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é Se WTRL-663 WARTIME REPORT ORIGINALLY ISSUED December 1943 as Advance Confidential Report 3108 ' ‘WIND-TUNNEL DATA GW THE AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ATRPLAYE CONTROL SURFACES By Richard I. Sears a Langley Menoriel Aeronautical Laboratory ae Lengley Field, Va. WASHINGTON NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were pre- viously Keld under a security status but are now unclassified, Some of these reports were not tech~ L663 LANGLEY ME Tapes Sent, Va nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite generai distribution, a No. 3£08 ae ticat go iD : 176 01403 7 RATIONAL ADVISORY OOMMITEEE FOR ABRONAUTIOS ADVANGE CONFIDENTIAL REPORT WIND-TUNNEL DATA ON THE ABRODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AIRPLANE COWTROL suaFACHS By Richaré 1, Sears Shoant A collection of wind-tunnel date on the lift and hinge-moment characteristics of various types of airplane control surface is presented. These data, most of which have been previously published, include a major part of the results of both two- and three-dimensional-flow con- trol-surface tests that havé been made in the LMAL 4- by 6-foot vertical tunnel and the LMAL 7- by 10-foot tunnel. Data are included for control surfaces of various airfoil sections both without aerodynamic balance and with aero- dynamic balance of the overhang (inset-ningo), born, in- ternal, and beveled-trailing-edge types, The control surfaces dealt with in this papor are mainly of the wide- chord type suitable for use as elevators or rudders, A summary of dsta pertaining to narrow-chord flaps is to ve presented in another paper dealing with aileron characteristics. These basic date, supplemented by edditional dete not, included in this paper, have been used to determine curves correlating the results of meny tests of the various typos of aerodynamic balance, A very limited discussion of the characteristics of several typos of velanced control surface is included. A method of apply~ ing section data to compute the aerodynamic characteristics of finite control surfeces is briefly outlined and discussed, INTRODUCTION The WAOA has been conducting an extensive wind~ tunnel investigation to determine the aerodynamic charac- teristics of various types of airplane control surfaco in order to supply deta for design purposes, This investi- gation has boen conducted primarily with two-dimonsional- flow models in the L¥AL 4- by 8-foot vertical tunnel. TECHNICAL LIBRA Existing equipment has recently doen modificd in order to . tost control surfaces of finite spen in throo-dincnstozal flow in tho LMAL 7- by 10-foot tunnel, Several airplane tagl surfaces have alroady boon toeted as finito-span models, and the control-surfaco investigation is still in c progiess, doth to- and throc-dimoneional-flow tosts being ede. Sooo Two-dimensional-flow pressure-distribution measure- ments have been maée of an NACA 0009 airfoil with various sizes of plain flaps and tabs (references 1 to 3). These deta nave been analysed and parameters for determining the aerodynamic section characteristics of a tain syamet— ieal eirfoil with plain, sesied flave of any chord have een experimentally cstabliched (reference 4), Certain Yheorotical relutionships developeé by Glauert and Perring (references 5 and 6) from lifting-line theory for a thin airfoil with multiple flane are reviewed in reference 4. Force-test measuremonts have been made in two- ' @imensional flow to determine the aerodynamic soction charactertatics of the following control-surface arrangements: (a) HAGA 0009, NACA 0015, and NAGA 53-009 airfoils = with flaps having a systematic variation of flap noso overhang, flep nose shape, end gap et the flap nose (b) HAGA GO15 end NAGA 65-009 airfoil with flaps of straight-lino contours (c) NAGA 0009 airfoil with flaps of thickened pro~ filo and various bevcled trailing-cdgc shapes (4) HAC 0009 and NACA 0015 airfoils with flaps having various arrangements of intornal aorodynamio balances . Tho rosults of most of those tests have buen published and ere prosented in roferencos 7 to 20. Force tents aave been made in three-dinensional flow of & series of horizontal tail surfacos mounted on a typ- foal pursuit fuselage, These tests (references 21 end 22) “ provided e systomatic variation of clevator overhang, clo- vator noso shape, gnp at the clevator noso, and bovoled