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Chapter 3: Fluid Statics

3-1 Pressure
3-2 Fluid Statics
3-3 Buoyancy and Stability
3-4 Rigid-Body Motion

Fluid Mechanics
Chapter 3 Fluid Statics
Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (1)

Pressure is defined as a normal force exerted by a


fluid per unit area.
Units of pressure are N/m2, which is called a pascal
(Pa).
Since the unit Pa is too small for pressures
encountered in practice, kilopascal (1 kPa = 103 Pa)
and megapascal (1 MPa = 106 Pa) are commonly
used.
Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm2, lbf/in2=psi.

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (2)

Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures:


Actual pressure at a give point is called the absolute
pressure.
Most pressure-measuring devices are calibrated to
read zero in the atmosphere, and therefore indicate
gage pressure, Pgage=Pabs - Patm.
Pressure below atmospheric pressure are called
vacuum pressure, Pvac=Patm - Pabs.

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (3)
Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures:

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (4)

Pressure at a Point
Pressure at any point in a fluid is the same in all
directions.
Pressure has a magnitude, but not a specific direction,
and thus it is a scalar quantity.

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (5)

The Basic Equations of Fluid Statics:


Body Force

Surface Force

Total Force

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (6)

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (7)

Newton’s Second Law

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Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (8)

Pressure-Height Relation:

Pressure Variation in a Static Fluid:

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (9)
Variation of Pressure with Depth:
In the presence of a gravitational
field, pressure increases with depth
because more fluid rests on deeper
layers.
To obtain a relation for the variation
of pressure with depth, consider
rectangular element
Force balance in z-direction gives
∑F z = maz = 0
P2 Δx − P1Δx − ρ g ΔxΔz = 0
Dividing by Dx and rearranging gives

ΔP = P2 − P1 = ρ g Δz = γ s Δz 3-9

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (10)

Variation of Pressure with Depth:


Pressure in a fluid at rest is independent of the shape of the
container.
Pressure is the same at all points on a horizontal plane in a
given fluid.

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (11)

Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure:

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (12)
Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure:
1 Pressure on diver at 100 ft?
⎛ kg ⎞⎛ m⎞ ⎛ 1m ⎞
Pgage ,2 = ρ gz = ⎜ 998 3 ⎟⎜ 9.81 2 ⎟ (100 ft ) ⎜ ⎟
⎝ m ⎠⎝ s ⎠ ⎝ 3.28 ft ⎠
⎛ 1atm ⎞
= 298.5kPa ⎜ ⎟ = 2.95atm
100 ft ⎝ 101.325kPa ⎠
Pabs ,2 = Pgage ,2 + Patm = 2.95atm + 1atm = 3.95atm

Danger of emergency ascent?


2
1 1 = PV
PV 2 2 Boyle’s law
V1 P2 3.95atm
If you hold your breath on ascent, your lung = = ≈4
V2 P1 1atm
volume would increase by a factor of 4, which
would result in embolism and/or death. 3-12

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (13)

Pascal’s Law:
Pressure applied to a
confined fluid increases the
pressure throughout by the
same amount.
In picture, pistons are at
same height:
F1 F2 F2 A2
P1 = P2 → = → =
A1 A2 F1 A1

Ratio A2/A1 is called ideal


mechanical advantage
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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (14)
The Manometer:
An elevation change of Dz
in a fluid at rest corresponds
to DP/rg.
A device based on this is
called a manometer.
A manometer consists of a
U-tube containing one or
more fluids such as mercury,
water, alcohol, or oil.
Heavy fluids such as
P1 = P2 mercury are used if large
pressure differences are
P2 = Patm + ρ gh anticipated. 3-14

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (15)

Mutlifluid Manometer:

For multi-fluid systems


Pressure change across a fluid column of
height h is DP = rgh.
Pressure increases downward, and
decreases upward.
Two points at the same elevation in a
continuous fluid are at the same pressure.
Pressure can be determined by adding
and subtracting rgh terms.

P2 + ρ1 gh1 + ρ 2 gh2 + ρ3 gh3 = P1


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Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (16)

Measuring Pressure Drops:


Manometers are well--suited
to measure pressure drops
across valves, pipes, heat
exchangers, etc.
Relation for pressure drop
P1-P2 is obtained by starting
at point 1 and adding or
subtracting rgh terms until
we reach point 2.
If fluid in pipe is a gas,
r2>>r1 and P1-P2= rgh
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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-1 Pressure (17)
The Barometer:
Atmospheric pressure is measured
by a device called a barometer;
thus, atmospheric pressure is often
referred to as the barometric
pressure.
PC can be taken to be zero since
there is only Hg vapor above
point C, and it is very low relative
to Patm.
Change in atmospheric pressure
due to elevation has many effects:
Cooking, nose bleeds, engine
PC + ρ gh = Patm performance, aircraft performance.

Patm = ρ gh
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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-2 Fluid Statics (1)

Fluid Statics deals with problems associated with


fluids at rest.
In fluid statics, there is no relative motion between
adjacent fluid layers.
Therefore, there is no shear stress in the fluid trying
to deform it.
The only stress in fluid statics is normal stress
Normal stress is due to pressure
Variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the fluid
→ fluid statics is only relevant in presence of gravity fields.
Applications: Floating or submerged bodies, water
dams and gates, liquid storage tanks, etc.
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Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-2 Fluid Statics (2)

Hoover Dam:

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3-2 Fluid Statics (3)

Hoover Dam:

Example of elevation
head z converted to
velocity head V2/2g.
We'll discuss this in
more detail later
(Bernoulli equation).

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Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-2 Fluid Statics (4)
Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces:
On a plane surface, the
hydrostatic forces form a
system of parallel forces
For many applications,
magnitude and location of
application, which is called
center of pressure, must be
determined.
Atmospheric pressure Patm
can be neglected when it
acts on both sides of the
surface. 3-21

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-3 Buoyancy and Stability (1)

Buoyancy is due to the fluid displaced by a body.


FB=rfgV.
Archimedes principal : The buoyant force acting on
a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of
the fluid displaced by the body, and it acts upward
through the centroid of the displaced volume.

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-3 Buoyancy and Stability (2)

Buoyancy force FB is equal


only to the displaced volume
ρf gVdisplaced.
Three scenarios possible
1. ρbody<ρfluid: Floating
body
2. ρbody=ρfluid: Neutrally
buoyant
3. ρbody>ρfluid: Sinking
body

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Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-3 Buoyancy and Stability (3)

Buoyancy:

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Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-3 Buoyancy and Stability (4)
Example: Floating Drydock:
Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock Resolute Submarine undergoing repair work on
(AFDM-10) partially submerged board the AFDM-10

Using buoyancy, a submarine with a displacement of 6,000 tons can be lifted!

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-3 Buoyancy and Stability (5)

Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast:


SSN 711 nose down after accident
Normal surface trim
which damaged fore ballast tanks

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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-4 Rigid-Body Motion (1)

There are special cases where a body of fluid can undergo rigid-body
motion: linear acceleration, and rotation of a cylindrical container.

In these cases, no shear is developed.


Newton's 2nd law of motion can be used to derive an equation of motion
for a fluid that acts as a rigid body
r r
∇P + ρ gk = − ρ a

∂P ∂P ∂P
In Cartesian coordinates: = − ρ ax , = −ρ ay , = − ρ ( g + ax )
∂x ∂y ∂z
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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-4 Rigid-Body Motion (2)
Linear Acceleration:
Container is moving on a straight path
ax ≠ 0, a y = az = 0
∂P ∂P ∂P
= ρ ax , = 0, = −ρ g
∂x ∂y ∂z
Total differential of P
dP = − ρ ax dx − ρ gdz

Pressure difference between 2 points


P2 − P1 = − ρ ax ( x2 − x1 ) − ρ g ( z2 − z1 )

Find the rise by selecting 2 points on free


surface P2 = P1 a
Δzs = zs 2 − zs1 = − x ( x2 − x1 )
g 3-28

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009
3-4 Rigid-Body Motion (3)
Rotation in a Cylindrical Container:
Container is rotating about the z-axis
ar = − rω 2 , aθ = az = 0
∂P ∂P ∂P
= ρ rω 2 , = 0, = −ρ g
∂r ∂θ ∂z
Total differential of P
dP = ρ rω 2 dr − ρ gdz

On an isobar, dP = 0
dzisobar rω 2 ω2 2
= → zisobar = r + C1
dr g 2g

Equation of the free surface


ω 2
z =h −
s 0
4g
( R − 2r )
2 2
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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 3: Fluid Statics


Y.C. Shih Spring 2009