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INTERNSHIP REPORT

SUBMITTED TO : Mr. AKHLAQ ALAM ( Incharge HRD)

SUBMITTED BY :Sikandar Sarfraz


Majida Hassan Ghouri
Mujaddid Hussain
Khizar Iqbal
Saqib Alam

TECHNOLOGY NO. OF : BE (ELECTRICAL)

WEEKS PERIOD OF : Four (4)

TRG. FROM NAME OF : 07-08-2017 TO 1-09-2017

UNIVERSITY : PAF - KARACHI INSTITUTE OF


ECONOMICS & TECHNOLOGY

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PREFACE

We are highly indebted by this opportunity of working at one of the basic industry of our
country. Working at Pakistan steel mill was an unforgettable experience for us. The
experience not only enhanced our knowledge, but it also gave us first hand experience of how
we will be rolling in our professional life.
This internship opportunity benefited us in diverse areas; the basic purpose being the plant
training in different plants of Pakistan Steel, providing the necessary knowledge for carrying
out various kinds of electrical maintenance and repair work. We are extremely grateful for
this experience for working in the departments We were assigned. These four weeks of
internship training not only trained us enough for the field work, but this also helped us in
developing national cohesion and solidarity. The moments spend at Pakistan Steel will be
remembered as a cherished memory forever.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are very thankful from the core of our to honorable Chief Executive Officer, PAKISTAN
STEEL, for providing us opportunity for training and who’s intelligent, wise and sound
leadership has converted manpower into wining combination by this industry into a Gold mine.

We are also thankful to Mr. Akhlaq Alam Incharge (Training Wing) and Mr. Yousuf Ayub
for his precious advice and for the great encouragement and corporation, because of which we
have successfully completed our internship training at PAKISTAN STEEL where we learned a
lot.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. PAKISTAN STEEL MILL…………………………………………………………...5

2. BACKGROUND………………………………………………………………………5

3. POWER EQUIPMENT REPAIRING SHOP- ELECTRICAL (PERS-E)…………6

4. THERMAL POWER PLANT AND TURBO BLOWER STATION (TPP-TBS)…11

5. ENGINEERING LAB………………………………………………………………17

6. PDN & C&S…………………………………………………………………………20

7. CONCLUSION .............................................................................................24

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PAKISTAN STEEL MILL

Pakistan Steel Mills, is a global competitive, multi-billion state-owned mega corporation and
the producer of the long rolled steel and heavy metal products and entities in the country.
Headquartered in Karachi, Sindh of Pakistan, and the PSM is the current largest industrial
mega corporation undertaking having a production capacity of 1.1—5.0 million tons of steel
and iron foundries. Built with the contributions of the Soviet Union in the 1970s, it is the
largest industrial mega corporation complex, vastly expanded in an enormous dimensions
construction inputs, involving the use of 1.29Mn cubic meters of concrete; 5.70Mn cubic
meters of earth work; and contains ~330,000 tones of heavy machinery, steel structures and
electrical equipments.

Pakistan Steel is spread over an area of 18,660 acres (about 29 square miles) including 10,390
acres for the main plant, 8070 acres for township and 200 acres for 110 MG water reservoir.
In addition, it has leasehold rights over an area of 7520 acres for the quarries of limestone
and dolomite in Makli and Jhimpir areas of district Thatta.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

In 1968 Government of Pakistan decided that the Karachi Steel Project should be sponsored
in the public sector, for which a separate Corporation, under the Companies Act, be formed.
In pursuance of this decision, Pakistan Steel Mills Corporation Limited was incorporated as a
private limited company to establish and run steel Mills at Karachi. Pakistan Steel Mills
Corporation concluded an agreement with V/o Tyaz prom export of the USSR in January,
1969 for the preparation of feasibility report for the establishment of a coastal based
integrated steel mill at Karachi. In January 1971 Pakistan and the USSR signed an agreement
under which the later agreed to provide techno-financial assistance for the construction of a
coastal-based integrated Steel Mills at Karachi. The foundation stone of this vital and gigantic
project was laid on 30th December, 1973 by the then Prime Minister of Pakistan. The
mammoth construction and erection work of an integrated Steel Mills, never experienced
before in the country, was carried out by a consortium of Pakistani construction companies
under the overall supervision of Soviet Experts. Pakistan Steel did not only have to construct
the main production units, but a host of infrastructure facilities involving unprecedented
volumes of work and expertise. Component units of the Steel Mills numbering over twenty and
each a big enough factory in its own right were commissioned as they were completed between
1981 to 1985 with Coke Oven and by-Product Plant coming on stream the first and the
Galvanizing Unit the last. Commissioning of Blast Furnace No.1 on 14th August, 1981
marked the Pakistan's entry into the elite club of iron and steel producing nations. The project
was completed at a capital cost of Rs.24, 700 million. The completion of the Steel Mills was
formally launched by the then President of Pakistan on 15th January, 1985. PAKISTAN
STEEL today is the country's largest industrial under-taking having production capacity of
1.1 million tons of steel.

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POWER EQUIPMENT REPAIRING SHOP- ELECTRICAL
(PERS-E)

“To ensure running of electrical equipment of Pakistan Steel by provision of


quality services in accordance with standard norms, Power equipment repair
shop is committed towards continuous improvement through teamwork and
participation”.

Different types, ratings and sizes of electric motors up to 500KW and transformers up to
1000KVA repairing are the responsibility of this department. This department of steel mill
performs following services:

1. Repair of electric motor


2. Rewinding
3. Repair of welding of power transformers
4. Repair of electromagnets
5. Repair of contacts and spares 6. Rewinding of coil and control transformers

For performing these services with ease this department is further divided into following
sections:

1. Planning section
2. Assembly/ Disassembly section
3. Winding section
4. Transformers and electromagnetic repair section
5. Coil and spares section
6. Drying and impetration section
7. Testing section

PLANNING SECTION:

In this section the faulty machine is inspected and steps


of repairing are planned out. This section is the most
important section, when the defected machine is first
brought in this section; an identification number is
assigned to the faulty machine before dispatching it for
repairing. The identification number contains:
2. its rating
3. a code representing the department of Steel
Mills to which it belong
4. the number of times this machine has been repaired
5. a code representing the fault

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ASSEMBLY/DISASSEMBLY SECTION:
After the inspection of fault machine is disassembled in this section and sent to the other
sections for repairing. After the required repairing has been done machine is again sent to
this section for assembly.

WINDING SECTION:
In PERS-E, winding and rewinding section is
divided into two parts: AC and DC rewinding. The
AC and DC motor rewinding section are different
because of the obvious difference in construction
of the two motors.

AC Winding:
There are two types of windings:
 Chain winding-in which both coils are of same size
 Concentric winding-in which coils are of different
sizes The following specifications of the windings are
given to the winders:

 Pitch
 Number of coil sets
 No of coils
 No of parallel paths

DC Winding:
There are two types of DC windings:

LAP WINDING:
This type of winding is used in DC generators
designed for high-current applications. The
windings are connected to provide several parallel
paths for current in the armature. For this reason,
lap-wound armatures used in DC generators
require several pairs of poles and brushes. In lap
winding, the finishing end of one coil is connected
to a commutator segment and to the starting end
of the adjacent coil situated under the same pole
and so on, till all the coils have been connected.

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WAVE WINDING:
This type of winding is used in DC generators employed in high-voltage applications. The
two ends of each coil are connected to commutator segments separated by the distance
between poles. This configuration allows the series addition of the voltages in all the
windings between brushes. This type of winding only requires one pair of brushes. In
practice, a practical generator may have several pairs to improve commutation. Lap and
wave winding can be simplex, duplex, triplex, etc. The adjectives simplex and multiplex
refer to the number of parallel paths between the brushes (winding terminals).

TESTING SECTION:
After all the repairing has been carried out, the machine is brought in the testing section
to assure that the machine is working perfectly before sending it to the concerned
department. To check the reliability of the machine following tests is performed in this
section.

1. Appearance Test:
Firstly the appearance test of the machine is performed in which cover, terminal box
and hooks are checked, and also whether the leads are proper.

2. Continuity Test (Megger):


With megger the continuity of both
primary and secondary are tested. Then
the continuity of primary with the body
and secondary with the body is
checked. Lastly, the continuity of
primary to secondary with each other is
tested.

3. Regularity Test:
There are two voltage regulators:
o L.V Regulator (0-415V)
o H.V Regulator (0-11kV)
The regulator first tests the machine at low voltage for safety and later it is checked
by the tongue tester for balanced phase currents. If current is balanced, then after
10mins the voltage is increased till rated value for further tests.

4. Current Imbalance Test:


An autotransformer is used to apply a very high three phase voltage to the windings.
A compass is inserted in the machine and the stator windings are tested in this way to
find out whether there is any sort of current imbalance created. The needle must
rotate completely if there is no imbalance of currents.

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5. No Load Test:
This test is performed to determine:

 no-load current
 no-load power factor
 windage and friction losses
 no-load core loss
 no-load input
 no-load resistance and reactance.
This test is performed with different values of applied voltage below and above rated
voltage while the motor is running at no-load.

6. Insulation Test:
This test is to measure insulation resistance of each winding and of all auxiliary and
supplementary elements against earth.

7. High Voltage test:


In high voltage test a high voltage is given to the windings for 1 minute. If a spark is
produced during this period, it indicates the presence of fault. The voltage to be given for
AC machines is calculated as:
For AC:
Rated voltage * 1.6 = high voltage to be given in the test
For DC:
Rated voltage * 1.7 = high voltage to be given in the test

8. Vibration Test:
At rated voltage and rpm machine is checked for vibrations using vibrometer. It is
checked whether the vibrations of the machine are within the permissible rating.

9. Sound Test:
Sound test is done to check the ball bearings in the machine. The machine is made to
run at rated voltage and rpm, one end of a metallic rod is touched to the body while
the other end is put near the ear to hear for the noise. If a hammering sound is heard
it means that the bearing is faulty and might be broken.

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TRANSFORMER SECTION:
Transformers up to 1000KVA are brought in this
section for repairing.. Depending upon the nature of
the faults, the tests performed on the transformers
are;
i. appearance test
ii. turns ratio test,
iii. open circuit test
iv. short circuit test
v. high voltage test
vi. winding test
vii. insulation test

BALANCING SECTION:
In this section, the rotor is balanced. The machine
has two moveable arms on which the shaft is
mounted. Its meter shows reading for both the sides.
If the meter shows a deflection the rotor is
unbalanced. The imbalance is compensated either by
adding a weight (specially made by lath machine) or
by cutting small portions.

FURNACE SECTION:
Furnace section is for removing humidity and moisture
present in the machine stator or rotor\ armature.
Different parts of the machines are dipped in
varnishing tank for proper insulation.

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THERMAL POWER PLANT AND TURBO BLOWER STATION
(tpp-tbs)

TPP stands for thermal power plant which is used for the generation of electricity for
Pakistan Steel Mills.
TPP is broadly divided into following 5 sections:
 Water chemical treatment plant (WCTP)
 Boiler
 Turbine
 Generator
 Main switch gear room (MSGR)

WATER CHEMICAL TREATMENT PLANT:

Before supplying water to boiler, it is chemically treated to remove impurities from raw
water. Impurities present in raw water are called total dissolve solid (TDS), which is
broadly divided into three types:
 Organic impurities
 Inorganic impurities
 Bio impurities

The main concern is with inorganic impurities (Ca, Mg) which cause hardness of water.
Hardness is of two types:
 Temporary hardness
 Permanent hardness

TEMPORARY HARDNESS:
Temporary hardness of water is caused by the presence of
dissolved bicarbonate minerals. When dissolved, these
minerals yield
 Calcium and magnesium cations (Ca2+, Mg2+)
 Carbonate and bicarbonate anions (CO32-, HCO3-)

To remove temporary hardness raw water is passed through:


 Clarifiers
 Line coagulated water storage
 Mechanical filters

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PERMANENT HARDNESS:

Permanent hardness of water is caused by the presence of dissolved sulfates and/or
chlorides. When dissolved, these minerals yield
 Calcium and magnesium cations (Ca2+, Mg2+)
 Sulfate and chloride anions (SO42-, Cl-).

Permanent hardness cannot be removed by boiling.

After removing temporary hardness, permanent hardness is removed from water by


passing the water through:
 Primary H-cation exchangers
 Primary anion exchangers
 Decarbonizers
 Decarbonized water storage
 Secondary H-cation exchangers
 Secondary anion exchangers

After passing through these stages, hardness is completely removed from water and
demineralized water is achieved.
Treated water output from water chemical treatment plant is 230 tons/hour.

BOILER:
The water from WCTP passes through different stages before reaching boiler:
 Condensate pump
 Low pressure heaters
 Deriators
 Boiler feed pump
 High pressure heaters

After passing through these stages water reaches the four boilers in TPP, whose working
pressure is 100kg/cm2 and temperature of water is 215 oC.

BOILER PARTS:
Burner:
TPP consists of 4 burners, in which different fuels are burnt to convert water into steam
 In 2 burners, natural gas and coal tar is burnt
 In 2 burners, BF gas (obtained from blast furnace ) and coke oven gas is burnt

Boiler drum:
In boiler drum, the temperature of steam is 320oC, which is in saturated form; the steam is
then passed through super heaters, which increase the temperature of steam up to 540 oC.

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IDF and FDF:
FDF (force draught fan) sucks air from environment and passes it to the burner for
combustion of fuels producing the flue gases (flue gas refers to the exhaust gas produced at
power plants). Its composition depends on what is being burned, but it usually consists of
nitrogen(typically more than two-third) derived from the combustion air, carbon dioxide
(CO2), and water vapor as well as excess oxygen (also derived from the combustion air) are
passed through recirculating air heaters, release heat here and goes out in environment
through IDF (induced drought fan).

After passing through super heaters steam moves out of the boiler at 100kg/cm2, steam
temperature 535 oC and enters turbine.

TURBINE:
There are three turbines in TPP:
 Turbine-1 is double cylinder type coupled with Generator 1
 Turbine-2 and Turbine-3 are single cylinder type coupled with Generator 2
and Generator 3 respectively. These turbines are impulse type and have 22
stages.

TURBINE PARTS:


Stop valve is used for emergency tripping to stop the supply of steam to the
generator.

 Regulators are used to control the amount of steam supplied, i.e. depending
on the demand of steam, regulators are opened or closed.

 Governor gives instruction to regulator valves to open or close and provide


steam to serve load.
 The servo motor is an amplifier which amplifies the order of the governor.
 Bearing gear is used to initially move a rotor to remove distortion, it is
switched on before turning the turbine on.
 Oil pump is used for pumping the oil.
 Oil is used for lubrication of bearings and governor control.

The temperature of drain oil is 65 oC, the oil cooler drops the temperature of oil up to
40 oC.

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MAIN PARAMETERS OF TURBINE
TURBINE TYPE ΠT-60-90/13
Two extraction = 10-16 ata & 1.5-3 ata
Rated out put = 60, 000 kW (60 MW)
Speed = 3, 000 rpm (50 Hz)
Live steam pressure after emergency stop value = 90 Kg/Cm2 (85-95)
Live steam temperature emergency stop valve (525 – 540) = 535°C
Frequency = (50 Hz)
Cooling water flow passing through condenser = 8000 m3/hr
Cooling water inlet temperature (28 - 33) = 28°C
Max. steam flow @ nominal conditions comprises
respectively = 402 t/hr
Production extraction pressure = 13 ± 3 kg/cm2
District heating extraction pressure = 1.2 kg/cm2
Pressure control within = 0.7-2.5 Kg/cm2
Normal parameters of live steam, cooling water flow = 8000 m2/hr
Normal parameters of live steam cooling water flow Temp: = 28°C
The load up to = 75 MW
Pressure behind the overloading should not more than = 70 Kg /cm2
maximum steam flow to condenser = 170 t/hr
Oil temperature after oil cooler = 40°C
Oil temperature from Bearing drains not more than = 65°C
Bearing pressure = 1.01 - 1.03 Kg/cm2 (1.15 - 1.2 Kg/cm2)

COMPRESSOR

Type = K-3250-42-1
Pressure = 3.5 Kgf/cm2 (Gauge Pressure)
Flow rate = 2100 M3/Minimum
Speed = 3250 rpm
Oxygen enrichment = 30%
Cooling = Seawater at 500 M3 /hour
Critical speed = 1600 rpm
Casing = Cast Iron
Diaphragms = Cast Iron
Rotor = Steel
Weight of Compressor = 77 Tones
Weight of heavier part = 23 T
Maximum allowable Pressure inside air Column = 3 Kgf/cm2

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GENERATOR:
TPP has three turbo generators of 55 MW each coupled with steam turbines to serve the
load of Pakistan Steel Mills. Two of these generators are usually in working conditions
while the third generator is kept in reserve. Pakistan Steel Mills is also connected with
KESC through two interconnected transformers which steps up the voltage from 11kV to
132kV for transmission.

GENERATOR SPECIFICATIONS:
 Rated voltage 11.5kV.
 Speed 3000 rpm
 Power factor 0.8
 Stator current 3460A
 Rotor current 1280 A
 Hydrogen pressure 196 kPa.
 Rated power 68750 kVA.

GENERATOR COOLING:

Hydrogen gas is used as a cooling medium in turbo generators.

The use of gaseous hydrogen as a coolant is based on its properties as follows

 Low density,
 High specific heat,
 Highest thermal conductivity (at 0.168 W/(m·K)) among all gases

Hydrogen gas is 7-10 times better at cooling than air.

Another advantage of hydrogen is its easy detection by hydrogen sensors. A hydrogen-


cooled generator can be significantly smaller, and therefore less expensive, than an air-
cooled one.








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GENERATOR PROTECTION:

Generator protection is of two types,


 Internal protection
 External protection

INTERNAL PROTECTION:

Internal protections are of two types,


 Longitudinal protection
 Earth fault protection

Longitudinal protection:
 Longitudinal protections are of two types,
 Longitudinal differential
 Cross protection

EXTERNAL PROTECTION:
External protection is for negative sequence and overcurrent faults.

MAIN SWITCH GEAR ROOM:


CONTROL ROOM:
The control circuit is controlled through DC supply so that the protective system remains
unaffected in the absence of AC supply from the generators.

DC BATTERIES:
There are 130 batteries of 2V each and current capacity of 1250 A/hr . 106 batteries are
currently working while 24 batteries are in spare. These are lead acid batteries in which
sulfuric acid is used as an electrolyte.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT:


ADVANTAGES:
 Fuel is cheaper.
 Smaller space is required as compared to hydro power plants.
 Economical initial cost as compared to hydro power plants.
 Can be placed near load centers, unlike hydro and nuclear power plants.
DISADVANTAGES:
 Requires higher maintenance and operational cost.
 Causes air pollution.
 Requires the abundant amount of water.
 Efficiency is less i.e. 30-35%.

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ENGINEERING LAB

Section of Engineering LAB are as follow:

 I R & C LAB (Instrumentation and Calibration LAB)


 Thermostat lab
 Pressure Gage Lab
 EMI Repair and Calibration Lab
 ELCETRICAL LAB
 HIGH VOLTAGE TESTING
 LOW VOLTAGE AND RELAY SECTION

Thermostat lab:

When to dissimilar metals are welded at same junction and the junction is heated an emf is
produced on free ends which can be measured by mille voltmeter. The thermostat does this by
switching heating or cooling devices on or off, or regulating the flow of a heat transfer fluid as
needed, to maintain the correct temperature. Thermostats are used in any device or system that
heats or cools to a set point temperature, examples include building heating, central heating,
air conditioner, HVAC system, as well as kitchen equipment including ovens and refrigerators
and medical and scientific incubators.

Pressure Gage Lab:


In the plant the pressure gage is often taken for granted probably because they seem to be
everywhere in the plant that on just assume that somehow the gages are accurate even when
they are out of calibration. A pressure gage is calibrated with a standard pneumatic calibrator,
a dead weight tester or any other suitable calibrator. There is no standard way to calibrate a
pressure gage. The way a pressure gage is calibrated depends upon the way the gage is used.

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EMI Repair and Calibration Lab:
EMI means electromechanical instruments in this lab electromechanical instruments are
repair and are calibrated. Electromechanical instruments include galvanometers, ammeters,
voltmeters, surge meter, avometer, clamp meters etc. in this lab if any of the meter that is being
installed in any part of plant on any equipment that is being damaged or get wrong with its
reading then it is transferred to EMI lab because in this lab these meters are repaired again
and then calibrated very precisely and then again installed on the equipment from where it
was unequipped. There are different devices in this lab related to power measuring
instruments. Megger, relays, surge generator, relays and many other.

ELCETRICAL LAB

HIGH VOLTAGE TESTING

In high voltage testing test is done by giving high voltage in faulty places.

CABLE TESTING

Cable testing is consisting of short circuit and open circuit test. Short circuit is by either phase
to phase or phase to ground. Open circuit is done by TDR. Cable is calculated in distance then
high voltage is given to test cable. TDR is electronic device used to measure distance of cable
underground or between system and help to locate fault cable testing is done surge meter here
they will give supply to one phase then the remaining phases are ground and similarly they
done testing of each phase. Here the engineers of Pakistan steel give supply of 17 to 28 KV DC
supply to cable for 5 minutes. Then come to know whether the insulation is strong enough to
bear any challenge of insulation breaking, short circuit etc.

SURGE GENERATOR:

Surge generator used here has input of 220 volt and output of 28 KV Capacitors is connected
to that cable through that charger. In case of short circuit leakage is observed such devices
can be classified into two types: impulse voltage generators and impulse current generators.
High impulse voltages are used to test the strength of electric power equipment against
lightning and switching surges. Also, steep-front impulse voltages are sometimes used in
nuclear physics experiments. High impulse currents are needed not only for tests on
equipment such as lightning arresters and fuses but also for many other technical applications
such as lasers, thermonuclear fusion, and plasma devices.

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LOW VOLTAGE AND RELAY SECTION:

Types of Electrical Relays


i. Electronic relay
ii. Electromagnetic relay
iii. Induction relay
viii. Thermal relay

Relays are for protection of electrical instruments that are installed in electrical panels of DS’s
of Pakistan steel it used to trip circuit breakers. Relays are switches that open and close
circuits electromechanically or electronically. Relays control one electrical circuit by opening
and closing contacts in another circuit. As relay diagrams show, when a relay contact is
normally open (NO), there is an open contact when the relay is not energized. When a relay
contact is Normally Closed (NC), there is a closed contact when the relay is not energized. In
either case, applying electrical current to the contacts will change their state.

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POWER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK (PDN & C&S )
PDN stands for Power Distribution Network. The Power Distribution Network of the Pakistan
Steel Mills deals with HT that is 132 kV or 11 kV. The PDN manages the distribution of power
generated by thermal power plant and that supplied by KESC. It has two lines:
TPP-the stable load of Steel Mills is connected to TPP
MSDS-Main step down substation-the fluctuating load of Steel Mills is connected to
MSDS. The fluctuating load refers to HSM, CRM etc.

176 MW is the maximum demand of electric power by Pakistan Steel. This requirement is
partially met by TPP-TBS, having the ideal generation capacity of 110 MW; however the
actual capacity is 91MW. The remaining 85 MW fluctuating load of Rolling Mills is received
from KESC through a 132 kV grid station by means of two 63 MVA transformer at main step
down station (MSDS). Pakistan Steel is connected to the 132 kV KESC grid through two
independent 132 kV circuits. One of the circuit is connected to the rolling mills through two
132 KV/11KV- 63 MVA transformer. The second circuit of 132 kV network is connected at
TPP through two 132/11.5/6.9 KV-63 MVA transformers to synchronize all the three
generators of Pakistan Steel with KESC to import or export the electrical energy according to
requirement.

The installed capacity of generators is 110 MW. The PSM load is around 80-100 MW which is
the stable load, the fluctuating load is about 30 MW. The motors when from no-load to full
load cause a voltage dip along with high in-rush current, this results in fluctuations. The
greater the rating of the motor, the greater is the time it takes to come up from that dip.
Departments like sea water pump house, CRM-Cold Rolling Mills, Cook Oven Gas
Department, blast furnace are connected to both MSDS and TPP due to their heavy unstable
load.

MAIN STEP DOWN SUBSTATION (MSDS):

It has a three winding step down transformers connected to a 132 kV bus bar. Secondary
voltage of 11kV is distributed to different departments to operate high rated motors. MSDS
have a total of three transformers, two of which are in running condition while the third one is
reserve.
Two lines of 132 kV from Pipri Grid Station are connected to two transformers (63MVA each)
at MSDS. These HT lines before connecting to transformers are provided with safety system
through isolator circuit breakers and lightning arrestors. MSDS has Remote Control Panel to
control the switching of these circuit breakers.
PSO transformer oil of category 2 is used. PSO oil can bear 5000A and it is used at HT side of
transformer. Buckholz relay located between main tank and conservator tank determines any
fault in transformer. Syphon tanks are placed with transformer to filter out the sludge formed
due to contamination of oil. We can define the symphonic flow as less dense evaporated steam
flowing upward. Hence, sludge due to impurities of oil moves upward and is filtered out. These
transformers step down 132 kV to 11 kV. And these 11kV lines are further distributed to
different departments of PSM through underground cables. Oil immersed paper insulted
cables and cross linked polyethylene cables (XLPE) are used for 11kV distribution to different
DS and TS.

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OPERATION SECTION:

This section has a huge panel which depicts the layout of the entire distribution network.
There is a specific colour coding in the one line diagram. The green colour indicates 11kV, red
6.6kV and white shows the 132kV interconnection between Steel Mill and KESC. The panel
has light indication system to show fault points and the maintenance work being carried out
throughout the DSs. Coordination between the operating staff and the maintenance staff is
based on Telemetry.

Main function of this section is maintaining continuous power supply from Pipri Grid Station
to MSDS and to all 23 DS and to the various equipment on round the clock basis. For this
purpose, a team of engineers under the supervision of Shift In-charge are deputed at Power
Dispatch Centre at OPCC Building. The operation staff performs following functions:

 Switching at different DS during normal conditions and emergency caused by


any breakdown and electrical faults.
 Maintain hourly log books at DS to monitor the operation of the equipments.
 Perform shift-wise inspection of equipments at the basement of DS and allied
cable tunnels.
 Operate street lights/area lights and attend minor faults during shifts.
 Attend any problem in power supplying network.

The operation section also performs planning and scheduling of preventive maintenance and
testing of following equipments:

 HT bus bars,
 HT circuit breakers,
 Protection relays,
 HT cables,
 Calibration of energy meters,
 Testing of safety items
 Cleaning and up-keeping of DSs and OPPC building.
 Maintenance of Lighting at DSs and OPPC Building.

MAINTENANCE SECTION:

The maintenance section headed by DOH/Manager Maintenance PDN has been divided into
the following section:

 Network Section
 Repair Section
 Mechanical Repair Section and Workshop

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NETWORK SECTION:

The network section is responsible for cable maintenance, transmission line, and emergency
units and street lights control. The main step down station (MSDS) step downs the voltage
from 132KV to 11KV with the help of two 63MVA transformers, each transformer consists of
two secondary windings of 11KV each.

The load profile of Steel Mill is as under:

 Connected Load: 330MW


 Full Load: 186MW
 Average Load: 110MW
 Fluctuating Load: 5-30MW

The circuit breakers used around the campus are mostly OCBs (oil circuit breakers), air
circuit breakers and vacuum circuit breakers.
For earth indication Peterson coil and for fault indication CTs are used.

The task of distribution around Steel Mill is adequately performed by a 12km cable tunnel.
The tunnel covers the entire area of Steel Mill. The length of HV cables is about 500,000m.
Telecommunication lines are also present in the tunnel. The tunnel is provided with an
efficient exhaust system and the various outlets.

The following works are being performed by Network Section:

 Repair and maintenance of 132kV transmission lines,


 Repair and maintenance of 63MVA transformers at MSDS,
 High voltage cable testing,
 Repair of high voltage cables,
 Repair and maintenance area and street lights,
 Repair and maintenance of cable tunnels with its ventilation system, and
 Repair and maintenance of overhead lines at slag dump area and
underground cable up to Sewerage Treatment Plant.

REPAIR SECTION:

The repair section is responsible for the repair and maintenance of various elements of
different DSs such as cables, isolators, circuit breakers, bus bars, transformers, etc. Oil filled
cables are those where the insulation is provided by oil. This is Russian technology. This task
of filling the vertical cables with oil is also assigned to the repair section.

The following tasks are being performed:


 Planned preventive maintenance of circuit breakers,
 Planned preventive maintenance of bush bars,
 Planned preventive maintenance of rectifiers and charger system at DSs,
 Planned preventive maintenance of switchgear yard at MSDS,

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 Planned preventive maintenance of MG sets installed at 1 DS (Blast Furnace)
 Planned preventive maintenance of panel mounted isolators
 Capital repair of circuit breakers,
 Planned preventive maintenance of cooling fans of 63 MVA
transformers at MSDS, and transformers installed at different DSs, and
 Planned preventive maintenance of exhaust fans, cooling fans and ventilation
motors.

MECHANICAL SECTION AND WORKSHOP:

Mechanical Workshop provides all mechanical facilities and machining works required for
maintenance of PDN equipments. Mechanical section carries out the following tasks:

 Repair and Maintenance of cooling fans and ventilation system through the
Main Plant.
 Repair and maintenance of ventilation system at different DS.
 Mechanical works of lighting towers and street lights poles
 Repair works of cable tunnels
 Mechanical repair of MSDS switch gear

LOGISTIC AND TECHNICAL SECTION:

This section performs the following functions:

 To maintain record of all drawings, manuals, instruction books of all the


electrical equipments installed at the PDN Department,
 To maintain layouts and plans of installation of equipments,
 To maintain all test certificates, inspection certificates and record of
equipments,
 To prepare details and drawings of any technical modification required in the
system,
 To maintain energy consumption record ,energy balance sheet and billing
records,
 To organize technical training ,conduct examination and coordinate with in
plant training department of HRD,
 To initiate insurance claims and provide pre-requisite information for
finalization of such planes,
 To plan the annual material requirements, initiate purchase indents and
arrange procurement of required maintenance material.

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CONCLUSION
It was a great experience for us and We admit that We learnt a lot from Pakistan Steel Mill. All the staffs of
all departments were very cooperative and humble our interaction with people here has indeed helped us
enhance us communication skills and public relation skills. Things We learnt from here will not only help
us in polishing our studies, We have learnt so far, but also will benefit us in our practical life. As an
engineer it was a great opportunity for us and with the fun We learnt a lot from here.

Overall, this Four weeks experience will remain etched in our memory and We do look forward to perhaps
being a part of Pakistan Steel Mill in the future.

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