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3-1 Pressure

3-2 Fluid Statics

3-3 Buoyancy and Stability

3-4 Rigid-Body Motion

Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 3 Fluid Statics

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (1)

fluid per unit area.

Units of pressure are N/m2, which is called a pascal

(Pa).

Since the unit Pa is too small for pressures

encountered in practice, kilopascal (1 kPa = 103 Pa)

and megapascal (1 MPa = 106 Pa) are commonly

used.

Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm2, lbf/in2=psi.

3-1

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (2)

Actual pressure at a give point is called the absolute

pressure.

Most pressure-measuring devices are calibrated to

read zero in the atmosphere, and therefore indicate

gage pressure, Pgage=Pabs - Patm.

Pressure below atmospheric pressure are called

vacuum pressure, Pvac=Patm - Pabs.

3-2

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (3)

Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures:

3-3

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (4)

Pressure at a Point

Pressure at any point in a fluid is the same in all

directions.

Pressure has a magnitude, but not a specific direction,

and thus it is a scalar quantity.

3-4

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (5)

Body Force

Surface Force

Total Force

3-5

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (6)

3-6

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (7)

3-7

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (8)

Pressure-Height Relation:

3-8

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (9)

Variation of Pressure with Depth:

In the presence of a gravitational

field, pressure increases with depth

because more fluid rests on deeper

layers.

To obtain a relation for the variation

of pressure with depth, consider

rectangular element

Force balance in z-direction gives

∑F z = maz = 0

P2 Δx − P1Δx − ρ g ΔxΔz = 0

Dividing by Dx and rearranging gives

ΔP = P2 − P1 = ρ g Δz = γ s Δz 3-9

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (10)

Pressure in a fluid at rest is independent of the shape of the

container.

Pressure is the same at all points on a horizontal plane in a

given fluid.

3-10

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (11)

3-11

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (12)

Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure:

1 Pressure on diver at 100 ft?

⎛ kg ⎞⎛ m⎞ ⎛ 1m ⎞

Pgage ,2 = ρ gz = ⎜ 998 3 ⎟⎜ 9.81 2 ⎟ (100 ft ) ⎜ ⎟

⎝ m ⎠⎝ s ⎠ ⎝ 3.28 ft ⎠

⎛ 1atm ⎞

= 298.5kPa ⎜ ⎟ = 2.95atm

100 ft ⎝ 101.325kPa ⎠

Pabs ,2 = Pgage ,2 + Patm = 2.95atm + 1atm = 3.95atm

2

1 1 = PV

PV 2 2 Boyle’s law

V1 P2 3.95atm

If you hold your breath on ascent, your lung = = ≈4

V2 P1 1atm

volume would increase by a factor of 4, which

would result in embolism and/or death. 3-12

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (13)

Pascal’s Law:

Pressure applied to a

confined fluid increases the

pressure throughout by the

same amount.

In picture, pistons are at

same height:

F1 F2 F2 A2

P1 = P2 → = → =

A1 A2 F1 A1

mechanical advantage

3-13

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (14)

The Manometer:

An elevation change of Dz

in a fluid at rest corresponds

to DP/rg.

A device based on this is

called a manometer.

A manometer consists of a

U-tube containing one or

more fluids such as mercury,

water, alcohol, or oil.

Heavy fluids such as

P1 = P2 mercury are used if large

pressure differences are

P2 = Patm + ρ gh anticipated. 3-14

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (15)

Mutlifluid Manometer:

Pressure change across a fluid column of

height h is DP = rgh.

Pressure increases downward, and

decreases upward.

Two points at the same elevation in a

continuous fluid are at the same pressure.

Pressure can be determined by adding

and subtracting rgh terms.

3-15

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (16)

Manometers are well--suited

to measure pressure drops

across valves, pipes, heat

exchangers, etc.

Relation for pressure drop

P1-P2 is obtained by starting

at point 1 and adding or

subtracting rgh terms until

we reach point 2.

If fluid in pipe is a gas,

r2>>r1 and P1-P2= rgh

3-16

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-1 Pressure (17)

The Barometer:

Atmospheric pressure is measured

by a device called a barometer;

thus, atmospheric pressure is often

referred to as the barometric

pressure.

PC can be taken to be zero since

there is only Hg vapor above

point C, and it is very low relative

to Patm.

Change in atmospheric pressure

due to elevation has many effects:

Cooking, nose bleeds, engine

PC + ρ gh = Patm performance, aircraft performance.

Patm = ρ gh

3-17

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-2 Fluid Statics (1)

fluids at rest.

In fluid statics, there is no relative motion between

adjacent fluid layers.

Therefore, there is no shear stress in the fluid trying

to deform it.

The only stress in fluid statics is normal stress

Normal stress is due to pressure

Variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the fluid

→ fluid statics is only relevant in presence of gravity fields.

Applications: Floating or submerged bodies, water

dams and gates, liquid storage tanks, etc.

3-18

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-2 Fluid Statics (2)

Hoover Dam:

3-19

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-2 Fluid Statics (3)

Hoover Dam:

Example of elevation

head z converted to

velocity head V2/2g.

We'll discuss this in

more detail later

(Bernoulli equation).

3-20

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-2 Fluid Statics (4)

Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces:

On a plane surface, the

hydrostatic forces form a

system of parallel forces

For many applications,

magnitude and location of

application, which is called

center of pressure, must be

determined.

Atmospheric pressure Patm

can be neglected when it

acts on both sides of the

surface. 3-21

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-3 Buoyancy and Stability (1)

FB=rfgV.

Archimedes principal : The buoyant force acting on

a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of

the fluid displaced by the body, and it acts upward

through the centroid of the displaced volume.

3-22

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-3 Buoyancy and Stability (2)

only to the displaced volume

ρf gVdisplaced.

Three scenarios possible

1. ρbody<ρfluid: Floating

body

2. ρbody=ρfluid: Neutrally

buoyant

3. ρbody>ρfluid: Sinking

body

3-23

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-3 Buoyancy and Stability (3)

Buoyancy:

3-24

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-3 Buoyancy and Stability (4)

Example: Floating Drydock:

Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock Resolute Submarine undergoing repair work on

(AFDM-10) partially submerged board the AFDM-10

3-25

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-3 Buoyancy and Stability (5)

SSN 711 nose down after accident

Normal surface trim

which damaged fore ballast tanks

3-26

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-4 Rigid-Body Motion (1)

There are special cases where a body of fluid can undergo rigid-body

motion: linear acceleration, and rotation of a cylindrical container.

Newton's 2nd law of motion can be used to derive an equation of motion

for a fluid that acts as a rigid body

r r

∇P + ρ gk = − ρ a

∂P ∂P ∂P

In Cartesian coordinates: = − ρ ax , = −ρ ay , = − ρ ( g + ax )

∂x ∂y ∂z

3-27

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-4 Rigid-Body Motion (2)

Linear Acceleration:

Container is moving on a straight path

ax ≠ 0, a y = az = 0

∂P ∂P ∂P

= ρ ax , = 0, = −ρ g

∂x ∂y ∂z

Total differential of P

dP = − ρ ax dx − ρ gdz

P2 − P1 = − ρ ax ( x2 − x1 ) − ρ g ( z2 − z1 )

surface P2 = P1 a

Δzs = zs 2 − zs1 = − x ( x2 − x1 )

g 3-28

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

3-4 Rigid-Body Motion (3)

Rotation in a Cylindrical Container:

Container is rotating about the z-axis

ar = − rω 2 , aθ = az = 0

∂P ∂P ∂P

= ρ rω 2 , = 0, = −ρ g

∂r ∂θ ∂z

Total differential of P

dP = ρ rω 2 dr − ρ gdz

On an isobar, dP = 0

dzisobar rω 2 ω2 2

= → zisobar = r + C1

dr g 2g

ω 2

z =h −

s 0

4g

( R − 2r )

2 2

3-29

Y.C. Shih Spring 2009

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