Article 1: Article 2: Article 3


CRGO Steel - Handle with care - by Saif Qureishi (CEO - KRYFS Power Components Ltd.) Paper Presented at TRAFOSEM 2004 CRGO-In-house vs. Outsourcing - by Saif Qureishi (CEO - KRYFS Power Components Ltd.) Paper Presented at TRAFOSEM 2006. Reducing Building Factor by Using Step Lap (SL) Laminations ± by Saif Qureishi (CEO KRYFS Power Components Ltd.) Paper Presented at TRAFOSEM 2008.

CRGO-In-house vs. Outsourcing CRGO Laminations- Inhouse manufacture or Outsourcing? A debate has been triggered by the decision of some State Electricity Boards (SEBs) decision to specify as a tender condition that Transformer manufacturers (TMs) should have their own Transformer Lamination manufacturing facility. SEBs are now imposing tender conditions to the effect that "ONLY those Transformer Manufacturers who have their own core cutting facility would be eligible to participate in the tender". This move ostensibly is to prevent the use of Secondary/Defective and old and used CRGO Silicon Electrical Steel in Transformers which supposedly leads to increase in No- Load Losses, Magnetising Current drawn and results in the failure of Transformers. It is therefore necessary to analyse whether, this condition suggested by some TMs who have their own core cutting facility and disguised as a "magic pill" that would lead to better quality of Transformers being manufactured is valid and the implications thereof. At the very outset let me state that, as the Managing Director of a Transformer Lamination facility, my Company is an interested party in this debate, however, the analysis given herein is from an impartial perspective to genuinely assess the contention that, "an in-house core cutting facility automatically leads to better quality of Transformer Laminations and thus better Transformers". The importance of Transformer Lamination on Transformers is evident from the name the component has been given by the Transformer industry - "the core" - as it is considered to be the heart of every Transformer. Failures in Transformers due to magnetic core or circuit can be due to various reasons. The J&P Transformer Book ( 11th Edition , published by Butterman Heinworth, General Editor C.A.Worth) accepted by Electrical Engineers worldwide to be a standard reference for Transformer design, Chapter 24 deals with this issue. Amongst the 13 reasons stated therein for the failure of Transformer due to failures in the magnetic circuit, the following 5 reasons seem to be of relevance for this discussion:

1. Failure of insulation between Laminations and of the insulation between the yoke and the yoke
bolts producing large eddy currents, generating considerable amount of heat.

2. Burrs developed during manufacture resulting in local short circuits, eddy currents and
consequently abnormal heating occurring.

3. Presence of metallic fillings or turnings present between the Laminations are liable to produce
local eddy currents and excessive heating of the core.

4. Abnormal gaps left between the cores and the yoke would result in severe eddy currents and
burning of the cores and yoke in the vicinity of the gaps.

5. In older Transformers ageing of the core plates may take place and result in increase of iron loss
and rise in temperature of the Transformer which may result in partial or complete destruction of the coil insulation and sludging of the coil. In view of the above, let us analyse if these reasons for failure could be definitely avoided if the producers of Transformers were to manufacture the Transformer Laminations in-house instead of buying from a Lamination manufacturer (outsourcing). Reason Nos. 1 (weak insulation) and 5 ( old and used Laminations) above are related to the quality of raw material used and therefore if the Laminations are made from inferior quality of CRGO material then definitely there is a possibility that these reasons would be applicable. However a TM with an in-house facility to produce Lamination is as prone to usage of inferior quality of raw material ( to save on material costs) as a TM who out sources this activity. The counter argument here maybe that a TM who buys from outside may not be aware of the quality of raw material used by the manufacturer of Laminations, who may purposely use inferior quality of raw material without informing the TM. However if the TM has an inward material receipt inspection system, this fact would certainly be brought to notice and the TM must take appropriate action. If the TM does not have an inward material inspection system then not much can be said about that TM's quality of Transformer, in any case. Reason Nos. 2 (Burrs in cutting), 3 ( turnings or steel residue between Laminations) and 4 ( gaps between yoke and core plates) are precisely the reason why the activity of manufacturing Laminations should be outsourced and not done in-house. This is because, manufacturing of Laminations though a seemingly simple job of shearing, cutting and notching, is in reality a high precision, high accuracy job. The thickness of the sheet being handled and cut is only 0.23 mm to 0.35 mm or 230 microns to 350 microns. Also the sheet should not be bent, dented or damaged during handling as this directly affects the core loss and the magnetic property of the resultant core. The dimensional accuracies in terms of length , breadth and the angles ( 45 degrees or 90 degrees as the case maybe) have to be within the tolerance, the V- Notch in the yoke has to be precisely done so as to accommodate the yokes without airgaps, holes have to be accurately punched so that the clearances of the bolts are adequate, the slitting has to be perfect to avoid camber and variation, the burrs have to be within the specified tolerance. These are just some of the parameters to be controlled during the manufacture of Transformer Laminations. A TM, whose main production activity and expertise is in the manufacture of Transformers and or electrical equipments would not only have to be aware of the nuances of the manufacture of Transformer Laminations but also develop the expertise to implement these checks and controls. A Quality conscious manufacturer of Transformer Laminations would certainly be aware of all these aspects and developed the requisite expertise for production control of these crucial parameters. Further a Quality conscious manufacturer of Transformer Lamination would also have the trace ability of the materials used and therefore it would be possible to check at any time from production records maintained the raw material used. Thirdly from an economic standpoint it is never competitive to manufacture the components of any equipment in-house,. The Transformer industry is comparable to any assembled product manufacturing industry like the automobile industry or the computer hardware industry. Very few components of the assembled products are manufactured by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) themselves. Almost all the major components as well as minor components are outsourced to vendors as it is acknowledged

So the SEB would be forced to buy at a higher price from a TM who has an in-house facility to manufacture Laminations if they insist on the in-house manufacturing condition! From a managerial standpoint the Law of "Focus on your core competencies" needs no elaboration. the wastages and reduce the inefficiencies far better than a TM can. would definitely be able to mange the manufacturing operations. or are accredited by some international recognized certification body like ISO 9000 etc. to ensure that a minimum quality parameters and tolerances are maintained. defective and old and used CRGO material into the country which is then reused in new Transformers. In a competitive environment. Alternatively. As an example consider that. However the problem of SEBs and TMs maybe that there aren't that many "Quality conscious" Transformer Lamination manufacturers.that a reliable. USA ) to 1000 mm ( most other mills) . is two fold: 1. this would translate to a more economically price of Transformer Laminations and ultimately more economical Transformers. thereby leading to the problems enumerated at the beginning. the cost of the above in-built inefficiencies in in-house manufacturing by TMs would be loaded on to the final selling price of the Transformer that the TM produces. These "left over coils" would then have to be disposed at a far lesser price than the cost of raw material to manufacturers of either Transformer Laminations or Transformers who would have some use for them. quality conscious manufacturer of components would be in a position to supply better quality of components at a very competitive price. So what is the solution? The solution. . The problem would also be compounded by the large influx of secondary. according to me. If the TM were to manufacture the core in-house. Ofcourse from an economic standpoint. Ensure that the Lamination manufacturers that the TMs buy from are approved by the SEBs. Steel. they would have to keep in stock balance "left over" coils generated after the use of the larger widths by them. the TM would have to hold the material in stock as till the time that they have some order where the same could be utilized. This is because a Quality conscious Lamination manufacturer would "know the business" and therefore better placed to run a leaner outfit producing at a lower cost than a manufacturer of electrical equipments. This enables them to plan their working capital in a much better way and also improves the overall efficiency of their operations. A Quality conscious Lamination manufacturer. like a manufacturer of Laminations would have better economies of scale in the procurement of raw material as well as better management of inventories. A Lamination manufacturer whose business it is to manufacture Laminations is in a much better position to forecast the stock requirement and stock the same for supply on time From personal experience we find that our customers give us their monthly production planning and operate on "Just in time" inventory as far as the Lamination requirement goes. The reason for this is economic as well as managerial. The economic reason is that a component manufacturer. As the TM is basically a Power Transformer manufacturer it would be very difficult for them to utilise this material or they may be forced to take some orders for a lower rating at a lower price just to utilise this "left over" material! Further CRGO comes in at least 15 different "grades' with different core losses and thick nesses. Now CRGO producing mills produce CRGO coils in the width ranging from 863 mm (A. Expecting a TM to stock all or most of these grades also makes no economic sense.K. Therefore many OEMs work closely with their vendors to develop their manufacturing as well as managerial capabilities. a TM who manufactures Power Transformers upto 50 MVA would typically have a requirement of a large quantity of say 500 mm to 600 mm width of CRGO coils for manufacturing of their core.

5T/60Hz) and M6 (approx. was first patented 70 years ago in 1933 in USA. the first catalogue containing design curves and other essential information on grain oriented steels was published. CRGO Steel . at 1. (approx. defective and old and used discarded Laminations in the country in the interest of the nation and also to ensure that these materials are not used in the manufacture of Transformers.7w/lb at 1.90 watts/lb. Steel) were the pioneers in development of CGOS grades whilst the Japanese mills Nippon Steel and Kawasaki Steel. the pioneers in development of HGO grades . expecting better quality of Transformers by simply stipulating a tender condition requiring TMs to have an in-house core cutting facility is naïve and counterproductive economically as explained above.0. SEBs and the Quality conscious Lamination manufacturers jointly take up the issue of restricting the imports of secondary . The TMs. USA.00 watts/lb. ARMCO. DOMAINS AND UNDERSTANDING OF HYSTERESES LOSSES D) PROCESSING OF CRGO STEEL INTO LaminationS E) DESIGN LOSSES VERSUS ACTUAL LOSSES F) GRADES.5T/60Hz) By 1947. 1.0.0. In 1955. popularly known as CRGO.Handle with care A) HISTORY B) TERMS AND DEFINITIONS C) PROPERTIES OF GRAINS.5T/60Hz) and M9 (approx.5T/60Hz) were developed and were the most widely used grades of CRGO. The earliest grades of CRGO were known as M10. In conclusion it can be said that. at 1. M4 and M5 were developed in the late sixties and the Hi-B Grain Oriented Steel grades (HG-OS) were developed in the early seventies whilst laser scribed material in the mid-eighties. However.2. the first Conventional Grain Oriented Steel (CGOS) grades known popularly today as M3.6w/lb at 1. grades M7 (approx. NOMENCLATURES AND MATERIALS G) CONCLUSION A) HISTORY The earliest process to manufacture Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Electrical Steel. (now known as A.K.

There have also been no serious challenges in terms of replacements of GOS for the application in core material in Transformers and there is hardly any new material on the horizon either.5T/60Hz). the only maneuverable "A" class item of significant value is CRGO core. M6 etc.5T and 60 cycles. though being classified as a "steel" is very rarely impacted by the international price movement or other factors influencing mild steels or other categories of steel products. at 1.4W/lb at 1. for secondary GOS. which needs to be discussed separately. not only have the hystereses losses been significantly reduced from the earliest grades of GO developed. A final balancing item in the costing of Transformers. In the development of Grain Oriented Steels over the past 70 years. 4. thereby reducing the eddy current losses. where costs can be reduced. GOS has provided the opportunity to reduce the size of magnetic cores in electrical equipments as also reducing other materials and thereby reducing the cost whilst improving the efficiency of electrical equipments. 2. especially in the Indian context where CRGO steel is seen from the following perspectives by Transformer Manufacturers (TMs) 1. Therefore. A large quantity of seconds. M4. Core Loss: It is the electrical power lost in terms of heat within the core of electrical equipment.and laser scribed grades. the relevant properties. The insulation coating has been significantly improved to keep inter-laminar losses at a minimum. a comprehensive understanding of GO steels is necessary. These improvements in GOS have led to an ever increasing demand of this grade of steel which. this number is not relevant. latest materials. when cores are subjected to AC magnetising force. have proven to be not quite useful in replacing GOS due to various technical problems and have already been relegated for use in special purpose applications (mainly high frequency) only in developed countries. this paper attempts to first explain the various terms associated with GO steels. Today however. Therefore. and the number following approximately indicated 10 times the core loss of earliest CRGO material in watts per lb. It is composed of several . which are rarely upgraded or reviewed. (B) TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 1. AISI .) M indicates magnetic material. defectives and used GO materials are available. Potential challengers like Metglass Amorphous Boron Strip / Mu Metal /Nickel Iron etc. M5. A tendency by SEBs to specify the "best" HGO available and stringent documentation and inspection procedures in a bid to improve the core quality. nomenclature leading to outdated core designs. TMs are forced to downgrade their core to reduce cost. but the thickness has been significantly reduced. As the competitive pressure on prices of Transformers increases.0. In view of the above. M4 denoted magnetic material having core loss of approx.American Iron and Steel Institute which gave the nomenclature for CGO materials with M as a prefix and a number following (eg.g. 3. 2. A lack of sufficient information regarding the design parameters. but still denotes the accepted grade and popularly used throughout the world (e. thereby complicating the design and purchase decision further. the best processes for fabrication and the relevant check points and some suggestions and conclusions to ensure better core quality. In fact India is known to be one of the largest markets worldwide. That the producers of these materials have tried to dump this technology on developing countries is another matter altogether.

It varies between 95% to 97% for CRGO steel coils. This reduces the hystereses losses as "switching" (explained later) becomes easier within the domains. more uniform the magnetic field in the metal. Burrs can be reduced by accurate and precise fabrication and having cutting blades and tools well sharpened at all times. the core loss would be approx. This is turn would increase the overall core loss of the electrical equipment. thereby . (C) PROPERTIES OF GRAINS. The angle of mis-orientation (i. the length of the steel). The chemical composition of the GO steels has about 3. eddy current loss within individual Laminations and interlaminar losses that may arise if Laminations are not sufficiently insulated from each other.2% of Silicon as an alloy. These "domains" are nothing but electrical charges oriented in any random direction. Hystereses Loss: The power expended in a magnetic material as a result of the lack of correspondence between the changes in induction resulting from the increase or decrease of magnetising force (which is a result of it being cyclic.e. 3. Surface Insulation Resistance: The resistance of a unit area of surface coating measured perpendicular to the surface usually expressed in ohm-Cm2 per Lamination. 16 to 17 w/kg at 1. Therefore if a Transformer were to be made of Mild Steel used as core material. however it reduces with fabrication if there are "burrs" developed. The grains in GO steels are all aligned almost parallel to the direction of rolling of the steel (i. Therefore.3. The balance percentage of stacking factor (3 to 5 %) is air! Burrs: The residual steel on the edge of steel sheet where shearing or punching during fabrication has taken place.5T/50Hz and the size of the Transformer would be approx.e. The size of grains in CGOS is 2 mm to 5mm and HGOS is 5mm to 20mm. 7.5mm. Saturation Induction: The maximum excess of induction possible in given material above that produced in a vacuum by a given magnetising force. 5. DOMAINS AND UNDERSTANDING OF HYSTERESES LOSSES Every type of steel has "grains" which consist of "domains". lower the eddy current losses.Hystereses loss. 4. 8. Eddy Current Loss: This component of core loss is the energy lost by the circulating current induced in the metal by the variation of magnetic fields in the metal. Inter-laminar Loss: The power expended in a stacked or wound core as a result of weak insulation resistance between Laminations resulting in the flow of eddy current within a core. 18 to 20 times the size of a Transformer manufactured with GO steels. deviation from the rolling direction) is maximum 7% for conventional GO and less than 3% for Hi-B GO steels. In regular steels the size of a grain is less than 0. alternating) (explained in detail later on in this paper). thereby increasing the thickness on the edge and reducing the stacking factor. They can also be reduced by deburring and stress relief annealing. types of losses . across Lamination sheets. 2. Stacking factor: The proportion of steel that would be found when Lamination sheets are stacked on top of each other as compared to a solid steel section for the same volume. 6. In absolute values it should be greater than or equal to 10 ohms Cm2 and it is measured by the Franklin test method. 9. It is numerically equal to the maximum induction expressed in gausses minus the magnetising force in Oersteds (B minus H). The size of the "grains" in GO steels are purposely "grown" and made bigger and are about 10 times the size of the grains in regular steel. i. Surface insulation resistance is considered adequate if the inter-laminar loss is restricted to less than 2% of total core loss.e. The main difference between regular "carbon" steels and GO steels are: 1. thereby reducing the hystereses losses.

consists of numerous "grains" each of which have domains. 4.06% of carbon in their chemical composition. GO Steels are also decarbonised and have no more than 0. which prevents aeging of the steel. thereby reducing the eddy currents. The magnified diagram would look like this: O = Angle of misorientation from Rolling direction Grains which is less than 7% for CGOS and less Than 3% for HGOS The typical picture inside any "grain" would consist of domains like this: A domain when expanded would look like this: H1 . as mentioned before. There is a special carlite insulation coating on the steel. which reduces the inter-laminar eddy current losses within the core. Let us understand how exactly hystereses losses are developed with respect to GO electrical steels: The microstructure of the steel.increasing the specified volume resistivity of the steel.

H1 V1 V2 H2 And so on «. . Now consider what happens when an alternating current of 50 cycles is applied. every domain is nothing but a closed magnetic circuit as shown in the figure above. Therefore the domain looks like this as the current alternates 50 times and the diagrams below represent the direction of the domain as the current alternates. The domains "switch" to and fro 50 times in a second. 50 times every second It is relatively very easy for the vertical switches (V1 and V2) to occur but very hard for the horizontal (H1 and H2) switches to occur..V1 V2 H2 Thus.

elastic stress and plastic stress. Stresses are of two types. However. it is imperative that we understand the nuances in handling. . the lower the losses as there are less total number of grains in the steel and therefore less number of "switches" and low hystereses losses. can introduce stresses that can distort magnetic properties. (D) PROCESSING OF CRGO STEEL INTO LaminationS CRGO steel is a "delicate" steel to be handled with care. Improper handling of strip. If these are not done properly. and this results in heat. sheets or long Laminations as shown in the diagram below. the original magnetic properties of the material are restored and these are no longer damaged. 1. This type of stress can be elastic or plastic depending on the severity of the wrong storage and the resulting deformation in coil shape (if any). it ultimately leads to higher losses and the results are not as per design. An elastic stress is a temporary stress which any GO steel may be subjected to like some load on top of the coil or a slight force to decoil. storing and processing of this steel. These stresses are usually plastic stresses. The moment the stress is removed. can only be rectified by a stress relief annealing at around 820ºC. Thus the larger the grains. which results in the hystereses loss within the steel. As the magnetic property of the steel and not the tensile strength (as is the case with most other steels) is the important quality required. Storage of CRGO coils has to be done properly as improper storage may result in excessive stresses unintentionally. The sum total of the energy required for the horizontal switches to occur are the total hystereses losses of the steel. a plastic deformation due to winding into cores or pulling or stretching or bending GOS as shown below. 2.The horizontal switches require more energy to be completed and also "lag" behind the vertical switches.

Uninsulated bolts or assembly by welding.7T/50Hz (w/kg) 1. on Soken Single Sheet Tester showed a deterioration of 7% in core loss for material that was bent. 5. Therefore the Laminations need to be deburred (to reduce / remove the burr) and also stress relief annealed thereafter as it creates an oxide film on the burrs.00 Values as per Mill T. Most of these induced stresses are plastic stresses that can only be removed by stress relief annealing. To determine the effect of annealing. thereby reducing the conductivity of burr contact and minimising losses. Kryfs Power Component Ltd.82 Core loss at 1. Kherdi.81 4. the deterioration was only 2% and most of the original magnetic properties (with respect to core loss) of the material were restored. two stacks of Epstein samples measuring 30mm x 305mm were fabricated from M4 grade CRGO steel coils. This is especially true when the width of the strip being worked with is extremely narrow. Vadodra for evaluation of specific core loss and B-H curves. notching.36 1.Tests conducted at the plant of M/s.C 0. shearing. 3.61 - Stack 2 (unanealed) 1. Burrs decrease the stacking factor (see the definition of Burrs) In Indian conditions where most of the fabrication processes are performed manually and carbide blades are not used. However after stress relief annealing at 820ºC. holing etc. Burrs are developed during fabrication which are unavoidable in any steel fabrication operation.5T/50hz(w/kg) Stack 1 (annealed) 0. Processing operations like slitting. would provide a low resistance path and increase eddy current losses and . burrs are easily developed and can dramatically increase the overall losses of the GO steels. This clearly shows that stress relief annealing significantly restores the original magnetic value of the material and removes both elastic and plastic stresses. The report is attached in Annexure 1 but the brief results are as under: Core loss at 1. 6. Stack 1 was cut and annealed in a fast single sheet roller hearth annealing furnace at a temperature of 820ºC and stack 2 was left unannealed. The method of holding the Laminations in a core assembly and the mechanical pressure applied to the core assembly also affects the total core loss. Both the stacks were sent to ERDA. all damage the grain structure of the GO material around the area of fabrication and working..

1 mm (From 2000 mm to 4000 mm) +0/. Much cheaper locally (Indian make) versions of the single sheet tester. In the light of the above discussions.3 mm Length Width .should therefore be avoided.6mm (From 1000 mm to 2000 mm) +0/. Therefore excessive clamping on the core must be avoided as the resistance of surface insulation is inversely proportional to the pressure applied. the total no load core loss of the material on assembled core are not matching the theoretically derived no load losses. requires regular calibration which is often ignored.0.6mm Upto 150 mm) +0/. whilst reliable for non-grain oriented and lower grade of electrical steels are not consistent in their results and cannot be relied upon to provide accurate measurements for Grain Oriented Steels. i. A high clamping pressure leads to breakdown of surface insulation resistivity and higher inter-laminar losses. 7. The method of assembly of core. Further.25 mm (From 150 mm to 500 mm) +0/.0. it is clear that there are various other factors affecting the total no load core loss besides the intrinsic value of the core loss of the GOS material alone.1. Residual material on Lamination surfaces like oil. It must also be mentioned that SOKEN (Japanese) single sheet tester which is mentioned in Nippon Steel Catalogues and is known to display consistent readings and results over a number of years. (E) DESIGN LOSSES VERSUS ACTUAL LOSSES A regular complaint of Transformer designers is that though individual losses on single sheet tester are within the guaranteed parameters. Air gaps at joints can drastically alter the values of t he total core loss. Inaccurately cut angles in mitred cores also result in a distortion of flux and increase in overall core losses. Variation in thickness in the same width step of material not only results in problems in core building.e. a guideline on dimensional and other tolerances extracted from major international standards from finished Transformer Laminations is given below as a quick reference guide: ATTRIBUTE TOLERANCE PERMISSABLE Upto 315mm) +0/-0. 9. one piece at a time or two pieces or three pieces also marginally increases or reduces the core loss (lower number of sheets in assembly results in lower core loss). 8. However. dust etc. also adversely affects the stacking factor and increases the total core loss. but also increases the overall core loss of the material as it increases the air gaps during the assembly. This observation is made from practical experience. High assembly pressures decrease the surface resistance and increase the inter-laminar losses and increase the total core losses. 10. designers would be well advised to develop their own data on the points mentioned above as there is no universal standard on most of these points and the practices differ with different Transformer Manufacturers.4 mm (From 315mm to 1000 mm) +0/.0.

Cm. whichever is less 95.6T.00W/kg at 1.5% (for M6) (as per major International standards) +/. Many a times this creates confusion in the mind of the customer regarding the exact requirement of the material. Therefore TMs would be well advised to use these latest nomenclatures whilst specifying GOS requirements to avoid confusion. Even if a TM is looking for a particular core loss at 1.5% (for M3) 96% ( for M4 & M5) 96. Nippon Steel grade 23ZH100 means thickness 0.1. then the GOS which gives the required core loss (these intermediate losses can only be derived from standard core loss curves of mills as no mill guarantees losses at intermediate flux densities) and specify the core loss of the grade of GOS required at 1. Most mills have now switched over to the following method of grading Grain Oriented Steels: (Thickness) (Brand Name) (Core loss at 1. NOMENCLATURES AND MATERIALS Different mills have different brand names and nomenclatures whilst producing GOS and HGOS. new nomenclatures conveying precise thickness and core loss information to the fabricator should be used.(More than 500 mm) )/.7T/50Hz) For eg. as per Franklin method (F) GRADES. Rather than specifying old nomenclatures like MOH. Though this is a step in the right direction. Similarly 23 RGH100 IS Kawasaki Steel nomenclature for the same material and 23ORSIH100.7T in the purchase order. the Thyssen Krupp Eklectrical St eel (TKES) nomenclature for the same material. ZH is the brand name for Hi-B for Nippon Steel and 100 means 1.5mm in 2000 mm length (as per BS 60 1) 25 Microns Max.0. Another important question is how to ensure the quantity of the material being used is prime? Many SEBs have initiated stage inspections of material during fabrication of the Laminations to ensure that only Prime material is being used. or 10% of thickness. MIH or MZH which are neither precise nor convey adequate information.23mm.55T or 1.5 minutes Max.7T/50Hz.5mm Angle Edge Camber Burr + / .0. Designers use outdated nomenclatures from old catalogues of mills which are no longer valid and this causes some confusion in the material being asked for and supplied by the fabricator.03 mm (as per major International standards) Stacking Factor Thickness Insulation Resistivity Min.10 Ohm / sq. it is a tedious and time .

MBA (IIM.08 to 1. (G) CONCLUSION Though the processing of CRGO steels appears to be a simple engineering activity of fabrication of steel into desired shapes as per the design provided. for certain jobs where quality cannot be compromised. BSc (Physics). Mumbai Email questions or comments on this paper to saif. BF is a non dimensional parameter defined as the Ratio of (No Load Loss of a transformer / core weight ) in watts per kg to the Epstein or Single Sheet watt loss (in watts per kg). to reduce the Building factor in Transformer cores by 5 to 8%. The information provided in this paper attempts to provide this basic foundation.qureishi@kryfs. in reality it is one of the most demanding and precision jobs in the engineering industry. While the basic principle of transformation of energy has remained the same for over a century.consuming process but due to lack of a better solution at the moment.. it is imperative that TM have the basic knowledge of this delicately important raw material which forms the core of their Transformer. has been successfully used by various TMs world over. This paper explains how SL laminations reduce the No Load Loss in a transformer by considering the specifics of magnetic Flux transfer in joints areas of a SL core versus a NSL transformer core. Step Lap (SL) construction of transformer core instead of conventional but type construction (or Non Step Lap (NSL) type) which is still widely used by TMs in Summary: A proper value of the Building factor (BF) is important while calculating the No-Load Loss (NLL) of any power or distribution transformer. Therefore BF= (NLL measured on transformer in watts per kg) (Epstein or Single Sheet Test loss in watts per kg) BF ensures that the NLL of a transformer does not equal to the core weight of the transformer multiplied by the Single sheet loss as defined by the producing Mill at the particular operating flux . One more solution could be for Central Electricity Authority to approve fabricators of Laminations who comply with certain specified quality procedures and methods as "Approved Fabricators" who could be entrusted the work of ensuring the required quality. a generally accepted practice. This paper examines one such production process which reduces the NLL. reduce the No Load current and the noise level relative to conventionally stacked NSL cores. Bangalore) Managing Director. transformers have become more efficient due to improvements in materials and more sophisticated production processes (better manufacturing technology).35 for three phase. TOP Reducing Building Factor by Using Step Lap (SL) Laminations By Saif Qureishi. It is an empirically derived factor which is based on the experience of the Transformer Manufacturer (TM) and ranges from 1. three limb cores. KRYFS Power Components Ltd. since the first transformer was built. Therefore. The magnetic circuit is one of the most important active parts of any transformer. No Load current and noise level of a transformer and hence improves it¶s efficiency.

15) where it is comparatively lower. skills in core building (squareness of the core). thickness of the lamination (which effects eddy current losses). Therefore in a smaller rating core (like 25 kva to 100 kva. i. As it is not possible to examine all these factors in a single paper.e the Area of Proportion of Corner joints to the total area of the core. Quality of workmanship of Core: Burrs in Laminations. . generally designers use either of the following two equations while calculating the NLL in a transformer: (1) OR (2) NLL = (Wt ± Wc) x w + Wc x w x Kc NLL= Wt x Kt x w Where w is core loss in Watts per kg of the CRGO material used in core. Wt is the total weight of the core Wc is the weight of the core at Corner joints. Grade of Material Being used : Whether material being used is Hi.density.) 2. manufactured from M4 grade material and operating at 1. dust particles in between laminations. It has mitred joints and is usually built two laminations at a time with an off-centre overlap of around 10 mm in the centre leg. flatness of the laminations.using SL laminations for making transformer core and understanding the reasons for the same. clamping pressure on the core etc.e conventional M4 grade GO having a core loss of 1. in practice it is never so for a three phase. mainly the advantages in flux transfer in SL over NSL joints. if the material used is C 120 27 (i. Core Geometry : BF is directly proportional to the Area of Proportion of Corner Joints to the total core area. However. kinds of joints (SL or NSL ) .2 Watts per kg at 1.B Grain Oriented (HGO) or Conventional Grain Oriented (CGO) which affects the stacking factor of material. As can be seen from the diagram. three limb core due the BF. Both Hysterisis and Eddy Current losses when added make up the NLL of a transformer. which can directly reduce the NLL significantly. Air gaps.7 Tesla. the joints are staggered one on either side 5 mm around the centre point. overlap area at joints. 3.7 Tesla) then the Maximum NLL should simply be 200 kgs x 1. Kt is the Building factor of the total core and Kc is the Building factor of the core at the corner joints. we shall only examine the most important one. A Cross sectional view of behavior of Flux in a Conventional NSL Core stack is shown in Figure 1 below. Insulation resistivity values of material (IR values of coating on GO).25 to 1. if the core weight is 200 kgs for a 100 KVA transformer. For example.varies from 1. However the major reason contributing to BF is Core Geomtery. etc.2 w/kg = 240 watts. Permeability of the material.35 ) where the BF is much higher compared to a Power transformer core like 25 MVA and above (varies from 1. some of the major ones being the following: 1. BF depends on various factors. Due to the complexity of determining each individually.08 to 1. Accuracy of dimensions especially at the corner joints (precision of angles) .

which is mostly used in India.A cross sectional view of the Conventional Non Step Lap (NSL) type joints and behaviour of flux in it. Figure 2 Behavior of Flux in the 6 SL joint. in a magnetic circuit.Figure 1. around the centre point. Similar to an electrical circuit where. Electric current follows the path of least resistance. As can be seen the joints are staggered 3 on either side. Magnetic flux follows the path of least reluctance (which corresponds to Highest . A Cross sectional view of SL Laminations (6 steps) and the behavior of flux is shown in Figure 2.

the situation in an electric circuit and a magnetic circuit are analogous. If all the flux transfers to the overlapping laminations above or below.65 Tesla per lamination which creates ³overcrowding of flux´ and also much over the saturation limit of the CRGO (which is approx 2 Tesla). However as CRGO saturates at a flux density of approximately 2 Tesla this is the constraining factor for the ³ready to transfer flux´ approaching the air gap at the corner joint. increases the flux density in the lamination above the saturation level which automatically contributes to the saturation of the material at joints and therefore higher NLL.Magnetic Permeability). This is what is shown in Figure 1 above. Let us consider a core which is operating at a flux density of 1. some of the flux will get transferred to the adjoining overlapping laminations. As the flux approaches the ³air gap´ at the corner joint. it has two options ± Either to cross the Air gap at the joint (where the Magnetic Permeability is much lower (=1). Obviously the flux will chose option 2 i. In fact. Reluctance . in a NSL type joint where there are just two overlapping laminations.1 Tesla/ 2 = 2. when the Flux in the transformer core approaches the air gap at the corner joint in the core. Thus in a NSL type joint.7 Tesla. This transfer of flux in a Conventional type (NSL type) core is more explicitly shown below once again for better understanding in Figure 3: Figure 3: Diagrammatic representation of flux transfer to overlapped sheets in a Non Step .e to cut across insulation layers and transfer to the laminations overlapping above or below it. Even the flux which gets transferred to the adjoining laminations in a NSL.R= F/ Where R is the Reluctance of the Magnetic Circuit in ampere turns/ weber F is the Magnetomotive Force in Ampere ± turns and is the Magnetic flux in webers. The second option for the flux is to cut across the insulation layers of the laminations and move to the overlapping laminations in the vertical direction (the direction perpendicular to the rolling direction of the laminations) above or below where the Magnetic Permeability is of the order of 10^4 and as a result the Magnetic Reluctance is much lower. however some part of the flux will also have to jump across the air gap (which is option 1). The flux which crosses the air gap contributes to ³wasting of flux´ and therefore requires a higher no load current to achieve the required calculated flux density. Further the over-saturation of flux at the corner joints also leads to higher magnetostriction of the core which is the main cause of noise level in a transformer. then the flux in the overlapping laminations will be 5. As we see above in Figures 1 and 2 above. Like Resistance (R= V/I) in any electric circuit. as the Magnetic Reluctance of Air is much higher . it has to decide between option 1 and 2 above.

6. It has been determined by Mechler and Girgis in (1) that the Flux density in NSL joints at the air gap is high as compared to in a SL joint and the flux density in the adjoining laminations in a NSL joint is much higher.7 and 8 . the flux has six options to jump instead of just two and therefore there is a more balanced distribution of flux over the adjoining laminations which results in very little flux jumping the air gap thereby also contributing to lower losses at the corner joints. The distribution of this flux in NSL is represented below in Figures 5.Lap joint However the situation is different for SLcore. simply because there are more layers of laminations ³available´ for distributing this ³ready to transfer flux´. As can be seen in the diagrammatic representation of the 6 Step Lap core. The ³ready to transfer flux´ approaching the air gap has many more options as can be seen in figure 2 above . as the flux density of the corner joints remains around the saturation flux density of 2 Tesla. This is explained diagrammatically below in Figure 4 : Figure 4: Diagrammatic representation of flux transfer to overlapped sheets in a Step Lap joint. as compared to SL joint which is discussed more in detail below with the help of diagrams and plots.

7 T induction. Figure 6: Corresponding Sketch of Figure 5 to identify lines for line plots (not to scale).Figure 5: Magnetic flux lines in a NSL core joint at 1. .

11 and 12.7 Tesla. .10. Mechler and Girgis then repeated the same experiment with a SL core and the results are shown below in Figures 9.Figure 7 : Magnetic flux density in the steel lamination along line 1 of Fig.7 Tesla and this is approximately the same amount of flux found along line 3 (which is normal or perpendicular to the direction of rolling) in the steel laminations. the flux density in the steel laminations along line 1 after the Air Gap reaches 2. 6 As can be clearly seen from the above. 6 Figure 8 : Magnetic flux density along line 3 of Fig. It should also be noticed that the Flux density in the air gap is as high as 0.

.Figure 9 : Flux lines in step-lap core joint at B (overall) = 1.7 T. Figure 10 : Sketch for identification of lines in a Step Lap Joint Figure 11 : Flux density distribution along line 9.

10 As can be seen from the above. the flux density across the air gap in a Step Lap joint is as low .Figure 12: Magnetic flux density in all 6 different laminations in a step-lap core joint along lines 1±6 of Fig.

85 1. German (DIN) and British Standards are given in table 1 which specify grade.11 1.30 max.35 35 G 155 35 G 165 Iron Loss (W/kg) W17/50 1.35 max.20 max.30 max. thickness.75 British BS 601 Part 2 (1973) Maximum specific total loss at a peak magnetic flux density of 1. Grade Maximum specific total loss W/kg 35M6 30M6 30M5 28M5 28M4 1. 1.97 0.27 27 G 130 27 G 140 30 P 110 30 P 120 30 G 130 0. M4.Grain Oriented Electrical Steel strips Japanese JIS C 2553 (1986) Classification Density Thickness (kg/dm) Symbol mm 27 P 100 27 P 100 27 G 120 0.00 max. 1.5T and a frequency of 50 Hz.655 max.40 max. 1.45 max.78 1.20 max. 1. Magnetic Flux Density (T) B 1.55 max.78 1. 1.89 . 1.00 max.30 7. 1. Watt Losses and Magnetic Flux density.85 1.95 0.10 max. 1.75 1. American (ASTM). 1. 1. M5 & M6).78 1. 1. 1.65 30 G 140 30 G 150 35 P 125 35 P 135 35 G 145 0. IMPORTANT ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CRGO Table 1 .85 1. 1.75 1. Major international standards such as Japanese (JIS).25 max.40 max.50 max. 1.07 0.TECHNICAL DETAILS : CRGO or Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Steel is available in various grades (generally called M3.

11 IMPORTANT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CRGO Density gm/c3 Silicon content % Resistivity micro Ohm-centimeter 7.00 Stacking factor % M5 (.17 0.).28 0. 0.20 mm (0.0138 in.).0118 0.97 35G066 M-6 0.0079 in.10 48.66 0.50 1.27 mm) 96.0118 in.27 mm (0.USA AISI ( 1983 ) MAXIMUM CORE LOSSES . to 1. and 1000 mm Width (39 in.).0106 in.30 mm (0. ) Sheets 914 mm (36 in.30 mm (0.35 0.0118 in.0138 0. ) . ) 0.46 1. ) (Standard width available from 50 mm(2 in.23 mm (0.050mm with range) (41 in. ) Thickness 0.35 mm) 97. 0.44 1.). and 1000 mm Width (39 in.).20 Stacking factor % M4 (.65 3.60 Ultimate Tensile Strength 90° to Rolling Direction Kg/mm2 38. 0.35 mm (0.) 914 mm (36 in. ) COILS 0.40 1.53 0.27 0.0138 in.35 mm Thickness (0.00 CRGO materials come either in the form of coils or sheets.0106 0.0071 in.50 Stacking factor % M6 (.0091 in. Table 2 gives details of dimensions and tolerances as per JIS C 3553. ) 0.89 30G058 M-5 0.30 0.00 Ultimate Tensile Strength 0° to Rolling Direction Kg/mm2 32.5 T) Thickness Type AISI W / lb W /kg Type Inch mm 60Hz 50Hz 60Hz 50Hz 27G053 M-4 0.30 mm) 96. DIMENSIONS & TOLERANCES 0.18 mm (0.58 0.). ) Inside Coil Diameter 508 mm (20 in.Electrical Steels Grain Oriented Full Processed ASTM A665 Maximum Core Loss at 15 ASTM Former kg (1.

03 0.27 +0.50 to 0.02 0.20 +0.20 +0.23 +0. These curves are of immense help to Transformer designers.30 +0.20 +0.35 +0.03 +0.03 0.03 or under 0 0.35 +0.03 1.03 or under 750 0.18 +0. which guarantee low Watt Losses at 1.02 400 0.03 +0.conform to JIS C 2553.7 T CRGO manufacturers also give curves of indicating Watt Losses ad A.30 +0. Table 3 gives magnetic properties of Hi-B material.18 +0.0 or 0. energy savings are becoming a very important factor and minimizing care loss in Transformers is becoming a must.02 0.02 over 0.02 or or +0.27 +0.03 0.03 Besides the Watt Losses at specific flux densities of 1.18 +0.20 +0.02 +0.35 +0.30 +0.02 0.02 0. Nippon Steel Corporation has come out with low loss Hi-B materials. Such materials are called Hi-B materials.B CRGO MATERIALS : Thickness Grade Core Loss Lamination Factor .5 Tesla flux density.03 0.23 +0.30 +0.27 +0. Magnetization at various flux densities.35 +0. Conventional CRGO materials (M4.C.6 750 0.02 over 0. M6) are used regularly for cores in Transformers.02 0.03 or under 400 0.03 0. Hi .Length Length will be available according to negotiation Tolerances in Dimensions & Shape .03 0.02 150 0.02 150 0. TOLERANCE Camber in Deviation of any 2 Width Thickness thickness in Thickness Width metres Shear mm mm transverse mm mm (Slit Burr mm direction Products) mm mm 0.05 under or unde 0. M5. However recently due to environmental protection.20 0. and available on request.02 over 0.18 +0.30 to 0.02 0.23 +0. Popular Hi-B grades used in India are 23 MOH & 27 MOH Watt.03 under under 0.23 +0.27 +0.5 T and 1.

92 23M-OH 1.92 30M-OH 1.0 97.90 0.88 0.80 0.34 0. CORE (TC) TC H0 TC H1 TC H2 TYPICAL WATTS WATTS WATTS PER THICKNESS PER KG 60 PER KG 50 KG INCHES (mm) Hz Hz @ 1.73 0.91 30ZH100 1.90 1. The Watt Losses are as follows : CORE LOSSES ARMCO TRAN.7 T 1.27 11 0.39 0.55 1.57 0.22 0.00 0.53 1.46 1.65 0.7 98.05 0. Typical Typical W W W W W B (T) (W/Kg) (W/Kg) (W/Kg) (W/Kg) (W/Kg) 23ZDKH85 0.91 23ZH90 0.57 0.91 27M-OH 1.85 1.16 0.91 23ZDKH90 0.38 0.7 T Hz T .4 97.59 0.91 27ZH95 0. Steel Corp.93 0.43 0.60 1.58 0.91 23ZDMH85 0.90 0.53 1.54 1.9 98.81 0.13 0.91 23ZDMH90 0.95 0.41 0.72 0.44 0.74 1.44 0. of USA ( formally ARMCO) has also come out with their own brand of low loss CRGO called Trancor H-0 and Trancor H-1.23 9 0.91 27ZDMH90 0.93 0.5 A.51 1.38 0.35 0.05 0.92 Typical % 97.012 ( .68 1.90 1.48 1.53 1.98 0.91 27ZDMH95 0.52 1.35 11 Max.64 0.58 1.32 1.88 0.62 0.03 0.66 0.92 35M-2H 1.84 0.37 0.30 12 0.90 0.62 0.87 0.61 1.90 0.34 0.80 0.44 0.03 0.65 0.78 0.39 0.48 1.7 T/50 1.63 0.85 0.99 0.35 0.95 0.92 23ZH95 0.1 98.5 mil 0.85 0.54 0.00 1.91 27M-1H 1.78 0.73 1.92 27ZDKH90 0.92 27ZDKH95 0.59 1.90 0.90 0. K.53 1.91 35M-1H 1.009 ( .38 0.23 ) .84 0.69 0.09 0.95 0.74 1.3 98.95 0.00 0.46 0.01 0.90 0.52 0.46 1.95 .011 ( .27 ) .39 0.19 0.30 ) 1.

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