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Dosing pumps

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When a chemical metering system is designed for a hydraulically balanced reciprocating metering pump, there are several

variables to consider in order to ensure proper system operation and sound pump hydraulics. Process fluid properties to

consider are vapor pressure, specific gravity, and viscosity. Some other variables that contribute to reciprocating metering pump

applications are system suction pressure at the pump inlet, system backpressure at the pump outlet, length and diameter of

system piping, and freedom from air and foreign matter. When all variables are considered and basic hydraulic principles are

followed, the installation and operation of a reciprocating metering pump will be successful. This technical brochure is designed

to provide a brief description and some general guidelines for applications of hydraulically balanced reciprocating metering

pumps.

CHECKLIST OF DIFFICULT CONDITIONS The fluid is accelerated during the discharge cycle through

peak velocity at 90° of piston cam rotation. Similarly, the

1. Piping with excessive fittings, valves, bends. suction cycle begins at rest (180° piston cam rotation) and

the fluid is accelerated through peak velocity at 270°

2. Suction lift or low suction head. rotation. The inertial force required to initiate flow for both

pumping cycles is of major significance. Because of these

3. Undersized piping on either suction or discharge. unique flow conditions, common to all reciprocating type

metering pumps, special consideration is required of all

4. Dissolved gases in product pumped; unusually high factors that will affect pump performance.

vapor pressure.

(NPSHR)

discharge pressure.

settling)

traps cause problems)

characteristics. Under normal conditions there is very little

change in the velocity of the fluid pumped. That is not the

case with reciprocating metering pumps, which cause the

fluid to experience peak velocities and accelerations in both

the suction and discharge lines. With these pumps, the fluid

is initially at rest (0° of piston cam rotation, refer to Figure 1)

and fluid velocity and acceleration are both zero.

1

PIPING SYSTEM The variables used in Equations 1 through 5 must be in the

units shown in Table 2 for the constants listed below to be

All piping should include: used correctly.

1. Shut-off valves on suction and discharge lines that open Note: If piping sizes vary throughout the suction line,

to full pipe diameter. (Ball valves are preferred.) The use of different additive values may be used for the pressure

regulating valves is not recommended. (Regulating valves losses attributed to the liquid’s acceleration and

include needle, diaphragm, globe, and gate valves.) deceleration. Use the last term of Equation 1 or 2 as many

times as needed in the equation to adjust for different

2. Unions or flanges on suction and discharge piping. lengths of different pipe diameters in the suction line.

(Everything but the pipe length and diameter will stay the

3. An inlet strainer if the product is not a slurry. Sizing must same in the equation.)

amply accommodate expected contamination and flow rate.

Units Set

4. Hangers and straps to support piping.

Variable

English Metric

5. Materials that are not affected by product corrosion or

galvanic corrosion. NPSH psi bar

recommended.

PH psi bar

SUCTION HEAD REQUIREMENTS PV psia bar(a)

suction head (NPSHR) as shown in Table 1. The NPSHR is

defined as the pressure required above the absolute vapor R strokes/min strokes/min

pressure of the process fluid at the pumping temperature.

G no units no units

This pressure is required at the suction port of the pump

throughout the entire pump stroking cycle in order to Q gallons/hr liters/hr

prevent cavitation of the process fluid within the reagent

head. The NPSHR is one of the requirements necessary to d inches millimeters

assure metering accuracy.

µ centipoise centipoise

NPSHR Pulsar Pulsa LD feet meters

English (psi) 3 5 PT psi bar

Metric (bar) 0.21 0.35 PP psi bar

TABLE 1. VP feet/sec meters/sec

NPSHR values

C1 24,600 640

The net positive suction head available (NPSHA) must be

C2 45,700 1.84

greater than the NPSHR. The NPSHA of any given system is

calculated as follows for comparison to the NPSHR as C3 46.8 0.91

shown in Table 1.

TABLE 2.

Equation 1. For fluid viscosity below 50 centipoise. Unit sets and constant values for use in

Equations 1 through 5.

LSRGQ

NPSHA ' PA ± PH & PV & ( )

C1 d 2 All reciprocating metering pumps also require that a

minimum absolute pressure, minimum suction head

(MSH), be maintained at the pump inlet throughout the

Equation 2. For fluid viscosity above 50 centipoise. pumping cycle to ensure a stable hydraulic system and

proper pump operation. The sum of the NPSHA and the

LSRGQ LSµQ vapor pressure (PV) must be greater than the values shown

NPSHA ' PA ± PH & PV & ( )2%( )2

C1d 2

C2d 4 in Table 3.

2

PULSAtrol PULSATION DAMPENERS

MSH Pulsar Pulsar* Pulsa

A pulsation dampener is a pnuematically charged

English, (psia) 5 7.5 9.5 diaphragm within a chamber that continuously stores

energy carried in the acceleration of the pumped fluid.

Metric, (bar(a)) 0.35 0.53 0.66 When a PULSAtrol is used on the suction side of a metering

pump, it will improve suction pressure conditions by

* Pulsar Pump with PULSAlarm leak detection

reducing the pressure losses associated with the

diaphragm.

acceleration of the fluid. On the discharge side it will protect

sensitive equipment from pulsating flow spikes, and will

TABLE 3.

Minimum values for the sum of NPSHA and vapor translate pulsating flow to nearly linear flow by reducing the

pressure. (MSH) peak flow and pressure generated by the metering pump.

Regardless of which side of the pump the PULSAtrol is to

be used on, it should always be installed as close to the

pump as possible in order to reduce the length of pipe in

SYSTEM BACKPRESSURE which pulsating flow occurs.

The system backpressure must exceed the suction In many installations, the diameter of costly piping can be

pressure by at least 5 psi (0.35 bar) in order to prevent reduced by incorporating a PULSAtrol on both suction and

flowthrough, however it must not exceed the rated discharge lines. Installing a dampener can also reduce cost

discharge pressure of the pump. Flowthrough can be by allowing the use of a smaller faster stroking pump as a

defined as the process liquid flowing from a higher pressure opposed to a larger, more costly, slower stroking pump.

to a lower pressure (downhill pumping), which attributes to

pump failure and undesired flow at pump shutdown. If the When a PULSAtrol pulsation dampener is used, the length

system backpressure is not at least 5 psi (0.35 bar) greater of piping (LS or LD ) in Equations 1 through 4 becomes the

than the suction pressure, a backpressure valve must be distance between the pump and the pulsation dampener.

installed in the discharge piping. To calculate the system’s For the remainder of the piping, uniform flow friction losses

total backpressure use Equation 3 or 4. can be used since the flow is now constant and not

pulsating for this distance of piping. (These losses can be

Equation 3. For fluid viscosity below 50 centipoise. found in any standard friction loss table based on Darcy’s

LDRGQ formula.) The standard friction losses must also be

PT ' ( ) % PP ± PH subtracted from the NPSHA or backpressure calculations

C1d 2 (Equations 1 through 4).

LDRGQ LDµQ

PT ' ( )2%( )2 % PP ± PH

2

C1d C2d 4

FLUID VELOCITY

size for an application. Since the fluid velocity generated by

a metering pump varies throughout each stroke of the

pump, piping must be sized based on the peak fluid velocity

and not the average fluid velocity. The peak fluid velocity

generated by a positive displacement metering pump can

be calculated using the following formula.

pump. C3 values can be found in Table 2.

Q

VP '

C3d 2

3

as mentioned using Equation 1, since the viscosity is less

NOMENCLATURE than 50 centipoise.

(atmospheric or supply tank blanket pressure) [psi(a),

bar(a)]

centerline, [psi, bar,] (convert from ft or m)

the process liquid at pump inlet, [psi(a), bar(a)]

units] PH [psi] = feet of fluid X (1 psi/(2.31feet of H2O)) X G

PH = 4 feet X 0.433 X 1.83 = 3.17 psi

µ = Viscosity of process liquid at pumping temperature, or

centipoise [cp] PH [m] = 1.22m X (1 bar/(10.21 m of H2O)) X 1.83 = 0.22 bar

Use C1 from Table 2, and 14.7 psia (1.01bar) for

LD = Length of discharge piping (actual, not equivalent), [ft, atmospheric pressure at sea level.

m] LSRGQ

NPSHA ' PA ± PH & PV & ( )

PP = System discharge pressure, [psi(g), bar(g)] C1 d 2

[psi(g), bar(g)] (20)(58)(1.83)(240)

NPSHA ' 14.7 % 3.17 & 0.01 & ( )

(24,600) (1.61)2

VP = Peak liquid velocity generated by the pump, (suction or

discharge) [ft/s, m/s]

660 Be sulfuric acid (93%) has a specific gravity of 1.83, a

viscosity of 25 cps, and a vapor pressure 0.01 psia (0 bar Since NPSHA is greater than NPSH R , the system has

(a)). This product is to be metered at a flow rate of 240 GPH adequate suction conditions to prevent process fluid

(908.4 LPH) to a system pressure of 100 psig (6.9 bar). The cavitation within the reagent head.

installation is at sea level and the supply tank is open to

atmosphere. The proposed suction piping layout is 20 feet Since NPSHA + VP = 9.91 psia (0.68 bar) which is greater

(6.1 meters) of 1.61 inch (40.9mm) inside diameter pipe. than the 5 psia (0.35 bar) requirement shown in Table 3 for

The proposed PULSAR Series pump has a stroking rate of a PULSAR Series pump, the pump’s hydraulic system will

58 spm. operate in a stable condition.

Is 4 feet (1.22m) of suction head sufficient for proper pump Contact Your Local Pulsafeeder Representative:

operation at the above listed conditions?

Pulsafeeder, Inc. A Unit of IDEX Corporation

Solution 2883 Brighton Henrietta Townline Road

The NPSHR as shown in Table 1 is 3 psi (0.21 bar) for a Rochester, New York 14623 USA

(716) 292-8000 / FAX: (716) 424-5619

PULSAR Series pump. Calculate the NPSHA of the system

http://www.pulsa.com

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