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Lecture 2A

UBBL SIXTH SCHEDULE AND


FIRE ESCAPE CALCULATIONS
INTRODUCTION - 1
Sixth Schedule – By-Laws 142-146 seek
to establish a safe separation between
buildings from fire risk standpoint
Fire escape calculations – most
fundamental of passive provisions in Fire
Safety design
SIXTH SCHEDULE
Objective is to establish a safe distance
between buildings so that radiant heat in
the event of a fire does not represent a
source of ignition to neighbouring
buildings.
External walls serve to restrict the outward
spread of fire to an adjacent building.
External walls also offer protection by
resisting fire or radiant heat source from
outside.
SIXTH SCHEDULE
External openings can be radiant heat
source
SIXTH SCHEDULE
External openings can be radiant heat
source
SIXTH SCHEDULE
By-law 142 (2) – Subject to the provisions relating to small garages
and open car parks, any side of a building shall comply with any
relevant requirements relating to the permitted limits of unprotected
areas specified in the Sixth Schedule to these By-laws unless it is so
situated that such side might consist entirely of any unprotected
area.
SIXTH SCHEDULE
By-law 142 (3) – Any external wall which constitutes, or is situated
within a distance of 1 metre from any point on the relevant boundary
or is a wall of a building which exceeds 15 metres in height shall –
(a) be constructed wholly of non-combustible materials apart from
any external cladding which complies with By-law 144 or any
internal lining which complies with these By-laws; and
(b) be so constructed as to attain any FRP required by this Part
without assistance from any combustible material permitted by this
Part -
SIXTH SCHEDULE

By-lawBy-Law – Subject to the provisions relating to small


142 (2)144(2)
garages and open car parks, any side of a building shall comply
with any relevant requirements relating to the permitted limits of
unprotected areas specified in the Sixth Schedule to these By-
laws unless it is so situated that such side might consist entirely
of any unprotected area.
SIXTH SCHEDULE
By-law 146 cont’d
(b) if such other building is an existing
building it shall be deemed to be (a
building to be) erected on the site which it
occupies, being of the same purpose and
having the same unprotected areas and
fire resistance as the existing building
SIXTH SCHEDULE
SIXTH SCHEDULE
SIXTH SCHEDULE
Vol 56,001-84,000m3

B+C>1/2 Perimeter

6th Schedule Unprotected Openings Calculation


SIXTH SCHEDULE
Objective is to check if the front façade
design complies with Sixth Schedule
Part II (Rules of Calculation by reference to
an Enclosing Rectangle); and
Part III (Rules for Calculation by reference to
Aggregate Notional area)
Lecture 2B
Passive Fire Protection
Design and Application
CONCEPTS OF FIRE SAFETY

1 EVACUATION

2 PASSIVE CONTAINMENT

3 ACTIVE INTERVENTION

4 ACCESS FOR FIRE FIGHTING AND RESCUE


Compartmentation
UBBL
• 134 – designation of purpose group
• 136 – limits of compartment sizes
• 137 & 138 - compartment floors
• 140 – separation of fire risk areas
• 215 – vertical compartment wall
• 5th Schedule
• 5th Schedule
Usage / purpose group limits of dimensions

Hotel / III Height > 28m


Floor area : 2000m2 4,000m2
Volume : 5500m3 11,000m3

Office / IV Height > 28m


Floor area : no limit
Volume : no limit

Shops / V Floor area : 2000m2 4,000m2


Volume : 7000m3 14,000m3

Basement Car Park / VIII Floor area : no limit


Volume : 21,000m3 42,000m3

* UBBL Clause 136 : with Automatic Sprinklers : limits shall be x 2


1800m2 / flr
UBBL 215
Vertical separation
UBBL 137 UBBL 137
Compartment Compartment
40,000m2 / flr ( 160,000m2 total )
Floors Floors

40000m2 / flr
UBBL 138(d)
Compartment floor
Shop compartment limit 4,000m2 14,000m3

Compartment B
No limits if
Compartment A At least 60% area are shops Compartment C
Less than 280m2 each
Basement compartment volume limit 42,000m2

Separation of vertical ‘shaft’

Compartment D Compartment A

Compartment B

Compartment C
Exits Considerations
UBBL
• 165 – measurements of travel distance
• 166 – minimum 2 separate exits
• 167 – storey exits
• 171 – horizontal exit
• 174 – storey exit to lead to final exit
• 7th Schedule
• 7th Schedule
Maximum Travel Distance Occupant load capacity of exits
Dead End / w Sprinklers ( e.g Stair )

Hotel 10m / 45m 2 pax / room 45

Office 15m / 60m 10m2 per person 60


(gross)

Shops 15m / 45m street level 3m2 / pax 60


upper level 6m2 / pax 60

Basement 15m / 30m* not specified

* Basement garages limited to 30m even with sprinklers


storey exit

Travel distance
Final exit

Travel distance Travel distance Exit route

horizontal exit

Final exit
Exit capacity calculation : Hotel
UBBL 168, 175, 176, 177, 181
• Occupant load : 2 pax X 40 rooms = 80 pax / floor (By law
175)
• Capacity of Exits : 45 per unit (By law 176 ,7th schedule),
• Exit width required : 80/45 =1.77, say 1.8 (By law 176, 7th schedule)
• Total exit width required : 1.8 X 550mm = 990mm (By law 176, 7th schedule)
round up to 2 full units (By law 177,181)
therefore, 2 X 550mm = 1100mm
• ‘redundancy’ calculation : Say 1 staircase inaccessible,
2-1 = 1, therefore min exit width = 1100mm
Exit capacity calculation : Office
UBBL 168, 175, 176, 177, 181
• Occupant load : Gross floor area = 1800m2, 10 m2/pax,
therefore 1800/10 = 180 pax/floor
• Capacity of Exits : 60 per unit (By law 176, 7th schedule),
• Exit width required : 180/60 = 3 (By law 176, 7th schedule)
• Total exit width required : 3 X 550mm = 1650mm (By law 176,7th Sch
• ‘redundancy’ calculation : Say 1 staircase inaccessible,
2-1 = 1, therefore the min exit width = 1650mm
Exit capacity calculation : Shopping Podium
UBBL 168, 175, 176, 177, 181
Gross floor area = 40 000 – 4000 (Atrium) = 36
• Occupant load : 000m2, 6m2 / pax, therefore = 36 000 / 6 = 6000
pax / floor
• Capacity of Exits : 60 per unit (By law 176, 7th schedule),
• Exit width required : 6000 / 60 = 100 (By law 176, 7th schedule)
• Total exit width required : 100 X 550mm = 55 000mm (By law 176,7th schedule)
• ‘redundancy’ calculation :
Say 1 staircase inaccessible,
14-1 = 13,
therefore the min exit width = 55 000mm/13 =
4200mm
Exit capacity calculation : Basement carpark
UBBL 168, 175, 176, 177, 181
Gross floor area = 40 000, assume 2 pax/car and
• Occupant load :
40m2/car, therefore 40 000/40 = 1000 car or 2000
pax/floor
• Capacity of Exits : Compare 2000 to 6000 (shopping),
• Exit width required : factor reduction = 1/3
• Total exit width required : 55 000 / 3 = 18300 mm (By law 176, 7th schedule)
• ‘redundancy’ calculation :
Say 1 staircase inaccessible,
14-1 = 13,
therefore the min exit width = 18 300mm / 13 =
1400mm
storey exit

250 pax 250 pax


Final exit

400 pax
400 pax

200 pax 150 pax Exit route

400 pax

horizontal exit
300 pax 400 pax

200 pax
Final exit
400 pax
Exit route to discharge Exit route to discharge
direct to final exit direct to final exit

Basement
Travel distance
• UBBL 165
• 7th Schedule
• Dead end
• initial travel distance before a point where an alternative path
becomes available
• Direct distance
• Stipulates that travel distance must be measured along the actual
path of travel
• Open plan
• Where an actual path of travel cannot be determined, the direct
distance can be measured as a straight line direct to the exit.
Permitted travel distance is then reduced to 2/3.
Protection of stairs and lobbies
UBBL
• 196, 197 - smoke lobbies, protected
lobbies
• 198, 199, 200, 201 – ventilation of stairs
• 229 – fire fighting lobbies
Protection of stairs and lobbies

• Protected Lobby : protected lobby separated


or isolated from fire and smoke infiltration
• Smoke Lobby : a protected lobby primarily to
isolate staircases from smoke infiltration
• ventilated lobby : protected/smoke lobby by
means of natural ventilation from outside
• Fire Fighting Access Lobby : a protected
lobby designed for fire fighting access
PROTECTED / PRESSURISED
Room < 6 pax

> 45o
UBBL 229
60m
UBBL Clause 140
Volume of building > 112,000m3 hence, island site

Hydrants to be located at max. 90m intervals


Lecture Series from Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia
• Ar Chee Soo Teng
• Ar Chong Lee Siong