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INTRODUCTION

Sag tension calculation is carried out to estimate the sag in the conductor under various
temperatures. The calculation is carried out for the conductor span lengths in use in 765kV

INPUT DATA

Input data required for carrying out the calculations are as follows;

Initial tension conductor diameter (dc)


c/c distance of tower conductor Area (Ac)
girder width (lg) Expansion coefficient (α)
tower height (h1) Elasticity modulas (E)
tower height (h2) No. of strings
Wind Pressure on cond (Pwc) Diameter of string insulator (di)
Wind Pressure on insulator (Pwi) weight of string
No. of conductos (n) string weight/ conductor (Wwi)
Conductor weight (Mc) String length (RS)
spacer weight (Ms) Conductor chord length (lc)

PARAMETERS USED

θ1 - Initial Temperature Wwi - Equivalent weight of insulator with wind


θ2 - final Temperature l - half span length of conductor
L - span length D1- Sag at centre of insulator catenary'
f1 - Stress at Temprature θ1 below end of string
f2 - Stress at Temprature θ2 D2- Sag at centre of insulator catenary'
w1- Equivalent weight of below support
conductor at Temprature θ1 D3 - Conductor Sag below end of insulator string
w2- Equivalent weight of Wwi- wind load
conductor at Temprature θ2 D4 - total Sag insulator plus conductor
T1 - Tension at Temprature θ1 X - Half inclined length of conductor span
T2 - Tension at Temprature θ2 X1 - Projected Length of SP
ns- No. of spacers X2- Projected length of SP+RS
M'- Equivalent conductor weight X3- Projected length of insulator string

BASIS OF CALCULATION

Tension at any temperature θ2 deg C

a) Tension at any temperature θ2


the equation to be solved is as follows:
f22 x [f2 - F] = G
2
w l2E
1
2
6T
1
2
w l2E
where F= f1- 1 -(θ2 -θ1)αE
2
6T
1

G= w22l2E
6Ac2
f1= T1/Ac

b) Loading due to wind on conductor and insulator:


Wind loading Wwc = Pwc x dc for conductor
Wind loading Wwi = Pwi x di for insulator

c) Loading due to self weight of the conductor and spacers:


weight of the spacers has been considered alongwith the weight of the conductor.
The equivalent weight of the conductor and spacers is given by:
M' = M'c + (ns.Ms)/(n.lc) ….. As per IEC - 865

where
M' = weight of the sub conductor
ns = no. of spacers
Ms = weight of the spacer
n = no. of sub conductor
lc = chord length of the conductor ( total span less the girder width and length of the insulator string)
Equivalent weight of the conductor in the loaded condition:
equivalent weight of conductor under full wind condition is given by
w1 = [(M')2 + (Wwc)2]

d) Maximum sag(D4)
Refer Fig 1
a1= T/W1 for conductor catenary
a2= T/Wwi for insulator catenary
where
T: tension in kg/conductor
W1 : equivalent conductor weight

W1 = no of string x string weight


string length

X = (l-RS) X 1.0005(assumed)

X1 = a2 X
a1

SP = a2 sinh X1
a2
RSP = RS + SP

X2 = a2 sinh-1RSP
a2

X3 = X2 - X1

X = 1/2 * 1-X3

D1 = a2( coshX1 - 1) Ref page 54 of Text book "Generation Transmission


a2 and Utilization of Electrical Power" -A.T.STARR

D2 = a2( coshX2 - 1)
a2

D3 = a1( coshX - 1)
a1

Sag D4 = D3 + D2 - D1

e) Point of Maximum sag from the Support towers

XP1 =1 l + Th
2 wl

XP2 =1 l + Th
2 wl
Reference: Text Book:"GENERATION, TRANSMISSION AND UTILIZATION OF ELECTRICAL POWER"-
A.T.STARR
SAMPLE CALCULATION

Circuit : 765kV Quad Moose 104 m span)

General Data
Initial tension 2250 kg./cond
c/c of tower 104 m
Girder width lg 2 m
c/c tower - leg 104 m
Tower Height 39 m
Wind pressure on conductor(Pwc) 139.74 kg/m2 Ref ANNEXURE-I
2
Wind pressure on Insulator(Pwi) 172.08 kg/m Ref ANNEXURE-I

Conductor Data
No. of conductors(n) 4
Conductor weight(Mc) 2.4 Kg/m
Conductor Diameter(dc) 3.83E-02 m
Conductor Area (Ac) 0.000865 sq.m
Expansion Coefficient(a) 0.000023 degC as per IS 398 (P-III-1976)
Elasticity Modulus(E) 4.71E+09 kg/sq.m as per IS 398 (P-III-1976)

Spacer Data
Spacer span 7.5 m
No. of spacers(ns) 11 Nos
Spacer weight (ms) 7 kg

Insulator & Hardware Data


No of strings 2 Nos
No of Disc Insulators/string 47 Nos
Diameter of each disc(di) 0.255 m
Weight of disc Disc 7.5 kg
Length of each disc(li) 0.145 m
Weight of Insulator Hardware 54.2 kg
Length of insulator Harware including insulator(lh) 7.854 m

Preliminiary Claculation
String Length(LS) 7.854 m
Conductor chord length(lc) 86.292 m
Total string weight 759.2 kg
String weight/conductor(Wwi) 189.8 kg
Equivalent conductor weight(M') 2.623 kg/m

MAIN CALCULATION
1 Load calculation for conductor
Wind Load Wwc = dc x Pwc = 0.03825x139.74
= 5.35 kg

Eq.Wt. of conductor under still wind condition W1 = 2.6231 kg/m

2 2
Eq.Wt of conductor under full wind condition W2 = √(M') + (Wwc)
= √(2.623^2+5.345^2 )
= 5.9500 kg/m

2 Load calculation for string insulator


wind load Wwi = d x Pwi x 0.5 x LS
= 0.255 x 172.08 x 0.5 x 7.854
= 172.32 kg

2 2
Equivalent weight of insulator with wind Wi = √(string weight/cond) +(Wwi)
= √((189.8)^2+(172.318)^2)
= 256.3545 kg

3 Calculation of tension at θ2 Deg C(5 Deg.C) and full wind condition - T2

f1 = Initial tension at 0 deg C and full wind condition (T1)


Area (Ac)

= 2250
0.000865

Hence f1 = 2600073.96 kg/m2

Half span length of conductor LH = (half span - insulator length) x 1.0005


= ((104-2)/2-7.854)x1.0005
= 43.17 m

Substituting the value of W2 for full wind condition and other values, G can be calculated as

2 2
G = w2 l E
6 Ac2

= 5.95^2x43.17^2x4709000000
(6x0.00086536^2)

Hence G = 6.915E+19

Substituting the value of W2 for full wind condition and other values with temprature diffrence of 5oC, F can be calculated as
2 2
F = f1 - w2 l E - (θ2-θ1)Ea
2 2
6Ac f1
Putting all the values we get
F = 2600073.958-5.95^2*43.17^2x4709000000/(6x0.00086536^2x
2600073.958^2)-(5-0)x4709000000x0.000023
= -8.17E+06

The stress f2 at 5 deg C could be found out by sloving the cubic equation "f23-Ff22-G=0" for f2

Now, f23-Ff22-G E101^3-E91*E101^2-E82

2540857.511^3--8169925.317x2540857.511^2-69148352210435100000
0.00E+00

2
we get f2 = 2540857.51 kg/m

Hence the tension T2 under full wind condition at 5 deg C = f2 x Ac


= 2540857.511 x 0.0008654
Hence f2 = 2198.76 kg

The tension(T2) values are calculated for full wind conditions up to 75 deg.C in steps of 5 deg.C

d) Sag under full wind conditions - Initial temperature 0 deg C

Sag point XP1 = 1/2 x (L) XP1 = 52 m

with reference to fig 1 and equations given under section 4.3

2
a1 = T1 = 2250 = 378.15 kg/m
w1 5.9500

2
a2 = T1 = 2250 = 68.93 kg/m
wi 256.355/7.854

X(ass) = ((l-2)/2-RS) x 1.0005 = ((104-2)/2-7.854)x1.0005


= 43.17 m

X1 = (a2/a1) X
= (68.934/378.151)x43.168
= 7.87

SP = a2sinh(X1f/a2)
= 68.934xSINH(7.869/68.934)
= 7.89
RSP = SP+LS
= 7.886+7.854
= 15.74

X2 = a2sinh-1(RSP/a2)
= 68.934xASINH(15.74/68.934)
= 15.61

X3 = X2 - X1
= 15.607-7.869
= 7.74

X = XP1 - X3
= 52 -7.737- 1
= 43.26

D1 = a2(cosh (X1/a2) -1)


= 68.934x(COSH(7.869/68.934)-1)
= 0.45

D2 = a2(cosh (X2/a2) -1)


= 68.934x(COSH(15.607/68.934)-1)
= 1.77E+00

D3 = a2(cosh (X3/a1) -1)


= 378.151x(COSH(43.263/378.151)-1)
= 2.4774367

Hence sag at full wind condition at 0 deg C is given by

D4 = D3 + D2 - D1
2.477+1.774-0.45
Hence D4 = 3.802 m

SUMMARY

The Sag tension at various temperatures for both still wind & full wind condition for the following cases are carried out.

1) 765kV Quad Bull - 54 m Span with Tower Height of 27m


2) 765kV Quad Bull - 104 m Span with Tower Height of 39m
3) 765kV Quad Bull - 93 m Span with Tower Height of 39m
SAG TENSION CALCULATION-765 KV
CIRCUIT:765 KV Quad Bull (54 M SPAN)

Initial tension 2250 kg/cond No of spacers(ns) 11


c/c of tower 104 m spacer weight(Ms) 7.5 kg
Girder width (lg) 2 m Eq Cond weight 2.639 kg/m
Span (c/c tower-lg) 102 m Cond dia 3.83E-02 m
Tower height(h1) : 39 m Cond area 8.65E-04 sq m
Tower height(h2) : 39 m Exp. Coefficient 2.30E-05 / deg c
Wind pr. on cond 139.74 Kg/sqm Elas Modulus 4.71E+09 kg/sqm
Wind pr on insulator: 172.08 Kg/sqm No of strings 2
No of conductors: 4 Dia of string insul 0.255 m
Cond weight 2.4 Kg/m weight/string 379.6 kg
spacer span 7.5 m String weight/cond. 189.8 kg
String length(RS) 7.854 m
Cond chord len (lc) 86.292 m

FULL WIND CONDITION STILL WIND CONDITION


Temperature Sag point Sag Tension Sag point
Sag (in meters)
deg c Tension (kg) ( in meters) (in meters) (kg) (in meters )
0 2250.00 52.00 3.808 1069.69 52.00 3.82
5 2198.92 52.00 3.897 1040.43 52.00 3.922
10 2150.83 52.00 3.984 1013.32 52.00 4.027
15 2105.48 52.00 4.069 988.12 52.00 4.128
20 2062.64 52.00 4.154 964.63 52.00 4.228
25 2022.10 52.00 4.237 942.66 52.00 4.326
30 1983.67 52.00 4.319 922.06 52.00 4.422
35 1947.20 52.00 4.399 902.71 52.00 4.516
40 1912.53 52.00 4.479 884.48 52.00 4.608
45 1879.52 52.00 4.557 867.28 52.00 4.698
50 1848.06 52.00 4.635 851.01 52.00 4.787
55 1818.03 52.00 4.711 835.59 52.00 4.875
60 1789.33 52.00 4.786 820.96 52.00 4.961
65 1761.88 52.00 4.861 807.05 52.00 5.045
70 1735.58 52.00 4.934 793.80 52.00 5.128
75 1710.37 52.00 5.007 781.17 52.00 5.210

l = 43.17 (half span length)


Ww(ins) = 172.32 (weight of insulator in still wind)
Wi = 256.35 (weight of insulator in full wind)

Temp T(still wind) f1 w1 G1 F1 f2 gs(f2) a1s a2s


1.36E+19 -7.67E+06 0.00E+00
0 1069.69 1236127.01 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -8.21E+06 1202313.34 0.00E+00 4.05E+02 44.264402
5 1040.43 1202313.34 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -8.75E+06 1170984.22 0.00E+00 3.94E+02 43.05357
10 1013.32 1170984.22 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -9.29E+06 1141862.27 0.00E+00 3.84E+02 41.931708
15 988.12 1141862.27 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -9.83E+06 1114710.02 0.00E+00 3.74E+02 40.888881
20 964.63 1114710.02 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -1.04E+07 1089323.05 0.00E+00 3.66E+02 39.916588
25 942.66 1089323.05 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -1.09E+07 1065524.52 0.00E+00 3.57E+02 39.007507
30 922.06 1065524.52 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -1.15E+07 1043160.72 0.00E+00 3.49E+02 38.155307
35 902.71 1043160.72 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -1.20E+07 1022097.38 0.00E+00 3.42E+02 37.354483
40 884.48 1022097.38 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -1.25E+07 1002216.74 0.00E+00 3.35E+02 36.600227
45 867.28 1002216.74 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -1.31E+07 983415.08 0.00E+00 3.29E+02 35.888322
50 851.01 983415.08 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -1.36E+07 965600.70 0.00E+00 3.22E+02 35.215055
55 835.59 965600.70 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -1.42E+07 948692.20 0.00E+00 3.17E+02 34.577141
60 820.96 948692.20 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -1.47E+07 932617.08 0.00E+00 3.11E+02 33.971665
65 807.05 932617.08 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -1.52E+07 917310.55 0.00E+00 3.06E+02 33.396032
70 793.80 917310.55 2.64E+00 1.36E+19 -1.58E+07 902714.54 0.00E+00 3.01E+02 32.847922
75 781.17 902714.54 2.96E+02 32.325254

X(ass)f X1f SPf RSPf X2 X3 X(act)s D1s D2s D3s D4s


43.17 4.7140482 4.7229642 12.57696 12.413606 7.6995577 43.30 0.251254517 1.752087569 2.31E+00 3.82E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72347306 12.57747 12.405114 7.6910653 43.31 0.258334683 1.799553827 2.38E+00 3.92E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72398444 12.57798 12.396612 7.6825641 43.32 0.26526067 1.845841381 2.45E+00 4.03E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72449807 12.5785 12.388107 7.6740589 43.33 0.272040651 1.891011491 2.51E+00 4.13E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.7250137 12.57901 12.379602 7.6655539 43.33 0.278682271 1.935121452 2.57E+00 4.23E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72553114 12.57953 12.371101 7.6570524 43.34 0.285192663 1.978224728 2.63E+00 4.33E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72605021 12.58005 12.362606 7.6485576 43.35 0.291578475 2.020371148 2.69E+00 4.42E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72657075 12.58057 12.35412 7.6400718 43.36 0.297845895 2.061607123 2.75E+00 4.52E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72709262 12.58109 12.345646 7.6315975 43.37 0.304000686 2.101975885 2.81E+00 4.61E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72761572 12.58162 12.337185 7.6231364 43.38 0.310048214 2.141517714 2.87E+00 4.70E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72813993 12.58214 12.328738 7.6146902 43.39 0.315993477 2.180270163 2.92E+00 4.79E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72866517 12.58267 12.320309 7.6062604 43.39 0.321841136 2.218268269 2.98E+00 4.87E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72919136 12.58319 12.311896 7.5978482 43.40 0.327595541 2.255544755 3.03E+00 4.96E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.72971841 12.58372 12.303503 7.5894547 43.41 0.333260752 2.292130211 3.09E+00 5.05E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.73024627 12.58425 12.295129 7.5810808 43.42 0.338840569 2.328053268 3.14E+00 5.13E+00
43.17 4.7140482 4.73077488 12.58477 12.286776 7.5727273 43.43 0.344338548 2.363340748 3.19E+00 5.21E+00

Temp T(full wind) f1 w1 G1 F1 f2 gs(f2) a1f a2f


0 2250.00 2600073.96 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -8.21E+06 2541041.14 0.00E+00 3.77E+02 6.89E+01
5 2198.92 2541041.14 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -8.75E+06 2485471.65 0.00E+00 3.69E+02 6.74E+01
10 2150.83 2485471.65 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -9.29E+06 2433066.88 0.00E+00 3.61E+02 6.59E+01
15 2105.48 2433066.88 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -9.83E+06 2383560.16 0.00E+00 3.53E+02 6.45E+01
20 2062.64 2383560.16 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -1.04E+07 2336712.95 0.00E+00 3.46E+02 6.32E+01
25 2022.10 2336712.95 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -1.09E+07 2292311.39 0.00E+00 3.39E+02 6.20E+01
30 1983.67 2292311.39 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -1.15E+07 2250163.41 0.00E+00 3.33E+02 6.08E+01
35 1947.20 2250163.41 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -1.20E+07 2210096.11 0.00E+00 3.27E+02 5.97E+01
40 1912.53 2210096.11 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -1.25E+07 2171953.58 0.00E+00 3.21E+02 5.86E+01
45 1879.52 2171953.58 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -1.31E+07 2135594.88 0.00E+00 3.15E+02 5.76E+01
50 1848.06 2135594.88 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -1.36E+07 2100892.39 0.00E+00 3.10E+02 5.66E+01
55 1818.03 2100892.39 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -1.42E+07 2067730.30 0.00E+00 3.05E+02 5.57E+01
60 1789.33 2067730.30 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -1.47E+07 2036003.30 0.00E+00 3.00E+02 5.48E+01
65 1761.88 2036003.30 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -1.52E+07 2005615.47 0.00E+00 2.96E+02 5.40E+01
70 1735.58 2005615.47 5.96E+00 6.94E+19 -1.58E+07 1976479.26 0.00E+00 2.91E+02 5.32E+01
75 1710.37 1976479.26 2.87E+02 5.24E+01

X(ass)f X1f SPf RSPf X2 X3 X(act)f D1f D2f D3f D4f


43.17 7.8836916 7.90 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.74E+00 43.26 4.51E-01 1.78E+00 2.48E+00 3.808
43.17 7.8836916 7.90 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.73E+00 43.27 4.62E-01 1.82E+00 2.54E+00 3.897
43.17 7.8836916 7.90 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.73E+00 43.27 4.72E-01 1.86E+00 2.60E+00 3.984
43.17 7.8836916 7.90 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.72E+00 43.28 4.82E-01 1.90E+00 2.65E+00 4.069
43.17 7.8836916 7.90 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.72E+00 43.28 4.92E-01 1.94E+00 2.71E+00 4.154
43.17 7.8836916 7.90 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.71E+00 43.29 5.02E-01 1.97E+00 2.77E+00 4.237
43.17 7.8836916 7.91 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.70E+00 43.30 5.12E-01 2.01E+00 2.82E+00 4.319
43.17 7.8836916 7.91 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.70E+00 43.30 5.22E-01 2.05E+00 2.87E+00 4.399
43.17 7.8836916 7.91 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.69E+00 43.31 5.31E-01 2.08E+00 2.93E+00 4.479
43.17 7.8836916 7.91 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.69E+00 43.31 5.41E-01 2.12E+00 2.98E+00 4.557
43.17 7.8836916 7.91 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.68E+00 43.32 5.50E-01 2.15E+00 3.03E+00 4.635
43.17 7.8836916 7.91 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.68E+00 43.32 5.59E-01 2.19E+00 3.08E+00 4.711
43.17 7.8836916 7.91 1.58E+01 1.56E+01 7.67E+00 43.33 5.68E-01 2.22E+00 3.13E+00 4.786
43.17 7.8836916 7.91 1.58E+01 1.55E+01 7.67E+00 43.33 5.77E-01 2.26E+00 3.18E+00 4.861
43.17 7.8836916 7.91 1.58E+01 1.55E+01 7.66E+00 43.34 5.86E-01 2.29E+00 3.23E+00 4.934
43.17 7.8836916 7.91 1.58E+01 1.55E+01 7.66E+00 43.34 5.94E-01 2.32E+00 3.28E+00 5.007

Full Wind Condition


Temp Vs Tension & Sag

2500 6

2000 5

4
Tension kg

1500
Sag m

Tension
3
1000 Sag
2
500 1

0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Temp Deg C

Still Wind Condition


Temp Vs Tension & Sag

1200 6

1000 5

800 4
Tension kg

Sag m

Tension
600 3
Sag
400 2

200 1

0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Temp Deg C
Temp Deg C
Annexure I
POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED
765/400kV RAIPUR NEW & 400kV RAIPUR EXTN. S/S
WIND PRESSURE CALCULATION FOR CONDUCTOR & INSULATOR STRING

The wind pressure on tubular bus & Bpi is calculated based on IS :802 (Part 1) -1995

Basic wind speed (Vb)as per cl. 8.1 of IS :802 = 39 m/Sec

Maximum Level of Equipment bus above FGL = 39 m

Note : Max.Wind Pressure on various components will occur at 14m level.Hence the same is
considered for calculations

At 14m level from FGL,summary of wind pressure are as below :

2
I Wind pressure on Flexible Conductor AAC Bull = 139.74 Kg/m
2
II Wind pressure on Insulator String = 172.08 Kg/m

Detail calculation for the above are as follows:

A Claculation for Design Wind Pressure

A.1 Design Wind Speed :(as per cl.5.3 IS:875) Vd = (Vb x K1x K2)/K0
Where
Vb = Basic wind speed as per cl5.2 of IS :875 = 39 m/sec
K0 = 1.375
K1 = Risk Coefficient
(From Table -1 ,For Reliability level 2) = 1.1
K2 = Terrain height & Structure size factor = 1
(From Table - 3 ,for Terrain category-2)

Hence, Design Wind Speed Vz = 31.2 m/sec

A.2 Design Wind Pressure: (as per cl.5.4 of IS :875) Pd = 0.6 x Vd2
2
= 584.064 N/m
2
= 60 Kg/m

B Wind Load on AAC Bull

B.1 Wind Load on AAC Bull Fpc = Pd * Cdc * Ac * Gc

Drag Coeefficient Cdc = 1


2
Unit Crossectional Area of Conductor Ac = 1 m
Gust Response Factor Gc = 2.329

Therefore, Fpc = 60 * 1.2 * 1 * 2.032


2
= 139.74 kg/m

C Wind Load on Insulator String

C.1 Wind Load on Insulator String Fpi = Pd * Cdi * Ai * Gi

Drag Coeefficient Cdi = 1.2


2
Unit Crossectional Area of String Ai = 1 m
Gust Response Factor Gi = 2.39

Therefore, Fpi = 60 * 1.2 * 1 * 2.032


2
= 172.08 kg/m