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2 types of ossification:
 Intramembranous ossification – bone forms directly or within loose fibrous connective
tissue membrane which is formed by cluster of mesenchyme; Examples: flatbones of
skull, mandible, soft spots or fontanels, facial bones, cranial bones
 Endochondral ossification – bone forms within the hyaline cartilage; replacement of
cartilage by bone; most bones of the body; best observed in long bones; sphenoid,
occipital bone
Gross Structure of a Long Bone:
1. Periosteum – connective tissue membrane covering the surface of the bone, except
areas covered by articular cartilage; functions in bone growth, nutrition and repair
and as attachment site for tendons and ligaments
2. Articular cartilage – thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the ends of the bone
where joints are formed
3. Epiphysis – end of extremity of a bone; proximal and distal epiphysis
4. Metaphysis – in mature bone, the region where the diaphysis joins the diaphysis; in
growing bones, the region near the epiphyseal plate.
In longitudinal section of a bone:
5. Medullary or marrow cavity - a cavity within the diaphysis that contains yellow
6. Endosteum – membrane that lines the medullary cavity; separates spongy bone from
Categories of bones depending on the size and distribution of spaces:
7. Compact or dense bone – bone that forms the bulk of the diaphysis and covers the
epiphysis; contains few spaces and is deposited in layers over spongy bone; is thicker
in diaphysis than in epiphysis
8. Spongy or cancellous bone – forms a small portion of the diaphysis at the ends of the
medullary cavity and the bulk of the epiphysis; contains red marrow ; contains many
large spaces that store mainly red marrow, composes most of the tissue of short,
flat, and irregularly shaped bones and most of the epiphyses of long bones
Osteon of Haversian System – microscopic structural unit of a compact bone
Parts in a cross section:
1. Central or Haversian canal – circular canal in the center of an osteon that runs
longitudinally through the bone; contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves
2. Lamellae – concentric layers of calcified matrix
3. Lacunae – spaces or cavities between lamellae that contain osteocytes.
4. Canaliculi – minute canals that radiate in all directions from the lacunae and
interconnect with each other; provide routes so that nutrients can reach osteocytes
and wastes can be removed from them
5. Osteocyte – a mature bone cell located within the lacuna
Parts in a longitudinal section:
1. Perforating canal or Volkmann’s canal – canals that extend obliquely or horizontally
inward from the bone surface ; contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves
and extend into central canals and medullary cavity
2. Endosteum
3. Medullary or marrow cavity
4. Lamellae
5. Lacunae
6. Canaliculi
7. Osteocytes

- Adult human skeleton = 206 named bones; 2 principal divisions:

o 80 bones of Axial skeleton
o 126 bones of Appendicular skeleton
- Types of bones according to shape:
o 1. Long bones - greater length than width; with shaft and variable number of
extremities; curved for strength; made of compact bone tissue; act as levers;
bones in appendages
o 2. Short bones – cube-shaped; equal in length and width; transfer of forces
and movements; consists of spongy bone tissue; wrist and ankle
o 3. Flat bones – thin and composed of 2 nearly parallel plates of compact bone
enclosing spongy bone; for protection and muscle attachment; bones in skull,
rib cage and scapulae
o 4. Irregular bones – for muscle attachment; articulations; complex shape; vary
in amount of spongy and compact bone; vertebrae, sphenoid bone, calcaneus
o 5. Sutural bones – small bones within joints; variable in number
 Cleidocranial dysostosis (-is a hereditary congenital disorder, where there is delayed
ossification of midline structures.)
 Osteogenesis imperfecta (-brittle bone disease or Lobstein syndrome, is a congenital
bone disorder characterized by brittle bones that are prone to fracture)
 Achondroplasia (-a hereditary condition in which the growth of long bones by
ossification of cartilage is retarded, resulting in very short limbs and sometimes a face that is
small in relation to the (normal-sized) skull.)
 Pyknodysostosis (-characterized by the post natal onset of short limbs, short stature,
and generalized hyperostosis along with acro-osteolysis with sclerosis of the terminal
 Cretinism (-is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth due to
untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones (congenital hypothyroidism) usually
due to maternal hypothyroidism.)
 Idiopathic acroosteolysis (- is characterized by bone resorption in the fingers and
toes and can occur in several diseases. Phalangeal acroosteolysis is a rare idiopathic form)
 Progeria (-is an extremely rare genetic disorder wherein symptoms resembling aspects of
aging are manifested at a very early age)
o 6. Sesamoid bone develop from certain tendons for friction, tension, physical
stress in palms and soles; examples: patella, pisiform
- Bone Surface Markings – structural features adapted for specific function
o Types:
 1. Depressions or openings – form joints and allow passage of soft tissue
 2. Processes – projections or outgrowths; forms joints or attachment
joints for ligaments and tendons
Surface Features of bones:
- Articulating surfaces:
o Condyle – large rounded articulating surface Ex. Occipital condyle of the
occipital bone
o Head – prominent, rounded articulating end of a bone Ex. Head of the femur
o Facet – flattened or shallow articulating surface Ex. Costal facet of a thoracic
- Nonarticulating prominences:
o Tubercle – small rounded process Ex. Greater tubercle of humerus
o Process – any bony extension Ex. Mastoid process of the temporal bone
o Tuberosity – large roughened process Ex. Radial tuberosity of radius
o Trochanter – massive process found only in the femur Ex. Greater trochanter
of the femur
o Spine – sharp slender process Ex. Spine of the scapula
o Crest – narrow, ridgelike projection Ex. Iliac crest of the os coxae
o Epicondyle – projection above a condyle Ex. Medial epicondyle of the femur
o Line – long narrow ridge or border less prominent than a crest Ex. Linea aspera
of the femur
- Depressions and openings:
o Fossa – shallow depression Ex. Mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
o Sulcus – groove that accommodates a vessel, nerve or tendon Ex.
Intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
o Fissure – narrow, slitlike opening Ex. Superior orbital fissure of the sphenoid
o Meatus or canal – tubelike passageway Ex. External acoustic meatus of the
temporal bone
o Alveolus – Deep pit or socket Ex. maxillary alveoli for teeth
o Foramen (Foramina=plural) – rounded opening through a bone Ex. Foramen
magnum of the occipital bone
o Fovea – small pit or depression Ex. Fovea capitis femoris of the femur
- General Features of the Skull:
o 1. Temporal bone – location of auditory ossicles
o 2. Mandible – only movable bone of the skull
o 3. Sutures – immovable joints; hold most of skull bones
o 4. Surfaces of cranial bones – muscle attachment
o 5. Facial bones – protect and provide support for entrance of digestive and
respiratory systems
o 6. Cranial and facial bones – protect and support delicate special sense organs
for vision, taste, smell, hearing and equilibrium
- Unique Features of the skull:
o 1. Sutures – seam or stitch; immovable joint in adult; movable sutures –
infants and children
 4 sutures:
 Coronal – frontal and 2 parietal
 Sagittal – 2 parietals
 Lambdoidal- 2 parietals, occipital
 Squamous – parietal, temporal
o 2. Paranasal sinuses or sinus – a cavity in a bone located near the nasal cavity;
reduce weight of the skull; resonant chambers that affect the quality of the
 Maxillary sinus – paired in maxillae
 Frontal sinus – paired in frontal
 Sphenoidal sinus – unpaired in sphenoid
 Ethmoidal sinus – unpaired in ethmoid
o 3. Fontanels
 Membrane-filled spaces present between 2 cranial bones
 Called soft spots – completed by 20-24 months
 Areas of fibrous connective tissue membranes
 Replaced by intramembranous ossification and become sutures;
flexibility or molding during parturition
 Types:
 Unpaired anterior fontanel or frontal – between 2 parietal bones
and frontal bone; diamond-shaped; largest
 Unpaired posterior fontanel or occipital – 2 parietals and occipital;
closes 2 month after birth
 Paired anterolateral fontanel or sphenoidal – between frontal,
parietal, temporal, sphenoid; small and irregular; closes 3 months
after birth
 Paired posterolateral fontanel or mastoid – parietal, occipital,
temporal; irregular; closes 1-2 months after birth
Classification of Bones of the Adult Skeleton:
Axial Skeleton: Skull
Bone Number Part(s) and Description
Frontal 1 Frontal sinus- air cavity that opens into nasal cavity
Coronal suture – joint between frontal and parietal bones
Parietal 2 Sagittal suture – joint between 2 parietal bones
Temporal 2 Squamosal suture – joint between temporal and parietal bone
External auditory meatus – tunnel-like ear canal
Mastoid process –oval projection behind the ear canal
Mastoid sinus – air cavity that opens into middle ear
Mandibular fossa – oval depression anterior to the ear canal ; articulates with
Zygomatic process – anterior projection that articulates with the zygomatic
Occipital 1 Foramen magnum – large opening for the spinal cord
Condyles – oval projections on either side of the foramen magnum; articulate
with the atlas
Lambdoidal suture – joint between occipital and parietal bones
Sphenoid 1 Greater wing – flat, lateral portion between the frontal and temporal bones
Sella turcica – central depression that encloses the pituitary gland
Sphenoid sinus – air cavity that opens into nasal cavity
Ethmoid 1 Ethmoid sinus- air cavity that opens into nasal cavity
Crista galli – superior projection for attachment of meninges
Cribriform plate and olfactory foramina – on either side of base of crista galli;
olfactory nerves pass through foramina
Perpendicular plate – upper part of nasal septum
Conchae – (4 are part of ethmoid; 2 inferior are separate bones) – shelflike
projections into nasal cavities which increase surface area of nasal mucosa
Mandible 1 Body – U-shaped portion with lower teeth
Condyles- oval projections that articulate with the temporal bones
Sockets – conical depressions that hold roots of lower teeth
Maxilla 2 Maxillary sinus- air cavity that opens into nasal cavity
Palatine process – projection that forms anterior part of hard palate
Sockets – conical depressions that hold roots of upper teeth
Nasal 2 Forms the bridge of the nose
Lacrimal 2 Lacrimal canal- opening for nasolacrimal duct to take tears to nasal cavity
Zygomatic 2 Form point of cheek; articulate with frontal, temporal and maxillae
Palatine 2 Forms the posterior part of hard palate
Vomer 1 Lower part of nasal septum
Bones of the Shoulder and Arm
Bone Number Part(s) and Description
Scapula 2 Glenoid fossa – depression that articulates with humerus
Spine – long, posterior, process for muscle attachment
Acromion process – articulates with clavicle
Clavicle 2 Acromial end- articulates with scapula
Sternal end – articulates with manubrium of sternum
Humerus 2 Head – round process that articulates with scapula
Olecranon fossa – posterior, oval depression for the olecranon process of the ulna
Capitulum – round process posterior to radius
Trochlea – concave surface that articulates with ulna
Radius 2 Head – articulates with ulna
Ulna 2 Olecranon process – fits into olecranon fossa of humerus
Carpals 8 Scaphoid Lunate Proximal row
Triquetrum Pisiform
Trapezium Trapezoid Distal row
Capitate Hamate

Bones of the Hip and Leg

Bone Number Part(s) Description
Pelvic (Hip 2 Ilium – flared upper portion
bones) Iliac crest – upper edge of ilium
Posterior superior iliac spine – posterior continuation of iliac crest
Ischium – lower posterior portion
Pubis – anterior medial portion
Pubis symphysis – joint between the 2 pubic bones
Acetabulum – deep depression that articulates with femur
Femur 2 Head – round process that articulates with hip bone
Neck – constricted portion distal to head
Greater trochanter – large lateral process for muscle attachment
Lesser trochanter – medial process for muscle attachment
Condyles – rounded process that articulate with tibia
Tibia 2 Condyles – articulate with the femur
Medial malleolus – distal process; medial “ankle bone”
Fibula 2 Head – articulates with tibia
Lateral malleolus – distal process; lateral “ankle bone”
Tarsals 7 Calcaneus - heel bone
Talus – articulates with calcaneus and tibia
Cuboid, navicular
Cuneiform: 1st, 2nd, 3rd
Classification of Bones of the Adult Skeleton

Axial skeleton

Skull 22 bones
Facial Bones 14
Maxilla 2
Palatine 2
Zygomatic 2
Lacrimal 2
Nasal 2
Vomer 1
Inferior nasal conchae 2
Mandible 1
Cranial Bones 8
Frontal 1
Parietal 2
Occipital 1
Temporal 2
Sphenoid 1
Ethmoid 1
Auditory ossicles 6
Malleus 2
Incus 2
Stapes 2
Hyoid 1
Vertebral column 26
Cervical vertebrae 7
Thoracic vertebrae 12
Lumbar vertebrae 5
Sacrum 1=5 fused bones
Coccyx 1=3 to 5 fused bones
Rib Cage 25 bones
True ribs 14
False ribs 6
Floating ribs 4
Sternum 1
Appendicular Skeleton

Pectoral Girdle 4 bones

Scapula 2
Clavicle 2
Upper Extremities 60 bones
Humerus 2
Radius 2
Ulna 2
Carpal bones 16
Metacarpals 10
Phalanges 28
Pelvic Girdle 2 bones
Os Coxae 2= each contains 3 fused
Lower Extremities 60 bones
Femur 2
Tibia 2
Fibula 2
Patella 2
Tarsal 14
Metatarsal 10
Phalanges 28
Cranial Bones:
1. Frontal bone - forms the anterior portion of the skull
 Metopic suture – unites right and left of frontal bone; disappears age 6-8
 Frontal squama – forms the forehead
 2 frontal sinus
2. Parietal – form the bulging sides and roof of the cranium
 Sagittal suture
 Coronal suture
3. Occipital – lambdoid suture; forms back of the skull and base of the cranium
 Foramen magnum
 Occipital condyles – articulates with the atlas
4. Temporal – squamosal suture; form parts of the sides and base of the cranium
 Internal acoustic meatus
 Mandibular fossa –articulates with condyles of mandible
 Mastoid process – muscle attachment
 Zygomatic process – form prominence of cheeks
 External auditory meatus or ear canal
5. Sphenoid bone – keystone of the cranial floor; forms base of the cranium, sides of skull and
floors and sides of the orbits
 Sella turcica –saddle-shaped depression where the pituitary gland is located
6. Ethmoid bone – located in front of the sphenoid bone; delicate scroll-shaped plates; ethmoid
 Cribriform plates – form the roof of the nasal cavity
 Crista galli – cock’s comb; point of attachment for membranes that cover the brain ; triangular process
of the ethmoid bone
 Delicate scroll-shaped plates:
a.Superior nasal conchae
b. Middle nasal conchae
Facial Bones: - growth ceases at about 16 years old
1. Maxillae – upper jaw; form the anterior roof of the mouth, floors of the orbits and sides of the floor
of nasal cavity; maxillary sinuses – largest sinuses
2. Palatine bones – L-shaped; horizontal portions form the posterior section of the hard palate and
floor of nasal cavity
3. Zygomatic bones form the prominences of the cheeks below and at the sides of the eyes
 Help form the lateral walls and floors of the orbits
 Zygomatic arch – composed of temporal process of the zygomatic bone and the
zygomatic process of the temporal bone
4. Lacrimal bones – thin, scalelike structure located in the medial wall of each orbit between the
ethmoid and maxilla; smallest bones of the face; finger nail in size and shape
5. Nasal bones – long, thin, nearly rectangular; form bridge of the nose
6. Vomer – triangular bone; plowshare; posteriorly joins the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone
and together form the nasal septum
7. Inferior nasal conchae – fragile, scroll-shaped bones attached to the lateral walls of the nasal cavity;
support mucous membranes within the nasal cavity
8. Mandible – horizontal, horse shoe-shaped body with a flat portion projecting upward at each end;
only movable skull bone; strongest and largest facial bone
Orbit or eye socket – formed by 7 bones of the skull; 3 cranial – frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid; 4 facial – palatine,
zygomatic, lacrimal, maxilla

Infantile skull – presence of fontanels or soft spots

Vertebral column – spine or backbone; 2/5 of the total height of the body
- Functions:
1. Strong flexible rod – forward, backward, sideways, rotate
2. Encloses and protects the spinal cord
3. Supports the head
4. Attachment for ribs, pelvic girdle and back muscles
- 33 in early development
- 26 in adult
- 7 cervical vertebrae; C1- atlas or axis; “yes”
- C2 – axis; “no”; with dens or odontoid process
- C3 – C6 = typical cervical vertebrae
- C7 = vertebra prominens
- Movable vertebrae – cervical, thoracic, lumbar
- Thoracic vertebrae – articulate with ribs; T1-T12
- Lumbar vertebrae – largest and strongest; L1-L5
- Sacrum – 5 fused vertebrae; triangular ; strong foundation of the pelvic girdle; start to fuse at the
age of 16-18 and completed at 30 years old
- Coccyx – lowest part of the vertebral column; 4 fused; fused at the age between 20 and 30 years
- Immovable vertebrae – sacrum and coccyx
Normal curves of the Vertebral column:
1. Convex – cervical and lumbar
2. Concave – thoracic and sacral
Functions of the normal curves:
1. Increase its strength
2. Help maintain balance in the upright position
3. Absorb shock during walking
4. Help protect the vertebrae during walking
Fetus – single anteriorly concave curve
- Primary curves – thoracic and sacral; form 1st during fetal development
- Secondary curves – cervical and lumbar; begin to form later, several months after birth
Abnormal curves –exaggeration of the normal curves that acquire lateral bending:
1. Kyphosis – exaggeration of thoracic curve of vertebral column
2. Lordosis – swayback; exaggeration of the lumbar curve of the vertebral column
3. Scoliosis – lateral bending of the vertebral column in the thoracic region
Ribs – 12 pairs attached to each 12 thoracic vertebrae
- 1-7 true ribs; vertebrosternal ribs
- 8-12 – false ribs
- 8-10 – vertebrochondral ribs
- 11-12 – floating ribs; vertebral ribs; hanging ribs
Sternum- breastbone; flat elongated bone; 15 cm or 6 inches
- 3 parts:
- 1. Manubrium – uppermost part; articulates with clavicles
- 2. Body - middle part; largest part
- 3. Xiphoid process – lowermost part
Thoracic cage – composed of ribs, thoracic vertebrae, sternum, costal cartilages
Pectoral girdle or shoulder girdle (girdle means ring-shaped) – supports the upper limb and attachment of
muscles for movement
- 4 parts:
- 1. 2 clavicles
- 2. 2 scapulae
Clavicles – collarbones; one of the most frequently broken bones in the body; 2 curves are its weakest point;
rodlike bones with elongated S shapes; last bone to stop growing
Scapulae – shoulder blades; wings; somewhat triangular bones; T2-T7; acromion – high point of the shoulder;
measured by tailors for the length of the upper limb.
Upper limb – forms the framework of the arm, forearm and hand
- Attachment of muscles, function in levers
- Humerus, radius and ulna (forearm), carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
- Arm bone – longest and largest bone of the upper limb
- Humerus – heavy bone that extends from the scapula to the elbow; 2 smooth condyles at distal
end of humerus; capitulum – rounded-knob shaped projection; lateral; trochlea – spool-shaped;
- Radius – locate on the thumb side of the forearm
- Ulna- longer than the radius and overlaps the end of the humerus posteriorly
- - medial aspect along the little finger; olecranon – proximal end of ulna; forms the
prominence of the elbow.
- Hand made up of wrist, palm and fingers
- Carpus – 8 carpal bones
- 1. Scaphoid – boatlike
- 2. Lunate – moon-shaped
- 3. Triquetrum – 3 sides
- 4. Pisiform – pea-shaped
- 5. Hamate – hook-shaped
- 6. Capitate – head-shaped; largest carpal bone
- 7. Trapezoid – 4 sides
- 8. Trapezium – 4 sides
- Metacarpal bones – form the framework of the palm; intermediate region of the hand
- - numbered I to V
- - Knuckles – heads of the metacarpals
- Phalanges or finger bones – 2 phalanges in thumb or pollex; 3 in other 4 digits – index, middle, ring
and little finger
Pelvic Girdle – consists of 2 coxae (hip bones/ innominate bones) which articulate with each other
anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly
1. supports the trunks of the body
2. Provides attachment for the lower limbs
3. Protects the urinary bladder, distal end of the large intestine and internal
reproductive organs
Pelvis - composed of sacrum, coccyx, and pelvic girdle; strong and stable support for the vertebral column and
pelvic organs
Pelvic Ring – hip bones, pubic symphysis, sacrum
3 Parts of the Coxa or Hip bone:
1. Ilium – largest and uppermost portion of the coxa, flares outward forming the prominence of the
hip; acetabulum – socket for the head of the femur; spines – attachment of tendons of the muscles
of the trunk, hip and thoghs
2. Ischium – forms the lowest portion of the coxa; L-shaped; ischial tuberosity – supports the weight
of the body during sitting; obturator foramen largest foramen in the skeleton where sciatic nerve
passed through
3. Pubis – anterior and inferior portion of the coxa; os pubis – pubic bone; pubic symphysis – joint
between 2 hip bones; disc of fiborcartilage
Lower limb – forms the frameworks of thigh, leg and foot; 30 bones in 4 locations; include femur, patella, tibia,
fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
Femur- thigh bone – longest, heaviest and strongest bone in the body and extends from the hip to the knee
Patella or knee cap – means little dish; articulates with the femur on its distal anterior surface; small triangular
bone; sesamoid bone develops in tendon of Quadriceps femoris
Tibia or shin bone – larger medial weight-bearing bone of the leg; larger of 2 leg bones and located on the
medial side; articulates proximally with femur and fibula; distally with fibula and talus
- medial malleolus – medial surface on distal end of tibia; articulates with talus bone of ankle;
protrusion on the medial surface of the ankle
Fibula or calf bone- long slender bone located on the lateral side of the tibia; most slender bone of the body;
parallel and lateral to the tibia
- lateral malleolus – projection on distal end of fibula articulates talus bon e of ankle; prominence on
the lateral surface of the ankle
Foot – made up of ankle, instep and toes
Ankle or tarsus – composed of 7 tarsal bones; proximal region of the foot; talus or ankle and calcaneus or heel
bone in the posterior part of the foot
Calcaneus – heel bone; largest and strongest of the tarsal bones
Talus – uppermost tarsal bone; only bone of the foot that articulates with fibula and tibia
7 Tarsal Bones:
1. Calcaneus
2. Talus – directly attached to the distal end of tibia and fibula
3. Navicular
4. Cuneiform: Medial, Intermediate, Lateral
5. Cuboid
Instep or metatarsus – 5 elongated metatarsal bones articulate with tarsus; intermediate region of the foot; I-
Phalanges of the toes – similar to fingers, align and articulate with the metatarsals