Dan Cashmore, MD of Stonegrove said, “Steve’s number of prestigious projects for companies
appointment further strengthens our design and project including Ocado, Eddie Stobart, Fox’s Biscuits and
management capability. This is a significant time for Steve Gowing Kuehne & Nagel. It has also won a number of
Stonegrove as we look to build upon our successes industry awards, including ACR News Contractor of
gained from a reputation for delivering innovative and technically the Year 2016. 

20 | Cooling India | January 2017


Ant Wilson awarded MBE

nt Wilson, a director of consultant engineers research projects mainly from an energy performance

A AECOM, has been awarded an MBE for

services to building and engineering. Named
in the 2017 New Year’s Honours List, Ant Wilson (59)
perspective and has been very involved with thermal
modelling and using computer simulation techniques
in building services design. His efforts have
leads AECOM’s Sustainable Development Group previously been recognised with a Silver Medal from
promoting low energy or carbon building designs. CIBSE for contributions to the Institution in 2007 and
Well-known in the building services industry, Ant is a
with an ACE (Association for Consultancy and
BSRIA council member, chairs the BSRIA Energy and Ant Wilson
Engineering) engineering ambassadors award in
Sustainability network and sits on the CIBSE Low
2008. He was awarded the construction and building
Carbon Consultants steering group. He is a Fellow of both the
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers and the services division prize for 2009 for his outstanding contribution
Royal Academy of Engineering. in the execution, promotion and advancement of the art of
With a BSc (Hons) in Building (Environmental) Engineering from engineering and science of building services and construction
Bath University, Ant joined Oscar Faber (now AECOM) in 1979. by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and received the
He has worked on a wide range of construction and AECOM Excellence Award for Thought Leadership in 2007. 

Aqua Cooling Wins International Science Award

ampshire-based specialist Simon Davis with Fareham MP Suella

H engineering firm Aqua Cooling

has been honoured by the
international Institute of Physics (IOP)
By incorporating the LPS into its
range of water-based cooling systems,
during a parliamentary reception at the Aqua can guarantee optimum efficiency
Palace of Westminster. and continuous, 100 per cent leak-free
The team was presented with a performance — which makes its
Commended Innovation award for its Kevin Lancaster Director Aqua Cooling, Roy systems ideal for installation and
patented Leak Prevention System (LPS) Sambles IOP President and Professor of operation in sensitive environments
that puts a basic scientific principle to Physics at University of Exeter, Simon Davis such as data centre and on-chip
Director Aqua Cooling, Suella Fernandes
work in a commercial application for Member of Parliament for Fareham cooling. Aqua’s LPS uses the Venturi
the first time. The award which was effect and the basic scientific premise
sponsored by Alok Sharma, Member of Parliament for Reading that water under negative pressure cannot escape through a
West, was received by Aqua directors Kevin Lancaster and hole or breach in a pipe, hose, or joint. 

Honeywell gets Best Retail Energy Project Award

oneywell announced that a project conditioning needs into one system, making

H based on its Solstice® ze refrigerant

has been recognized as the year’s
best retail energy project during the Energy
separate systems unnecessary. This highly
efficient system achieved a reduction of
installed power supply of 45kW, lower
Awards 2016 in London. The Energy Awards carbon output, and is expected to achieve
recognize the achievements of companies energy savings of approximately 35 percent
that contribute to reducing energy per year compared with stores with separate
consumption and lead the way in innovative Solstice® ze refrigerant has been cooling, heating and air conditioning
energy use, aiming at reducing the impact recognized as the year’s best retail systems. “We are committed to developing
on the carbon it uses. Honeywell was energy project environmentally preferable refrigerants that
awarded for its energy and carbon savings in have been proven to help customers lower
the new category 'Retail Energy Project'. Solstice ze their energy consumption as well as their carbon footprint,”
(R-1234ze(E)) is combined with carbon dioxide in a unique said Julien Soulet, Managing Director for Honeywell Fluorine
supermarket application that combines cooling, heating and air Products in Europe, Middle East, Africa and India. 

22 | Cooling India | January 2017

energy management

A Path to
Inclusive Growth
ations across the globe recognize
Energy is a strategic input for any economy,
particularly, so for India (Oil & Gas contributes 34 %
of primary energy consumption in India. Petroleum
N that energy security is critical to
fuel their economic and
developmental engines. However, with the
fast pace of industrial development, the
imports constitute 70% of Petroleum products is world is facing a significant threat to the
readily depleting non-renewable energy
imported to meet the domestic demand… resources. This model of development
poses a question on our ability to sustain

Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation

24 | Cooling India | January 2017

energy management

the pace of our growth and compels us to Green Life-Style….Quality Of could be leveraged from making smart
explore newer ways of development. green choices. They are unaware of how
Rate Matter -- Not Just The
There are many pressing reasons why they can contribute simply by making
Industry needs to embrace energy
Rate! small changes- both behavioral and
With changing socio-economic fabric technological, in their own homes. It is a
efficiency, some of them are
of India, people have higher aspirations, collaborative approach amongst all the
• Global warming
than they have ever had before. With all the stakeholders of the project.
• Reducing operating cost
envisaged growth, it must be noted that, Design commences from architectural
• Compliance with statutory legislations
no development process can afford to design of the building, simulating (energy /
• Market demand
neglect the environmental consequences lighting simulation) the performance of the
'The GDP... A Dangerous Smokescreen’
of economic activity. This would mean use building systems, selection of hi-energy
Energy is a strategic input for any
of far more energy efficient technologies, efficient equipment (motors, pumps,
economy, particularly, so for India (Oil &
pursue development which is ‘inclusive & chillers etc), robust monitoring system by
Gas contributes 34 % of primary energy sustainable’.
consumption in India. Petroleum imports installation of measuring devices like
constitute 70% of petroleum products is Way Forward energy meters, BTU meters etc.
imported to meet the domestic demand. Three pronged approach towards All the above aspects should be
Imagine a world where human well- achieving energy efficiency: critically evaluated during the design stage.
being, social equity and protection of our • Design Efficiency: Selection of the Hi-Performance Building Envelope will
best possible technology and most address the heat gain in the building which
natural capital (environment) are the
efficient system will be result in down-sizing of systems,
considerations for making business
• Construction Efficiency: Integration reduction in contract demand with
decisions. Sounds too utopian? Not if you
and commissioning of system electricity board, which will result in
go by what some of today's environmental
• Operations Efficiency: considerable reduction in operational cost.
think-tanks call the 'Green Economy'.
– Best Management Practices (O&M) Hence, a holistic approach towards
Environmental circles are buzzing with the
– Measure, Monitor & Analysis of investment will result in addressing the
term, much bandied sustainability. But
Energy End use. overall cost of the project.
what exactly does it mean? To understand
it, we need to first look at India's economic Attitude which governs the behaviour Construction Efficiency
terms. and ultimately forms a culture is one of Seldom one comes across poor design
India's wealth as measured by gross critical aspect which cuts across all the of the systems; the challenge is execution
domestic product (GDP) per capita which above three approaches. and implementation of the design.
has been hovering @ 7%. Focus on GDP One often reads about how cities in Construction stage is one of the most
other parts of the world have successfully critical one to convert and realize best of
alone is myopic and flawed. Considering
embraced greener lifestyles and the design. Project management by way of
Natural Manufactured Capital the figure
technologies. Along with attractive proper, timely communication and
will be very disappointing.
incentives and returns on investment, a coordination at various stages amongst
The prevailing economic growth model
critical prime mover in these countries has the stakeholders is of great essence.
is increasing the GDP above all other
been the change in people’s attitudes. Systems installed should be tested and
goals. While this system has improved
Attitudinal challenge lies in the commissioned to validate its site performance
incomes and reduced poverty, it comes
conventional way that people perceive with respect to design assumptions.
with significant and potentially irreversible
resources. In our society, being in
social, environmental and economic costs,
possession of excess and flaunting it, has Operations Efficiency
for as many as two and a half billion
always been construed as a mark of Best Management Practices (O&M)
people, and the natural wealth of the planet prosperity. The first step in dealing with
is rapidly being drawn. • Identification of areas for improvement
these mindsets is aggressively creating and selection of appropriate
According to a new ‘Inclusive Wealth awareness about resource conservation.
Indicator’ designed to augment measure technological intervention for
A lack of information breeds ignorance improving the efficiency eg. Heat
of economic progress, India's natural and fallacious assumptions which leads
capital or the sum of a country's assets recovery is very beneficial in process
people to make poor decisions. where in one can offset the heating
from forests to fossil minerals, declined by
Design Efficiency requirement. Key lies in implementation
as much as 31%.
People often fail to look beyond the of the strategy as this is not off the self
It is essential to adopt sustainable
initial costs until they are shown hard solution. Some of the technological
business practice which will lead towards
hitting figures of the kind of payback that interventions worth reviewing Solar
inclusive growth.

Cooling India | January 2017| 25

energy management

Thermal heating for residential of the Day' (RTOD) data recording, – Time of the Day usage pattern, gap
projects, Solar PV, Heat Pump (Heating correlate the data with some of the critical analysis between supply and
& Cooling), etc. events in the building’s systems. demand, efficiency evaluation of
• Capacity Building: Skill development, It is high time that facility staff do away each equipment in the system are
training programs for budding with manual data logging system which is very critical for energy management.
architects or engineers with case study prevalent in most of the projects. Very few – Energy metrics like Energy
will go a long way in inculcating a (on conservative estimate not more than Performance Index (EPI) or Energy
culture of sustainable design. Facility 20%) projects have been successful in Usage Intensity (EUI) has to be
and project management team have integration of entire systems with BMS to worked out.
initiated such programs at their end to gather the data for analytical use. Normal • Data Acquisition, Analytical
sensitize and bring awareness towards practice is to log the data manually, in Interpretation and Forecasting
best management practice. isolation (energy / water / chiller / boiler). – Analyzing the energy data and
There is a big question mark on the time of co-relating the same with
Measure, Monitor & Analysis the day accuracy. Data recording should schedules and load is of great
Of Energy End Use be at same time every day. essence. Many a time it is observed
What is not measured is not Manual data logged is converted into a that analysis of data is done in
accounted for..? spreadsheet — The data “rests in peace” isolation not considering other
It is proven that energy metering and over there for most of the projects. operational factors.
monitoring at macro level and micro level Modern Buildings have Complex – One of the significant merits of
catalyses the energy accounting process. Electro-Mechanical Systems. A systematic having metered data over long
With goal of ‘Measure to Save’, over 5% approach helps: periods of time is in enabling
energy cost saving is often pegged to • Devising Formats prediction of energy consumption
granular metering. – Devising of Formats to record the with improved accuracy
Successful metering strategy requires data which can be easily • Calibration of meters
more than installing the meters and getting interpreted, co-related and – Once a year calibration of all
data from it. One of the significant merits analyzed is of great essence. metering device is very much
of having metered data over long period of • Benchmarking essential to ascertain and maintain
time is in enabling prediction of energy – Defining of 'Base & Variable Load': the degree of accuracy of data.
consumption. Metered data through a Irrespective of change in operations
centralized Building Management or (schedule, internal load variation Existing Buildings
Energy Management system (BMS/EMS) over Time of day etc) a typical Existing Buildings offers great potential
is of great essence as it enables 'Real Time system experiences a base load. (@ 15-20%) for energy or water efficiency

26 | Cooling India | January 2017

energy management

improvement. The reason being the

systems are pretty old, absence of system
level monitoring which does not capture the
information which impairs right decision
making process by senior management.
A lot of existing buildings all over the
world now are striving for improved
efficiency and ways to reduce their
environmental impact. There is a significant
difference in approach of looking at a new Waste Management
building and an existing building. • Segregation of waste
In an existing building the ‘Architectural • Vermicomposting
design, Façade, Glazing, HVAC system, Green Features of the Building
Major Challenges faced
Lighting’ are already in place. Hence the Energy Management • Diverse Building Operations ( Dining,
challenge is not best design but to best • 36% saving in energy has been Food Manufacturing, Office, Hubble,
utilize these, operate and maintain these demonstrated w.r.t. base case as per Conference Rooms)
very systems. ECBC. • Varying Occupancy
Hence the rating system for existing • En. Cons. / Sq. mtr. / Ann. : 97 kWh/ • Benchmarking
building under IGBC is referred to as ‘IGBC sq. mtr./ Ann.
EB – O&M’. Here aspects like ongoing Take-Away From Certification
• Solar PV 120 KW (Generating @ 7% of
usage of water, energy, purchasing of Total Energy Requirement) Journey
consumables, durables goods having • Recessed glazing and shading device The certification system facilitated in
sustainability criteria, housekeeping • Natural Daylight Harvesting in the identifying the gap in operations and
equipments etc are given priority. occupied area maintenance performance.
Case Study Of Existing Building • Roof Garden Institutionalizing best practices which
Retrofit - Godrej Pl-13 Annex Building • High SRI paint on paved terrace areas provide an outline for enhancement of
PL-13 Annex.’ building is ‘Platinum’ • Natural surrounding with trees which building’s performance.
rated under the IGBC EB O&M. PL-13 help maintain micro-climate Optimization in energy, water end use,
Annex building also received 5 Star rating • Screw chiller with secondary variable natural resources; waste management
for energy efficiency by BEE. pumping system improve the indoor environment; and
PL-13 Annex is a magnificent, iconic • Building Management System continual focus on operating efficiencies.
building of Godrej located at Vikhroli East. • Retrofitted T-8 Fluorescent Tube lights
It is a mixed use building having diverse Other benefits
with T-5 (HE) Low-mercury tube lights
operations. a. Improve upon the building’s systems
• System Level Monitoring of Energy
b. Address cost streams associated with
building operations.
c. Improvement in occupant comfort
Built 2008 resulting in productive employee
Built up Area 24,443 Sq Mt workspaces
Air- Conditioned 16,050 Sq Mt d. Enlighten the building occupants /
Area visitors regarding the benign impact on
Water Management e. Provide Public recognition for
Basement Floor Utilities & Parking leadership in sustainability
• STP : Recycling of soiled water
Ground Floor Kitchen and Canteen • Non-Potable water use for landscaping, f. Show case study for other corporate to
First Floor Cafeteria & Office flushing & C. Tower make up emulate in future. 
Second Floor Office • Rain Water Harvesting
Third Floor Conference Rooms • Lo-Flow Fixtures
Rumi Engineer
• Landscape: Native and adaptive
Fourth Floor Auditorium and Sr. General Manager,
species. Head – Energy Management &
Green Initiatives,
Godrej & Boyce Mfg. Co. Ltd.

28 | Cooling India | January 2017

Corporate Office Mumbai: 1161, Solitaire Corporate Park, Guru Hargovindji Marg, Andheri - Ghatkopar Link Road, chakala, Andheri (E),
Mumbai - 400093 Tel: (+91-22) 40430000 / 67710000 / 30840000 Fax: (+91-22) 40430099 / 67710099 / 30840000 Ahmedabad: Tel:
(+91-79) 27681361 / 27680043 / 27680903 Fax: (+91-79) 27680064 Bengaluru: Tel: (+91-80) 22215475 / 22104698 / 22285281 Fax:
(+91-80) 22104697 Chennai: Tel: (+91-44) 43851500 / 39811176 / 39811174 Fax: (+91+44) 43850498 Noida Tel: (+91-0120)
6660060 / 6660065 Hyderabad: Tel: (+91-40) 23221140 Fax: (+91-40) 23221120 Kolkata: Tel: (+91-33) 24858837 / 24858839 /
24858833 Fax: (+91-33) 24858838 Pune: Tel: (+91-20) 25890538 Website:
indoor air quality

Are We
Breathing Well?
outdoor air (albeit with different pollutants).
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is one of the most important Research has shown that indoor air in
areas of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), buildings can be two to five times—and
occasionally up to 100 times—more
particularly, in terms of the impact of a building on contaminated than outdoor air. In fact,
the health of occupants. IEQ encompasses more indoor air is often a greater health hazard
than the corresponding outdoor setting,
than air quality, including thermal comfort, visual although this has not changed the common
comfort and acoustical quality… understanding of air pollution.
Indoor air pollution consistently ranks
ost people spend as much as maintaining a superior Indoor Air Quality among the top five environmental risks to

M 90% of their time indoors. They

ingest almost 3-4 liters of water
and one kg of food daily, but inhale almost
(IAQ) in occupied spaces can translate to
occupant health and safety, greater
productivity and reduced healthcare costs.
public health. US Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) estimate that 30
percent of workers in non-industrial buildings—
15 liters of air each day. Therefore, Indoor air is often more polluted than including offices, schools and hospitals—are

30 | Cooling India | January 2017

indoor air quality

exposed to poor indoor air quality. of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), individuals. Approximately 25% of the
The World Health Organization (WHO) particularly, in terms of the impact of a ailments associated with indoor air quality
estimates that 4.3 million people in 2012 building on the health of occupants. IEQ can be identified specifically and are
lost their lives due to indoor air encompasses more than air quality, attributed to BRI.
pollution. Estimates from the WHO and including thermal comfort, visual comfort Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)
others suggest that between 30 and 150 and acoustical quality. SBS refers to a general set of
times more people are killed due to indoor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the symptoms that affect building occupants
air pollution than global warming. content of interior air that could affect during the time they spend in the building
Air tight buildings made for higher health and comfort of building occupants. and that diminish or go away during
energy efficiency - if not provided with It refers to the presence or absence of air periods when they leave the building. SBS
sufficient ventilation - lead to a common pollutants in buildings. There are many cannot be traced to specific pollutants or
problem viz buildup of carbon dioxide and different types of pollutants that can affect sources within the building, and it typically
various pollutants. This leads to “sick indoor air and they come from a wide is multi-factorial, or caused by a number
building syndrome,” the term introduced in range of sources. of factors combined with or worsened by
1980s to describe the increasingly According to the US Environmental inadequate ventilation. About 75% of
common maladies caused by improperly Protection Agency (EPA) and National building-related health cases are classified
designed and ventilated buildings. By Institute of Occupational Safety and Health as SBS. Common SBS symptoms include
1984, a WHO Committee reported that “up (NIOSH), the three key elements that headaches, nose, eye and throat irritation,
to 30% of new and remodeled buildings contribute to the quality of the air people a dry cough, dry skin irritation, dizziness
worldwide may be the subject of excessive breathe when they are inside include, or nausea, difficulty concentrating and
complaints related to indoor air quality.” • Introduction and distribution of fatigue.
Since that time, consciousness increased adequate ventilation air SBS and BRI are frequently confused
on this subject mainly in the developed • Control of airborne contaminants with each other. BRI usually entails a
countries and standards were introduced. • Maintenance of acceptable temperature specific diagnosis of a set of symptoms
and relative humidity caused by a specific environmental factor,
What is indoor air quality?
IAQ is one of the most important areas How does Indoor Air Pollution one that has developed into an illness that
persists whether that factor is present or
impact us? not. SBS refers to more general symptoms
Poor IAQ leads to a variety of health
of malaise or discomfort, which are
risks that have significant costs for the
temporary and limited to time spent in the
people affected directly as well as for their
building. Conversely, BRI is often
family members, employers and society at
associated with a longer recovery time
large. Despite the fact that IAQ can have an
than SBS symptoms.
immense impact on health and general
quality of life, it is generally an unregulated What are indoor air pollutants
field. and where do they come from?
The Environmental Protection Agency There are many potential sources that
notes that occupants may experience lead to poor indoor air pollution with the
adverse health effects from indoor air most common being mold, radon, second
pollutants soon after exposure – or years hand tobacco smoke, smoke from burning
later. Health conditions associated with wood, gas furnaces and various allergens.
poor IAQ can be categorized as either Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs),
building related illness (BRI) or sick formaldehyde, pesticides, lead and
building syndrome (SBS). asbestos are also common sources of air
Building Related Illness (BRI) pollution. Some of these items are naturally
As defined by the World Trade Center occurring, some are man-made and some
Resource Guide, BRI includes specific, depend on chemical reactions to occur
identified maladies attributed to an under the right conditions.
identified material, product or system in a Particulate matter is the prime villain.
home or building. Examples include The most lethal are the smallest particles
Legionnaire’s Disease, hypersensitivity (also known as PM2.5, for particulate
pneumonitis, humidifier fever and asthma- matter smaller than 2.5 microns in
like symptoms in non-asthmatic diameter, about one-third the diameter of a

Cooling India | January 2017| 31

indoor air quality

Table below outlines the common indoor pollutants and their sources
Contaminant Description Common sources
Biological Biological contaminants are a natural and unavoidable Common sources may include,
Contaminants part of the world. They are so small, so numerous and • people,
so adaptable that they cannot be eliminated from most • animals,
indoor environments. However, the built environment • water,
can be made less hospitable to them by source control • soil,
of mold and moisture. • plumbing leaks,
• water damaged buildings
• standing water in HVAC system,
• plant debris
Combustion Combustion—in heating, cooking, smoking, • unvented or malfunctioning gas appliances,
Products transportation and power generation—is intrinsic to the • tobacco smoke,
activity of people and buildings. Unfortunately, • fireplaces,
combustion also releases numerous compounds that • furnaces,
can potentially contaminate indoor air. • automobile exhaust from attached garages etc.

Particulate PM is a complex mixture of extremely small particles • Tobacco smoke,

Matter (PM) and liquid droplets in the air, many of which are • fireplaces,
hazardous. It includes aerosols, smoke, fumes, dust, • furnaces,
ash and pollen. • aerosol sprays,
Any material within a building can under certain • carpet (shedding fibers),
conditions, emit or form particulates, which could then • ceiling tile,
be inhaled and possibly lead to health risks. • insulation,
• textured fabrics,
• printers and copiers
Volatile Organic VOCs are a large group of carbon-based chemicals that Building Materials
Compounds easily evaporate at room temperature. While most • Carpets and adhesives
(VOCs) people can smell high levels of some VOCs, other VOCs • Composite wood products
have no odor. There are thousands of different VOCs • Paints, Coatings, sealants
produced and used in our daily lives such as Acetone, • Solvents
Benzene, Ethylene, glycol, Formaldehyde, Methylene • Upholstery fabrics
chloride, Perchloroethylene, Toluene, Xylene, • Varnishes
1,3-butadiene • Vinyl Floors
Studies have shown that the level of VOCs indoors is • Wall Coverings
generally two to five times higher than the level of Cleaning and Personal Care Products
VOC’s outdoors. • Air fresheners
Some VOCs are carcinogens, suspected carcinogens or • Air cleaners that produce ozone
known irritants at typical levels. • Cleaning and disinfecting chemicals
• Cosmetics
• Fuel oil, gasoline
Formaldehyde It is a colorless, flammable gas at room temperature Adhesive resin, including urea formaldehyde and phenol
and has a strong odor. Exposure to formaldehyde may formaldehyde, used in manufactured wood products.
cause adverse health effects. Examples include,
At higher concentrations in air, inhaled formaldehyde • Particle board,
can irritate the eyes and mucous membranes, resulting • fiberboard,
in watery eyes, headache, a burning sensation in the • plywood and
throat and difficulty breathing. • medium-density fiberboard (MDF);
• glues;
• manufactured wood products, such as furniture;
• preservatives;
• permanent press fabrics;
• paints;
• inks;
• paper product coatings;
• insulation;
• pesticides
• paper products

32 | Cooling India | January 2017

indoor air quality

• Comply with your building’s smoking

policy and smoke only in designated
• Clean up spills immediately and report
any water leaks to management to
avoid the possibility of mold growth.
• Dispose of all garbage promptly in the
proper receptacle.
red blood cell), which are produced by emission potential of each product under • Store food properly. Do not leave food
combustion and household activities like consideration. Several categories are in your desks or on shelves.
cooking. These specks can get deep into considered in a standard testing procedure, • Contact building management if you
the lungs, tarring the airways and including amount of particulates, total suspect an IAQ problem.
weathering the heart, disrupting its ability volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and
to breath properly. Many studies have formaldehydes. Materials and products EPAs tips for employers include
linked exposure to PM2.5 with heart that are third-party certified for • Maintain a good working relationship
attacks, cardiac arrhythmias, strokes, conformance with accepted IAQ standards with building management regarding
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are most recommended. Examples of IAQ IAQ issues.
worsened symptoms of asthma and an Third-party Certification Programs include • Regularly check your building’s HVAC
increased risk of respiratory illness. certified laboratories. system to ensure it’s in good working
Worldwide, par ticulate matter order, and coordinate with building
Ventilation Systems management “when responsibility for
contributes to about 800,000 premature Ventilation involves introducing exterior
deaths each year, according to the WHO, design, operation and maintenance of the
air into an interior space while exhausting ventilation system is shared,” EPA states.
making it the 13th leading cause of death stale interior air to the outside. A variety of
worldwide. Other pollutants also cause • Create a policy that protects non-
common strategies and technologies can be smokers from secondhand smoke
major problems, especially indoors— used, including operable windows and
radon, a gas produced naturally in the exposure.
exhaust fans. Mechanical systems with • Refrain from using products that can
Earth, is the second leading cause of lung adequate ventilation rates, appropriate
cancer in the US, and additional gases like cause IAQ problems.
pressures, and efficient air-filtration are some • Use pest control products only when
carbon monoxide and volatile organic of the effective strategies for better IAQ.
compounds (VOCs) cause innumerable necessary, and non-chemical methods
health effects. During Construction if possible.
The indoor air in buildings and homes While above strategies can be a good
Strategies to control indoor air can be compromised by construction start, there can be several other more
pollution activities even before occupants move into elaborated strategies applicable to different
Even though the factors that affect a space. In both residential and commercial type of buildings or applications. As per
quality of indoor environment are sustainable projects, a “Construction IAQ our experience at AEON on such IAQ
numerous, the good news is that most Management Plan” should be prepared by projects, it is experienced that a thoughtful
indoor environmental problems can be the contractor and approved by the client and an integrated design approach is
prevented or corrected. Achieving better or designer prior to commencement of the required to be applied in a building design
IAQ in buildings requires proper application work. IAQ strategies should then be and validated through computer simulation
of science and technology. It calls for an implemented during interior construction techniques to achieve enhanced IAQ.
optimum combination of proper buildings works to avoid health issues for workers Indoor air quality crosses economic
materials, effective ventilation systems (during construction phase) and occupants status, race and ethnicity. Poor indoor air
design and indoor pollutant control (during occupancy phase). quality can be present at work, home,
mechanism. Some broad guidelines for During Operations school or vehicles. Hence, this is a subject
better IAQ are briefly described below: Both workers and management can that needs to be addressed carefully for
take steps to help maintain good indoor air our present as well as future well-being.
Materials Selection
Selection and use of low-emitting, quality. For employees, EPA recommends
non-toxic materials to construct and the following:
furnish the buildings is one of the key • Refrain from blocking air vents, as
doing so can unbalance your office’s Ashish K Jain
elements to meet a goal for good air Director, AEON Integrated
quality. The evaluation process for HVAC system and affect the ventilation Building Design
materials calls for understanding the of neighboring offices. Consultants LLP, New Delhi

34 | Cooling India | January 2017

“Govt needs to focus
on reefer infrastructure”
Sateesh Kulkarni, Director, Corporate Catalyst India feels efforts need to be made
in order to introduce the concept of green technology, as also the use of renewable
energy for the cold chain sector in an interaction with Supriya Oundhakar...

ICAR study has estimated that comprises of Temperature Controlled expenses of cold storage in India as
annual value of harvest and post- Vehicles. compared to 10% in the developed

harvest losses of major Given the fact that around 70% of the countries. Uninterrupted power supply is a
warehousing capacity is taken up by one basic pre-requisite for cold storages. This
agricultural produces at national
product i.e. potatoes, the balance 25% is is not always available everywhere and
level was of the order of Rs. therefore, cold storage operators have to
not adequate for the other commodities
92,651 crore calculated using that need cold storage and cold transport rely on power backups. This results in
production data of 2012-13 at facilities. escalation of capital cost.
2014 wholesale prices. Looking at There is a severe shortage of cold chain What is current market scenario
this scenario, where is Indian cold warehousing capacity as only 25% of the
of India?
chain industry lacking? Do you capacity is available for fruits, vegetables,
Inspite of growing demand, warehousing
think that Indian cold chain processed foods and pharmaceuticals,
continues to see little investment. Current
infrastructure is upto the mark to whereas 75% of the capacity is dedicated
spending on organized warehousing in
arrest these losses? to potatoes.
India constitutes nine percent of total
India is among the world leaders in Standardisation of cold chain infrastructure,
logistics spending, as against 25 percent
horticulture. Even though production of logistics, handling and operations is still at
in the US and the developed world.
fruits, vegetables, milk, poultry, fish and a nascent stage. Technical standards
Logistics costs account for around 6-10
meat is on the rise, prices have always followed in India are mostly unsuitable for
percent of average retail prices in India as
been ruling high. One reason for this is the Indian conditions, which results in lower
against the global average of 4-5 percent.
inadequate and at times absence of proper performance of standard refrigerated
Therefore, there is a clear scope to improve
supply chain management - logistics systems.
margins by 3-5 percent by improving the
infrastructure, cold chain in particular, and Lack of proper training: Low awareness of
efficiency of the supply chain and logistics
warehousing and storage facilities. The labour in handling temperature-sensitive
processes. Developing an integrated
farm to fork concept, which needs an products: Most workers handling such
supply chain, including cold chain can
integrated and holistic system in place is products are not properly trained in
save up to Rs 300 billion annually and at
still very much on paper only. handling temperature-sensitive products
the same time reduce the wastage of
The cold chain sector is an approximately resulting in deterioration of product quality
perishable horticulture products.
USD 3.5 billion industry. Around 90% of before reaching the consumer.
market is controlled by the Temperature High fuel cost and power cuts: Fuel costs What are the regulatory initiatives
Controlled Warehouses. The balance 10% in India constitute around 30% of operating takes by the government to

36 | Cooling India | January 2017

promote Indian Cold Chain need to go through in order to (average expense incurred due to the
industry? keep a check on inflation and to stops along the way such as check-posts
The government is taking steps for the maintain a smooth relationship and customs) per tonne-km has increased
sector, such as schemes for capital from Rs 0.16 per tonne-km to Rs 0.28, a
with the economy?
investment subsidy from the National Market is highly fragmented. In India, the 75 per cent increase between 2011-12
Hor ticulture Board, the National supply chain of most products is long and and 2014-15.
Horticulture Mission and the Ministry of fragmented. A product changes many Opportunities exist in the following
Food Processing Industries for the agri- hands from source to delivery point. segments of the cold chain sector:
investors to set up cold chain infrastructure. Capital intensive sector - Most of the • Requirement of training establishments
Government has set up National Centre for companies operating in the cold chain • Need for energy efficient technology
Cold Chain Development (NCCCD) which industry are capital intensive (cost of real • Efficient logistics network to be a key
would help in establishing building estate and refrigeration equipment). Major differentiator
standards through international part of the funding in the cold chain • Controlled atmosphere/modified
benchmarking and to promote research industry is done through debt funding and atmosphere storage for extension of
and development activity in the cold chain this has resulted in heavy interest expenses. storage life of perishables
sector. The government has also High operational costs - Power (electricity • New technologies for storage of
established partnership with Indian charges) and fuel forms one of the major processing grade potato
Railways to set up cold chain infrastructure. components of the cold chain industry • Low cost solutions for pre-cooling at
The government’s initiatives like along with labour and repair & maintenance farm
• Modern pack houses and ripening
rollout of GST, ‘Make in India’ will cost. Small land holdings pose a major
help Indian cold chain industry to logistical challenge. • Innovation, cost-effectiveness and
make progress? service support in reefer technology
Introduction of GST is likely to benefit • Low cost technology for
warehousing. Warehousing Technical standards followed in India are mostly automation of operations in a cold

companies can consolidate stock at store
unsuitable for Indian conditions, which results in
their warehouses. Demand variation • Space and energy saving solutions
at a particular warehouse can also lower performance of standard refrigerated systems. in cold storage.
be reduced. This in turn improves
What government measures
demand planning and improved inventory Other factors – seasonality of demand,
management. Under the GST regime, single product focus
would you expect for the growth
instead of maintaining smaller warehouses High cost of borrowing has led to of the sector?
in each and every state, the companies squeezing of the net profit margin. India needs a more effective, efficient and
can go in for bigger warehouses at a few High Energy Costs: Energy expenses alone well-thought-out cold storage
select places and can follow hub and make up about 30 percent of the total infrastructure. Special focus and emphasis
spoke model for freight movement from expenses for the cold storage industry in needs to be laid on development of reefer
warehouses to manufacturing plants, India compared to 10 percent in the West. infrastructure in view of India’s exports
distributors and retailers. Therefore, this is These factors pose as a high entry barriers thrust and potential.
a big opportunity for 3PL service providers to potential players in the business. Energy-efficient practices like energy
and logistics providers who can manage Rising Real Estate Costs: With the rising recovery systems, energy-efficient
these longer routes and effect deliveries real estate price, the cost of setting up a designs of refrigeration equipment and
efficiently. automation are some of the innovative
cold storage units is also rising. It
The economies of scale achieved through constitutes approximately 10-12 percent features. Efforts need to be made in order
this consolidation will reduce variable of the project cost. Being a capital- to introduce the concept of green
costs, enable automation and improve intensive project, it requires heavy technology, as also the use of renewable
operational efficiency. Connectivity of investment in fixed assets like plant and energy for the cold chain sector
these warehouses to consumption centres machinery, building, insulation and panels Financial institutions should play a major
will improve with the development of role to encourage the investment in cold
What is your outlook for the sector chain industry in terms of term loan
multi-modal transportation systems.
in 2017-18? sanctioning, nominal interest rates and
What are the major gaps that
Besides optimising the production and disbursement. This will boost investment.
need to be fulfilled and the distribution of goods and services, the State government must make a step
infrastructural developments that GST Bill will also help speed up cargo towards subsidising the electrical tariffs,
the cold storage facilities in India movement. The stoppage expense encouraging use of renewable energies. 

Cooling India | January 2017 | 37

facts & figures

Total Number of Cold Storages in India

as per the study conducted by M/s Hansa Research Group, Mumbai
Sl. No. Name of State No of Cold Storages
1 Andaman & Nicobar 11
2 Andhra Pradesh 645
3 Assam 24
4 Bihar 170
5 Chandigarh 5
6 Chhattisgarh 82
7 Delhi 45
8 Goa 16
9 Gujarat 432
10 Haryana 206
11 Himachal Pradesh 17
12 Jammu & Kashmir 18
13 Jharkhand 20
14 Karnataka 205
15 Kerala 158
16 Madhya Pradesh 164
17 Maharashtra 532
18 Orissa 45
19 Pondicherry 9
20 Punjab 425
21 Uttaranchal 14
22 Uttar Pradesh 1385
23 West Bengal 498
24 Tamil Nadu 115
25 Rajasthan 109
26 Other North Eastern States 17
TOTAL 5,367

The Government has got a study done on ‘Assessment of Quantitative Harvest and Post-Harvest Losses of Major Crops and
Commodities in India’ by ICAR - Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana. The study was
commissioned in 2012 and the final report submitted on 31.03.2015. The study has estimated that annual value of harvest and post-
harvest losses of major agricultural produces at national level was of the order of Rs 92,651 crore calculated using production data of
2012-13 at 2014 wholesale prices. The percentage of post-harvest losses as assessed by the study areas under:
Crops Cumulative wastage (%)
Cereals 4.65 – 5.99
Pulses 6.36 – 8.41
Oil Seeds 3.08 – 9.96
Fruits & Vegetables 4.58 – 15.88
Milk 0.92
Fisheries (Inland) 5.23
Fisheries (Marine) 10.52
Meat 2.71
Poultry 6.74

38 | Cooling India | January 2017

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Energy Efficiency
continuously throughout the refrigerated
Moisture loss from fresh produce causes it to storage room to keep it at uniform
shrivel or wrinkle and lose quality. Therefore, temperature. To maintain high quality and
product consistency, temperature swings
proper measures must be taken during cold of more than 1°C above or below the
storage to minimize moisture loss which also desired temperature in storage room must
be avoided. Waxing reduces moisture loss
represents a direct loss of saleable amount... and thus slows down shriveling and
maintains crispiness in some products
such as cucumbers, mature green
efrigeration of perishable food soggy breakdown and failure to ripen. The

products is an important and
fascinating application area of heat
and thermodynamics.
severeness of chilling injury depends upon
both the temperature and length of storage
at that temperature. Moisture loss from
tomatoes, peppers and turnips. But a wax
coating that is too thick may actually
increase decay especially when no
fungicide is used. Sprouting of onions,
Refrigeration slows down the chemical fresh produce causes it to shrivel or
potatoes and carrots becomes a problem
and biological processes in food and wrinkle and lose quality. Therefore, proper
in a storage that are not adequately
accompanying deterioration and loss of measures must be taken during cold
refrigerated. The problem can be controlled
quality. The optimum storage temperature storage to minimize moisture loss which
by using sprout inhibitors. Heat treatment
of most fruits and vegetables is about 1°C also represent a direct loss of salable
or radiations can be used to control decay
to 4°C. But this is not the case with some amount. Moisture loss can be minimized
and kill insects and micro-organism on or
fruits and vegetables like bananas, by (a) keeping the storage temperature as
near the fruit surfaces.
cucumbers (summer season produce) low as possible. (b) Keeping relative
that experience undesirable physiological humidity of storage room as high as
changes when exposed to low temperature possible and (c) avoiding high air
usually between 0 - 10°C. The resulting velocities. However, air must be circulated
tissue damage is called the chilling injury
and is characterized by internal
discoloration, soft scald, skin blemishes,

40 | Cooling India | January 2017

cold storage

in percentage less than 100%. So, cold

stores are not very energy efficient and
with increasing cost of electricity, their
margins are shrinking. Under prevailing
business model of cold stores, the farmers
are not willing to pay more tariffs and the
large number of cold store owners feels
that there is no incentive to modernize.
Currently, the store owners do not take any
responsibility of the weight loss and quality
deterioration during storage and generally
Fresh and shrivelled Kinnow fruit service levels are poor.
Ever since potato processing industry
has realized the importance of quality of
potatoes (high dry matter, low sugar, firm
and free from other defects) there is
increase in cold stores with better storage
conditions, the processers particularly large
companies like Pepsi, McCain and ITC are
insisting on the following storage conditions-
• Use of sprout suppressant – CIPC
which also enables storage of potato
between 10°C-12°C
• High humidity- more than 95% to avoid
Chilling injury in Guava & Tomato shrinkage and maintaining firmness of
the potato which helps in peeling while
• Maintaining CO2 level- less than 3000
ppm which avoids black hearts and
stress to potato.
Considering theses requirements of
major companies, substantial improvement
needs to be made in the existing stores. The
retrofitting budget for a typical chamber of a
traditional cold store for 2000-2500 tonnes
is quite high. However, the modernization
definitely improves the quantity and quality
of stored potatoes. But before arriving at
Properly waxed and over waxed Kinnow
this decision, the cost benefit ratio, the use
Refrigerated spaces are maintained about the physiological characteristics of of energy and its potential leakage points be
below the temperature of their surroundings perishables but we can certainly alter the investigated thoroughly. Reducing energy
thus there is always a driving force for heat environmental conditions to more desirable use makes perfect business sense. It saves
flow towards refrigerated space from levels through heating, cooling, ventilation, money, enhances the reputation of your
surroundings. As a result of this heat flow, humidification, dehumidification and business and promotes the fight against
temperature of the refrigerated space will control of oxygen levels. climate change. Energy saving doesn’t need
rise to the surroundings unless heat gained Cold storage projects, while performing to be expensive. Upto 20% can be cut in
is promptly removed. Fresh fruits and the important task of preservation of foods, many refrigeration plants through actions
vegetables are live products and they consume a lot of energy for their operation. that require little or no investment. In
continue giving off heat that adds to Energy efficiency is, therefore, very addition, improving the efficiency and
refrigeration load of cold storage room. The important for cold stores. Normally, energy reducing the load on a refrigeration plant
storage life of fresh perishables like fruits efficiency of any product or system is can improve its reliability and reduce the
and vegetables can be extended by several defined as ratio of (Work out put) / (Energy likelihood of a breakdown.
weeks by cooling. We cannot do much input). The ratio is always less than one or Any energy efficiency initiative dealing

Cooling India | January 2017| 41

cold storage

Compressors & Condenser

The compressor is the heart of the
refrigeration system. These are always the
single most intensive energy consumer in
the system. The compressor raises the
pressure of the refrigerant from the
evaporator to a level that will allow the heat
to be rejected to ambient air at the
condenser. The difference between the
refrigerant temperature in the evaporator
(evaporating temperature) and the
condenser (condensing temperature) often
determines how hard the compressor has
to work. The larger the difference, the more
with refrigeration should start by reviewing 2. Evaporator Fans Consumption is
work will be required by the compressor
the heat gains on your system. If you 5~15%
and the more energy it will consume.
understand the nature of these gains, you’ll Typical savings with low voltage drives
In almost all cases, the single most
be able to manage the amount of cooling – 20-50%
effective energy-saving action you can
that needs to be done and make energy 3. Condenser is 3~5%
take is to reduce the temperature
savings. Heat gains include warm air Typical Savings with low voltage drives
difference. For every degree that this
entering cold room and heat produced by – 15-20%
difference is reduced, you will save around
electrical equipment within the cooled 4. Brine Pump is 2 ~3%
3% of the compressor energy. The
space. The single largest load on cold Typical Savings with low voltage drives
main method of reducing temperature
rooms is usually caused by warm air – 20-40%
difference is to lower the temperature at
getting through open doors. This typically
accounts for 30% of the total heat gain by a
cold room. Gaps between insulated panels
or at points where pipes penetrate the walls
can also allow a small but constant stream
of warm moist air into the store.

Good operation practices for

lowering energy costs
• Introduce good door management and
5 ~ 10% Energy
keep the door of your cold store closed
whenever possible. This will keep
warm air and moisture out, and energy
costs down.
• Make sure airflow from the evaporators
is not obstructed.
• Run your cold store at the highest
possible temperature for the product. 10~15% Energy
• Ensure the product loaded into your Efficiency
cold room has not warmed up by being
left in an ambient temperature area.
• Switch off the lighting in your cold Fin tube condenser Micro channel heat exchanger
room when it is not in use

Energy Consumption Profile of

System Components
1. Compressor Consumption Is Highest :
60% ~90%
Typical savings with low voltage drives
– 10-20%

42 | Cooling India | January 2017

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• Refrigerant leak testing and repair as

• Condenser cleaning, especially air
cooled types (the frequency of cleaning
will depend on the condenser location
and its surrounding environment).
• Condenser fan and pump condition
and condition of safety equipment
Capillary tube Thermostatic Expansion Electronic Expansion valves
such as fan guard.
• Evaporator cleaning.
which heat is discharged in the condenser properly, the cooling will be inadequate – • Operation of the defrost system.
(condensing temperature). Traditionally, and your energy costs will rise. Like any Condition of fans and safety equipment
condenser control (head pressure control) heat exchanger, evaporators must be the should be covered as per the condenser
systems were programmed to run all year right size for the job. If an evaporator is too • Compressor oil levels and on systems
round at a condensing temperature small, the compressor will have to work which have suitable gauges fitted,
designed for summer conditions. Changing harder and longer. It will also have to suction and discharge temperatures
the control to allow the temperature to defrost more often, increasing your energy and pressures. Accuracy of gauges,
reduce in cooler weather offers a great costs. Evaporators in most applications guards, operation of all safety controls.
potential saving. need to be defrosted periodically. While • Checking of control parameters to the
this is usually done with timers, intelligent optimum set point.Suction superheat
Compressor Condensor controls can detect when a defrost is to ensure that the expansion valves
Technology upgrade required and will ‘defrost on demand. operate properly.
Variable speed control of a compressor Many cold rooms are set too low – set • Checks for undue noise and vibration.
offers the ability to match the cooling the temperature only as low as needed. • Condition of insulation.
capacity to the actual need based on Turning the thermostat up by just 1°C will • Condition of door seals on cold stores
measurements in the refrigeration system. reduce energy use by up to 2%. The Cost savings of up to 50% are possible
Costs are reduced both through energy evaporator controller is usually the room by making sure that your refrigeration plant
savings when running at lower speed, but thermostat – make sure this is set as high is well operated and maintained. Also,
also through lower installation costs as possible without compromising food or improved reliability will reduce the chance
caused by optimization of the refrigeration process quality Keep an eye on your of unplanned stoppages or business
system and the compressor itself. Variable evaporators – if you see a permanent interruption. Appointing a good maintenance
speed controlled also reduce the need for build-up of ice on the coil, something is contractor is key to achieving these savings.
compressor packs because the individual wrong. Evaporators should be cleaned Also, it is possible to reduce running costs
compressor is adjusted to the actual need. when they get dirty. They lose performance by up to 15% by re-commissioning
The lifetime of the compressor is increased as dirt builds up. Fans lose performance in equipment, especially multi-compressor
due to few starts and stops which cause the same way. Get your technician to systems, so this should be included in your
mechanical wear and tear include a thorough deep-clean of the maintenance contract. 
evaporator coils when necessary.
Evaporator Dr Mahesh Kumar
An evaporator is so called because the Maintenance Professor,
Dept. of Processing & Food
liquid refrigerant inside evaporates at low Appropriate regular plant maintenance Engineering,
pressure. This is what creates the cooling will save money by ensuring the Punjab Agricultural University,
effect. It is mounted on the wall or ceiling Ludhiana
refrigeration plant
of a cold room (figure operates efficiently, reducing service
5.0). If the evaporator costs and making interruptions to your
is blocked or is not business by breakdowns less likely. Dr B V C Mahajan
controlled Director
The maintenance schedule will be
Punjab Agricultural University
determined by the size and complexity of Ludhiana
the refrigeration plant. As a minimum the
schedule should cover the following
Dr Swati Kapoor
points: Assistant Food Technologist
• Refrigerant levels in the Punjab Agricultural
receiver and the liquid line sight University
glass. Ludhiana

44 | Cooling India | January 2017

innovative design

Cooled Headgear for

Qatar Workers
period across SC projects.
Cooled helmets developed in Qatar set to keep SC “We were approached by the SC and
Aspire with a challenge, and our objective
workers cool in summer months… was to reduce heat stress and heat strokes
among workers in Qatar and the region
n innovative cooled helmet has University. during the summer months. This type of

A been designed and developed by

leading researchers in Qatar. The
helmet has the potential to significantly
The solar-powered helmet has been
rigorously tested, patented worldwide and
put through the production stage by a
body-based cooling technology has been
used before in US sports for training
purposes in hot states. Now, we have now
reduce the skin temperature of construction group of Doha-based scientists in developed this innovative solution for the
workers by up to 10 degrees centigrade. cooperation with the Supreme Committee construction sector and we believe it has
This will allow for safer and more for Delivery & Legacy (SC) and Aspire the potential to revolutionise the
comfortable working conditions in the Zone Foundation (Aspire). More units have construction industry in hotter areas of the
summer months, according to researchers now been ordered with the objective to world,” said Dr Saud Abdul-Aziz Abdul-
working on the new system at Qatar incorporate them for the coming summer Ghani, Professor at the College of

46 | Cooling India | January 2017

innovative design

Mexico and the USA and the countries

having hot climates where this technology
can help to reduce heatstroke and regulate
body temperatures for construction
workers significantly. Once we have
finished development we can roll this out
to the region and to other hot areas as part
of legacy of this tournament,” added Dr.
Saud. “This is an important initiative and
we are proud to be involved in the
development of this technology,” said
Abdulaziz Al-Mahmoud, Deputy President
for Sports Projects at Aspire Zone
Foundation. “Our participation in this
project is a demonstration of our AZF’s
vision to become the reference for sports
excellence world-wide by 2020, and in line
with our work values of innovation.”
Engineering at Qatar University. The Chairman – Technical Delivery Office. “We have worked closely with our
researcher has been working on the “While this technology is developed partners from the Supreme Committee
project since two years alongside a group and designed in Qatar and will be first used and Qatar University to enable a live
of students from Qatar, Jordan, Greece on our sites, we believe it can have a environment that allows us to apply this
and Egypt, and is cooperating closely with legacy which extends to many other parts technology across different projects. This
the SC and Aspire on the project in order of the world which have hot summer technology will provide more comfortable
to implement it on construction sites for climates. This development also confirms and safe working conditions for workers.
the 2022 FIFA World Cup Qatar. While o u r
explaining functioning of the technology in commitment
helmet in high temperatures in a working to utilising the
environment, he elaborated, “Our concept impetus of the
is to use a solar-powered fan to blow air World Cup.”
over a cooled material at the top of the Advanced
helmet, which will then come down over testing has
the front of the person’s face and provide already taken
a cooler micro-climate for the worker.” place on the
“We are confident that this technology will cooled helmet
create more comfortable and safer working and the
conditions, and there is just a minimal developers
increase in weight to the helmet. By have pointed
reducing the temperature of the head and to a number of
face, the rest of the body will naturally regions where
follow and ensure that workers have a the technology
constant flow of cooler air to refresh them could also be
throughout a day.” An additional weight of applied once it
just 300 grams and a small solar panel goes into
attached to the helmet ensures that the m a s s
new product is both safe and effective. production.
“As we continue to place workers’ “This type
welfare as a top priority across all our of innovative
construction sites, we are working hard to c o o l i n g
find and develop the most innovative and technology will
advanced solutions in our preparations for be ideal for the
the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar,” said Middle East,
Engineer Hilal Jeham Al Kuwari, SC Asia, Australia,

Cooling India | January 2017| 47

innovative design

undertaken by Qatar University including

testing the system in climatic chambers,
analyzing the amount of sweat per hour and
adding the effect of sun, air, wind and
measurement of the amount of heat that
passed through the head. Further,
considerations in the development process
were the weight and price of the cooled
helmet with as little weight and cost as
possible being added in order to keep the
innovative technology accessible. “The
material we use inside the helmet is Phase
Changing Material (PCM) contained in a
pouch, and this increases the total load of
the helmet only by 300 grams. This provides
cooling in hot conditions for up to four hours
straight. People when working in the sun will
get cool air coming down in the front of their
faces. When they go for a break, they keep
it into a refrigerator and pick up a cold pack
and put it into their helmets,” concluded Dr
Saud. “We did research on the best areas to
lower body temperature, and it was the head
and face. The additional cost is just twenty
dollars in comparison to a normal passive
helmet, but the results are felt immediately in
The partnership with SC comes as part of legacy in all fields including the field of terms of less lost time on site due to heat-
a series of joint initiatives in order to technology,” Al-Mahmoud added. related complaints.”
provide all the support for an historic During the testing and development (Source: Supreme Committee for
World Cup that leaves behind an inspiring phases, a number of detailed studies were Delivery & Legacy) 

48 | Cooling India | January 2017

“We lack effective
cold chain”
Gubba Cold Storage is an 11.8 million cubic feet company known for its passion for
preservation. With 29 years of expertise and experience, Gubba has innovated and
engineered the first of its kind rack supported cold storage in India. It is handled
by state-of-the-art material handling equipment, preserves seed in 1.2 ton jumbo
bags. In an exclusive interview with Cooling India, Gubba Nagender Rao, Managing
Director of Gubba Cold Storage Limited says the government can charge electrical
tariff as equivalent to that of agriculture…

How do you envisage the growth of Cold Storage for preserving products? Gubba Cold Infrastructure is an outcome
Indian cold storage industry? Gubba Cold Storage preserves perishables of 30 years of expertise in cold storage
It is good news for the industry. The in a controlled environment maintaining construction and operations. We provide
government’s this initiative will help to temperatures from -20 degrees centigrade cold storage consulting services and
cover four corners of the country for to +25 degrees centigrade and moisture turnkey projects in the field of cold
serving the farming community. Really from 10% to 50%. The perishables include storages.
speaking, it’s an encouragement to the seeds, vegetables, flowers, fruits, What are the precautions taken by
industry. pharmaceuticals, frozen food, processed the company for storage of pharma
What are the bottlenecks in the food, meat, dairy etc. products, seeds, horticulture
Indian cold chain infrastructure as Gubba Germplasm Bank is a unique products etc? Do you have any
compared to the global cold chain project which preserves valuable genetic expansion plans?
industry? material of seeds to be made available for We are planning for a cold storage
We lack effective cold chain. As a result, future generations. The germplasm of the exclusively for pharma industry. This will
products cannot be preserved in desired seed is stored at -20 degrees centigrade be certified for the usage of the pharma
condition till reaching to the right consumer. and can be preserved up to 50 years. industry.
Even after development in the industry, it What technological innovations have
has become a dire necessity to add a lot of been incorporated to make the What steps do you expect from the
cold storages and cold chain vehicles. services energy and cost efficient? government in terms of policy or
What kind of role National Centre for We have used waste heat of condenser for financial aid for the industry in order
Cold Chain Development, National regeneration of dessicant in dehumidifier, to bring it back on growth trajectory?
Horticulture Board has been playing thus, saving at least 20 KWH per cold Power plays a major role in the cold
for the industry for helping storage. Gubba Cold Storage will be first storage industry and cold storage has
entrepreneurs in investing in the cold cold storage having data loggers which been declared as a priority sector.
chain industry? are 21CFR certified. We have automated Considering this, the government can
Though NHB is supporting by giving three cold storages. charge electrical tariff as equivalent to that
subsidies, the challenge lies in releasing Do you offer tailored Engineered of agriculture. It will really make a huge
funds in need of the hour. Project Consulting for the industry? difference. It will help the industry to grow
What are services offered by Gubba If ‘yes’, please elaborate. in a big way. 

50 | Cooling India | January 2017



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cold storage

Hermetically Sealed
Refrigeration Systems
-40 degrees C, R134a (HFC) starts to go
Hermetic basically means fully sealed or air tight. into vacuum at below -25.6 degrees C. R
Conventionally, the compressor, receiver, filter 410a (Blended HFC) starts to go into
vacuum at below -55 degrees C .
drier and valves used to be fitted to the pipelines This implies that the minimum
through flanged nut and bolt connections or temperatures which can be reached by
these refrigerants R22, R134a and R410a
threaded connections. With these units, there was are -40, -25.6 and -55 degrees C
always a limitation on the low pressure that the unit What happens if these refrigerants
could work on… attain temperatures below these threshold
limits? The pressure will go into vacuum
ne of the limiting characteristics of Figure 1, we can notice that various i.e., there is negative pressure created in

O a refrigerant is its ability to be able

to achieve the least temperature
and maintain the same without going into
refrigerants cease to be at positive
pressure and go into vacuum conditions at
various temperatures. For example: R22
the system. What harm is there if there is
negative pressure in the system? There is
always a possibility of air ingress due to
collapse failure of the gaskets at joints.
negative pressure. From the PT chart (HCFC) starts to go into vacuum at below
Along with air there will be ingress of
moisture. And as everybody would admit,
air and moisture are the two biggest
enemies of refrigeration. We have to keep
air and moisture out of the system at any
cost. We must prevent occurrence of
negative pressure in the system.
How do we do it? By stopping the
compressor by cutting off through the
operation of low pressure switch. In fact,
that is the primary purpose of L P cutout
- to switch off the compressor motor
electrically at a specified low pressure,
when the load is minimal. That means it
helps us to maintain a minimum positive
pressure in the system, especially on the
compressor suction side.
Some of the system manufacturers are
promising minimum temperatures lower
than the above mentioned threshold limits
of temperatures using various refrigerants.
Carrier is able to promise temperature
of upto -29 degrees C using R134a as
refrigerant for its latest Thinline Container
Units, even though the lowest temperature

54 | Cooling India | January 2017

cold storage

Hermetically Sealed Expansion

Valves do not permit access to the internal
parts of the Expansion Valve. They have
brazed connection for the inlet, outlet and
the external equalizing pipes. No
adjustment of the internal setting of the
expansion valve is possible or permitted.
These are more commonly used in
refrigerated containers and reefer cargo
ships. If found defective, they need only to
be replaced by de-brazing the three
connections and re-brazing them.

Hermetically Sealed
Refrigeration Units
The EU F Gas Regulations provides a
precise definition of the term ‘hermetically
sealed’ as quoted below.
“Hermetically sealed system means a
system in which all refrigerant containing
parts are made tight by welding, brazing or
a similar permanent connection which
may include capped valves and capped
service ports that allow proper repair or
disposal and which have a tested leakage
rate of less than three grams per year
under a pressure of atleast a quarter of the
maximum allowable pressure;"
In other words, Hermetically Sealed
Refrigeration Units do not have any joints

Figure 1: Refrigerant PT Chart

possible with R 134a working under especially, during maintenance work.

positive pressure is -25.56 degrees C. There was a limitation of the minimum
How are they able to do it? - By using temperature which could be reached using
HERMETICALLY SEALED UNITS! a particular refrigerant.
Till recently, we only heard about Hermetically Sealed Compressors do
Hermetic Expansion valves and Hermetic not have any access to maintenance of
Compressors. internal parts. Repair is not possible, only
Hermetic basically means fully sealed replacement is possible. They have one
or air tight. Conventionally, the compressor, suction pipe connection going into the
receiver, filter drier and valves used to be compressor and one discharge pipe
fitted to the pipelines through flanged nut connection coming out from the
and bolt connections or threaded compressor. There is one electrical
connections. With these units, there was terminal box. Even the suction and
always a limitation on the low pressure discharge pipes themselves have brazed
that the unit could work on. One had to be connections. So, there is no chance of any
doubly cautious not to allow the air ingress into the compressor through Figure 2: Performance Specs of Carrier
compressor to run in vacuum conditions, the inlet or outlet connections. ThinLINE Container Units

Cooling India | January 2017| 55

cold storage

Figure 3: Hermetically Figure 4: Hermetically Sealed Expansion Valves

Sealed Compressors
Figure 5: Hermetically Sealed Refrigeration System

or flanges. The entire pipeline system is in single piece and all the pressure, hence lower temperatures can be achieved.
individual component and pipes have only brazed connections. The new generations of container refrigeration units are
So, there is no chance of any ingress through the connections. hermetic or completely sealed. 
The compressor can run in vacuum, but still there is no chance of
air ingress.

Advantages Chilukuri Maheshwar

1. No chance of air ingress under any circumstances. Faculty Member,
Anglo Eastern Maritime Academy,
2. More reliable operation.
Karjat, Mumbai
3. Units are designed to run under low and vacuum suction

Addressing Water, Energy Challenges

ohnson Controls has developed a A constant supply of water is needed all weather and thermal load conditions

J unique, innovative and industry-

leading solution – the BlueStream™
Hybrid Cooling System – to help
to replace the water evaporated from the
cooling tower, but in many regions,
continuing droughts
for optimum efficiency, utilizing wet
cooling when it’s hot and dry cooling
when it’s not.
customers address water and energy and increasing “Johnson Controls
challenges in facilities through more competition for this is concerned about
efficient cooling tower operations. essential resource the world’s water
BlueStream features a groundbreaking limit water availability. resources and how
technology – thermosyphon hybrid Additionally, some energy and water –
cooling – to reduce water consumption water is continuously the energy-water
in traditional cooling tower systems by bled from the system nexus – are closely
25 to 80 percent compared to all- to reduce the buildup linked,” said Clay
evaporative heat rejection systems. It of undissolved solids Nesler, Vice
also maintains peak process output and as water is President, Global
energy efficiency on the hottest summer evaporated. This generates a large Energy and Sustainability, Johnson
days. Like fanning away sweat on a hot wastewater stream, often containing many Controls. “Water costs are becoming an
day, open cooling towers reduce the additional water treatment chemicals. increasingly larger component of a heat
temperature of water heated in chillers, The BlueStream system offers dry rejection system’s total operating cost.
industrial processes, data centers and cooling through a thermosyphon process Drought and water availability can pose a
other high-heat practices. Through a wet in which refrigerant circulates naturally, risk for plant and process operations.
process, the warm water is sprayed over with no need for a pump or compressor. BlueStream offers a cost-effective way
the fill in a cooling tower to increase the Intelligent, web-connected controls to reduce water use while simultaneously
contact area, and the heat is removed coordinate the operation of both the wet reducing operating costs in heat rejection
through evaporation. and dry system components and adjust in systems.” 

56 | Cooling India | January 2017

“Indian Government is
helping to create demand for
green buildings”
The US Green Building
Buildin Council (USGBC) is committed to transforming
the way buildings aare designed, constructed and operated through
LEED — the top tthird-party verification system for sustainable
structures around
aro the world. Mahesh Ramanujam, President
and Chief Executive
Ex Officer, USGBC talks about potential of
green buildin
buildings concept, services offered by USGBC in India,
challenges, o
opportunities generated due to the Government’s
smart cities in
initiatives and much more in an exclusive interview

with Supriya OOundhakar…

With empha
emphasis on zero for the built environment through the
carbon footprint,
foot how do globally recognized Leadership in Energy
you eenvisage the and Environmental Design (LEED)
program. A global, regional and local
gro of green
green building rating system, LEED is a
buildings market transformation tool that helps us
concept in build green, healthy and sustainable
India? buildings and communities.
I believe that LEED is a key solution to India’s current
India is environmental challenges and a tool that
positioning itself improves human health. India has shown
tto become a tremendous leadership in the green
global leader in building movement and is now the third
sustainability. largest market for LEED outside the US.
TThe concept of There are a number of companies in India
sustainability is that are looking to LEED as a way to
not new to India dramatically reduce their water and energy
– it’s a mission use, reduce the carbon footprint of their
grounded in the business practices and impact their triple-
core beliefs of bottom line.
I n d i a n s While LEED is an important transformative
everywhere. tool that has been widely adopted in India,
At USGBC, we
A there is still work to be done in order to
work towards
w ensure a sustainable future for all and
m a r k e t continue to scale up the number of green
ttransformation buildings. India must adopt smart city and

58 | Cooling
ng India
a | JJa
nuary 2017
smar t grid policies, implement government’s launch of ‘100 To increase energy efficiency during the
technologies that improve the performance smart cities’ project? Please construction of buildings, you must first
of our cities, continue the transition from elaborate. address the envelope of a building and
the concept of green buildings to green USGBC has a strong vision of a sustainable minimize unwanted heat gain or loss,
cities, and incorporate wellness and built environment within a generation and using the regionally appropriate amount of
sustainable sites into city planning and we are transforming the communities insulation for your building. Other strategies
development. where we live, work, learn and play. The that can be used are incorporating natural
USGBC has LEED services hub in vision is simple—that buildings and daylighting, installing high-efficiency
India. What kind of services infrastructure such as efficient
is it offering to Indian green mechanical and lighting systems
and utilizing renewable energy.
building market?
While LEED is an important transformative tool that Post-construction, it is important
This year, we announced the
that you monitor and verify the
incorporation of Green Business has been widely adopted in India, there is still work to
performance of a building to ensure
Certification Inc. (GBCI), the be done in order to ensure a sustainable future for all
that the building systems are
premiere organization and continue to scale up the number of green buildings.
functioning as designed and
independently recognizing
support your project requirements.
excellence in green business
industry performance and practice communities will regenerate and sustain What are the services offered by
globally, in India. The new GBCI office, the health and vitality of all life. USGBC USGBC suiting to Indian
located in Gurgaon, will serve to facilitate believes that vision is only possible geographical conditions and
the global growth of GBCI and its through the development of smart cities at standards? What is the research
sustainability programs. We will be able to a global scale, and the Indian government’s involved to understand India
continue our efforts to green the built Smart Cities initiative is helping to facilitate requirements?
environment in India and across the globe, much needed progress. LEED is the only globally consistent green

with new added support and on-the- In support of our vision, we also recently building rating tool. This consistency
ground capabilities. GBCI exclusively released two new pilot certification provides a platform to share the best
administers project certifications and programs – LEED for Cities and LEED for practice in building around the world.
professional credentials and certificates of Communities – that asks a community or However, because environmental and
LEED, WELL, PEER, Parksmart, SITES, city to set goals, and implement strategies climate conditions, codes, standards and
GRESB and other sustainability programs. and plans to maintain and support the laws vary in different places, USGBC has
What are the challenges faced by goals. The city or community then shares developed Alternative Compliance Paths
you in Indian markets? How do performance data to measure and track (ACPs) to recognize those differences
progress. LEED for Cities and LEED for while achieving the same credit intent
you overcome the same?
Communities will support continuous and requirements.
We have been in India for a long time –
progress towards better communities and ACPs increase the applicability of LEED for
more than 14 years. Even with that level of
cities, and a higher quality of life. They are projects in India and around the world by
commitment, there are still challenges that
very much in line with the Smart Cities providing additional pathways to
we face. The biggest challenge has been
objectives. demonstrate compliance with the LEED
distance. As the green building industry
has grown, the competition has intensified. What are sustainable design credits that are traditionally more
It can be hard for anyone to compete considerations adopted during the challenging for projects outside of the
locally from half a world away. To overcome construction of green buildings? US. By focusing on global and regional
that challenge, we incorporated GBCI in How would you achieve the goal standards and solutions, these ACPs make
India. In doing so, we addressed concerns of energy efficiency during the LEED increasingly flexible and ensure a
not only about distance, but also about construction of buildings? common language for all green buildings.
local market commitment, rating-system We live in a resource-constrained world Green buildings concept costs
relevance, customer service and even and in no area is this more evident than more than conventional buildings.
currency exchange rate. Our being here with regard to our energy system. Energy So, developers usually do not
demonstrates our commitment to India in is a critical economic issue and a top adopt the latest green
every respect. We are here to contribute priority for the government in India, and
technologies? What is the way
and we are committed to India’s future. buildings are at the front line of this issue through which this technology can
What are the opportunities because they account for roughly 40
be incentivized?
generated for you with Indian percent of the total energy used today.
The economics of building green have

Cooling India | January 2017 | 59

changed dramatically and in ways that are
very favorable to green builders. Unlike 10
or even five years ago, green building is
happening on such a scale that, when
properly planned, the up front costs are
more often lower than they are for
conventional projects. And this is due to
the fact that over the last two decades,
LEED certification has become a symbol
of leadership, signifying that a project is
saving energy, resources and water.
Leaders in India and across the globe also
understand that LEED is a powerful market
tool that works. These leaders recognize
that LEED enhances a company’s triple-
bottom line, helps organizations manage
their business operations and creates a
more sustainable, energy-efficient built
environment. What we are hearing from
reduce environmental impacts and helping to create demand for green
many of our clients is that over the life of
encourage energy efficiency. buildings and we predict this growth will
a building, costs are recouped as quickly
two to three years. What are your expectations from continue. Green building in India are
the Indian Government for projected to grow by 20 percent over the
Any building project or developer can
supporting the green building next three years.
access the latest and most innovative
LEED has been a part of the Indian green
technologies. I think that people working concept?

building movement since its earliest days.

on green projects pay more attention to India is a booming market for green
The first green building in India was a
details related to building performance and building, and that’s largely because of
LEED certified building. So, I would say
environmental impact. If people do their programs put in place by the Indian
our expectations for growth are very high,
homework and plan properly, they can Government. Prime Minister Modi launched
but we do not take our relationship with
incorporate products and strategies using the Smart Cities Intiative himself, which
India lightly nor do we take it for granted.
the latest technologies that produce was a remarkable demonstration of
We are strongly committed to India. 
significant cost savings, dramatically support. The Indian Government is really

New Energy Efficiency Standard by ASHRAE

SHRAE and the Illuminating overall goal of each version to create a requiring large electric driven chilled

A Engineering Society of North

America (IES) have announced
their newly published 2016 energy
consensus standard that saves energy and
is technically feasible and cost effective,”
said Drake Erbe, chair of the Standard
water plants to be monitored for electric
energy use and efficiency.
DOAS requirements — Dedicated
efficiency standard, which contains 90.1 committee. “The 2016 version has a outdoor air systems were introduced
numerous energy savings measures new format that we believe will be easier over 25 years ago but there were no
resulting from industry input. ANSI/ for users, a new way of incorporation of rating or efficiency requirements with
ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1- reference material from other standards
which to comply. For the first time, this
2016, Energy Efficiency Standard for starting with climate data, and a
product class does have both efficiency
Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential performance path for compliance that
and rating requirements with which they
Buildings, contains 125 addenda rewards designs for achieving energy cost
have to comply.
published since the 2013 standard which levels above the standard minimum.”
currently serves as the commercial The mandatory provisions include the Economizer diagnostics — The
building reference standard for state addition of envelope verification in support standard is implementing requirements
building energy codes. of reduced air infiltration and increased that air cooled DX cooling units with
This 2016 version is the 10th edition requirements for air leakage to overhead economizers have a monitoring system
published since the original standard coiling doors. Chilled water plant metering to determine that the air economizer is
was first published in 1975. “It is the — For the first time, the standard is properly working. 

60 | Cooling India | January 2017

sales & service

Once we established with the customer that we are willing and

able to help them and earn their trust through the words, tone
and friendliness of our greeting, then we can begin to listen to
them to determine why they called. To truly listen, you must
perform “active” listening when interacting with the customer…

Exceeding Customer Expectations

hy do customers call us? What know what we are doing. Understand their having the attitude of helpfulness and a

W do they want? Customers call

us for one reason, they want our
help! They need service, they are
needs and give them our uncompromised
commitment to be available for them, no
matter what. Keep in mind, they keep us in
true desire to make a difference in the
customer’s life. They called us… not one
of our competitors. They have chosen to
uncomfortable, they feel unsafe, they have business, pay the bills and have the power, give us the opportunity to earn their
a question, they need a part (filter, water just as a board of directors does to elect to business and we had better be up to the
panel, etc.), they need HELP! Are we use our services, to re-order from us or to challenge.
helping our customers or are we making it tell a friend about our services. First: our greeting. What does it say to
hard for them to get the assistance they So, how do we exceed customers’ the customer? Are we saying “how may I
need to make their family safe and expectations? Be friendly and helpful. help you?” A receptionist asks this in order
comfortable at home? When we perform our job with empathy to know who to transfer the call to. Try this:
Your customer wants to know that they and show them how much we truly care, “It’s a great day at XYZ Heating and Air
are getting a fair price and priority service. the customer will help us help them. Conditioning, my name is Mike, I can help
They want to know we will let them know you.” Now you are telling the customer
all the things they need to know when they Booking Calls that you can take care of their every need
need to know them. They want happy, When a customer calls, you must and will only transfer the call when you
eager, willing individuals who are ready to determine their needs quickly and be have exhausted every avenue for you
meet their needs. They expect us to be prepared to book the call properly in your personally to take care of their needs.
consistent, to be there when they need us, computer system while they are on the Once we established with the customer
to always use quality products and line. To determine the customer’s needs, that we are willing and able to help them
perform quality service with a professional you need to begin by “being” who the and earn their trust through the words,
image. Deliver when we promised and customer needs you to be. Meaning, tone and friendliness of our greeting, then

62 | Cooling India | January 2017

sales & service

we can begin to listen to them to determine why they called. To

truly listen, you must perform “active” listening when interacting
with the customer. Active listening means to be quiet and focus
totally on the caller. When listening, you will not interrupt the
customer, assume they know what is wrong, or make judgements
about the customer or their situation. When we act with empathy
and truly listen, we then will have all we need to properly book a
call that reflects the need of the customer.

Generating Leads
Customer Service Representatives generating leads? “That’s
not my job!” Oh, yes it is! When you ask the right questions and
determine that the customer has a 20 year old air conditioner and
a furnace that is at least that old, it is your job to help the customer
understand that keeping that old dinosaur will cost them more than
they should be paying in energy and repairs. When armed with the

right information, you will be able to help customers in many ways
by educating them about their comfort system. Like you, your
customer makes decisions to take care of their family based on
what they know. Sometimes, they have a solution in mind, like get
the furnace fixed, until they are educated about the benefits to a
different solution, possibly replacement. It is up to you and your 
center team to get you, the CSR, the information you need on old
equipment and energy costs and role-play using the proper words 

to be able to convey this valuable information to the customer. 


Generating Maintenance Agreements 

When we receive a call from a non-agreement customer, we
need to educate them about the benefits of the agreement. The
hardest part is to bring up the subject in what that the customer
says, “yes. I want to hear more.” Well, you’ve been waiting for a
“Silver Bullet.” Here it is: simple ask, “Do you pay full price or
do you qualify for a discount?” Think about it. Is your customer
more interested in getting their furnace tuned up or saving
money? We are a nation obsessed with discounts. We will drive
across town to save a buck-fifty on a simple household item
spending $5.00 on gas in the process. Your customers want
discounts. Try referring to your maintenance agreement as your
“Discount Program.” You’ll be pleasantly surprised at the results.
You want to really generate maintenance agreements? Have
your technicians ask the same question when presenting the price
of the repair. It works, guaranteed.
A customer service representative’s job description should
read: To be of service to customers. Your entire focus must be the
customer and their needs. Decisions on how to take care of the
customer must, of course, include long-term profitability for the
company as determining factors in the process but when “the
customer comes first” is our motto, the customer will know that
we care. 


Mike Treas
HVAC Business Coach specialising in residential #
$ %& " '() '*
replacement sales, sales management, customer * +$
- ++
-  * /
service and maintenance agreements,
United States and Canada

Cooling India | January 2017| 63

eco-cooling technique

Grameen Fridge temperature up to 10-11 degree celsius

Grameen Fridge provides an easy option for storing and even during hot summer. It works on
preserving the harvest for a period of 7-8 days without any evaporative cooling principle. The working
loss in quality. It is more beneficial during summer season of grameen fridge is described as below:
The grameen fridge consists of two
to store perishable agriculture produce and maintain shelf
brick wall. A layer of sand, bricks and
life up to seven days… pebbles is kept in between these brick
walls. Water is used as refrigerant. The
ood preservation is an important require electricity to run. Most of the under sand acts as a medium to retain water

F issue in the desert zone of Rajasthan.

Most of the fruits and vegetables are
rotten within three days. In present
developed countries and rural areas does
not have sufficient and in some cases
even minimal access to electricity. But
required for evaporative cooling. Two
ducts of around 4" each are kept at bottom
for aeration. A window of 2'x2' is kept at
situation, it has been realized that in the preservation of food being an integral part the top for loading and unloading of
absence of proper storage facility for of human life sustenance, exploring agriculture produce inside the fridge. The
perishable products, farmers are either alternatives to commercial refrigerators poured water will fill voids present in the
selling their vegetable product to local has become necessary. Keeping these sand. The outer brick wall being porous
market on daily basis at local rates or circumstances in view, a low cost model allows water to permeate through it by
transport their harvest to nearby district (Grameen Fridge) of short term storage hydraulic conductivity. Water absorbs heat
vegetable market on every alternate day system has been designed which provides from inner chamber and inner wall itself.
where they face considerable stress on an easy option for storing and preserving Due to this process of continuous
desired price. In case of excess availability the harvest for a period of 7-8 days absorption of heat from the water inside
of a particular product in the vegetable without any loss in quality. It is more the chamber, in a few hours, this chamber
market, farmers have to spend two to beneficial during summer season to store becomes cool (Figure 1).
three days in these mandies to sell off their perishable agriculture produce and
products. For increasing their shelf life, it is maintain shelf life up to seven days. Feature of a Gramin Fridge
necessary to preserve them with the help Grameen Fridge does not need electricity • Indigenous technique with low cost
of refrigeration. Conventional Refrigerators to function but keeps the maximum development.
• No electricity required.
• No loss in nutritive value of produce.
• Minimize perishable losses
• Produce difference in temperature
about 15-170C from ambient.
• Ease in construction.
• Maintain relative humidity in between
• Useful for vegetable, milk, butter and

• Minimization in losses of vegetable
that ultimately increases profit.
• Saving of time which may be used in
some other productive work.
• Reduction in cost of transportation,
electricity etc
• Eco-friendly

Constructional features
Figure 1: Principle of Evaporative Cooling Refrigerator Grameen fridge is constructed with

64 | Cooling India | January 2017

eco-cooling technique

Sr. No. Name of Material Unit Quantity Rate Total (Rs.)

1 Cement 50 kg bags 2 280 per bag 560
2 Sand Cuft. 57 Rs. 21 per cubic feet 1197
3 Bricks (9” × 4.5” × 3.5”) No. 350 Rs. 5 per brick 1750
4 Kota stone 2” thickness Ft. 10.91 Rs. 50 per sq. ft. 545.5
5 Gate-Size 1.5 ftx1.5ft. No. 1.00 Rs. 200 per gate 200
6 Green Grass Sqft. 10.91 Rs. 20 per sq. ft. 218.2
Total 4470.70 Say 4500
locally available sand, bricks and cement.
Following quantity of material is required
for construction of a two quintal capacity
grameen fridge. Cross section of a two
quintal capacity grameen fridge is shown
in Figure 2. It can be constructed by a
skilled mason. A total of Rs 1,000
approximately is charged by a mason
including labour for its construction.

Field Trial
Jamna Lal Kani Ram Bajaj Trust (JKBT),
Sikar (Rajasthan) is working towards
sustainable livelihood enhancement of rural
community through various developmental
interventions with support from various
agencies, partners and government
departments involved in rural development.
Over the past three year, JKBT has Figure 3: Demonstration of Grameen Fridge to group of farmers
constructed a total of 75 grameen fridge
units in Sikar district. All units are working awareness about the fruitful technology as approximately for construction of two
satisfactorily for the last two to three years. well as to create awareness about its quintal capacity grameen fridge. A farmer
NABARD and other government agencies operation and maintenance (Fig.3). can store their farm produce in a grameen
helped for technical guidance, construction fridge for minimum 4-5 days. In between
Local Innovation these days, he may contact for the best
and its operation. JKBT organizes camps on
For continuously pouring water over offer from mandi merchants and transport
grameen fridge technology in order to create
the sand or pebbles layer, a drip system their produce once or twice in a week.
with water tank kept on the top of the There is no need to sell his produce on
structure was arranged. Due to continuous alternate day. Hence he may get a fair
and minimal supply of water ultimately price of his produce and saves his
lowers and maintains the temperature transportation charges. Payback period of
inside the cabinet. Lawn grass has also above mentioned grameed fridge is
been grown on the top of its roof to lower depends on quantity of farm produce and
down the inside temperature. A small roof their market rates. After collecting may
prepared with local grass to minimize the reviews, it is concluded that cost of a
impact direct sunrays on it. grameen fridge can be easily returned
Conclusion within 6-7 months. 
There is an investment of Rs 5,500

Er Kapil K Samar
Surendra Rajoria Research Engineer cum
Project Officer Project Manager
Jamna Lal Kani Ram Bajaj Biogas Development and
Trust, Sikar Training Center, Udaipur
Figure 2: Cross Section of Grameen Fridge

Cooling India | January 2017| 65

water quality

Enhancing Performance of
Cooling Tower
The dearth of water in power generation is a major concern. Water Quality Improvement
This has forced to design the recent power generation units Corrosion and Scale Control
The specific measures required for
with closed cycle cooling water system. Further, the quality corrosion and scale control vary from
of available water at different sites largely varies and leads system to system and are largely
to deterioration in the cooling system performance. The dependent on the following:
various causes of water quality parameters and the remedial i. Chemistry of the makeup water
ii. Metallurgy of the heat transfer devices
measures to restore the water quality for optimized cooling
in contact with the recirculating water
tower performance is described in this paper… and piping
iii. Operating temperature of the cooling
In an evaporative cooling water system scale formation reduces and blocks the water system.
during the process of cooling, water water and air flow path and thus reduces Control
evaporates leaving the dissolved solids the air water interaction inside the cooling Scale can be controlled or eliminated
originally present in the water. The tower and reduces the performance. by application of one or more proven
dissolved solid remains will increase, is Further, due to the scale formation on the techniques.
not controlled to lead to corrosion, scale, fill material increases the weight of the fill Typical measures taken to control
deposition or biological fouling. This will substantially over a period of time and scale are:
affect the heat transfer and durability of thus leading to collapsing of the fill packs i. Controlling cycles at a set level.
system components. leaving void spaces inside the cooling ii. Chemical scale inhibitor treatment.
Corrosion: Corrosion is an tower. iii. pH adjustment by acid addition.
electrochemical oxidation process. This Deposition: Deposition in any cooling iv. Softening of cooling water system
will destruct the metals of the cooling system is a cause of carryover of air borne makeup.
system equipment such as copper, etc. If suspended matter from the surroundings
Controlling cycles at a set level
this is not controlled, this will lead to of the site. This may be due to process
In normal conditions, the blow down
equipment failure, plugging of corroded such as leakage of oil from coolers and
or bleed which continues flow of a small
passages in condenser resulting in suspended matters in the makeup water.
portion of the recirculating water to drain
decreased heat transfer and energy The effect of this deposition will be similar
is sufficient enough to control the
efficiency. Corrosion products deposit on to scaling, reduces the thermal insulation
concentration of dissolved solids and in
heat transfer area acts a layer of insulator leading to poor heat transfer and less
turn to control scale and corrosion. Further
and decreases the thermal conductivity. efficiency.
installation of a high quality system for
Scale: Scaling is a chemical process Biological Fouling: Slime and algae
automatic blow down based on
resulting of increase in dissolved salts formations in heat transfer area such as fill
conductivity or metered makeup will
concentration in cooling water. This and other structures of cooling tower may
control the cycles.
increased concentration of dissolved salts reduce heat transfer, promote corrosion,
exceeds its solubility limit and precipitates and harbor pathogens such as Legionella. Chemical Scale Inhibitors
in the forms of salts of calcium or This too will act similar to the above Most of the system requires chemical
magnesium. The insolubility becomes discussed scale and deposition. scale and corrosion inhibitors which raise
more with higher water temperature and Some of the water quality parameters the allowable level of dissolved solids
prone to form deposits at cooling tower and its impact on cooling system are given without the risk of scale and corrosion.
heat transfer surface such as fills. The in the Table 1: Chemical scale inhibitors function by

66 | Cooling India | January 2017

water quality

Table 1: Water quality parameters and its impact on cooling system

Water quality parameter Impact on cooling water system
Hardness Scale formation
Calcium in the form of CaCO3, Magnesium with high silica level will lead to formation of Magnesium
Alkalinity Scale formation
Important parameter to predict formation of CaCO3 potential.
Silica Scale formation
Total Suspended Solids Scale and Corrosion.
Suspended solids can adhere to biofilms and cause under-deposit corrosion.
Phosphate 1. At higher concentration level above 20 mg/l with calcium > 1000mg/l leads to Calcium Phosphate
2. Nutrient for biofilms.
3. At concentration level below 4 mg/l and controlled pH from 7 to 7.5 acts as corrosion protection.
Ammonia 1. Enhances biofilms on heat exchanger and cooling tower fills.
2. Corrosive to copper alloys at concentration as low as 2 ppm.
Iron 1. Specialised polymers used for inhibition of calcium phosphate scaling will be deactivated.
2. Along with phosphate, it will form foulants.
Chloride Corrosive to most metals.
Zinc 1. At levels between 0.5 to 3.0 mg/l is beneficial.
2. At level above 3.0 mg/l lead to deposits.
Heavy Metals such as Cause localised galvanic corrosion that can rapidly penetrate thin steel heat exchanger tubes.
Copper, Nickel and Lead
Algae 1. Provide a nutrient source for bacterial growth.
2. Deposit on surface contributes to localized corrosion process.
3. Loosened deposits can block and foul pipework and other heat exchange surfaces.
Fungi Proliferate to high number and foul heat exchanger surfaces

Bacteria 1. Some types of pathogenic bacteria, such as Legionella, may cause health hazards.
2. Sulphate reducing bacteria can reduce sulphate to corrosive hydrogen sulphide.
3. Cathodic depolarization by removal of hydrogen from the cathodic portion of corrosion cell.
4. Acid producing bacteria produce organic acids, which cause localized corrosion of deposit laden
distribution piping and also provide the potential for severe pitting corrosion of heat exchanger
either selective adsorption on growing the corrosivity of the cooling water if this Controlling of corrosion and scale can
scale crystals, converting the crystal is accomplished. Addition of excessive be achieved by maintaining the following
structure into a non-scaling type which acid to the cooling water results in water parameters given in Table 2:
does not form a hard scale, or through depressed pH values and extremely rapid Chemical treatment requirements
chemical reactions with the scale forming corrosion of all system metals. Chemical treatment needs the following:
ions, converting them into non-scale Makeup Softening i. Compatibility of the chemicals to be
forming materials. Scale can be completely eliminated by used with the materials of construction,
pH Adjustment softening all cooling system makeup pipes, heat exchanger, etc. of the
Control of scale with pH adjustment by water. Using softened makeup water for cooling system.
acid addition functions via chemical scale control is the safest, most cost ii. Automatic feeders must be used to
conversion of the scale forming materials effective method available for obtaining introduce chemical scale and corrosion
to more soluble forms. Thus, calcium high cycles, or zero blowdown, with hard inhibitors into the circulating water
carbonate is converted to calcium sulphate makeup water. Normally, the added cost of system. The feeding point should be
(using sulphuric acid for pH adjustment), a softened makeup water is balanced by the such a way that it ensures total mixing
material several times more soluble. decreased chemical and water usage and dilution before reaching the cooling
Normally, it is not desirable to add sufficient resultant from the increased cooling equipment. Widely preferred location
acid to convert all of the scale forming system cycles made possible by the soft in a cooling system is at the discharge
materials due to a substantial increase in water. side of the circulating pump. As these

C ool
ing In
di a | Ja
arry 20
1 | 67
water quality

Table 2: Recommended water quality parameters for control of corrosion and scale chemicals can be inactivated by
Property of Water Recommended Level contact with specific oxidizers.
pH 6.5 to 9.0 v. None of the oxidizing biocides have
Hardness as CaCO 3 30 to 750 ppm any dispersant effect for removal of
Alkalinity as CaCO 3 500 ppm maximum deadmicrobiological growth.
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 1500 ppm maximum Non-oxidizing biocides
Conductivity 2400 micromhos Non-oxidizing biocides are generally
Chlorides 250 ppm maximum Cl quite costly due to the high effective
(410 ppm maximum as NaCl) dosage, long contacttimes, and often high
unit cost.
Sulphates 250 ppm maximum
Non-oxidizing biocides do have
Silica m maximum
advantages over the oxidizing biocides:
control for deposits. Above 35 micron i. No effect on corrosivity is evident from
level, simple sedimentation of their use.
hydrocyclones is effective. Automatic ii. Do not interfere with corrosion and
backwashing filters are most effective for scale control chemicals.
removal of suspended solids in the critical iii. Specific type of organism can be
range of 2 to 35 microns. If a cooling targeted and treated.
system need to be operated at over six iv. Definite dispersant effect for removal
cycles of concentration, bypass filtration of dead microbiological growth.
is required. In heavy dusty atmospheric Conclusion
chemicals can severely damage areas conditions, such filtration is required Cooling water quality plays a vital role in
directly contacted, these should not be regardless of the chemistry or cycles of maintaining the performance of the cooling
batch fed directly into the cold water concentration at which the cooling system tower and associated equipment. Poor
basin or water distribution system. is being operated. cooling water treatment and control
iii. If chlorine is being added to the system Biological Fouling Control increases facility costs via destruction of
it must be ensured that it does not Formation of anaerobic areas under expensive equipment, damage to the facility,
exceed 1 ppm as exceeding this limit the biological fouling layer results in a increased costs for water and sewerage,
may accelerate corrosion. substantial corrosion rate increase. Widely and increased energy use and cost. A
Deposition Control used biocides classified in two major proper water treatment program,
Measures taken to control deposition classes (i) oxidizing and (ii) non-oxidizing. administered under the supervision of a
depend on the cause of the problem. Oxidizing Biocides competent water treatment specialist, is an
Process contamination problems are best Cellular structure of the bio fouling essential part of routine maintenance to
corrected by elimination of the process organism is effectively destroyed and ensure the safe operation and longevity of
leakage, while most suspended solids killed by chemical oxidation by oxidizing evaporative cooling equipment, as well as
deposition can be controlled by addition of biocides. As this is a destructive form of other system components. Selection of a
dispersant/surfactant chemicals to the action, it is impossible for any organism to cooling water management program and
cooling water. These materials function by show, or develop, significant immunity to knowledge of the chemistry and controls
charge neutralization of the suspended an oxidizing biocide. Oxidizing biocides are required will increase the probability of
particles and emulsifying binding agents, usually quite cost effective due to their low obtaining reliable equipment cooling with
breaking up existing deposits and unit cost, rapid effect on the target maximum heat transfer efficiency at the
preventing agglomeration of the particles organism, and low effective dosage. lowest total cost. Those facilities that devote
to form new deposideposits. s ts. Oxidizing biocides have the following sufficient time and resources to this vital
Heavier concenconcentration
entration of suspend
en suspended nded disadvantages: area will be reaping the benefit of lowered
solids deposition can c n be
ca be treated with witth a i. Some of them can decrease cooling costs and more reliable operation. 
combination of chemical chemica c l dispersants
sp nts or
nt water pH in an uncontrolled manner.
n s and ann element
surfactants elleement n filter, ii. Most of them increase the corrosive
hydrocycycclone or me
hydrocyclone ediaa filter
media fifiltler in in a sidee nature of the cooling water. N Rajkumar
stream cconfiguration.
onfiiguguration. 2 to to 35 micronss iii. Oxidizing biocides such as chlorine Energy Efficiency &
range of suspended
uusspendded solidssolididds iinn recirculating
eeccirirculating ngg produce undesirable by-products from Renewable Energy Division,
w ater is m
water mot ot dif fffiiicu
c lt too control.
difficult ccoont ntro
rol.l.l. Below
elowow 2 an environmental viewpoint. Central Power Research
m icr
c onns dispersants
microns ddiisspper
e ssaantts aar arere
re th he eef
the fffeeccttivve
effective Institute, Bangalore
iv. Some corrosion and scale control

8 | Cooling
ng India
ia | Ja
ary 20
“We intend to introduce
Wi-Fi CPU controllers”
Cruise Appliances is one of the few companies offering innovative air conditioning products
based on extensive experience, research and understanding of the Indian climatic conditions
and consumer needs, helping them to create their own niche in the Indian market.
Roshan Sirohia, Director, Cruise Appliances sheds light on Indian HVACR market, products,
challenges and much more in an exclusive interview with Supriya Oundhakar...

What are the trends in Indian controllers in our machines whereby the consumers are opting for cheaper
HVACR market? air conditioning of the desired areas can solutions by compromising on the quality,
Across the HVAC industry, energy savings be remotely controlled. eco-friendliness and energy efficiency due
is the main reason to use adjustable What are your views on the growth to cost viability of the projects. We intend
frequency drives in HVAC systems today. of HVACR keeping in mind rising to conduct a series of trainings and

The growth trend is 35% and it is moving need for cooling due to global seminars for our customers and trade
more towards variable refrigerants flow partners to increase the level of awareness
climate change?
systems. Due to sluggish growth trends in for the above concerns.
HVAC industry needs to come out with
the real estate and infrastructure sectors, more eco-friendly solutions of refrigerant How many manufacturing plants
the HVAC market may not register a higher gases and much higher efficiency do you have in India? How will the
growth. compressors. We also need to look at government’s campaign ‘Make in
What are the products offered by alternate cooling solutions that are not India’ help you in expanding your
the company? What are the dependent on refrigerant gases. manufacturing facility?
innovations adopted in your What are the growth drivers of At present, we have two manufacturing
products to make them more your business? Which sector does plants in India. A developing country like
energy-efficient and cost-efficient generate the maximum demand India is known for intellectual skill set and
with the emphasis on zero carbon for your products? this is attracting all investments from each
and every corner of the globe. With ‘Make
footprint? The input costs and localisation of critical
components along with the infrastructure in India’ campaign we got the required
Currently, we are into light commercial
and real estate sector that adds to the boost to grow and expand. The policies
product range starting from 1.5 ton to 8.5
growth of the business. and formalities to conduct operations have
ton unitary system. They also range from
been eased, which has helped in faster
cassette AC to ductable air conditioning What are the main challenges
movements and quick developments.
units. As for environmental support, we faced in Indian HVACR industry?
are moving towards non-CFC gases and What is your outlook for HVACR
How do you overcome the same?
also opting for higher energy efficiency In India, it is often seen that the projects
industry for 2017-18?
compressors. We see a growth rate of about 20% during
are not executed properly with the first
What kind of opportunities do you this time.
time right concept. The focus on lifecycle
look forward for your company cost is overlooked. Research to have a What is your advice to potential
with the government’s roll out of cutting edge technology and training to clients?
hone skilled manpower is not given its due To look for quality, eco-friendliness and
‘100 smart cities’ project?
importance. Proper guidelines or standards efficiency level in the products made
As a part of 100 smart cities project, we
tropicalized for India seldom exists. The available. 
intend to introduce Wi-Fi controlled CPU

Cooling India | January 2017 | 69

application story

Tools for Detecting

Damp Spots & Structural Defects
test and measurement equipment from
Paul Sevink of Klussenbedrijf Contact relies on the FLIR. In the past, equipment like thermal
FLIR MR160 imaging moisture meter and FLIR C2 imaging cameras were generally
unattainable for most people, but today
compact thermal imaging camera…. they have actually become very accessible
and even indispensable.’
Sevink is referring to the continuing
trend for thermal imaging technology to get
ever smaller, easier to use and therefore also
less expensive. And that has led to more and
more handymen to add these cameras or
test and measurement devices to their
toolbox. Paul Sevink is completely convinced
of the benefits of his latest acquisitions,
namely the FLIR MR160 moisture meter
with thermal imager and the pocket-sized
FLIR C2 thermal imaging camera.

Reliable moisture measurement

Construction professionals, typically,
use moisture meters that measure electrical
resistance between two pins set a fixed
aul Sevink's handyman service, for trade journal KlusVisie, a magazine distance apart. The lower the resistance,

P based in Soest (NL), can handle any

job. Sevink sees making good use
of the available technology to get the job
specifically aimed at handyman and
maintenance companies.

Indispensable technology
the higher the moisture content of the
measured surface. A potential problem
with the use of these devices is that it often
done right as simply as a matter of takes a bit of searching to locate the spot
professionalism and customer service. ‘I often have the opportunity to use where the moisture measurement should
The new test and measurement equipment new tools so I can review them for be taken. This is a problem for which the
from FLIR, the MR160 moisture meter and KlusVisie,’ said Paul Sevink. ‘So I regularly FLIR MR160 imaging moisture meter offers
C2 thermal imaging camera, have already have the opportunity to discover new an excellent solution.
become indispensable. things I can use for my handyman service The FLIR MR160 combines a moisture
There are few jobs Paul Sevink will not too. This is how I learned about the latest meter with a thermal imaging camera in a
take on. In addition to providing general
maintenance and renovation services,
Sevink also installs and maintains vacuum
cleaning systems and infrared heat panels
and he is a certified wood refurbishment
specialist. Sevink says you can recognize
a professional handyman by his tools. In
his case, he really depends on them to be
The FLIR MR160 combines a moisture The FLIR C2 is the first pocket-sized
able to offer his wide range of services. In
meter with a thermal imaging camera, thermal imaging camera specially designed
addition, he is also an editorial assistant making it the first of its kind. for construction and industry.

70 | Cooling India | January 2017

application story

seams only becomes apparent once the contours as a line drawing on the thermal
wall is saturated with water. As it turned image, is very convenient. Everything was
out in this case, some tiles had also beautifully displayed on the thermal image.
developed cracks caused by stress that I saw no hidden do-it-yourself pipes or
built up in the wall as the moisture caused drains, which was very reassuring to me.’
it to expand. For Paul Sevink, using FLIR cameras
‘After removing a few tiles at the and measuring equipment is also a matter
client's request, the FLIR MR160 again of saving time.
confirmed my suspicion. It was clearly ‘FLIR equipment not only makes a
accumulated moisture, and not a leak. professional impression, it also saves your
Based on this information, I could advise time. You can use it quickly to make
my client to run a construction dehumidifier contactless measurements.
for few days, after which I would replace Devices require little explanation – you
the damaged tiles.’ can get started with them straight away
and begin taking measurements in no time
Moisture Meters for Wood – and they also fit perfectly in your pocket.
Renovation So there is no reason not to always have
Making use of Infrared Guided
Paul Sevink has also already used his the FLIR MR160 and FLIR C2 with you.’
Measurement (IGM) technology, the FLIR FLIR MR160 for detecting moisture spots
MR160 visually guides the user to the in a wooden door frame: ‘Sometimes Infrared Guided Measurement
location where reliable moisture Many industry and building
measurements can be taken.
wood rot is not so easy to see with naked
eye, but the MR160 gives you a clear professionals today rely on test and
picture of the situation, both with and measurement tools for electrical and
single unit and can clearly see where the mechanical repairs, industrial plant
without measuring pins.’
problem must be measured. Making use maintenance, and HVAC troubleshooting
‘What I really appreciate about the FLIR
of Infrared Guided Measurement (IGM) and moisture detection. With new Infrared
MR160 is that you can save and transfer
technology, the FLIR MR160 visually Guided Measurement (IGM) technology
your measurements and results. With the
guides the user to the location where from FLIR, these jobs will become safer
supplied FLIR Tools you can create
reliable moisture measurements can be and a lot more productive.
beautiful reports that you can offer as
taken. Moisture in floors or walls can then Although many test and measurement
proof to your clients, which in my case are
be detected and examined further with the products have become indispensable for
often insurance companies. It is also
built-in sensors. today’s maintenance professional, using a
handy to be able to show your client the
tool to find and pinpoint a problem quickly
Tracking down ‘accumulated moisture problem while on site, based on
the thermal image.’ can be hard. Moisture and electricity
moisture’ problems don’t always show up clearly to
‘The FLIR MR160 served me well on a Looking For Pipes With the naked eye, and therefore, finding the
job where the laminate flooring on a landing
had suddenly bulged up,’ said Sevink.
Thermal Imager exact location of a moisture problem or
Paul Sevink also uses the FLIR C2, the electricity problem might require quite
‘Because there was no way to get a good some guesswork.
world's first full-featured, pocket-sized
look without causing damage, I chose to IGM adds thermal imaging technology
thermal camera specifically designed for
have a leak detection performed. It turned FLIR and allows maintenance professionals
experts in construction and industry. With
out there was no leaking water pipe or to work smarter and more efficiently by
this camera tucked in a pocket, users can
drain. Poor caulking and grouting proved to visually guiding them to temperature
take a thermographic recording any time.
be the cause. The FLIR MR160 showed me problems invisible to the naked eye. This
You can easily detect structural defects,
a pattern that appeared to indicate water way, IGM allows them to focus on
find hidden heat patterns that may indicate
was present that had not been found during troubleshooting and see which spot may
energy loss, check underfloor heating and
the leak detection. My first thought was an require further testing and investigation.
much more.
‘old moisture’ problem. IGM makes use of FLIR Lepton®, a
‘After the moisture measurements with
Accumulated moisture is moisture that revolutionary longwave infrared (LWIR)
the MR160 I used also as my FLIR C2 to
wicks into a wall through a joint and is sensor. The portfolio of IGM featured test
confirm my findings. The C2 showed me
then virtually unable to evaporate because and measurement tools includes IGM
the bathroom pipes very clearly in the
the surface is mostly covered with tiles moisture meters, clamp meters, multi-
thermal image. Particularly, the MSX
and 3 mm thick grout. The problem with meters and spot meters. 
function, which displays the visual
poorly sealed grout lines and/or caulked

Cooling India | January 2017| 71


New Trends
systems designed to improve your indoor
Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC comfort while slashing energy expenses
systems) account for 39% of the energy used in to a minimum. Whether you need a heating
or air conditioning replacement or you
commercial buildings. Consequently, almost any want to upgrade an outdated system,
business or government agency has the potential investing in a new HVAC installation gives
you the opportunity to take advantage of
to realize significant savings by improving its the latest and greatest high-tech
control of HVAC operations and improving the advancements.
Heating, ventilating, and air-
efficiency of the system it uses… conditioning (HVAC systems) account for
39% of the energy used in commercial
nnovative technologies are taking the but there are some you can take advantage buildings. Consequently, almost any

I HVAC industry by storm. As high-tech

gadgets and the latest innovations
continue to improve our lives, revolutionary
of now to boost your ambient comfort
levels. From smart watches and Google
glasses to 3D printing and 4K televisions,
business or government agency has the
potential to realize significant savings by
improving its control of HVAC operations
and improving the efficiency of the system
HVAC technologies that could change how the world has seen many technological
we heat and cool our homes, offices, advances over the last decade. The HVAC it uses.
industries etc. Many of these HVAC industry has been hard at work too, Airports are one of the major energy
technologies are still on the drawing board, developing new functions, features and consuming sectors for HVAC. Every one

72 | Cooling India | January 2017


degree of temperature setting results in any other system so far, and it eliminates demand during peak electricity demand
saving of 3% in energy consumption. electricity costs altogether. hours i.e. office hours. An article has been
The use of high performance HVAC contributed by me in earlier issues of
equipment can result in considerable On-Demand Hot Water Cooling India with actual case study.
energy, emissions, and cost savings Re-circulator
(10%–40%). Whole building design A US-based company out of Rhode Sensor-Enhanced Ventilation
coupled with an "extended comfort zone" Island has designed an “on command” Each year, several products debut at
can produce much greater savings (40%– pump for a home’s water lines, which technology expos all across the country,
70%). Extended comfort includes allows cool water to be circulated back and 2015 was the year of the Ecovent.
employing concepts such as providing into the water heater upon activation. This ingenious product consists of sensor-
warmer, but drier air using desiccant This product was engineered to be a driven vents that replace a home’s existing
dehumidification in summer, or cooler air solution to a major problem to which all of ceiling, wall, or floor vents. The best part?
with warmer windows and warmer walls us contribute: Each year, the average A smartphone app can control the Ecovent,
in winter. In addition, high-performance home wastes 12,000 gallons of water just providing precise, room-by-room
HVAC can provide increased user thermal waiting for that water to warm up. temperature control.
comfort, and contribute to improved Re-circulating this otherwise-wasted Additionally, the system utilizes
indoor environmental quality (IEQ). water back into the system is an eco- sensors to monitor a home’s temperature,
friendly solution that’s bound to play a air pressure, and other indoor air quality
Movement-Activated Air huge part in future homes. factors. Even though this system design is
Conditioning brand new, it’s been well tested and has
The modern technologies have come Ice-Powered Air Conditioning already hit the market. Therefore, this is
up with a new air conditioning design that Air conditioners seem to be prime one piece of technology you can take
utilizes sensors along Aluminum rods systems for tweaking and making better. advantage of today.
hung from the ceiling. Movement then That’s why MERC has encouraged an ice-
powered A/C system called the Ice Dual-Fuel Heat Pumps
activates these sensors. In other words,
Banking. The Ice Banking essentially Another US-based company has come
the air conditioner only kicks on when
works by freezing water in a tank overnight up with the dual-fuel heat pump concept.
people are present.
during off peak hours of the electrical The argument is that heat pumps tend to
A motion-activated (PIR) system
energy demand, so the ice can help cool a be more efficient and provide the maximum
seems like such a simple, ingenious idea
building the next day. So far, the design amount of comfort when using a
that it’s almost baffling it hasn’t been tried
has been able to provide enough cooling combination of fuel. In this case, the
before now. However, this kind of prototype
which offset appreciable part of system is a combination of an electric heat
is just one example of how future HVAC
conventional cooling load of the peak pump and a gas furnace.
systems are going to be more compact
and portable, helping to reduce both
energy and utility costs.

Thermally Driven Air

Another design that’s recently been
implemented is thermally driven air
conditioning. An Australian company
named Chromasun has produced a low-
cost alternative to traditional A/C units. It
isn’t a widespread technology yet, and it
will likely be several years before this kind
of design becomes widely available in the
United States. However, thermally driven
air conditioning is a system that uses solar
energy and is supplemented by natural
gas, making it a highly efficient and
effective system.
In fact, the double-chiller design
provides more cooling capabilities than

Cooling India | January 2017| 73


At low temperatures, the pump draws market, this movement toward a smarter waste all that excess energy when you
on gas heat to maximize efficiency. When home has changed how HVAC engineers don’t have to?
the temperature rises above 35 degrees, and designers approach the next big thing, It’s fun to speculate about the future of
electricity takes over. The initial costs which is good news for those of us who HVAC technology, but only time will tell
associated with a dual-fuel heat pump are appreciate high-tech solutions. which systems will make the cut and
more than a conventional system, but the catch on with most homeowners. If you’re
amount of money you can potentially save Fully Automated Homes interested to learn which high-tech
over the next several years more than As if owning a smart home wasn’t systems are available now, contact Bill
makes up for the costs. convenient enough, fully automated homes Joplin’s Air Conditioning & Heating at 888-
will soon become a reality. There are 414-4655.
Geothermal Heat Pumps already technological solutions on the Say ‘solar energy’ and most people
Along those same lines, geothermal market that are allowing companies to instantly think of those large panels that go
technology is a major investment that experiment with automated appliances and on the tops of homes or vast structural
promises to save you much money over other products. Therefore, it’s only natural arrays outside of buildings that are
its lifetime. Geothermal heat pumps have that HVAC systems will one day be directly designed to collect the rays of the sun. The
been around since the 1940s, so they’re tied into other systems in your home, chemistry, engineering and
not exactly a new technology. Nevertheless, making adjustments according to the nanotechnologies behind these materials
these products haven’t really caught on status of the rest of the house. and systems often play an important part
until recently. in their cost, availability, and effectiveness
With more homeowners waking up to 3-D Printed Air Conditioners
It may seem a little far-fetched, but 3-D — something many of the individuals on
the importance of going green, geothermal this list of solar and renewable energy
heat pumps have grown in popularity. A printing has advanced rapidly over the last
few years, so expecting products like 3-D instructors already know about. This is a
geothermal heat pump gets its energy driving factor in looking for more effective
directly from the earth through an printed A/C systems could very well be a
reality one day. solutions, processes and materials, and in
underground looped pipe that absorbs the disseminating any new found knowledge
heat and carries it into the home. When In fact, a company called Emerging
Objects has already created a 3-D printed through instruction, shared research, or
cooling is needed, the process occurs in publication – so that others can make
reverse, with the pump removing warmth “brick” that draws moisture out of an area
to cool it. While this simple innovation advances.
in the home. A major bonus of having a Nanotechnology, by the way, is an
geothermal heat pump is the availability of can’t be used in extreme temperatures,
and we’re still a far cry from 3-D printed examination of materials or science on a
free hot water. Therefore, if you’re very small scale, including through atoms
considering having geothermal technology air conditioners, it’s just one example of
the power of such a simple technology. and molecules. That said, there are many
installed in your home, ask your technician different manifestations of green energy
about this valuable perk. We never know what tomorrow may bring.
systems and sustainable energy, whether
Smart Homes Harnessing Heat from a that’s HVAC, solar, wind power or
Everything is getting smarter these Computer something else unique. This list examines
days. From the cars we drive to the If you own a laptop and have ever used that broad range, hitting on instructors
televisions we watch, just about every it for several hours in one setting, you who are involved in research, but also
piece of tech you can imagine has been know how much heat it begins to generate. others who engage in hands-on teaching
outfitted with smart technology. It’s only One innovator named Lawrence Orsini, and/or work with students through energy
natural, then, that our homes would be founder of Project Exergy, has seen how laboratories and institutes. Many have a
next. efficient computers are at generating heat. degree in engineering, but others work in
Connected systems and phone apps This is why he’s theorised they can be related science fields, such as chemistry.
now allow us to control our home’s used for powering heating systems. This just goes to show there are many
lighting, heating, cooling, security Consider this: How many times have facets to renewable energy careers and
systems, surveillance, and entertainment you thought of how great it would be if you that’s true whether you are looking at a
at the push of a virtual button. It’s a had to use your stationary bike or treadmill start though an associate-degree level
no-brainer that these “smart” technologies to power your television? It may not be a program (with HVAC as a possibility) or
will continue to evolve and become serious thought, but it’s something almost seek to advance your knowledge through
integrated into our homes, allowing us to everyone has considered at one time or upper-level education.
control a home’s comfort levels down to another. Harnessing heat from a product When it comes to heating and air
the last detail. Since many of these you already use every day draws upon the conditioning in the home, advancements
innovations are already available on the same principle. At the end of the day, why within the components themselves are

74 | Cooling India | January 2017


making units more energy efficient than reality now or will be sooner than imagined. to various temperatures while maintaining
ever. HVAC systems are increasingly energy efficiency.
communicating between the indoor and Utility Sales These innovations are only the tip of
outdoor controls while also reducing heat One thing that NEST incorporates that the iceberg when it comes to the changing
loss and maximizing dehumidifying will benefit the function of all grid members face of HVAC technologies. Eventually,
processes. The systems also run quieter is the ability to remotely shut off during smartphones will be even more connected
and are easier to use with touch screen, peak demand. This program is already with the furnace and air conditioner with
programmable thermostats with multiple somewhat existent with 'demand pricing' more zoned heating and cooling options
settings. in which utility companies offer lower rates and even further control if that's possible.
While there are some definitive for those customers who can manage Repairs may soon be electronically guided
changes in the HVAC components and their electricity usage when demand is at by the system itself as the smart home
controls themselves, some external the highest. On very hot summer days, for becomes more and more abundant.
technologies are also helping to take that example, there is only so much energy to Either way what this means is that ratty
efficiency to even another level. A driving go around, so those customers who 'help old furnace that barks and squeals for
force behind these advances are the ever- out' the utility company by temporarily three minutes before starting up will soon
expanding capabilities of smartphones, turning off their air conditioning get a be a thing of the past.
allowing users to basically control and kickback with lower overall rates. The HVAC technology is constantly
monitor their home or business from problem is not knowing when the peak changing due to new discoveries and
anywhere in the world. demand starts or if the temperature is hot influences outside the industry. As recently
The driving forces behind these enough to be considered such a situation. as this century, central, indoor climate
technological advancements are 1) Technology will make this process more control was available to only a privileged
improving efficiency or reducing utility automated, offering notifications or even few. Today, even central air-conditioning in
bills, 2) lessening the strain on both the automatic shutdown of utilities as local homes is common in the US. Improvements
grid and the environment, and 3) increasing demand rises. occurred through a number of factors
the comfort of rooms in a home or Self Diagnostics such as technical, market changes, energy
building. What's making this possible is For the most part, consumers are at and environmental concerns, and political
the fact that interconnection is at an all- the mercy of HVAC technicians when their decisions. Changes continue to occur and
time high between both people and air conditioner or furnace goes out. In they benefit of our customers and are our
machines and only improving on basically some cases, this can be a harrowing time part of our future.
a daily basis. especially in extreme hot/cold temperatures
Perhaps the best example of how Environment
or when the repair company is experiencing The environment has possibly had
HVAC technologies are changing the game a backlog of calls. The ability for HVAC
is NEST and its Learning Thermostat. In more influence on HVAC technology than
components to self-diagnose and repair has energy. The environment will continue
short, the NEST Learning Thermostat is much like a computer could be a game-
almost like a virtual butler as it educates to impact the industry into the foreseeable
changer to get consumers heat or air back future. Policies regarding climate change
itself on what temperatures you like and online. While repair personnel may worry
automatically adjusts the room to those have also directly impacted our industry.
about their jobs being nonexistent, those As we design and operate more energy-
settings based on time of day and technologies could go to a next level and
occupancy. NEST turns itself off when you efficient equipment and systems, we use
send them a notification when their clients less energy, energy that in many cases
leave the room and is controllable via Wi-Fi are experiencing issues — after all,
which means you can perform tasks like comes from burning CO2-producing fossil
somebody still has to perform parts fuels. The environment will continue to
warming up the bathroom before heading replacements.
in for a morning shower — if NEST hasn't impact the industry. The industry has
already done so. Variable Refrigerant Flow proven that it can respond in a timely way.
While NEST is a remarkable One of the biggest energy losses As new environmentally friendly products
advancement, the concept of a occurs when an entire house is being are developed, those products are also
programmable or even teachable warmed or cooled and only one room calls more energy efficient. Adopting new
thermostat isn't necessarily new. That for the HVAC system to kick in. A great technologies and supporting research will
should change in the near future since example is a home that sits in the shade help our industry meet the challenges of
Google purchased NEST for $3.2 billion on one end and in the direct glare of the the future.
and will only continue to improve on these sun on the other side. Variable refrigerant User-Friendly Controls
technologies. That being said there are flow (VRF) allows users to simultaneously While smar t, Wi-Fi-connected
numerous other HVAC concepts that are a heat and cool different parts of the building thermostats promise significantly

Cooling India | January 2017| 75


increased energy efficiency, the real draw Variable Refrigerant Flow during the summer. While they cost more
for homeowners seems to be how easy to install than other types of heating and
the interfaces are to operate. Take the Nest cooling options, the savings they offer is
A popular trend in Eastern markets,
Learning thermostat, for example. It is substantial. Operating costs can be up to
variable refrigerant flow (VRF) is the future
programmed by the user to remember his 70 percent lower than conventional
of the HVAC industry. Though US market
preferred temperature settings. If the user systems.
have yet to reach the demand experienced
prefers the thermostat to kick in a faster,
abroad, VRF systems are establishing their Radiant Floor Heating
warmer temperature, on cold, wintery
place as in-demand items for housing and Radiant flooring systems take
mornings, the Nest thermostat will store
commercial cooling needs. Simple and advantage of a simple law of physics: heat
that information and adjust the temperature
elegant in design, VRF systems connect rises. By embedding electric wires or
accordingly. The thermostat also monitors
an outside condensing unit to several fan loops of pipes circulating warm liquid
temperature with humidity and activity
coil units throughout the building. Each beneath your flooring, you get comforting
sensors, and it can determine regional
coil and evaporator in the system can be warmth from the ground up. Instead of
climate by the user punching in their zip
controlled individually to reduce waste heating your home with hot air, the system
code Wireless-controlled thermostats
from over-allocated resources. The shift generates radiant heat, effectively
present HVAC data in a language that
will stimulate job growth and overall eliminating uncomfortable swings in
contemporary consumers understand.
economic development throughout the temperature. Depending on your home’s
Homeowners are accustomed to easily
HVAC sector that will continue well into the level of insulation, radiant flooring can be
digestible, visual representations of
coming years. up to 30 percent more energy efficient that
information and data. The reporting tools
forced-air heating systems.
that smart systems include take the Career Trends
mystery and obscurity out of an industry Current industry trends indicate a Ductless HVAC Systems
that has been thriving on overall future growth rate of nearly 28% Most HVAC systems supply
complacency from its customers. nationwide. This trend is predicted to conditioned air through a hidden maze of
continue until 2018, a total period of ductwork, but ducted systems aren’t your
DEVap Air Conditioning researching and studying 10-year industry
The National Renewable Energy only option when you’re on the hunt for a
trends beginning in 2008. Studies have heating or air conditioning replacement or
Laboratory (NREL) developed the DEVap
revealed that once the results of that new HVAC installation. Ductless systems
(desiccant-enhanced evaporative air
research and those studies are complete, use point-of-use air handlers to deliver
conditioner) in 2011 and estimates that it
there will be nearly 395,000 individuals conditioned air directly into individual
reduces air conditioning energy usage by
who make their living in the HVAC industry, rooms or zones, and they run at up to 40
40-90 percent. So far, DEVap is found
and choose to make this their lifelong percent better efficiency than central
primarily in commercial buildings, and the
career Choice. The rate of change in our heating and cooling systems as well.
technology is so new that it’s difficult to
industry will be exponential. Some changes Installation is simple and non-intrusive.
find for residential use. But, given how
will be caused by improvements in The only alterations made to your home
promising the innovation seems, and how
technology whereas others will be the are small holes drilled behind the air
cost-effective it has already proven to be,
result of influences outside our immediate handlers to connect them to the outdoor
and is anticipated great gains in the future.
control. As engineers, we have an unit.
Zero Energy Buildings obligation to be proactive in encouraging
Zero-energy buildings that produce changes that are of benefit to the society High-Tech Features and
energy instead of just using large quantities we serve. This in turn will have direct Functions
will gain traction with companies that benefit to our industry and to each of us From traditional systems to
target eco-friendly employees and individually. unconventional alternatives, the best of
consumers. Many businesses are already today’s modern HVAC systems come
Geothermal Heat Pumps loaded with features engineered to save
headed in this direction with geothermal
No matter how low the thermometer
heating and cooling, solar-powered you money and enhance your comfort:
dips in Fredericksburg and the surrounding
systems, and white roofing. If HVAC • Scroll Compressors Instead of
communities during the winter, the
manufacturers can work to design conventional piston-driven
temperature beneath the earth’s surface
structures that are both energy efficient compressors, many heat pumps and
remains consistently warm. Geothermal
and comfortable for their residents, we’re air conditioners now feature scroll
heat pumps tap into that reliable source of
sure to see some fresh companies take on compressors that pressurize refrigerant
heat to move comforting warmth into your
the challenge. faster using less energy. One spiral-
home in cold weather and transfer heat out
shaped scroll remains stationary while

76 | Cooling India | January 2017


a twin scroll revolves around it. Scroll monitor everything from the many systems suffer from, which the
compressors not only last longer than temperature and air flow in a room to head end computer is thinking one
their piston counterparts but operate its humidity level. They can work as thing is happening, however, in the
more quietly too. communicating centers too, notifying field the actuality is very different.
• Variable-Speed Motors HVAC systems you when you need a heating repair or • Self-diagnosing systems that are able
equipped with variable-speed fan air conditioning maintenance. Some to determine fault conditions analyses
motors automatically adjust air flow systems even have Wi-Fi, so you can the cause and report or even rectify
according to your comfort needs, adjust or program settings from your the condition, systems that are able to
blowing air more slowly when heating computer, smart phone or tablet. recognize fault situations that are
or cooling demands are low. The result resulting in excess energy consumption
is an even delivery of air that reduces Summary or unacceptable equipment wear and
temperature swings in your home. The Building Management Systems and report.
systems use less energy too, allowing air-conditioning controls systems will • Systems with seamless remote
you to keep more of your hard-earned develop to become: access, diagnosis and control
dollars in your pocket. • Intelligent self-learning systems that functionality.
• Dual-Heat Exchangers Heat exchangers measure the per formance Systems with the flexibility to take
are the components in furnaces and characteristics for the building and its advantage of wireless technology and the
boilers that extract heat from the systems for different ambient and onboard intelligence that is already starting
burning fuel. Modern condensing occupancy conditions and using to be installed in items of central plant. 
heaters have a second heat exchanger thermal modelling technology are able
that condenses the water vapor found to operate the buildings systems to
in exhaust gases to capture additional provide the required conditions whilst Dr OmPrakash G Kulkarni
heat. This allows them to use less fuel minimizing energy consumption and Scientist, Mentor, Adviser, Technology
Provider & Consulting Engineer in
without compromising your comfort. plant wear and tear. Automation, Instrumentation, Energy
• Smart Controls Sensors in advanced • Self-checking systems that are able to Management, IPR, CDM &
eliminate the fly by wire problems that Renewable Energy
HVAC equipment allow the system to

Cooling India | January 2017| 77

innovative chiller

Water Vapor Driven

Vapor Absorption Machine
Cycle diagram
Ultra-low pressure water vapor can be utilized as
a heat source to drive the vapor absorption chiller
for catering to the chilling requirement…

Food Processing Industries
(Potato / Noodles / Savories Fryer)
Potato contains around 75% moisture
so when they are fried the moisture is
released in the form of vapor. The frying
process being atmospheric, the water
vapor leaves the fryer as a mixture with air
and also has trace quantities of the
entrained frying oil. These vapors are then
simply taken to the chimney and vented
out to the atmosphere. This leads to loss
of not only valuable energy but also water.
These water vapors are now taken to
vapor absorption chiller by blower and
used as a heat source to cater chilling
Textile Industries
Continuous polymerization (CP) is a
process which is used to produce
polyester. The raw material used here is
Terephthalic acid & Mono Ethylene Glycol
which is continuously fed to the reactor
and the polymer is continuously removed.
During this process, high temperature
enerally in Food and Beverage water vapor and air (non-condensable water vapors are generated during the

G processing and some other

industries, water vapor is
generated (at just above the atmospheric
gases) are coming inside generator tubes
(heating portion of machine) and
condense. This non-condensable gas
heating process of polymers along with
some organic solvent. Normally, the
vapors which are coming out of Process
pressure) and vented to the atmosphere as plays crucial role in the system for Column are condensed by an Air/Water
waste. This ultra-low pressure water vapor achieving the capacity. We have a well- cooled condenser. Here, we can provide
can be utilized as a heat source to drive developed system for removing the non- ultra low pressure vapor absorption chiller
the vapor absorption chiller for catering to condensable gases from the chiller. to recover these water vapors instead of
the chilling requirement. Condensed water is transferred back to air or water cooled condenser. Hence, we
Since these processes are mostly the process for re-circulation. can produce chilling for air conditioning
exposed to atmosphere, the mixture of and also reduce power requirements for

78 | Cooling India | January 2017

innovative chiller

conditioning application utilizing the waste heat in the form of

potato fryer vapours is as how below:
S. No. Description Units Data
1 Cooling capacity TR 500
2 Chilled water inlet / °C 12 / 7
outlet temperature
3 Heat Source - Water vapor from
Potato Fryer
4 Water vapor kg/hr 4000
5 Power savings for MW / 1900
condenser and electrical chiller. replacing Electrical Annum
Refineries & Petrochemicals Industries
In Refineries and Petrochemicals Industries, CO2 is let out 6 Reduction in CO2 Tons / 4000
along with high temperature water vapor. Ultra low pressure vapor emission Annum
absorption chiller can fit exactly for this kind of application also to 7 Amount of m3 / 28000
recover the waste heat (water vapor along with CO2 gas). Condensate water Annum
• Reduction in power saving for replacing electrical chillers
• Reduction in CO2 emission for replacing electrical chillers
• Utilization of water vapor to cater chilling requirement
• Condensate recovery water can be re-circulated for process P Babu
Mechanical Engineer
Case Study Thermax Limited
A typical case for supplying absorption chiller for air-

Cooling India | January 2017| 79


Past, Present & Future
evaporates by taking the heat from the
Refrigerant development throughout the history, space that is to be cooled, thus producing
took place due to different reasons, such as safety, the cooling effect. Refrigerant development
throughout the history, took place due to
stability, durability, economic or environmental different reasons, such as safety, stability,
issues, thus giving rise to new research and durability, economic or environmental
issues, thus giving rise to new research and
equipment improvement in terms of safety and equipment improvement in terms of safety
efficiency. The refrigerants can be classified into and efficiency. The refrigerants can be
classified into different generations. Different
different generations... generations of refrigerants and their
behaviours have been shown in figure 1.
efrigeration is an old technology mechanical refrigeration systems were

R that started a long time ago.

Refrigeration is the process of
removing heat from an enclosed space or
introduced, people cooled their food
with ice transported from the mountains,
and ice was stored by using snow cellars,
First Generation Refrigerants
Beginnings of mechanical refrigeration,
starting from early 19th century were
characterized by use of natural refrigerants.
from a substance in order to maintain a pits that were dug into the ground and
Water and air were the first refrigerants
lower temperature than the surroundings. insulated with wood and straw.
considered for use in mechanical
Before 1830, food preservation methods Refrigeration using stored ice was the
refrigeration systems. Refrigerators that
like salting, spicing, smoking, pickling and important method until the beginning of
were built in the late 1800s to 1929 used
drying existed. Evaporative cooling was the 20th century.
the first generation refrigerants like methyl
practised in India and Egypt. It was
Refrigerants chloride, ammonia and sulphur dioxide.
discovered that adding chemicals like
Refrigerants are the working medium The common refrigerants for the first
sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate to
used in refrigerating systems which hundred years included whatever worked
water caused the temperature to fall. Before
and whatever was available. Nearly all the

80 | Cooling India | January 2017


When these gases enter condenser, their

pressures are added to the condensing
pressure, thereby, increasing total pressure
head and power consumption.

Sulphur Dioxide
Sulphur dioxide is one of the most
used refrigerants in 1920s and 1930s,
having been replaced first by methyl
chloride and later by more desirable
fluorocarbon refrigerants. It is highly toxic
but non-explosive and non-flammable. It is
non-corrosive in pure state but when it
combines with moisture it forms
sulphurous acids and sulphuric acids
which are highly corrosive.

Methyl Chloride
Figure 1: Different Generations of Refrigerants
Methyl chloride was first used in 1878.
Methyl chloride is a colourless extremely
first generation refrigerants were ratio across the compressor and high flammable gas with a mildly sweet odour.
flammable, toxic or both and some were compressor outlet temperatures. Methyl chloride is a halocarbon of the
also highly reactive. The characteristics of methane series and it has many of the
some of the first generation refrigerants Ammonia
properties desirable in a refrigerant, which
are discussed below. It is denoted as R717 and is also a
accounts for its wide use in the past in
very old refrigerant used in vapour
both domestic and commercial
Water compression and absorption refrigeration
applications. Methyl chloride is corrosive
Water is one of the oldest refrigerants systems. The advantages of R717 are that
to aluminium, zinc, magnesium and the
being used for refrigeration applications they have a lower molecular weight, wide
compounds formed in combinations with
down to about the freezing of water. When range of working temperature because of
these materials. In the presence of
water is coupled with protective solutions its high critical point, high latent heat of
moisture, methyl chloride forms a weak
to prevent freezing (i.e. propylene or vapourization and easy leak detection.
hydrochloric acid, which is corrosive to
ethylene glycol), it can be used well below However, R717 also has some
both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. It is
water’s normal freezing point in disadvantages. It is highly toxic, highly
also explosive. There were numerous fatal
applications such as ice slurries. Water is irritating and flammable. Ammonia has
accidents that occurred in the 1920s when
easily available and has excellent high affinity to water, thus it is difficult to
methyl chloride leaked out of refrigerators.
thermodynamic and chemical properties. keep ammonia dry. When it contains water,
This has led to the discovery of the next
Besides these advantages, there are it is corrosive to copper and most copper
generation refrigerants. Few first generation
technical challenges that result from its alloys. At high discharge temperatures
refrigerant and their properties have been
high specific volume at low temperatures. generated by ammonia, it has the tendency
shown in table 1.
These challenges include high pressure to dissociate giving nitrogen and hydrogen.

Table 1: Properties of first generation refrigerants

Substance R Number Chemical M (kg/kmol) NBP (oC) CRT (oC) CRP (bar) Safety ODP GWP
formula group
Carbon dioxide R-744 CO2 44.01 -55.6 31.6 73.77 A1 0 1
Ammonia R-717 NH3 17.03 -33.3 132.25 113.33 B2 0 0
Sulphur dioxide R-764 SO2 64.06 -10.0 157.49 78.84 B1 0 0
Ethyl ether R-610 C4H10O 74.12 35 194.0 36 - 0 0
Dimethyl ether R-170 C2H6O 46.07 -25 126.9 53.7 A3 0 0
Methyl chloride R-40 CH3Cl 50.49 -24.2 143.1 66.77 B2 0.02 16
R Number: Refrigerant Number, M: Molecular Mass, NBP: Normal Boiling Point, CRT: Critical Temperature, CRP: Critical Pressure, ODP: Ozone
Depletion Potential, GWP: Global Warming Potential.

Cooling India | January 2017| 81


Table 2: Properties of second generation refrigerants

Substance R Number M Kg/kmol NBP (oC) CRT (oC) CRP Bar Safety Group ODP GWP
Trichlorofluoromethane R-11 137.4 23.71 197.96 44.1 A1 1 4000
Dichlorodifluoromethane R-12 120.91 -29.75 111.97 41.4 A1 1 8500
Chlorotrifluoromthane R-13 104.5 -81.3 29.2 39.2 A1 1 11700
Chlorodifluoromethane R-22 86.47 -40.8 96.15 49.9 A1 0.055 1700
R-22/R115 R-502 111.6 -45.3 80.73 40.2 A1 0.33 5600

Second Generation molecule, not a mixture, it doesn’t separate refrigerators and freezers, liquid chillers,
out at different pressures or temperatures. dehumidifiers, ice makers, water coolers,
Some of the refrigerants of this generation water fountains and transport refrigeration.
The second generation refrigerants were
are presented here along with their R12 is non-toxic, non-flammable, and
distinguished by a shift to chlorofluoro
thermodynamic properties and applications. non-explosive. This makes it highly popular
chemicals for safety and durability. Thomas
R-11 for the domestic as well as the commercial
Midgley and his associates studied the
R-11 is considered to be safe applications. R12 is highly stable CFC and
property tables of elements of periodic
refrigerant as it is non-flammable and non- it does not disintegrate even under the
table. They disregarded compounds that are
explosive. It is used in the applications like extreme operating conditions. It is suitable
unstable, toxic, yielding insufficient volatility
air conditioning of small buildings, for wide range of operating conditions.
and inert gases based on their low boiling
factories, departmental stores, theatres Unfortunately, it is the CFC and it has
point. In 1928, Midgley and his colleagues
etc. It can be used in the applications unusually high potential to cause the
made critical observations regarding
where the refrigeration load ranges from depletion of the ozone layer. R12 is being
flammability and toxicity of compounds
150 to 2000 tons along with the centrifugal replaced by other refrigerants and some of
containing elements like carbon, nitrogen,
compressor. R-11 refrigerant is also used the suggested replacements for R12 are:
oxygen, sulphur, hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine
as the solvent and the secondary R-134a, R-401a, R- 401b.
and bromine. Their first publication was on
refrigerant. The problems that have In the 1970s, after decades of dumping
fluorochloro refrigerants and it showed how
restricted the use of this refrigerant are low about a million tons of the stuff into the air
the variation of chlorination and fluorination
operating pressures and high potential to each year, scientists learned that CFC isn’t
of hydrocarbons influences boiling point,
deplete ozone layer. Since R11 has highest harmless after all. In 1973 Prof James
flammability and toxicity of the refrigerants.
potential to cause the depletion of ozone Lovelock discovered Freon to be harmful
Thus CFC refrigerants made the second
layer, as per the Montreal Protocol, its use to the ozone layer. The CFC molecules are
generation of refrigerants. CFC is a non-
and production had to be stopped destroyed by the sun’s ultraviolet rays in
toxic, non-flammable gas with relatively high
completely. R-11 is now being replaced by the stratosphere. When the chemical
mass. It is a good refrigerant because it can
other environment friendly refrigerants, of bonds are broken, the chlorine atoms drift
be compressed easily to liquid and carries
which the most common is R-123. free, and they become a catalyst that
away lots of heat when it evaporates. It is
breaks unstable ozone molecules (O3) into
very stable that only UV rays can break it R-12 oxygen molecules (O2). The chlorine is not
down In fact, it’s well suited to a variety of R-12 is a highly versatile refrigerant consumed in the reaction, so it continues
applications because it doesn’t react with that is used for wide range of refrigeration ruining ozone for years. This is a big deal,
anything; it works well as a solvent, a and air conditioning applications. because stratospheric ozone is the shield
blowing agent, a fire extinguishing agent and Refrigerant R12 is used in domestic that protects all living things on the planet
an aerosol propellant. Because it is a single
Table 3: Properties of third generation refrigerants
R number M Kg/kmol NBP ( C)
CT (oC) CP Bar Temp. glide (oC) Safety Group GWP
R-32 -52.02 -51.65 78.11 57.8 0 A2L1 580
R-134A 102.03 -26.07 101.06 40.6 0 A1 1300
R-404A 97.6 -46.6 72.14 37.4 0.46 A1 3800
R-407C 86.2 -43.8 86.05 46.3 5.59 A1 1600
R-410A 72.59 -51.6 70.17 47.7 0.1 A1 1900
R-507 98.86 -47.1 70.75 37.2 0 A1 4000
R-508A 100.1 -87.4 11.01 37.0 0 A1 13000

82 | Cooling India | January 2017


Figure 2: Representation of GWP for various refrigerants

from the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. In than their low GWP, is that they can be their flammability, hydrocarbons make
1987, the Montreal Protocol limits the used with existing refrigeration system excellent refrigerants in practice. They are
production and consumption of CFCs. designs. This is good for the industry and miscible with mineral oils and have
January 2010 marked the end of global their customers, but it is still a fluorinated relatively high critical temperatures.
production of CFCs under the Protocol. In gas. There is growing political pressure to Propane (R290) and propylene
2009 the Montreal Protocol was universally regulate it out of production and force the (R1270) have normal boiling points below
ratified by 196 nations. Few second industry to develop an even lower-impact –40°C and are, therefore, suitable for
generation refrigerant and their properties refrigeration technology. So the search general refrigeration applications. Butane
has been shown in table 2. continues. Various hydrofluoro-olefins are (R600) and isobutane (R600a) have much
R-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene), higher boiling points but they also have
Third Generation Refrigerants R-1234ze(E) and (Z) high critical temperatures, which tends to
The third generation refrigerants based (1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene), R-1233zd(E) make them very efficient in operation. The
on hydro chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and and (Z) (1-chloro,3,3,3-trifluoropropene), greatest success of hydrocarbons has
hydro fluorocarbon (HFC) have been R-1243zf (3,3,3-trifluoropropene). Figure been in the application of R600a to
developed to replace second generation 2 represents GWP values of some third domestic refrigerators.
refrigerants. These offer most of the same generation refrigerants. Propane and blends containing
advantages as CFC without damaging the propane could safely be used in window
Earth’s ozone shield, but they were Natural Refrigerants air conditioners provided appropriate
developed before the environmental impact Natural refrigerants are easily available, precautions were taken and provided they
of fluorine was fully understood. This and long experience exists with their were used in fully sealed systems. Propane
impact has been termed as Global Warming application dating far into the beginning of could also be used, with an acceptable
Potential (GWP). Roland and Molina mechanical refrigeration. Many new degree of risk, for car air conditioning,
predicted that emissions of HFCs could refrigerants have come into picture to again provided that appropriate precautions
damage Earth’s atmosphere by the catalytic overcome the disadvantages of using were taken. R1270 is a refrigerant similar
destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. natural refrigerants but the “circle” is now in performance to propane but much more
The hypothesis has been proven in 1985 by somehow closed as we already returned expensive and therefore unlikely to find
measurements which have shown the to natural refrigerants, but now with new general favour. Hydrocarbons would not
destruction of the ozone layer over technologies and with a lot of experience appear attractive for large-scale air
Antarctica. Therefore, HCFC and HFC behind us. Natural refrigerants divide conditioning applications but they will
gasses are on a schedule to be phased out conveniently into hydrocarbons, ammonia certainly appear as a refrigerant for
by 2030. Properties of different third and CO2 and have been discussed here. window air conditioners of low charge.
generation refrigerants are listed in table 3. Hydrocarbons
Another new class of fluorocarbon Carbon Dioxide
The dominant characteristic of the Carbon dioxide is present in the
refrigerants called hydrofluoro-olefin (HFO) hydrocarbon refrigerants is their high
with potential for reduced GWP have been atmosphere and it is non-flammable and
flammability. Provided precautions are non-toxic. Despite the high pressures
developed. Their primary advantage, other taken to mitigate the consequences of associated with its use, carbon dioxide

Cooling India | January 2017| 83


has been used as a refrigerant since 1862. and energy consumption of the system. A exchangers and thus cost of the overall
It is odourless, non-toxic, non-flammable, refrigerant must satisfy a number of system. A final set of practical criteria
non-explosive and non-corrosive. Carbon requirements related to safety, chemical relate to materials and impact the long-
dioxide continued to be in use in marine stability, environmental proper ties, term reliability of a system. The refrigerant
refrigeration as a non-toxic alternative to thermodynamic characteristics and must be compatible with common
ammonia and to methyl chloride. However, compatibility among materials. materials of construction, including metals
the advent of halocarbons in the 1930s led Thermodynamics Properties: The and seals.
to the abandonment of the much less thermodynamic characteristics most
efficient carbon dioxide, which finally went importantly normal boiling point, critical Next Generation Refrigerants
out of use in the 1950s. The reason for temperature and heat capacity must match The alternative refrigerants have been
poor efficiencies obtained when using the application for the system to operate categorized as transitional refrigerant or
carbon dioxide as a refrigerant is that it has efficiently. HCFC/HFC partly chlorinated refrigerants
a low critical temperature. There are Chemical Stability: A refrigeration and into medium and long term refrigerants
several ways in which this defect can be system is expected to operate many years, (Fig 3). HCFC/HFC (partly chlorinated
overcome. As a result of modern methods and all other properties would be refrigerants) such as R22 and R134a are
and developments, carbon dioxide is meaningless if the refrigerant decomposes on the way to phase-out due to
coming back into use as a refrigerant in or reacts to form something else. environmental concern. Under medium
systems which have efficiencies at least Safety and Impact on Health and and long term refrigerants like HFC chlorine
as great as the efficiencies of halocarbon Environment: The ideal refrigerant should free and their blend, low GWP refrigerant
and ammonia systems. It is an ideal have low toxicity and be non-flammable at (R1234yf,1234ze) and halogen free
refrigerant. If properly applied it is very the same time should have zero ODP and refrigerant (natural refrigerant) are at
efficient to use. lowest GWP. present looking as the viable options for
Thermo-physical Properties: future refrigerant.
Desirable Properties Of New Favourable transport properties like low Low Global Warming
Refrigerants viscosity and high thermal conductivity
Careful selection of refrigerant has have an impact on the size of the heat
significant impacts on the safety, reliability R e c e n t l y, R1234yf

Figure 3: Classification of Alternative Refrigerant

84 | Cooling India | January 2017


Figure 4: Cooling capacity versus evaporation temperature Figure 5: COP versus evaporation temperature

(2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene) having R134a. Difference in cooling capacity was centrifugal chillers. DR-55 will be the
chemical formula CH2=CFCF3 has been calculated between R-134a and both leading low GWP replacement for R-410A
proposed as a possible alternative R1234ze and R1234yf. It was found to be as it is easily convertible from R-410A
refrigerant for HFC134a. R1234yf has zero 3% - 12% less for R1234yf within the designs while offering the optimal balance
ODP and excellent life cycle climate experimented temperature range, whereas of energy performance.
performance (LCCP) as compared to this difference was calculated to be less
HFC134a. HFO-1234yf has the lowest by 4% - 6% for R1234ze. Similarly, COP of HFC/HCFC Blend
switching cost for automakers among the the system was also found to be slightly R-407F is a non-ODP replacement for
currently proposed alternatives, although lower for the new refrigerants compared to R-22 and lower GWP (1825) replacement
the initial cost of the product is much R134a. Though the performance of the for R404A in various air-conditioning
higher than that of R-134a. Another HFO system degraded slightly with these two applications particularly in low-temperature
based refrigerant HFO 1234ze (trans- new refrigerants, they have far less applications. Since it is a close match to
1 , 3 , 3 , 3 -Te t r a f l u o r o p r o p - 1 - e n e , environmental impact compared to R134a. R-22, it also serves as a retrofit fluid in
CF3CH=CHF) is an energy-efficient So, those two can replace the existing applications where R-22 is used. R-407F
alternative to traditional refrigerants in air- refrigerant R134a in near future. The contains HFC-32, HFC-125, and HFC-
cooled and water-cooled chillers for variations of cooling capacity and COP 134a. R-409A (a HCFC blend) containing
supermarkets and commercial buildings with evaporator temperature for the above HCFC-22 (60%), HCFC-124 (25%) and
as well as in other medium temperature said three refrigerants have been shown in HCFC-142b (15%) is an interim
applications such as heat pumps, Figure 4 and Figure 5 respectively for replacement for R-12 in stationary positive
refrigerators and CO2 cascade systems in different condenser temperatures. displacement air-conditioning and
commercial refrigeration. Refrigerant HFO- R-449A is a non-ODP; lower GWP refrigeration systems such as walk-in
1234ze is the best medium pressure, zero hydro-fluoro-olefin (HFO) based refrigerant coolers, beverage dispensers and
ODP and low GWP refrigerant on the replacement for R-404A/R-507, R-407A/F supermarket systems. Its ODP is 0.046
market when considering the balance of all and R-22. R449A is designed for use in and GWP is 1909. R-401B may act as an
properties. A unique characteristic of this positive displacement direct expansion interim replacement for R-12 in low-
refrigerant is the absence of flammable low and medium temperature commercial temperature commercial refrigeration
mixture with air under 30°C of ambience. and industrial applications. It has a GWP of systems, for transport refrigeration, low
The performance of vapour 1397, which is a 65% reduction and temperature retrofits, retrofits including air
compression refrigeration system with provides energy consumption 8-12% conditioners and dehumidifiers. It is made
two next generation environment-friendly lower than R-404A/R-507. R-449A is up of HCFC-22 (61%), HFC-152a (11%)
refrigerants was investigated and presently the best choice to replace 404A and HCFC-124 (28%). The ODP and GWP
compared with the performance of the for stationary refrigeration systems. values for this mixed refrigerant are 0.036
system with R134a, a third generation Refrigerants R-513A, DR-55, R-452A and 1288 respectively. R-422D is a non-
refrigerant. Comparison has been made are non-ODP, low GWP HFO based ozone depleting replacement for R-22 in
between R1234ze, R1234yf and R134a refrigerants. R-513A is developed to low- and medium-temperature commercial
and it was found that those two replace R-134a in positive displacement, refrigeration systems suitable for direct
environmental friendly refrigerants gave direct expansion, medium-temperature expansion evaporators. It contains HFC-
slightly lower performance than that of the commercial and industrial, including 125 (65.1%), HFC-134a (31.5%), and
HC-600a (3.4%) and has a GWP of 2729.

Cooling India | January 2017| 87


Benefits Of Alternative developed to provide residential can reduce electricity consumption up to

refrigeration with less emission. approximately 10% compared to that of
Alternative refrigerants such as R-32 AC units using R-22. Compared to R-22
Modern refrigerants are more beneficial
and R-410A are phasing out the older and R-410A, R-32 has a global warming
financially and environmentally over
refrigerants (more harmful and less potential (GWP) that is one-third lower and
commonly used old refrigerants. Hydro
efficient). R-22 is harmful to the ozone is remarkable for its low environmental
chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and
layer and was discontinued for use in new impact.
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the
AC units in 2010 which is then replaced by The next generation refrigerants should
commonly used refrigerants in the 20th
R-410A. R-410A is an HFC (hydro be developed based on zero ODP and low
century, are phasing out in more recent
fluorocarbon) that does not contribute to GWP. In the future further research,
years because of their harmful effects on
ozone depletion and will be the new regulation changes, the design of new
the ozone layer. Similarly, these
standard for US residential AC systems as systems suitable for the use of newly
fluorocarbons such as CFCs add harmful
of 2015 because R-410A can absorb and developed and natural refrigerants and the
greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.
release more heat than R-22. R-410A also optimization of the system can be
Such gases are thousands of times more
functions at a higher pressure than R-22, expected. There cannot be any ideal
harmful than carbon dioxide and continue
so new compressors are built to withstand refrigerant but it is very important that the
to increase global warming. With modern-
greater stresses, reducing the chance for refrigerants should do less harm to the
day energy standards increasing, new
cracking. R-32 is an even newer refrigerant environment. The return to natural
methods of refrigeration are being
that will likely gain popularity over the next refrigerants at a new, high technology level
implemented and are continuing to be
few years. R-32 efficiently conveys heat; it should not be forgotten. 
Bijan Kumar Mandal
Ranendra Roy Madhu Sruthi Emani Department of Mechanical
Research Scholar, Indian PG Engineering
Institute of Engineering Indian Institute of Indian Institute of Engineering
Science and Technology, Engineering Science and Science and Technology,
Shibpur, Howrah Technology, Howrah Shibpur, Howrah

Demonetisation taking a toll on potatoes

ederation of Cold Storage Association of India (FCSAI) has As a result of this, the farmers were not lifting potatoes from

F said that the huge stocks of potatoes in cold storages

across the country have started rotting due to slump in sale
following demonetisation. “In the wake of demonetisation which
the cold storage and many of them are not in a position to clear
their dues for preserving them in such facilities, he added.
Swaroop said roughly 1.50 crore sacks weighing around 50
has led to currency crunch the middlemen in mandis (wholesale kg each were stuffed in the storage. Now new produce is being
markets) are not buying potatoes from farmers," FCSAI President harvested, he added. A big portion of the lakhs of tonnes of
Mahendra Swaroop told reporters. potatoes has started rotting in the cold storages, he said. 

88 | Cooling India | January 2017

futuristic options

Next Generation
Selection Criteria of
The next generation refrigerants are presented in
this article with special focus on R32 and R1234yf. Selection of suitable refrigerant for
All of these refrigerants have some individual specific application is very critical as it
depend on various factors, which can be
merits and demerits. Hence, it not correct to say broadly categorized as: (i) Environmental
and personal safety, (ii) Thermodynamic
that the searching of suitable refrigerants is at the properties, (iii) Chemical and physical
end and these refrigerants will serve forever... properties, and (iv) Cost and system
compactness. Environmental and personal
safeties are the primary issues to select
he refrigeration and air conditioning the present century, there was considerable

T industry has made tremendous

progress over the past two decades
in reducing the use of ozone depleting
uncertainty regarding future refrigerant
options. Now a new path has started to
appear, defined by the global agenda on
refrigerant. Under increasing pressure to
address global warming concerns, the
industry is spending more effort to
understand the environmental impact of air
refrigerants. The original targets of the climate change and global warming.
conditioning systems using different
Montreal Protocol, established in 1987 to Energy security, miniaturization, cost and
refrigerants and technologies. The
reduce emissions of ozone depleting social demands have also become
environmental performance of air
substances, are being met and exceeded. emerging issues for the refrigeration and
conditioning or heat pump systems is
Another consequence of these initiatives is air conditioning industry.
partially defined by life cycle impacts on
that during the 1990s and the early part of

0 | Cooling
ng India
ia | Ja
nuarry 20
futuristic options

application may be governed by many

parameters, which are graphically
represented in Figure 3. However, the next
generation refrigerants (future refrigerant
for long term use) have been selected
mainly based on environmental criteria;
those refrigerants, which have (i) zero
ODP (Ozone layer Depletion Potential) and
(ii) low GWP (Global Warming Potential).
Limit for low GWP refrigerants is not well
defined; according to most of the
literatures, the low GWP range is up to
150; however R32 (having GWP of 675)
has been also considered as low GWP
refrigerant. Properties of next generation
refrigerants for vapor compression system
are shown in Table 1, which can be
classified as (i) Inorganic natural
Figure 1: Phase-out schedule of various synthetic refrigerants refrigerants, (ii) Organic natural refrigerant,
(iii) Hydro-Fluoro-Carbons (HFCs) and (iv)
climate, including the direct impacts of the lubricating oils of the compressor, Fluorinated ethers (HFOs). Within listed
refrigerant emissions, the indirect impacts • non-acidic in case of a mixture with refrigerants, the new refrigerants R32,
of energy consumption used to operate water or air, R1234yf and R1234ze have introduced
the heat pump system, and the energy to • chemically stable, very recently. Main advantages of these
manufacture, transport, and safely dispose • suitable thermal and physical refrigerants compared to others are mild
of the system, all expressed in terms of properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, flammability (better than HCs), mild
CO2 equivalent emissions. Two viscosity), toxicity (better than R717) and comparable
environmental impacts, ozone layer • commercially available, performance (better than R744). Many
depletion (measured by ODP) and global • easily detectable in case of leakage, reputed manufacturers have recently
warming (measured by GWP) had made and launched various new refrigeration and air-
nearly all the conventional synthetic • low cost. conditioning products based on R32 and
refrigerants unfit for long term use. Details R1234yf. Table 2 summarizes the various
of phase-out schedule of various synthetic Next-Generation Refrigerants
past, present and future applications of
refrigerants are shown in Figure 1. Personal As discussed earlier, the selection of
next generation refrigerants for
safety is mainly related to toxicity and suitable refrigerant for long term use in any
compression refrigeration and heat pump
flammability. Detail of personal safety refrigeration, heat pump or air-conditioning
classification is shown in Figure 2.
As discussed, there are many criteria
to be considered in the selection of an
appropriate refrigerant for use in a
refrigeration or heat pump system. Briefly,
the refrigerants are expected to meet the
following conditions:
• ozone- and environment friendly,
• low boiling temperature,
• low volume of flow rate per unit
• vaporization pressure lower than
atmospheric pressure,
• high heat of vaporization,
• nonflammable and nonexplosive,
• non-corrosive and non-toxic,
• non-reactive and non-depletive with
Figure 2: Safety classification of refrigerants

Cooling India | January 2017| 91

futuristic options

pressure ratio hence development is

• Higher critical temperature hence
higher COP.
• Single component of gas, therefore it
is easier to be produced and managed.
• Better heat transfer properties at same
mass flux, hence lower evaporator and
condenser size
• No glide and potential to optimize heat
exchanger with smaller volume for
charge reduction
The disadvantages are cited below:
• A2L mild flammability rating (difficult
to find a Low-GWP A1 non-flammable
• Higher compressor discharge
temperature from higher vapor specific
• New oil likely required since existing
polyolester (POE) oil is not miscible
with R32
Overall, R32 seems to offer more
Figure 3: Various governing parameters for refrigerant selection advantages than disadvantages. Its lower
cost provides incentive for investing
systems. New refrigerants R32 and summarized as:
development time for mitigating its
R1234yf are discussed in details in the • Zero ODP
disadvantages through compressor and
proceeding sections. • One third of R-410A GWP.
system design optimization. R-32 can
• Considerably lower refrigerant cost
Characteristics of R32 than R410A and potentially better
reduce electricity consumption up to
R32 is difluoromethane (methylene approximately 10% compared to that of air
fluoride) and it is an HFC type refrigerant. conditioners using refrigerant R-22.
• Available now in high volumes globally
R32 has been used for many years as a
component of both R407C and R410A;
since it is 50% of R410A composition Characteristics of R1234yf
• Lower vapor density and lower mass R-1234yf, a new environmentally-
however, it has been introduced as pure flow rate, hence lower pressure drop friendly refrigerant, has received final
refrigerant recently. It is flammable on its expected approval from the US Environmental
own, but not when mixed with the other • Required less charge as it has a 20% Protection Agency (EPA) in 2011.
components of these blends. higher volumetric capacity. R-1234yf stands for a specific compound:
The relative merits of R32 can be • Similar saturated pressure and 1 – double bond, 2 – hydrogens, 3 –
Table 1: Physical and environmental properties of next generation refrigerants
Refrigerant Formula NBP (°C) CT (°C) GWP Flammability Safety class
Natural Inorganic R717 NH3 −33.3 132.3 0 No B1
R744 CO2 −56.5* 31.0 1 No A1
Natural HCs R290 C3H8 −42.1 96.7 20 Higher A3
R1270 C3H6 −47.7 92.4 3 Higher A3
R600a C4H10 −11.7 134.7 3 Higher A3
HFCs R152a C2H4F2 −24.1 113.3 140 Lower A2
R32 CH2F2 −51.7 78.1 650 Mild A2L
HFOs R1234yf C3H2F4 −29.5 99.7 4 Mild A2L
R1234ze C3H2F4 −19.0 109.4 6 Mild A2L
Note: NBP - Normal boiling point; CT - Critical temperature; *Triple point

92 | Cooling India | January 2017

futuristic options

Table 2: Applications of next generation refrigerants

Refrigerant Compression refrigeration and heat pump applications
R717 Industrial and commercial reciprocating compression system, Ice plant, Packing plant, Cold storage, Food refrigeration
R744 Heat pump water heater, Supermarket refrigeration, Mobile air-conditioning
R290 Domestic refrigerator, Domestic heat pumps and air conditioners, Packaged terminal air conditioners, Commercial
refrigerators, Vending machines
R1270 Domestic refrigerator, Commercial chillers
R600a Household refrigerator, Commercial refrigerators and freezers, Retail food refrigeration, Vending machines
R152a Domestic refrigerator, mobile air-conditioning system
R32 Commercial refrigerator, Residential air-conditioning, Packaged terminal air conditioners, Food refrigeration,
Supermarket refrigeration
R1234yf Mobile air-conditioning system
R1234ze Chillers for supermarkets and commercial buildings. Heat pumps, Refrigerators, Vending machines, Beverage
dispensers, Air dryers

carbons, 4- fluorines, yf – position of the R-134a, Operating pressures and Conclusions

fluoro atoms. The biggest benefit of refrigerant characteristics are pretty The next generation refrigerants are
R1234yf is that it breaks down faster in the close to R134a, Better COP than presented in this article with special focus
atmosphere than R-134a, leading to R152a & CO2 on R32 and R1234yf. All of these refrigerants
negligible GWP value. It is considered • Thermally stable and compatible with have some individual merits and demerits.
mildly flammable and has thermodynamic R-134a components, similar Hence, it not correct to say that the
properties similar to R-134a. It has best compressor wear searching of suitable refrigerants is at the
balance Of properties and performance. • Complying to European and US Norms, end and these refrigerants will serve forever.
Relative advantages of R1234yf: Suited to all climates across the world Any major demerit may be detected with
• Excellent environmental properties R1234yf Implementation issues: some of these refrigerants in future (which,
(Very low GWP, Zero ODP, Low TEWI, • Flammable and may require additional we are not able to understand today) and
Favorable LCCP, Atmospheric safety measures during implementation have to be banned. One the other hand,
chemistry determined and published) and use some new refrigerants may be introduced in
• Low toxicity, similar to R-134a (Low • R1234yf is a more complex and costly future. It is a never-ending process. 
acute and chronic toxicity, Significant refrigerant gas to produce than R134a.
testing completed, Has a favorable ATEL • Additional par t (internal heat Dr Jahar Sarkar
(Acute Toxicity Exposure Limit) value exchanger) is required to match the Associate Professor,
• Mild flammability (significantly better performance Department of Mechanical
Engineering, Indian Institute
than 152a), which is manageable • Many components have to be
of Technology, Varanasi
• COP and Capacity are very similar to re-developed (New oil type, New ports)

Cooling India | January 2017| 93

water recycling

Optimal Use of Available Resources

in Industries & Agriculture
Manganese, generally, is dissolved in
Now-a -day all industries and utilities prefer water, although some shallow wells
maintenance-free, cost-effective, green and contain colloidal manganese (black
color). These sediments are responsible
clean technology in every process as they realize for the discoloration properties of water
importance of water and energy… containing high concentrations of iron and
manganese. These residues may be
severe enough to block water pipes hence
n today’s highly competitive markets, green building practice.

I many industries and organizations

have already taken initiatives to
implement new technology and wise use
In ground water, river, deep wells, tap
water where oxygen content is low, the
iron or manganese-bearing water is clear
try to solve problems from its grass root
level. Therefore, understanding of various
parameters that play direct or indirect vital
role in water is necessary.
of all available natural resources of water and colorless. Iron and manganese are in
and energy. They make plans with local dissolved form. When exposed to air, iron Various Parameters
utilities to reduce their demands for energy and manganese are oxidized and change Iron and manganese can disturb flavor
and water to save costs and improve the from colorless dissolved forms to colored and color of food and water. They may
long-term sustainability of their business. solid forms. react with coffee, tea and some alcoholic
For potable water we don’t Due to oxidation of softened iron grains beverages to produce a black sludge,
compromise. But for many routine in water convert iron particles into white, which affects both taste and appearance.
industrial and commercial applications, then yellow and finally convert it into red Manganese is intolerable in water even
treated recycled water is the effective way brown solid particles that settle down in when present in smaller concentrations than
to reduce the demand for valuable fresh water and remaining suspended iron iron. Iron will cause reddish-brown stain of
water resources. It is also a recognized particles leave the water with a red color. dirty washing, ceramic tiles and floor and

94 | Cooling India | January 2017

water recycling

dishes, utensils and even glassware. from the process must be dissipated to This reduces maintenance cycle up to
Manganese acts in a similar way but allow reuse of water. Cooling towers spray 80 % and saves lots of money, machine
causes a brownish black stain. Soaps and ponds, and evaporative condensers are and manpower.
detergents do not remove these stains, used for this purpose.
and use of chlorine bleach and alkaline Open recirculating cooling systems pH Alkalinity (Water’s ability
builders (such as sodium and carbonate) save a lot of make up or fresh water as to neutralize acids)
may intensify the stains. compared to the unconventional method, • Bicarbonates generally represent main
Iron and manganese deposits will form once through cooling. The quantity of part of measured alkalinity, amounts of
step by step layers in pipelines, pressure water discharged to waste is greatly carbonate and hydroxide alkalinity.
tanks, water heaters and water softeners. reduced in the open recirculating method, • Alkalinity is an important mean of
This reduces available quantity and and advance E water Descaling treatment predicting probable. Calcium carbonate
pressure of the water supply. Iron and is more economical. scale. High alkalinity means acidic water
manganese accumulations become an In open recirculating cooling systems, has a pH < 7; alkaline water has > 7.
economic problem when water supply or it needs more treatment with respect to • Health effect of pH on drinking water
water softening equipment must be problems: depends upon where pH falls within its
replaced. It also leads to increase in • Due to cooling by evaporation range. The US Environmental
energy costs from pumping water through increases the soften solids absorption Protection Agency recommends a pH
constricted pipes or heating water with in water, raising corrosion and between 6.5 and 8.5 for drinking water.
heating rods coated with iron or manganese deposition tendencies the relatively • A high pH leads to excessive calcium
mineral deposits. Due to these reasons, higher temperatures significantly and other ceramic like deposits.
some water softeners plants and RO increase corrosion potential. • pH of cooling water becomes acidic
plants do not prevent blocking of pipes • Long preservation time and boiling because of atmospheric elements or
and equipment. But it only removes few water in an open recirculating system infiltration of process elements, a pH
minerals and gets effect of soft water. That increase tendency for natural growth lower than six will destroy this
means water softener may control total of ground gases such as sulfur dioxide, protective coating in a few months.
dissolved solid particles. But, it is less ammonia or hydrogen sulfide that can Engineers and manufacturers then
effective in controlling hardness due to be absorbed from air, causing higher have to apply expensive coatings and
calcium and magnesium. It is all due to corrosion rates. repair damage that may have occurred.
iron or manganese. These non-pathogenic • Germs, nutrients, and possible foulants If the repair process is extensive, costly
(not health threatening) bacteria occur in can also be absorbed into water across process interruptions may be required.
soil, shallow storage tank, and some tower.
surface waters. The bacteria feed on iron
and manganese in water. These bacteria Hardness • Silica is difficult to remove scale
Combination of calcium and magnesium deposits. Pre-treatment like silica filter
form red-brown (iron) or black-brown
deposition, calcium and magnesium both or side stream filtration is often
(manganese) fungus or slime in toilet
can lead to scale formation. required if the silica levels are above
tanks and can clog water systems.
• Calcium is the most difficult as certain 120 ppm (as SiO2).
Various Parameters with calcium salts does not soluble in water. TSS Total Suspended Solids
reference to industrial • Magnesium does not create much (undissolved material such as sludge,
problem unless silica levels are also sand, fine clay, and vegetation.)
applications (Cooling Towers) • Unlike (TDS) Total dissolved solids,
high. This could result in magnesium
Cooling towers are widely used in all
silicate scale in heat exchangers. Most not all suspended solids enter the
industries, hotels and commercial
salts are easily soluble with increasing cooling system with make up water.
buildings for dissipating heat in open
temperature, but calcium carbonate Some might be generated as corrosion
recirculating cooling systems. They are
becomes less soluble with increasing and scale by-products or from air or
designed to provide close air or water
temperature. So, the best way is to water contact. Suspended solids can
contact. Heat removal is mainly by
break the bonding of calcium and transform to biofilm and cause under
evaporation of part of cooling water. Some
carbonate and also magnesium and deposit corrosion. TSS can be
sensible heat loss (direct cooling of water
carbonate to reduce hardness. controlled through pretreatment,
by air) also occurs. But, it is only a minor
• Advance E-water Descaler treats filtration etc.
portion of total heat rejection.
above processes conveniently with
An open recirculating cooling
energy efficient and eco-friendly
system uses same water again and again • Provides platforms, an ideal nutrient
manner without adding any chemical.
to cool process equipment. Heat absorbed for many bacteria. It can promote

Cooling India | January 2017| 95

water recycling

biofilm development and growth in Iron nitrates in reducing mild steel corrosion
heat exchangers and cooling tower If it combines with phosphate to form rates and pitting tendencies. Levels in
block up. It is also tremendously undesirable foulants, it may also deactivate cooling water above 0.5 mg/l are beneficial,
corrosive to copper alloy, you can find specialised polymers used to inhibit but levels above 3.0 mg/l can contribute to
lot of case study. Ammonia can reduce calcium phosphate scaling. Recycled deposits.
or deny some non-oxidizing biocides water may have a high concentration at
such as glutaraldehyde. (Bromine is a Organics
0.12 to 0.32 of iron. Specialised treatment
more cost-effective biocide than Organics can act literally as fertilizer
of iron is expected to be required for this
chlorine if ammonia is present.) for micro-organisms. Water-soluble
cationic polymers can react with some
Phosphate Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) anionic treatment biocides, as well as
• At higher concentrations (calcium It reflects the organic content for some scale and corrosion inhibitors.
greater than 1,000 mg/l and phosphate biological organisms and the associated
greater than 20 mg/l) there is a Fluoride
demand for oxidizing biocide in addition to
potential for calcium phosphate scaling At 10 ppm or more can combine with
the amount used for bio fouling control.
in heat exchangers, especially, at high calcium to cause scale formation.
heat loads and low cooling water flow Nitrates and Nitrites Heavy Metals (e.g. Cu, Ni, and
rates. Therefore, close monitoring of Nitrates and Nitrites can provide
blow down is required. Phosphate can additional mild steel corrosion control at Pb)
levels above 300 mg/l in the concentrated Copper and nickel can plate out on
also act as a nutrient for biofilms.
cooling water. It can contribute to steel, causing localized galvanic corrosion
Chloride reductions in stainless steel cracking and that can rapidly penetrate thin steel heat
• It can be corrosive to most metals, pitting erosion. Nitrates do not attack exchanger tubes.
especially, mild steel. A chloride limit copper alloys or protect them from
of 300 ppm is often used for stainless
Conductivity (A measure of
steel, but limits for other metals may dissolved solids)
go as high as 1,000 ppm. Zinc Conductivity is an approximate
Zinc can assist phosphates and measure of ionic concentration. As water

For Validation and improving make up water quality initiative taken by Chief engineers of world’s state of art “Akshardham” Temple
Gandhinagar, they are using ample recycled water successfully with this advance E-water technology.

India’s State of art Biggest Luxuries Resort –Madhubhan Resorts and Spa is using heavy recycled good quality E-water for makeup/ Feed
water in cooling tower and swimming pool.

96 | Cooling India | January 2017

water recycling

quality constituents contributing ions moderate to high hardness and alkalinity in has a high TDS concentration to give
change, conductivity settings used for the range of 150 to 500 ppm as CaCO3. up an intermediate TDS concentration.
system control have to be adjusted. • Adequate testing, control, and
Conclusion performance monitoring must be
Calcium Hardness pH (as CaCO3) Water treatment technologies are really maintained in order to assure good
The concentration of calcium endless. system operation and protection. The
increases, so does its probability of • RO plant and softener plant have their use of recycled water depends on the
precipitating out of solution. Potential own advantages. But limitations are final water quality in the cooling
scaling can be controlled through the use wastage of lots of water in which we system, the systems metallurgy, the
of pretreatment, scale inhibitors or deposit cannot debate. However, if you prefer levels of nutrients present, and the
control agents cost-effective solution with aim to operating conditions in the cooling
save water and environment, then components. Recycled water can
Partial Softening of Makeup usage of recycled water reduce contribute to corrosion, but the
Water wastage of water. Reusing water is presence of phosphates and nitrates
Partial softening of the makeup water possible with some advance E-water can provide mild steel corrosion
prior to its introduction to the cooling technology. control. All increased corrosives,
tower is an effective pre-treatment method • Rinse water continuously as per except ammonia, can be reduced or
to increase cooling tower efficiency. Partial desired applications and check its eliminated with water treatment
softening reduces water hardness, parameter and replace it with fresh chemicals under good control. 
alkalinity and silica. In this method the water after one week, two week or as
water is treated with lime or a combination per usage containing nearly no
of lime and soda ash to precipitate the ions detectable levels of ions. However,
contributing to hardness and alkalinity. The with low in TDS may be corrosive and Prof Gaurang Sharma
precipitate is treated physically which may need corrosion inhibitors. This Professor,
saves lots of chemical treatment. Partial water source can be used by itself or BVM Engineering College,
softening is used to treat water with can be mixed together with water that V V Nagar, Anand, Gujarat

Daikin Applied Sets New Standards

aikin Applied are pleased to with Variable Volume Ratio technology climate management systems. Our

D launch the EWAD-TZ B chiller

range. The TZ B is the next
generation of air cooled chillers with
(VVR) along with the latest micro-channel
condenser coil technology, pushing the
boundaries of chiller design in order to
challenge has been to deliver systems
that are competitively priced and more
versatile. As a manufacturer of both
inverter screw compressor technology. meet the challenges of green building compressors and chillers Daikin Applied
An upgrade from the market leading TZ efficiencies and new legislation. The new delivers optimum designs to meet the
and CZ ranges, the TZ-B now covers highly advanced Daikin needs of the many
cooling capacities from 170kW up to Applied TZ-B chiller adds to different applications from
1.1MW, offering outstanding energy the extensive portfolio of comfor t-cooling to
performance across the range, with EER market leading HVAC process-cooling.
values up to 3.9 and ESEER values of up products, designed to meet The unique screw
to 5.7. a full range of applications compressor design with
“The upgraded TZ-B chiller builds on while offering solutions that refrigerant cooled inverter
what is already a market leading product are more efficient, quieter and greener technology has been combined with
range offered by Daikin Applied. With the than ever seen before. Since the VVR, which maintains the highest
product developments we can offer even introduction of the first inverter driven compression efficiency. This
greater cost savings both in terms of chiller to the market, more than a decade advancement together with component
reduced capital expenditure and energy ago, continual innovation has improved selection optimisation and improved
usage for the end-user” says James end-user efficiencies, while offering even control logic offers even more advantages
Henley, Chiller Product Manager. greater flexibility. and greater reliability. The range has
Building on its predecessor – the With ever-tightening legislation on options for three efficiency levels and
EWAD-TZ launched in 2013 – the TZ-B energy efficiency and CO2 emissions, three sound levels enabling customers
range combines a screw compressor business owners face a number of the ability to choose a bespoke solution
design and integrated inverter technology challenges when replacing cooling and that suits their needs 

Cooling India | January 2017| 97

year-end review

Achievements of Ministry of
Food Processing Industries
presently available under project
The Ministry of Food Processing Industries has imports for cold storage, cold
implemented a number of Central Sector Schemes room also extended for Cold Chain
including pre-cooling unit, pack
for promotion and development of food processing house, sorting and grading lines
sector in the country since 12th Plan… and ripening chambers.
• Under the Scheme of Mega Food
The major achievements of the Ministry create vast employment opportunities. Parks:
during 2016 are as follows: • The following additional fiscal a. The Indus Mega Food Park,
• The Government has allowed 100% concessions have been granted for Khargone (Madhya Pradesh);
FDI for trading including through boosting the investment in the food Jharkhand Mega Food Park Ranchi
e-commerce, in respect of food processing sector : (Jharkhand), and Jangipur Bengal
products manufactured or produced in a. Reduction in Excise Duty on Mega Food Park, Murshidabad
India. 100% FDI is already permitted in Refrigerated Containers from (West Bengal) were made
manufacturing of food products 12.5% to 6%. operational and inaugurated.
through automatic route. This will b. Reduction in Basic Custom Duty b. Foundation Stone of Punjab Agro
provide impetus to the foreign on Refrigerated Containers from Industries Corporation (PAIC)
investment in food processing sector, 10% to 5%. Mega Food Park Project in Ludhiana
benefit farmers immensely and will c. 5% Basic Customs Duty as was laid.

98 | Cooling India | January 2017

year-end review

c. As such, eight Mega Food Parks

have been made operational so
d. A Mega Food Park is likely to
benefit about 25000-30000
farmers apart from creating
employment for 5000-6000
persons, especially in rural
e. The Mega Food Park projects at
Satara (Maharashtra), Ajmer
(Rajasthan), Rayagada (Odisha)
and Agartala (Tripura) are at
advanced stage for
operationalisation by the end of
current financial year.
• NABARD has sanctioned term loan
of Rs. 427.69 crore to 10 Mega
Food Park projects and 2 processing
units under ‘Food Processing Fund’
of Rs. 2000 crore and out of this an
amount of Rs 81.10 crore has been revised on the basis of feedback approved in the regulations will no
disbursed. The Ministry has notified and experience of the Ministry to longer require product approval.
157 designated food parks in different make them investor-friendly. This has provided considerable
States for the purpose of availing d. On an average, each cold chain relief to the industry.
affordable credit from special fund project benefits to around 500 • A web-based on-line system has been
with NABARD. farmers in fruits and vegetables operationalised for processing claims
• Under the Scheme of Integrated Cold sector and around 5000 farmers in for release of grants-in-aid under the
Chain and Value Addition Infrastructure: dairy sector and creates Schemes of Mega Food Parks and the
a. 20 projects have been employment for 100 persons. Integrated Cold Chain and Value
operationalised in 2016. With its • Ministry has invited EOIs to fill up Addition Infrastructure.
operationalisation, the Ministry has vacant slots of Mega Food parks and • The National Institute of Food
created an additional capacity of Cold Chain projects. The Ministry has Technology, Entrepreneurship and
0.63 lakh metric tonnes of cold received 54 proposals against 8 vacant Management (NIFTEM) at Kundli,
storage, 15 metric tonnes per hour slots of Mega Food Parks and 308 Sonepat, Haryana and Indian Institute
of Individual Quick Freezing (IQF), proposals for 100 Cold Chain projects of Crop Processing Technology (IICPT)
10.65 lakh litres per day of milk of which stand testimony to the increasing at Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu are being
processing or storage and 99 interest of the investors in this sector. developed by the Government as the
reefer vans during 2016. • Under the Scheme of Setting up/ Centres of Excellence. The pass-outs
b. During last two and half years, 54 Modernization of Abattoirs, one project of these institutes have got 100%
integrated cold chain projects have at Panji (Goa) has been operationalised. placements.
been made operational taking the • During the year, 10 Food Testing Labs The Ministry is also taking steps to
total number of cold chain projects have been completed. implement a new scheme namely Scheme
to 91. The Ministry has so far • FSSAI has simplified product approval: for Agro-Marine produce Processing and
assisted 135 cold chain projects a. Approved a large number of new Development of Agro-clusters (SAMPADA)
having a capacity of 3.67 lakh Additives harmonized with the for overall development of food processing
metric tonnes of cold storage, International Codex Standards. sector, for providing enabling infrastructure,
94.29 metric tonnes per hour of b. Notified an amendment to the expanding processing and preservation
individual Quick Freezing (IQF) regulations as a result of which capacities, controlled temperature logistics
37.93 lakh litres per day of milk non-standardized food products and backward and forward linkages, with
processing or storage and 549 called proprietary foods (except an allocation of Rs 6000 crore for a period
reefer vans. novel food and nutra-ceuticals) co-terminus with 14th Finance Commission.
c. The guidelines of scheme have been that use ingredients and additives 

Cooling India | January 2017| 99

cutting energy waste

Launching Zero Energy

School in US
the US, and was built with advanced next
Six school districts & two states are among first generation energy efficiency and renewable
aiming to make zero energy schools mainstream… power features including solar rooftop and
geothermal heating and cooling systems.
“Through the Better Buildings Zero
s a part of the Obama energy is less than or equal to the onsite

A Administration’s effort to cut

energy waste in America’s
buildings, the Energy Department launched
renewable exported energy.
In conjunction with the launch, Energy
Department officials joined other key
Energy Schools Accelerator, partners
commit to real savings,” said Kathleen
Hogan, US Department of Energy’s Deputy
Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency.
the Better Buildings Zero Energy Schools stakeholders to tour Discovery Elementary “By using the most energy-efficient
Accelerator. Six school districts, two states School, a Zero Energy school located near technologies, and engaging students and
and several national organizations are the nation’s capital in Arlington, Virginia, the local community, school districts can
working collaboratively to develop zero which officially opened its doors in lead the way in saving taxpayer dollars and
energy design that is cost-competitive to September 2015. Discovery’s engineering creating more resilient and first-in-class
conventional construction in the education team expects to offset its energy usage educational facilities.”
sector and in local communities across with renewable energy and to potentially Through programs like the Zero Energy
the nation. A Zero Energy Building is an save about $75,000 within its first year of Schools Accelerator, Zero Energy schools
energy-efficient building, where on a operation. Discovery Elementary is one of have the potential to save 65-to-80 percent
source energy basis, the actual delivered 40 emerging Zero Energy ready schools in in energy consumption, depending on

100 | Cooling India | January 2017

cutting energy waste

climate the zone. By aggressively pursuing new technologies as teaching tools. • Arlington School District (Arlington,
energy efficiency opportunities, school The goal is to quickly make Zero Virginia)
districts could dedicate these savings Energy K-12 schools more mainstream. • Boulder Valley School District (Boulder,
toward other learning needs, including Partner school districts commit to Colorado)
salaries for teachers, computers or books. developing their own zero energy plans for • Adams 12 – Five Star Schools
Further, the number of K-12 schools a district project within a year. They can (Thornton, Colorado)
continue to grow and can serve as a model also engage with fellow states and school • Douglas County School District
for other new construction sectors. The districts, and leverage support from (Douglas County, Colorado)
education sector accounts for a substantial regional and national organizations, • State of Minnesota Schools
portion of the building construction and including the National Renewable Energy • State of California Schools
renovation industry, a figure that has grown Laboratory, North-east Energy Efficiency Better Buildings Accelerators are part
consecutively over four years. Partnerships, the National Energy of the broader Better Buildings
In addition to saving money for Education Development (NEED) Project, Initiative which aims to make commercial,
taxpayers, Zero Energy schools also make Southern California Edison, The Energy public, industrial and residential buildings
a difference in the learning environment for Coalition, New Buildings Institute, Rocky 20 percent more energy efficient over the
students. Improved ventilation and day Mountain Institute, and the National next decade. Through Better Buildings,
lighting are used extensively in most Zero Association of State Energy Officials. public and private sector organizations
Energy schools and studies have shown The first participating school districts across the country are working together to
that both these strategies help improve the include: share and replicate successful strategies
learning environment. Teachers are also • Hermosa Beach City School District to drive energy efficiency. This means
able to transform classrooms into 3D (Hermosa Beach, California) saving billions of dollars on energy bills,
engagement opportunities with the student • LA Unified School District (Los reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and
body by using energy dashboards and Angeles, California) creating thousands of jobs 

USGBC’s Ranking of Top 10 Countries for LEED

SGBC announced the Top 10 created a path forward for market certified GSM space as of December

U Countries for LEED, a list that

highlights countries outside the
United States that are making significant
transformation while changing the way we
think about how buildings, communities
and cities are planned, constructed,
2016. LEED-certified spaces use fewer
energy and water resources; save money
for families, businesses and taxpayers;
strides in sustainable building design, maintained and operated.” reduce carbon emissions; and prioritize
construction and market transformation. Global green building is expected to environmental and human health.
These countries represent the ever- double every three years, according to Currently, there are more than 82,000
growing international demand for LEED- a Dodge Data & Analytics World Green commercial projects participating in
certified green buildings. This year, China Building Trends 2016 SmartMarket LEED, totaling more than 1.4 billion GSM
moved from second to first on the list as Report, to which USGBC was a contributing of space worldwide. 170,000 GSM of
the largest user of LEED, with 34.62 partner. Conducted in 70 countries, the space achieves LEED certification every
million gross square meters (GSM) of report found that emerging economies like day in more than 162 countries and
certified LEED space. Canada, India, China, India and Brazil will be engines of territories across the globe. As buildings
Brazil and the Republic of Korea rounded green growth, with development varying currently account for an estimated one-
out the top five countries on the list, from two fold to six fold over current green third of global emissions, green buildings
respectively. building levels. Increased consumer are solutions to climate change because
“By recognizing these leading demand has also pushed the world’s they generate significant environmental,
countries, we are showcasing the green building market to a trillion-dollar economic and societal benefits. Last
exponential growth of LEED in the global industry, a surge that has led to a year, USGBC joined 25 other green
marketplace and an international corresponding increase in the scope and building councils from around the world
commitment to the creation of a size of the green building materials market, to commit to scaling the use of LEED
sustainable built environment,” which is expected to reach $234 billion by over the next five years to reduce
said Mahesh Ramanujam, President and 2019. LEED is the world’s most widely greenhouse gas emissions and ensure
CEO, USGBC. “As we pursue a worldwide used green building rating system. The that the building and construction
effort to mitigate climate change, LEED analysis used to develop the list ranks industry plays its part in limiting global
and the green building industry have countries in terms of cumulative LEED- warming. 

Cooling India | January 2017| 101

case study

Thermal Storage for

Shopping Mall when the mall does not need cooling. Out
The need to conserve power, its high cost and of 12 hours of daily operation, peak load
undependable supply in many parts of the country comes only for four hours, where the ice
balls help in keeping the area cool by
has made HVAC design engineers study each new cooling the chilled water to the required
building project carefully to evaluate the possibility temperature. Other time, chiller works on
normal mode. Due to this, total connected
of maximum power savings… chiller requirement goes down by 40%.
Advantages of Selecting the Thermal
hopping Malls have now become the Storage Package

S best destination for office goers

where they get everything at a single
location. The comfort atmosphere within
• Thermal storage system has the
following advantages over the normal
chilled water system.
the shopping malls attracts more and • Total chiller load goes down by 40%.
more crowd. But it is seen that the while • DG, transformer, cabling and panel
providing this comfort atmosphere, the cost goes down.
developer ends up with huge electricity • Plant room sizes get reduced upto
bill. Hence, the need to conserve power, its some extent.
high cost and undependable supply in • Electricity deposition amount reduces.
Figure 2: Thermal Storage system
many parts of the country has made HVAC • Overall electricity cost reduces by 20%.
design engineers study each new building Selecting the AC System
project carefully to evaluate the possibility As seen in the profile, HVAC load is
of maximum power savings. All we know that the electricity
changing throughout the day and the
distribution is not same in day and night
diversity comes nearly 30%. Now, we have
Background time. Because of the industrial and
to select equipment which can cater to
Air conditioning system consumes agricultural requirement, day time load
peak requirement and should also not
65% of the total electrical load but this load requirement is more as compared to night
waster energy in off peak hours. Thermal
varies from time to time. The ambient time, where offices and industries normally
Storage system is the option in this regard.
factors and the floating occupancy are the don’t work. Again, dual tariff is applicable
As shown in the figure, chillers are
basic reasons for this varying load profile. in some states where there is a substantial
connected with low side system as in case
cost difference between night time and
Building Load Profile of any chilled water system but instead of
day time. Night time cost is nearly 20%
A study was taken up to understand the normal chillers, Brine chillers have used
less than the day time unit cost. In that
daily and yearly load profile of shopping malls. for the same. Secondly, the chilled water
scenario, night time utilization of electricity
line has routed through some storage
and day time reduction of consumption
tanks, which converts the ice balls into ice
will not only reduce the capital investment
during charging mode. In normal mode,
but also the running cost. 
the chilled water again passed through the
tank, where the chilled water rejects heat
to the ice ball and reduces its temperature.
The interesting part is that, the chillers Firoj Jena
are basically of dual mode. They work as Clancy Global Consulting
Figure 1: Yearly and daily load profile normal chillers during off peak hours and
of a shopping Mall. works as sub zero chiller during night time,

102 | Cooling India | January 2017

product profile

The Emerson Cup 2016 Awards

The award is one of the most prestigious and recognized Corporate Office. Recognizing the
uniqueness of Godrej & Boyce E&Es -
competitions of the Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning &
Restructuring of HVACR System project
Refrigeration (HVACR) industry - a platform for showcasing the judges presented the Jury’s Special
emerging trends and practices amongst its professionals. It is a award. The Retrofit Project-Emerging
vehicle to drive change. Cities' category was won by ICICI Bank
Ltd. for the project ICICI Branches &
& refrigeration industry. Here, the
Offices for Energy Efficiency.
opportunities for improvement in areas
In the Cold Chain – Metropolitan Cities
such as energy efficiency, innovation and
category, Thermal Energy Service
indoor air quality are tremendous. The only
Solutions Pvt. Ltd. won the excellence
limitation is our imagination. The Emerson
award for their Blochill & Blofreeze,
Cup, by recognizing and rewarding new
Mumbai project. While the Cold Chain –
technologies that further the Green
Emerging Cities category saw Climate
movement - is the perfect catalyst for
encouraging young talent.”
he Emerson Cup 2016 Awards was The awards were selected by a

T an evening when the industry came

together as one and celebrated the
abundance of talent within its fold. The
distinguished panel of judges, bringing a
wealth of diverse expertise to the
competition. The jury comprised of highly
recognized and influential members drawn
award is one of the most prestigious and
recognized competitions of the Heating from various fields like energy efficiency,
Ventilation Air Conditioning & Refrigeration engineering, architecture, education, cold
(HVACR) industry - a platform for chain and HVACR Design.
Changers Technology Solutions as the
showcasing emerging trends and practices The New Project award category
clear winners for their project Packhouse
amongst its professionals. It is a continued to witness the highest
Ripening Chambers, Theni, Kerala. In
vehicle to drive change. number of nominations. This
addition, two more corporates - Rinac
The Emerson Cup 2016 was year, the excellence award –
India Ltd and Seepra Refrigeration Pvt Ltd
the 9th edition of the competition, Metropolitan cities was conferred
won Jury’s Special Mention Award for
which saw it build on a legacy of on Infosys Ltd, for the Green Data
their Rack Assisted Cold Storage and Cold
promoting innovative, energy Center at the Infosys, Bengaluru
n Hold projects respectively.
saving technologies, and campus. While the excellence
This year the Product Innovation in Air
exploring outstanding award for Emerging cities'
conditioning & Heating category saw a tie.
environmentally responsible category was tied between
The award was jointly won by Johnson
products and solutions. By Divyajyoti Trust and Indian
Controls – Hitachi Air Conditioning India
awarding enterprises and School of Business for their
Ltd. and NESSPAL Air Water Heaters Pvt.
professionals who have made a significant outstanding projects Divyajyoti
Ltd. for their products Zunoh & Kashikoi
contribution to the industry, the competition Eye Care Hospital, Mandvi, Gujarat and
Series in Split AC Systems and Air Source
has fanned the flame of innovation and Indian School of Business, Mohali Campus
Heat Pump respectively.
creative enterprise. respectively. Keeping into account the
The Emerson Cup 2016 saw new
The Emerson Cup 2016 had four quality of entries and recognizing how
benchmarks being made, new technologies
award categories this year – New Projects, close the scoring for each nomination, the
being unveiled and new talent coming to
Retrofit Projects, Cold Chain Projects/ jury decided to award two Jury’s Special
the fore. With competitions like The
Product and Product Innovation in air Awards in the New project category to SKF
Emerson Cup holding aloft the flag of
conditioning & heating. India Ltd & Veratatva Engineering
innovation, the future of the HVACR
Sridar Narayanswami, Vice President Consultants LLP for their projects
industry looks bright. To know more about
& Managing Director, India, Emerson’s Corporate Office, Pune & Equinox, Infosys,
The Emerson Cup, the awards and the
Commercial & Residential Platform present Bengaluru respectively.
entries, connect with us online at Facebook,
on the occasion, was a picture of There was great enthusiasm for the
Twitter, Slide Share and Youtube. 
enthusiasm. He said, “One of the most Retrofit Project category award as well,
with the excellence award being presented For more details visit www.EmersonClimate.
vital cogs in the wheels of the green com/TheEmersonCup
building movement is the air conditioning to Paharpur Business Center for their

Cooling India | January 2017| 103

natural refrigerants

Sustainable Cooling with R723

the individual application must always be
Society's awareness of the importance of a sustainable and taken into consideration – this is why the
environment-friendly use of resources is steadily increasing. conversion should always be clarified with
More and more companies and institutions are coming the individual component manufacturers,”
to realize that there are environment-friendly alternatives explains Bernd Kaltenbrunner, member of
eurammon and CEO of KWN Engineering
worth looking into for their refrigeration systems. Natural GmbH. The energy efficiency of the
refrigerants such as ammonia dimethyl ether help to protect azeotropic mixture is complemented by a
the environment and improve sustainability… high performance coefficient and a high
level of oil solubility. A further great
ccording to an analysis by the pipe cross sections and flow velocities advantage results in the about 15 K lower

A Umweltbundesamt (German federal

environmental agency) in 2014,
refrigeration alone accounts for 14 percent
even for lower refrigerating capacities.
Also, ammonia dimethyl ether has a higher
volumetric refrigerating capacity than
compression end temperature. This allows
that piston compressors reach a larger
temperature stroke and enable the use of
air-cooled condensers.
of Germany's overall energy consumption, ammonia, so it is possible to obtain
and is responsible for about five percent of considerably higher refrigeration capacities “R723 is also environment-friendly,
direct and indirect greenhouse gas with the same quantity of R723. In cost-efficient, and readily available in
emissions. In consideration of national and refrigerating systems tested with both sufficient amounts. R723 systems have
international climate protection goals, it is ammonia and R723, the COP (coefficient been in use for many years. All components
imperative that climate-friendliness in the of performance) improved by 7 percent are available and sold as “ready to plug in”
refrigeration sector be improved. An when using the latter. Beside its energy condensing units or chillers. Another
important contribution can be made by efficiency, the azeotropic mixture also advantage: The relevant authorities treat
using natural refrigerants such as ammonia features a high performance coefficient R723 cooling system like R717 systems,
dimethyl ether (R723), which is particularly and good oil solubility. “In principle, and therefore do not require more extensive
environment-friendly with an ozone ammonia-based cooling systems can be safety measures,” says Kaltenbrunner. Its
depletion potential (ODP) of 0 and a global filled and operated with R723. However, low acquisition costs, along with being
warming potential (GWP) of 8. It also offers
great investment security for operators of
refrigeration systems since the refrigerant
bans of the EU regulation on fluorinated
greenhouse gases don't apply to it.

Efficient for low refrigerating

capacity ranges
The refrigerant ammonia dimethyl
ether consists of 60 percent (by mass) of
ammonia (R717) and 40 percent of
dimethyl ether (RE170) – a propellant gas
whose refrigerant properties are similar to
those of isobutane. Thanks to its azeotropic
boiling behavior, the mixture can be used
like a mono-refrigerant, i.e. there is no
concentration shift during evaporation or
condensation. R723 is particularly efficient
in the low capacity range up to 100 kW.
The circulating volume flow rate of the The environment-friendly and cost-efficient
refrigerant R723 convinced the food-producing
vapor phase is about 150 percent of that company Herrmannsdorfer Landwerkstätten
of ammonia, which means acceptable

104 | Cooling India | January 2017

natural refrigerants

refrigeration capacity of 135 kW. At the

same time, the cooling set is equipped
with heat recovery as full condensation.
Therefore, the maximum heating power is
180 kW. This performance is achieved
with a fill quantity of merely 7.5kg R723
coolant. The condensers are operated with
the fully synthetic alkyl benzene oil.
Regarding the conceptual design of the
system, two aspects were of particular
importance to the client: energy efficiency
and low operating costs. Also, the new
solution should use natural refrigerants, be
long-lived and durable, and help to reduce
eurammon member HKT Huber-Kälte-Technik supported the company ABC CO2 emissions. A special challenge for the
Foodmachinery s.r.o. based in Bratislava and contributed an R723 refrigeration unit for the
construction of a new external refrigeration system. planners and fitters was to install the
system on the flat roof
future-proof and reliable, make the natural of R723 as a of the plant, because
refrigerant a popular choice for planners refrigerant and air- this required additional
and operators of refrigerating systems. cooled condensation measures during
with EC fans, the assembly and
An environment-friendly add- refrigeration unit can installation. With this
on for existing systems reach very high newly installed
These aspects were also in the focus energy efficiency cooling system, the
of a project realized by eurammon member under both full and client now possesses
Th. WITT Kältemaschinenfabrik GmbH for partial load. Despite the region’s largest
Herrmannsdorfer Landwerkstätten, a being completely R723-based system
food-producing company. The family- encased, the for poultry production.
owned business from Bavaria doesn't only refrigerating system
set great store by organic farming and can be easily Economically
food processing, but makes a point of cleaned and serviced sensible and
pursuing a holistic sustainable subsistence thanks to removable
strategy. This is why the company, when
side parts. Equipped
E f f i c i e n t ,
planning a new refrigerating system, with a UMTS modem
eurammon member Th. WITT environment-friendly,
looked into environment-friendly and a W-LAN Kältemaschinenfabrik GmbH installed a energetically
alternatives that were not only durable and connection, the chilled-brine compact refrigeration unit,
advantageous, cost-
energy-efficient, but also used natural entire system can be tailor-made for the specific requirements of
Herrmannsdorfer Landwerkstätten. efficient, and readily
refrigerants. The idea was for a new monitored via the
available in sufficient
cooling system to add to the capacity of internet.
amounts: The list of advantages for R723
the existing one, an ammonia-operated
chilled-water system. Herrmannsdorfer Perfect cooling components is long and convincing. The natural
refrigerant is especially efficient in the low
Landwerkstätten also wanted their system for meat processing
and medium range of refrigeration capacity
to reliable, safe, and easy to maintain. The refrigerant R723 also played the
- a cooling solution for all kinds of
Against this background, eurammon leading part in a project of another
requirements. R723 cooling systems are a
member Th. WITT Kältemaschinenfabrik eurammon member, HKT Huber-Kälte-
good option to operate industrial cooling
GmbH installed a chilled-brine compact Technik GmbH. The refrigeration
systems with a natural coolant. Together
refrigeration unit, tailor-made for the engineering experts from Halfing, Bavaria,
with R744 and the hydrocarbons, this
specific requirements, charged with 20 kg are currently supporting ABC Food
gives us another option to use a more
of the natural refrigerant ammonia dimethyl machinery s.r.o., a company based in
environmentally-friendly and climate-
ether. Using two reciprocating piston Bratislava, in a project for one of their
friendly system technology," sums up
compressors, the system has a clients from the meat-processing industry,
Kaltenbrunner. 
refrigeration capacity of 64 kW, and is and contributed an R723 refrigeration unit
equipped with an evaporator and two for the construction of a new external Source
condenser fans. Thanks to the combination refrigerating system. The unit has a

Cooling India | January 2017| 105

resource efficiency

Sustainable Buildings
growing at an outstanding rate of 10 per
The residential and commercial sector consumes more cent over the last ten years as against the
than a quarter of the total electrical supply usage of world average of 5.5 per cent per annum.
the country and major portion of this is utilized in the Buildings are one of the largest in terms of
buildings. Commercial development is witnessing rapid economic expenditure, use of raw materials
and environmental impacts.
growth. Malls, multiplexes, housing conglomerates are This demands strong public policy to
springing in cities. An effective environmental management promote efficient use of resources, give
of building provides the opportunity to reduce overall the right market signal to prevent guzzling
footprint of urban consumption… and inefficiency, and promote building
designs and structure that help to reduce
demand for energy and water.
ur personal choices about the environmental consequences and achieve Break the insidious link between

O level of comfort we want and the

means of getting that comfort
decides sustainability of our lifestyle. Our
green code of living.
This is a challenge in a growing
economy that has escalated demand for
resource use and building Centre for Science
and Environment’s green building
programme is designed to create policy and
small decisions on -- how do we light and residential, commercial and institutional public awareness for aggressive steps to cut
air condition our home, offices and shops, space and is pushing the market towards the resource imprint of the building sector.
use water, dispose waste define livability. high-end building structures with level of
Buildings are the core of all our demand comfort that are resource intensive. Energy use in buildings
– water, energy and material. It also creates Demand for housing and commercial space The energy demand for the building
waste. But just by changing the design, will explode in India and lock up enormous sector has already increased from 14 per
material, and operations of our buildings carbon and energy. The construction cent in the 1970s to nearly 33 per cent in
we can make enormous difference, avert industry already 10 per cent of the GDP, is 2005 due to a near consistent 8 per cent

106 | Cooling
ng India
Indiia | Ja
ary 20
resource efficiency

voluntary Energy Conservation Building piped and groundwater supplies. Though

Code, 2006 (ECBC) that covers design, water is still several notches behind energy
construction and operational energy in terms of policies and regulatory reforms,
requirements of large commercial but has ample opportunities to learn from it
buildings; The Environment Impact too, quickly though.
Assessment (EIA) procedures by the Voluntary green rating programmes for
Ministry of Environment and Forests buildings have also started. But scale of its
address large building construction application is still very limited. This
projects. These policies are opportunity. programme aims to achieve mandatory
energy efficiency requirements in buildings.
increase in annual building energy Water and buildings As a first step the ECBC will have to be the
consumption growth. The residential and The building sector represents the defining parameter of the energy savings
commercial sector consumes more than a worsening demand side crisis clearly steps in the building sector. To enable this
quarter of the total electrical supply usage reflected in the fact that buildings are all concerned polices both at the national
of the country and major portion of this is responsible for large shares of resource and state level will have to be harmonized
utilized in the buildings. Commercial use and waste generation. Beside energy and also aligned with the national building
development is witnessing rapid growth. the second most critical issue concerning code for effective implementation and
Malls, multiplexes, housing conglomerates the building sector, governments, coverage. The scale can be achieved only
are springing in cities. An effective consumers and environmentalists today is if multi-stakeholder interest can be aligned
environmental management of building possibly water. In fact, water use in and a larger consumer awareness
provides the opportunity to reduce overall buildings accounts for almost 20 per cent programme can be enabled.
footprint of urban consumption. of the total water use, which is significant. Awareness campaign to create
Rampant lifestyle changes are
What must we do? demand for green buildings: Green building
accompanied by spiraling demand for movement in India can be successful only
Set vision for energy efficiency in
water for existing uses along with new if people understand the tangible benefits
buildings: India aspires to reduce the
ones. Water guzzling rain showers, from resource savings that offset the costs
energy intensity of its economy by 20-25
Jacuzzis, heating and cooling systems, of investment in resource efficient
per cent by 2020 to strengthen energy
swimming pools etc. are not anymore buildings. This programme is designed to
security and to foster climate friendly
luxuries in the urban aspirations. create public and consumer awareness to
growth. This in many ways will also set
the terms of action in different sectors of What is been done? build the critical mass of demand for green
economy including the buildings. There is India in its National Water Mission building. Enable consumer movement
considerable potential for energy savings document has made a commitment of through an information network built
in buildings. A conventional building in increasing water use efficiency by 20 per around the strategies for fuel savings,
India typically has the energy intensity of cent in all sectors including domestic. availability, costs, financial incentives,
250 kWh/m2/year of energy. The official Similarly National Mission on Sustainable energy efficiency labelling of the products,
energy conservation building code for Habitat has also emphasized on reducing water auditing, environment friendly
buildings expects to cut this to 140 —170 leakages and improving water efficiency building designs, labelling of products
KWh/m2/year. The very high performance and water reuse in buildings. The growing based on efficiency etc.
buildings can achieve a target of even 75 scarcity of water has led to a renewed Convene network of stakeholders for
KWh/m2/year. This programme will focus on reducing water use, recycling and experience sharing and knowledge creation
therefore push for effective policies to reusing water apart from increasing its to enhance capacity for sustainable
enable stringent targets as well as aim for efficiency. The discussion on creation of a buildings: Energy management in buildings
extensive coverage of buildings under the bureau of water efficiency on the lines of is relatively a new area of governance. A
official energy codes. BEE is a reflection of the changing mindset. growing community of regulators, urban
Push and track policy development for Buildings offer a huge opportunity for designers, planners, architect, building
effective implementation: Green building reducing water use and making it resource developers and financiers, are increasingly
policies have begun to take shape in India. efficient. Just by replacing regular water coming within the vortex of this. The
The National Mission on Sustainable fixtures with water efficient ones can reduce programme creates and mobilizes
Habitat under the National Climate Action water consumption by 30-40 per cent. The networks for experience and knowledge
Plan has a significant focus on the energy inclusion of rainwater harvesting in the sharing in the public domain to support
efficiency of buildings. The Bureau of building bye laws of several cities is also and strengthen grass root action. 
Energy Efficiency (BEE), under the Energy seen as a step towards water conservation Source
Conservation Act, 2001, has released the and reducing dependence on dwindling Centre for Science and Environment

Cooling India | January 2017| 107

resource efficiency

Terminologies in
AC & Refrigeration
or temperature conditions at the end of
There are some common terminologies used by compression process. However, the meaning
air conditioning and refrigeration professionals. of this terminology is not understood by
majority of practicing professionals.
However, these are not properly understood... Entropy measures the molecular
disorder of a system. The more mixed the
ir Conditioning and Refrigeration Hence in refrigeration systems we call

A are two different technologies.

Refrigeration is a process of
cooling by moving or pumping out heat
the total heat as enthalpy, which is the sum
of sensible and latent heat. It is measured
in BTU’s or kcal/hr or Watt.
Technically anything above
system, the greater is the entropy, and
conversely an orderly or unmixed
configuration is one of low entropy.
The term entropy means
from a place where it is not wanted to a transformation. It is thermodynamic
place where it is less objectionable. -460°F/-273.15°C contents heat but we property of a working substance, which
So to achieve any temperature below view it relatively. We should, therefore, increases with addition of heat, and
ambient temperature we require energy. address as how much heat energy decreases with its removal. It is
Refrigeration covers entire spectrum from substance contains rather than how hot or comparatively easy to define change of
ambient temperature to absolute zero cold it is. entropy of a working substance. In a
temperature of minus 273.150C. Air Entropy reversible process, over a small range of
conditioning, therefore, is a part of temperature, the increase or decrease of
We use this terminology when we talk of
refrigeration covering a narrow band in the entropy, when multiplied by absolute
isentropic compression of refrigerant in the
range of 190C to 260C where temperature temperature, gives the heat absorbed or
compressor, to determine discharge pressure
is lowered to suit human comfort. It is rejected by the working substance. The
therefore not different science but very
much the part of refrigeration technology.
The other major areas of refrigeration
technology, depending on specific
requirements are
• Process air conditioning
• Commercial Refrigeration
• Industrial & Low temperature
• Cryogenics

Enthalpy means sum of

sensible and latent heat
In reality Enthalpy is the sum of both,
internal energy (u) and the product of
pressure and volume (pv) or flow energy.
H= u+pv
Vapour compression refrigeration and
air conditioning systems are all in the
category of flow processes, and therefore
only flow energy is considered with any
datum level.

108 | Cooling India | January 2017

resource efficiency

heat absorbed (∆Q)by the working Hence, when we multiply thermal sucks ambient air and compresses it to
substance is equal to: conductivity in FPS unit by 0.1442 we get desired pressure as warranted by the
∆Q = T x ∆S or ∆S= ∆Q/T or where Thermal conductivity in SI unit as W/m.K. applications. Mostly the discharge
T is absolute temperature and ∆S is Please note the major difference pressure is either 7 bar or 10 bar. In other
increase or decrease in entropy. between FPS and SI system. In FPS ‘K’ words, suction pressure is generally same
IS standard 3615 defines entropy as value is for per inch thickness where as in as surrounding ambient conditions where
ratio of the heat added to a substance to SI system it is per meter thickness, hence the compressor is installed and working
the absolute temperature at which it has ‘K’ value in SI is not W/m2.K, butW/m2/m. and the discharge pressure varies as per
been added. K= or W/m.K requirement.
Since in universe some activity is Many engineers argue that the units
In refrigeration compressor operation,
constantly taking place in all the processes indicated in SI units are incorrect and
it is just opposite. The discharge pressure
such as mechanical work, electrical work hence we have given this clarification.
is dependent on ambient temperature
or chemical work including lights and solar
energy, and all these forms are finally Difference between saturation conditions, if it is air cooled application
and depends on wet bulb temperature if it
converted into or generate heat which is temperature and boiling point
Saturation temperature is another word is water cooled application. The suction
the lowest form of energy, the law of
for boiling point. Every substance has only pressure is selected by the design engineer
thermodynamics states that entropy of
universe is constantly increasing. one boiling point which is at atmospheric depending upon the application for which
A simple understandable statement for pressure whereas it has many saturation he intends to design the system.
entropy is a measure of energy unavailable temperatures depending upon pressure. In case of air conditioning applications
for useful work or wasteful energy. A Saturation temperature goes up when or chilled water applications, suction
certain portion of energy added to a pressure increases and saturation pressure is high and thus compressor
system at high temperature is later lost temperature reduces when pressure ratio is low. As we reduce temperature, the
from the system to the surroundings at a reduces. If we refer to refrigerant tables, suction pressure starts falling. For cold
lower temperature and this energy is we notice a small letter ‘b’ near the rooms, it would be lower than air
unavailable for doing any useful work temperature and the pressure against the conditioning application, for -200C cold
between the two temperature involved. same is always 101.325 kPa, which is the rooms it would be still lower and for blast
Entropy is expressed as kJ/kgK. (Definition boiling point of the refrigerant. freezer applications of -400C it would be
given in Automotive Design and very low. But in all these cases saturation
Development in Annexure under definitions)
Heat flow and heat content
discharge pressure remains same so long
Heat flow depends on temperature of
as we use the same refrigerant for all
Thermal conductivity the substance and not the heat contained
applications and same condenser cooling
Many professionals use either FPS in the substance. If a 100kg metal ball at
99°C is kept with contact with 1kg of metal methodology i.e. either air or water cooled.
system or SI system. When looking at the
ball at 100°C, the heat will flow from The compressor functions like water
units of thermal conductivity, there is
smaller metal ball to larger metal ball pump which raises water from lower level
confusion with many users since the units
in FPS are per inch thickness basis although the heat content of bigger ball is to a higher level. The compressor similarly
whereas in SI system they are per meter much more. raises the temperature level from saturated
thickness, hence there is a difference as If we relocate the refrigeration plant evaporating temperature to saturated
given below: from lower climate temperature region to condensing pressure so that refrigerant is
In FPS units, it is the rate of heat warmer areas, say from Bangalore to able to reject heat to a medium which
transfer in Btu per hour per square foot of Delhi, the same refrigeration plant would could be either air or water. In other words,
area per degree Fahrenheit temperature operate at higher saturated discharge compressor raises the energy level of the
temperatures (SCT) as the compressor refrigerant.
difference per inch thickness.
has to raise the energy level beyond A refrigeration compressor pumps a
In order to convert Thermal
ambient conditions so that heat will flow
conductivity ‘K’ value in°F, we volume of gas. Once suction and discharge
from condenser to atmosphere. Heat
need to multiply FPS value by 0.1442 to conditions at compressor are selected,
content is measured by the formula Q=m.
get ‘K’ value in SI system (W/m.K) as then mass flow of refrigerant in lbs/hr or
cpx ∆T where m is the mass of substance,
given in conversion tables. kg/hr can be worked out. The system
Cp is the specific heat and ∆T is the
How this has been worked out is given designer should ask for the accurate
temperature difference.
hereunder volume or mass flow rates at specified
Difference between Air conditions from the compressor
compressor and refrigeration manufacturer. The designer should realize
that a refrigeration compressor pumps a
required volume of gas, and not
In air compressors, the compressor

Cooling India | January 2017| 109

resource efficiency

Majority of compressor manufacturers

indicate in their published catalogues,
compressor capacity with 100F or 150F
sub cooling. This makes the power
consumption per ton of refrigeration looks
very attractive and many engineers come
to me stating that so and so compressor
consumes lower power as compared to
that of other manufacturer who has
published ratings at saturated conditions
without sub-cooling. I ask the engineer to
go to compressor manufacturer and find
out how the compressor achieves sub-
cooling as per published rating. The
answer always is it is not the compressor
which achieves sub-cooling but system
designer must build the sub cooling circuit
in his plant design or provide additional
suction liquid line heat exchanger. One has
to therefore be careful while comparing
Figure 1 two manufacturers ratings to ensure both
are on common basis of saturated
refrigeration capacity. be obtained. The same compressor is
conditions and not with sub cooling.
Another important fact to be remembered used with different refrigerants. It is the
It can be seen from the P-H diagram
is refrigeration compressor is not designed property of refrigerant which decides
that that only liquid can be sub cooled and
to increase the discharge pressure. The compressor discharge pressure.
only gas can be superheated. A mixture of
discharge pressure is totally dependent on
condenser cooling medium and condensing Sub cooling & superheating refrigerant cannot be superheated or
Many professional do not clearly subcooled.
temperature. I have observed that most of
understand the meaning and use of these If we want to subcool the liquid, then it
the engineers, while conducting training
terminologies. should be 100% liquid and no vapours. If
programs, indicate that function of
In order to understand these, vapours are present, the cooling provided
refrigeration compressor is to raise the
knowledge of P-H diagram is essential. would be first used in condensing the
pressure. This statement is incorrect. The
Refer Figure 1. vapours and not sub cooling the liquid.
compressor increases the temperature of
Sub cooling the refrigerant before it Some manufacturers build separate liquid
refrigerant so that it is able to reject heat to
enters the expansion device increases the trap in condenser where only liquid
cooling medium. The corresponding
system capacity without increasing accumulates and then it can be sub-
pressure to this condensing temperature is
compressor power and this is possible to cooled by providing independent water
the property of refrigerant used in the
certain extend by providing additional sub circuit. Similarly, if we wish to superheat
system. There is nothing build into the
cooler or building extra area in water the vapours it has to be 100% vapour. If
compressor whereby one can increase
cooled condenser where the liquid gets some liquid is present, the heat would first
pressure. Once the condensing temperature
trapped and then it can be cooled by be used in evaporating liquid and not
is decided, the refrigerant discharge pressure
separate water circuit. superheating the vapours. The
will be based on which refrigerant has been
used. For example, at 400C condensing
temperature the same compressor,when
used with Ammonia refrigerant will have
discharge pressure as 14.55 bar whereas it
would have, the discharge pressure for
R134a refrigerant as 10.11 bar and with
404A18.5 bar approximately and with 410A
24.5 bar approximately.
Thus, it can be seen that compressor
manufacturer does not provide any feature
which enables these different pressures to

110 | Cooling India | January 2017

resource efficiency

Figure 2

superheating and sub-cooling has to be at Figure 2 show that when superheat in efficiency, and having no global warming
constant pressure as shown in the P-H the evaporator increases the more area of effects is now increasingly being used in
diagram. If the pressure changes the evaporator is wasted air conditioning installations where the
saturation properties of refrigerant change. Superheat Reduces Capacity machine room is away from the human
KC3 COMPRESSOR + 40°C / +5°C occupied areas. Few major once are
Useful superheat indicated below:
There is nothing like useful super heat. = AMMONIA
– Oslo Airport -Norway
It may be useful from compressor point of SUPERHEAT CAPACITY Kcal/hr
– Heathrow Terminal -5
view as providing superheat minimizes 0K 359400 – Singapore Airport
risk of liquid coming to compressor. – Dusseldorf Airport
5K 350700
The superheat in the suction line from – Zurich Airport
outlet of the evaporator to inlet of 10 K 342600
Latent heat makes refrigeration – New Zealand Christchurch Airport
compressor should be kept bare minimum – Stuttgart Airport Terminal 3-2300kW
as it reduces compressor capacity. The systems work efficiently
It is very important to keep in mind that Grasso
myth is regarding useful superheat. If one – Telephone Exchange- Copenhagen
studies in detail the thermodynamic cycle, it is only the latent heat which makes
refrigeration systems work efficiently. – Thermal storage systems for Malls,
superheat is never useful as it increases Cinema Halls
the specific volume at the entry of Sensible heat has hardly ant contribution.
Hence, the refrigerant which has maximum – KWN Greenpeace Headquarters-
compressor, thereby, reducing the mass Vienna
flow rate and thus the cooling capacity. It latent heat is the most efficient refrigerant.
Ammonia refrigerant is therefore more – Sabb-Linkoping-Sweeden-4 ammonia
is useful in the sense that it only helps in chiller of 2 megawatts
protecting the compressor by reducing the efficient than currently used any other
refrigerants. Ammonia has highest latent – Berlin Ostbanhof train station-Grasso
chances of getting liquid at the suction of system for three storey building
the compressor. Similarly, if superheat is heat as compared to other refrigerants as
can be seen in Figure 3. complex
produced in the evaporator, vapour zone – Roche Headquarters in London -930
area becomes larger thereby making Ammonia refrigerant being natural
refrigerant having the best thermodynamic kW- Star Refrigeration
evaporator less efficient as expensive heat – Mulligan Letter sorting center-
transfer area is used for superheating Switzerland-Johnson Controls
rather than for latent heat transfer by way – Ozeaneum in Stralsund-Johnson
of evaporation, which is the main function controls-500kW A 
of evaporator. The most efficient system is
without any superheating of suction gas
which is possible with all flooded coolers
predominantly used in Ammonia systems.
Centrifugal machines or screw chillers
Ramesh Paranjpey
working with R134a, 404A also use
Fellow Life Member, ASHRAE
flooded evaporators as these are more Member IIAR USA
Figure 3
efficient than direct expansion evaporators.

Cooling India | January 2017| 111

pre-event report

ACREX 2017: Opportunities Galore

energy efficiency and end consumers,
ACREX India will open its doors in Greater Noida, Delhi-NCR from skilled workers and installers all consider
23 to 25 February 2017. The theme for this year at ACREX India there will be more and more need for
2017, Rising India: Enterprising and Cool, is directly linked to the energy-saving technologies. There is
growing economy of India. growth in all areas – hospitals, retail,
industry, infrastructure and commercial
• glasspro INDIA: Encompassing development zones – which offer
solutions and innovations for the incentives for central industrial plant
glass industry businesses. The refrigeration industry is
“With every edition, ACREX also enjoying continued growth. All of this
India is becoming grander than offers the ideal conditions to make ACREX
before – offering more India 2017 a success”.
opportunities for stakeholders ACREX India 2017 will have country
across the industry. Build Fair pavilions hosted by Turkey, Germany and
8th Edition of ACREX India will open Alliance is an initiative to bring five China. Besides these, there is individual

1 its doors in Greater Noida, Delhi-NCR

from 23 to 25 February 2017. South
Asia’s leading trade fair on Refrigeration &
strengths of the built industry under one
roof. All individual experts under the
alliance will present the best ever platform
with respect to participation and
participation by 25 countries including
USA, UK, UAE, Taiwan, Italy, France, Hong
Kong, Russia, Mexico, Sweden, Korea,
Cold Chain, Air Conditioning, Ventilation & South Korea, Thailand, Czech Republic,
Intelligent Buildings is organised by Indian networking oppor tunities for the Switzerland, Malaysia, Vietnam and many
Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air construction industry. We look forward to more. Russia and Hong Kong will also be
Conditioning Engineers (ISHRAE) and welcoming you there!” says, Sonia participating in the event for the first time.
produced by NuernbergMesse India. Prashar, Managing Director, Country delegations are expected from
It has been an endeavour of ISHRAE to NuernbergMesse India. Malaysia, Indonesia, Turkey and China. One
bring HVAC&R industry into the forefront ACREX 2017 is expected to attract 500 of the biggest highlights this year is Turkey
and make ACREX India the most coveted exhibitors, 30 percent of them from outside as Guest Country at the event. Turkey will
event for the built environment. Therefore, of India and more than 50,000 decision- be represented by ISIB in order to improve
ISHRAE has formulated a Build Fair makers, architects, developers, end relations between India and Turkey.
Alliance (BFA) this year, with five consumers, advisers and project managers. Besides participation of international
independent shows catering to the various The venue, India Exposition Mart global players, the event show has
segments of the building construction (IEML), Greater Noida, Delhi-NCR, will be international support from organizations like
industry. BFA will bring different players of hosting the event for the first time.This ASHRAE, REHVA, ISKID, CAR, ANPRAC,
the construction industry under this location provides a larger exhibition area, Eurammon, KNVIK, ISIB, CIBSE, etc.
umbrella and thus offer all stakeholders of which meets the call from ACREX
the industry an opportunity to acquaint exhibitors for more space. Even the area Focus on MSMEs
themselves with the latest technology in for which firm bookings have been The objective of the event is also to
the field. The Alliance comprises following received so far is up 15 percent as give small and medium-sized enterprises
events and will be conducted at the same compared to 2016 edition. better opportunities to participate in the
venue as ACREX India: India is the fastest growing economy trade show. Special packages have been
• ACREX India: Covering HVAC, in the world today – an impressive position developed for them, including an exhibition
Refrigeration and Building Automation it has held since the year 2015. The theme area of 6-9 m² with a hostess provided,
systems for this year at ACREX India 2017, Rising along with airport transfers, hotel
• ISH India powered by IPA: International India: Enterprising and Cool, is directly accommodation and tickets for important
trade fair showcasing plumbing, linked to the growing economy of India, industry events as part of the trade show.
sanitation, bathroom & kitchen, laying emphasis on how welcoming a Next year there will also be a focus on
renewable energy and home country can be. increased participation by companies in
automation systems in India “India is currently one of the favourites the automation industry. From the
• Fire & Security India Expo (FSIE): of the major international players. The perspective of manufacturers and skilled
Previewing fire safety and security world views our country as an engine for workers, this sector offers strong parallels
solutions growth for their business,” said Ashish with the Heating, Ventilation, Air
• FENSTERBAU FRONTALE India: Focusing Rakheja, Chairman, ACREX India 2017. Conditioning and Refrigeration technology
on Façade & Fenestration products He added, “There is a greater focus on industries. 

112 | Cooling India | January 2017

product profile

Testo in Making of
Smart HVACR World
storage of all readings in Testo Cloud, the
The air capture hood Testo 420 and the new range of Smart data can be managed and analyzed online
Probes equip users with smart and easy measurement by the user via smartphone, tablet or PC
techniques by using smart phone interface. The new electrical absolutely anywhere and anytime. Our
instruments are very distinct and unique in its features… latest solution to the industry is new range
of Thermal Imagers with smart phone
the working system, there is a need integration designed to deliver networked
to implement a technology that is thermography. Their wireless operation,
self-driven, convenient and equally with the ease of saving and transferring
efficient. That is how we have come data over networks, make our instruments
up with ideas of cloud data storage, more user-friendly and cost effective. Our
Wi-Fi, bluetooth operation and smart continuous approach towards innovation,
phone integration technique that has research and development, ensures
simplified functioning of every eminent future of our products which are
industry. All time consuming, sure to redefine the overall working
manually driven operations or record experience of test & measurement sector.
keeping can now be governed with For instance, the Testo Smart Probes
just once click, making the process are eight intelligent, wireless probes which
more easy, accurate, fast and equip clients with smart measure real time
reliable. and can be operated with his smart phone.
esto India provides multiple As mentioned earlier, the latest This makes the Testo Smart Probes not only

T instruments to various industries

with distinguished utilities and
applications. However, we understand that
trends and technologies that we are
witnessing are coming from the digitization
of the existing systems. The traditional
lighter and more compact than conventional
measuring instruments, but they can also
be operated with greater convenience.
These pocket-friendly smart probes can
the necessity for any application is the methods and processes are now getting
ease with which the instrument operates, replaced with smart solutions and we travel with clients, wherever they go.
minimum optimal time it requires to believe in keeping pace with the new On the other hand, the App for new
perform the test and the genial feel that is advancements prevailing around. Thus, manifolds Testo 550 and Testo 557 is one
renders to the user. In short, the need is to our new product range for instance, the air of many new developments with which
have a smart technology with smarter capture hood Testo 420 and the new range Testo is once again meeting requirements
instruments, and this is precisely what we of Smart Probes equips users with smart of the market, and underlining their
deliver. Currently, Testo and easy expertise in refrigeration. A further highlight
products are used for measurement is Pirani probe developed by Testo for the
HVACR applications techniques by using new testo 557, which allows highly precise
with parameter smar t phone vacuum measurements.
measurement like interface. The new With the smart solutions coming up
temperature, humidity, electrical instruments and increased focus on advanced
pressure, RPM, lux, are very distinct and technology, the HVAC industry is showing
electrical etc, data unique in their great potential and growth opportunities.
monitoring, flue gas features. WiFi Data Testo India also enjoys its share in this
analysis, combustion Logger – Saveris 2 is success story and strives to cater the
and emission controls an excellent segment with its latest technology. Testo
and thermography. As advancement in data India is now even more posed towards
we all know, with the monitoring system. growth of this industry with its dedicated
growing digitization of With a secure online and smarter measurement solutions. 

Cooling India | January 2017| 113

product profile

Fluke Laser Levels Deliver Accuracy

luke Cororation introduces inch at 100 feet), it includes a floor stand Detectors — laser line detectors for use

F Fluke® Laser Levels, a new line

of professional-grade, precision
tools that are designed to survive a one
for fast, easy overhang and centerline
measurements. The green laser (Fluke-
3PG) is up to three times brighter for
in high ambient light settings with visual
and audible indicators for ease of use.
The detectors are compatible with
meter drop and Fluke-180LR (Fluke-
keep working. LDR) or Fluke-180LG
The Laser Levels (Fluke-LDG) models
feature a fast and include mounting
settling, self- bracket for quick,
leveling gimbal steady positioning.
that quickly Fluke-180LR
delivers accurate System and Fluke-
reference points, 180LG Systems —
expediting comprehensive self-
electrical and HVAC layouts. improved visibility in outdoor and long leveling, horizontal- and vertical-cross
The Fluke Laser Level family range applications. line laser level systems that include
includes: Fluke-180LR and Fluke-180LG Line laser line detector and detector bracket
Fluke-3PR (red laser) and Fluke- Laser Levels— self-leveling, horizontal- for use in high ambient light settings.
3PG (green laser) Point Laser Levels— and vertical-cross line laser levels for All laser level models include
self leveling three-point laser levels for rapid, accurate (3 mm at 10 meters; 1/8 magnetic wall brackets for easy, stable
fast, accurate layout of reference points. inch at 30 feet) leveling and layout. mounting. 
Accurate to 6 mm at 30 meters (1/4 Fluke-LDR and Fluke-LDG Laser Line

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• At convenient time • Best prices – Infinity offers their best sales support.
• Compare prices & features prices at • Top brands – All the best brands -
Infinity HVAC Spares & Tools has • Free Shipping – Client gets free Supco, Refco, Mighty Mounts, Rex,
been a leading supplier of high quality Kyowa, Extech, Aspen,
tools for the last two decades all over Microdam well-known in
India. Infinity also has exclusive retail the industry for years.
outlets in Dadar, Thane, Pune and Nashik. • Way to the future –
Over the years, Infinity has developed The online retail industry is
a reputation for dealing in great products the way of the future, so
at honest prices. is an step in and reaps the
extension of the same. Here we are benefits. 
enabling our customers to purchase

114 | Cooling India | January 2017

product profile

Carrier’s Launches Aquaedge™ 19dv Centrifugal Chiller

arrier officially launched its commitment to innovation and technology a high-speed direct driven motor, as

C latest innovation, the new

AquaEdge™ 19DV centrifugal
chiller with Greenspeed™ intelligence
leadership through the development of
energy-efficient, reliable
environmentally-responsible solutions to
compared to that driven by gears.
Equipped with Carrier’s latest
achievement in PIC5+ intelligent
and PUREtec™ low Global Warming ser ve different controls, and
Potential (GWP) refrigerant. The new segments,” said integrated with the
product, which was previewed at the Guarang Pandya, Carrier lifecycle data
China Refrigeration Expo earlier this President, Asia Pacific, management system,
year, was unveiled at Shanghai Yileng UTC Climate, Controls & the AquaEdge 19DV
Carrier Air Conditioning Equipment Security. allows users to easily
Company Limited, a local Carrier entity. The AquaEdge 19DV track and analyse the
The breakthrough technology is now features advancements chiller’s operational
commercially available for the first time in refrigeration, data which helps to
and delivers on customer demands for mechanical design, identify potential risks
excellent performance, leading aerodynamics and heat or areas for upgrading.
efficiency and environmental transfer to provide efficiency improvements The control system can also be linked to
responsibility, due in part to the use of of up to 7.0 COP full-load and 11.8 IPLV.IP the user’s building automation system,
environmentally sustainable refrigerant as rated in accordance with and certified enabling remote access to the chiller’s
R1233zd(E), which has a GWP of 1.34. by AHRI 550/590-2015 at standard rating running data in real time.
Carrier is a part of UTC Climate, Controls conditions. In particular, the back-to-back The AquaEdge 19DV adopts multiple
& Security, a unit of United Technologies compressor offers excellent compression technologies to optimize itself for robust
Corp. efficiency with an optimized design and operation in various demanding
“The AquaEdge 19DV centrifugal simultaneously cuts down 75 percent of scenarios.
chiller is illustrative of Carrier’s ongoing the mechanical transmission loss by using

Honeywell’s Sensors Help Reduce Energy Costs

oneywell announced it has compatible with many next-generation, low- • Freeze-thaw resistance to frost,

H expanded its line of pressure

monitoring sensors designed to
minimize the total cost of pressure
global-warming-potential refrigerants,
including Honeywell’s Solstice® N40. As the
lowest-GWP, non-flammable, refrigerant
which is commonly found in
refrigeration systems
• High electromagnetic compatibility
management for HVACR. alternative to R-404A and R-22 available (EMC) radiated immunity to operate
Honeywell’s PX3 today, Solstice N40 is • Shock and vibration tolerance
series heavy duty widely requested by • Wide operating temperature range
p r e s s u r e companies committed to • Durable design with high surge
transducers convert sustainable development. immunity at ±1000V line to ground
pressure into an analog It has a GWP that is 68 per IEC 61000-4-5.
electrical signal. The percent lower than the Honeywell’s Sensing and IoT
sensors feature brass current, most commonly business supplies custom-engineered
housing and can used supermarket sensors, switches, machine
suppor t multiple refrigerant, R-404A. In safeguarding and other devices globally
configurations to minimize supermarket trials conducted in the US and to offer original equipment manufacturers
implementation and production costs. Europe, Solstice N40 demonstrated three enhanced precision, repeatability and
“Building owners and operators are percent lower energy consumption in low- durability. Honeywell’s sensors help
facing more pressure to optimize temperature applications, and five to 16 HVAC and refrigeration systems operate
efficiency for their HVAC and refrigeration percent lower energy consumption in efficiently, accurately and reliably to
systems and incorporate new refrigerants medium-temperature applications. help avoid high energy costs. This
to meet environmental standards,” said The new line expands the sensors’ technology portfolio provides HVAC and
Graham Robinson, President of pressure range to 1 bar to 50 bar (15 psi refrigeration control, monitoring and
Honeywell’s Sensing and IoT business. to 700 psi). In addition, the PX3 series also temperature solutions while maintaining
The new line of pressure transducers is offers: energy efficiency. 

Cooling India | January 2017| 115

product profile

Samsung’s Wind-Free™ Air Conditioner

amsung Electronics announced it The AR9500M provides customers the AR9500M’s motor generates fewer

S will unveil its first ever, award-

winning Wind-Free™ wall-
mounted air conditioner at CES 2017 in
with the ideal condition by maintaining the
comfortable room temperature, using
Wind-Free™ Cooling to gently disperse
torque fluctuations – reducing the
overall energy required and shortening
the time needed for the compressor to
Las Vegas, following the huge success cold air through 21,000 micro air holes. A reach its maximum speed (Hertz).
of its floor-standing Wind- The AR9500M is also
Free™ air conditioner in Wi-Fi-enabled so it can be
South Korea. The controlled from anywhere
AR9500M air conditioner through Samsung’s Smart
has integrated Samsung’s Home app. Users can remotely
exclusive Wind-Free™ regulate temperature, adjust
Cooling technology into settings, receive real time
its design – providing updates about performance
customers with a cooler and daily energy usage, as
indoor climate and optimal well as troubleshoot solutions
energy efficiency without the discomfort two-step cooling system which first lowers when a repair is needed.
of direct cold airflow. temperatures in “Fast Cooling Mode” and The AR9500M’s unique Triangle
“Consumers will love the cool, then automatically switches to “Wind- Architecture has a wider inlet which
efficient air conditioning capabilities of Free™ Cooling Mode” creating “still air” allows more air to be drawn in at once,
the AR9500M in their home,” said once the desired temperature is reached. while the optimal width and angle of the
Byung-Sam Seo, President of home This approach can also reduce energy outlet, extra v-blades, and large fan – 22
appliances at Samsung Electronics. “And consumption by up to 72 percent percent larger than previous models –
they will really love that they no longer compared to Fast Colling mode. ensure air is cooled and expelled faster,
have to deal with uncomfortable, cold air Using Samsung’s new Digital Inverter farther and wider, to reach every corner
– as well as reduced electric bills.” 8-Pole with POWERboost technology™, of the room. 

Daikin Applied updates EWAD-TZ chiller

170kW to 710kW

The EWAD-TZ chiller covers a range
of capacities from 170kW to 710kW – a
capacity range three times as wide as
the units it replaces. On top of this, the
full load efficiency (EER) average of 3.4
is 35% better than a traditional screw
chiller and the seasonal efficiency
(ESEER) of up to 6.0 is 26% higher than
a traditional screw chiller. Plus the unit
is 30% smaller in footprint.

• High energy efficiency both at full
and part load conditions • Advanced compressor technology achieved by the latest compressor
• One or two truly independent featuring integrated inverter and and fan design
refrigerant circuits for outstanding variable volume ratio (VVR) • Compact design for small footprint
reliability • Low operating sound levels are and minimized installation space 

116 | Cooling India | January 2017

event calender

Forthcoming Events At A Glance

Cooling Technology Institute Annual Conference Aqua-Therm
Venue: Sheraton New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70130 Venue: IEC Crocus Expo Centre, Moscow
Date: 5th to 9th February, 2017 Date: 7th to 10th February, 2017
Website: Website:

Campus Energy 2017 Acrex India

Venue: The Hyatt Regency Miami, Miami Florida Venue: India Expo Centre (IEML), Greater Noida, Delhi
Date: 20th to 24th February, 2017 Date: 23rd to 25th February, 2017
Website: Website:

Climatización Y Refrigeración 2017 HVACR Vietnman

Venue: Feria de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Venue: Saigon Exhibition and Convention Centre (SECC), Vietnam
Date: 28th February to 3rd March, 2017 Date: 29th to 31st, March 2017
Website: Website:

index to advertisers
Company Name Page No. Company Name Page No.

A S Controls 61 Infinity HVAC tools Pvt. Ltd. 49

Bitzer India Pvt. Ltd. 53 Kahan Controls 57
BRY Air 79 Maico Ventilation 35
Calpeda Pumps India Pvt. Ltd. 45 Mist Resources 5
Carel ACR Systems India Pvt. Ltd. 7 Russ Air AD 93
CRI Pumps 33 SAM Products Pvt. Ltd. 77
Cruise AC 21 Sekisui 19
Danfoss 11 Sharon Insulation IBC
Embraco 3 Schaffer Systems International Pvt. Ltd. IFC
Emersons 27 Standard Refrigeration Pvt. Ltd. 9
Flir Systems India Pvt. Ltd. 17 Testo India Pvt. Ltd. 23
Fluke BC The Supreme Industries Ltd. 29
Frick India Ltd. 39 Thermofin GMBH 63
GAPS Engineering & Consultancy 43 World of Facilities (UBM India Pvt. Ltd.) 15
HMX 13

Cooling India | January 2017| 117

cooling museum

Modbus Integration solved at Galeria Manhattan Shopping Mall

ontemporary Controls announced that three of their Nord Instal and MOBBI needed to integrate HVAC, lighting,

C popular BASgatewayLX – Modbus to BACnet gateway –

were used to integrate 66 System Air heat pumps at the
newly renovated Galeria Manhattan shopping mall in Gorzów
power monitoring, security and water monitoring at the Galeria
Manhattan shopping mall. Using Delta Controls controllers,
MOBBI lighting controllers and the BASgatewayLX, Nord Instal
Wielkopolski, Poland. Each heat pump then appeared as a “virtual was able to provide complete system integration. The system
BACnet device” to the BACnet headend. A single BASgatewayLX included controls for the outside building lights; controlling and
can easily handle up to 30 Modbus devices and 1,000 points. managing current power receivers; monitoring sewage pumping
stations and sewage treatment; control of chillers, cooling towers,
ventilation and heat pumps; and central control and monitoring of
temperature. Modbus is commonly found on jobs such as heat
pumps, boiler control, variable speed drives, and metering
applications, but these devices lack BACnet compliance.  

Siemens improves energy efficiency of largest museum

iemens was awarded the contract to comprehensively friendly. This includes reducing greenhouse gas emissions and

S upgrade the lighting, water and cooling systems of the

museum organization. The Energy Performance Contracting
(EPC) agreement has a value of 4.2 million
potable water use. This will include installing the Desigo CC
building management system which will see optimization of the
control strategies for the mechanical plant.
euros. The investments will be paid back The system also has the future capability
over seven years through the energy to integrate with the existing lighting, fire
savings achieved. and security system at the Museum. The
Museum Victoria in Victoria is the energy consumption of the chiller plants
largest museum consisting of three large will be optimized using Demand Flow at
individual museums including the the Melbourne Museum, whereas at the
Melbourne Museum, the Immigration Immigration Museum, the existing chillers
Museum, a heritage listed exhibition space, will be replaced completely. All museums
and Royal Exhibition Building, as well as will see upgrades that reduce water use
two storage facilities. The State Government of Victoria is aiming and make lighting more energy efficient via implementation of a
to make the operation of all its museums more environmentally new lighting design. 

Platinum Rating for Delta Electronics India Mumbai Office

elta, a global leader in power and thermal vehicles. Dalip Sharma, Managing Director of

D management solutions, announced its

Mumbai office has successfully achieved a
Platinum Rating under the USGBC LEED (Leadership
Delta India said, “The certification recognizes
our efforts in reducing the environmental impact
of our business operations, daily processes,
in Energy & Environmental Design) Commercial products, buildings and R&D. We are committed
Interiors Rating System. The interior of the Mumbai to energy savings and environmental protection
office was designed using energy efficient to help diminish the serious threat of global
architecture, natural sky-lighting and ventilation, warming. In addition, the platinum rating
rain water harvesting and water recycling, as well confirms that our efforts go beyond mere
as eco-friendly building materials that provide a compliance with ecological guidelines.”
clean, healthy, and safe workplace for employees. As one of its commitments to corporate
For harmony with nature and the local community, every detail of social responsibility, Delta designs its plants and offices to be in
the factory fulfills green building criteria. For instance, the building sync with the green building spirit. When planning new buildings,
has an above baseline energy performance of 37%, reduced Delta’s focus is on energy efficiency, minimizing impact on the
water use by 40%, and natural lighting for 85% of the total area. environment, indoor air quality, a healthy environment and the
The building also has facilities for parking and charging electric employee feel good factor. 

118 | Cooling India | January 2017