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ABSTRACT - The word TQM means Total Quality Management.

Total Quality
Management is a statistical approach towards customers’ satisfaction in a motive to
have a long term success. Basically in a TQM effort, every person or every individual
of the organization work for an improvement in the quality, process, service and so on.
In this paper we are discussing about the Statistical Quality Control Techniques with
special emphasis on Total Quality Management (TQM).

INTRODUCTION – Products can be designed for high quality but unless processes
are compatible, the quality desired of the product may never be achieved. Processes
determine the degree of conformance to quality. Quality can never be inspected into a
product, it must be built in. Correct and ‘in control’ processes ensure that the product is
made right, the first time. Three main issues are as follows :

 Is the process capable of producing the quality desired in the output?

 Is the process meeting or not meeting the requirement at any time?
 Of the process is not meeting the requirements, make adjustments to correct the

Statistical Quality control refers to the use of statistical measures in supervising and
maintaining the quality pf goods and services and aims at addressing the above issues
and providing means to check whether the process is capable of delivering the quality
standards required of i.e., determining whether the process is in control or not, and
laying down the action to be taken when the process is out of control. SQC techniques
are applicable to both production process involves the use of samples and draws
conclusion based on sample, an understanding of very basic statistics is necessary.

THEORY – A philosophy used b many companies in Japan is Kaizen. It means never

ending improvement and maintaining standards of produced goods that involves
gradual, unending improvements doing little things better and setting and achieving
higher standards. Kaizen as a philosophy is not only used in Japanese economic life but
also in social life. Kaizen(Kai-change, zen-to become good) means continuous slow
improvement involving everyone from top managers to workers. It is a policy that is
followed by all leading Japanese companies. In an organization that follows Kaizen,
every employee is encouraged to come up with innovative ideas. The philosophy of
Kaizen has enabled Japanese management to take a systematic and a collaborative
approach to cross functional problem solving.
The term Quality and productivity may mean different things to different people,
however the same becomes mean implies when we talk about improvements. Any
improvement is quality and productivity. The starting point of improvements is
recognizing the problem and the need to improve. Kaizen emphasises on being
aware of the problem and provides dues fr identifying them. The problem solving
process and standardization of the new products is also related to kaizen. In short,
anything, from equipment for production to human behavior that needs
improvement efforts comes probably under the use of kaizen.

Kaizen plays a prominent part in the following areas –

 Profit Planning
 Customer Satisfaction
 TQC Programmes
 Suggestion System
 Smaller group activities
 Just-in-time(JIT) production
 Systems improvements
 Cross-functional management
 Policy implementation or deployment
 Quality deployment
 Total Productivity maintenance
 Supplier Maintenance
 Top Management Commitment
 Corporate culture
 Problem solving

Six Sigma is a method of removing errors (or defects). The concept of six sigma was
generated in the manufacturing division of Motorola where millions of components
were made using repeated processes. Eventually it evolved and is now applied to non-
manufacturing processes also. The six-sigma methodology improves the existing
business processes by constantly reviewing and retuning the processes. It relies heavily
on statistical techniques to reduce defects and monitor quality. The Greek symbol 6
(sigma) refers to the amount of variation in the process around its mean value.
Statistics is a primary tool used in six sigma. In fact, the name six sigma is derived
from statistics. Sigma is a Greek symbol which denotes standard deviation. Process
have acceptable lower and upper limits. The five steps to implementing six-sigma are
as follows :-

1. Identify core processes and key customers

2. Define customer requirements
3. Measure current performance
4. Prioritize, analyze and implement improvements
5. Expand and integrate the six-sigma

Six sigma aims to improving processes and producing goods with zero defects. There
are 2 methods to achieve this goal. This first is define, measure, analyze, improve,
control and the second is to define, measure, analyze, design and verify.

The control chart is a graph used to study hw a process changes over time. Data are plotted in
time order. A cntrol chart always has a central line for the average, an upper line for the upper
control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. These lines are determined from
historical data. By comparing current data to these lines, you can draw conclusions about
whether the process variation is consistent (in control) or is unpredictable (out of control,
affected by special causes of variation). This versatile data collection and analysis tool can be
used by a variety of industries and is considered one of the seven basic quality tools.Control
charts for variable data are used in pairs. The top chart monitors the average, or the centering of
the distribution of data from the process. The bottom chart monitors the range, or the width of
the distribution. If your data were shots in target practice, the average is where the shots are
clustering, and the range is how tightly they are clustered. Control charts for attribute data are
used singly.
CONCLUSION - By applying statistical process control methods to the analysis of adverse
events, we have exemplified how this allows us to determine if a process is stable or not, whether
an intervention is required or not and if quality improvement efforts have the desired effect or
not. The important thing is to once again realize the importance of Statistical Quality Control
(SQC) in proactive technology, instead of dealing with reactive technology.


1. Text book – Management- Principles, Processes and Practices b Anil Bhatt and
Arya Kumar, Oxford Publications
2. Lecture Class Notes