You are on page 1of 98

AP-T68/06

AUSTROADS TECHNICAL REPORT

Update of the Austroads


Sprayed Seal Design Method
Update of the Austroads
Sprayed Seal Design Method
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

First Published September 2006

© Austroads Inc. 2006

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968,
no part may be reproduced by any process without the prior written permission of Austroads.

Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method


ISBN 1 921139 65 X

Austroads Project No. TT1132

Austroads Publication No. AP–T68/06

Project Manager
Gary Liddle, VicRoads

Prepared by
Allan Alderson, ARRB Group

Published by Austroads Incorporated


Level 9, Robell House
287 Elizabeth Street
Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Phone: +61 2 9264 7088
Fax: +61 2 9264 1657
Email: austroads@austroads.com.au
www.austroads.com.au

Austroads believes this publication to be correct at the time of printing and does not accept
responsibility for any consequences arising from the use of information herein. Readers should
rely on their own skill and judgement to apply information to particular issues.
Update of the Austroads
Sprayed Seal Design Method

Sydney 2006
Austroads profile
Austroads is the association of Australian and New Zealand road transport and traffic authorities
whose purpose is to contribute to the achievement of improved Australian and New Zealand road
transport outcomes by:
ƒ undertaking nationally strategic research on behalf of Australasian road agencies and
communicating outcomes
ƒ promoting improved practice by Australasian road agencies
ƒ facilitating collaboration between road agencies to avoid duplication
ƒ promoting harmonisation, consistency and uniformity in road and related operations
ƒ providing expert advice to the Australian Transport Council (ATC) and the Standing
Committee on Transport (SCOT).

Austroads membership
Austroads membership comprises the six state and two territory road transport and traffic
authorities and the Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services in Australia, the
Australian Local Government Association and Transit New Zealand. It is governed by a council
consisting of the chief executive officer (or an alternative senior executive officer) of each of its
eleven member organisations:
ƒ Roads and Traffic Authority New South Wales
ƒ Roads Corporation Victoria
ƒ Department of Main Roads Queensland
ƒ Main Roads Western Australia
ƒ Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure South Australia
ƒ Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources Tasmania
ƒ Department of Planning and Infrastructure Northern Territory
ƒ Department of Territory and Municipal Services Australian Capital Territory
ƒ Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services
ƒ Australian Local Government Association
ƒ Transit New Zealand.

The success of Austroads is derived from the collaboration of member organisations and others in
the road industry. It aims to be the Australasian leader in providing high quality information, advice
and fostering research in the road sector.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This document was prepared by a Working Group from the Bituminous Surfacing Research
Review Group comprising:
Mr Kym Neaylon Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure South Australia
(Convenor)
Mr Walter Holtrop Australian Asphalt Pavement Association
Mr Ray Gaughan Roads and Traffic Authority, NSW (to October 2004)
Mr Sai Yin Roads and Traffic Authority, NSW (from October 2004)
Mr John Esnouf VicRoads, Victoria
Mr Russell Spies Department of Main Roads, Queensland
Mr Allan Alderson ARRB Group (Technical secretary)

Technical Writers
Mr Walter Holtrop
Mr John Rebbechi
Mr Allan Alderson

PREFACE
This document replaces previous Austroads guides for the design of binder rates of application and
aggregate spread rates for sprayed seals, including:
ƒ Austroads Design of Sprayed Seals, Austroads 1990.
ƒ Austroads Provisional Sprayed Seal Design Method: Revision 2000, AP-T09/01, Austroads
2001.
ƒ Practitioners Guide to the Design of Sprayed Seals – Revision 2000 method, AP-T17/02,
Austroads 2002.

The document has been based on AP-T17, but has been considerably extended, and incorporates
selection criteria not included in the earlier document.

This design of sprayed seal surfacing method has been prepared for use in conjunction with the
Austroads Sprayed Sealing Guide (Austroads, 2004). It provides a guide to the determination of
rates of application of binder and aggregate spread rates for most commonly encountered
conditions. Designers are reminded that provision of a surfacing treatment that provides the
desired performance characteristics also relies on selection of an appropriate treatment and
adequate preparation of surfaces prior to treatment.

‘Key Points’ are highlighted throughout the document to draw to the attention of designers,
particularly those who may be new to or have limited experience in seal design, items such as:
good practice, advice on interpretation of data, the influence of traffic, and potential problems or
risks associated with the treatment selected or the design being considered. These ‘Key Points’
are enclosed in a lightly shaded box.
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

SUMMARY
In 1992, Austroads provided funding for a project to investigate variability in the performance of
sprayed seals. The aim of the project was to improve reliability of design by measuring existing
pavement conditions and their influence on the design process and sprayed seal performance.
The outcome of the project was the provisional ‘Revision 2000’ design method (Austroads 2001).

This updated document is based on the Austroads practitioner’s guide to the design of sprayed
seals – Revision 2000 Method (Austroads 2002) but has been considerably extended and now
also includes a brief section on selection of treatments. To design suitable rates of application of
binder and aggregate for the service conditions, it is essential that, as a first step, an appropriate
treatment is selected. Failure to do so may result in a treatment that cannot provide the surfacing
characteristics and performance expected.

The importance of traffic and the average least dimension (ALD) to the design of a sprayed seal is
emphasised with new sections covering these topics.

The life of sprayed seals are highly dependent on the quality of granular base materials and the
standard of surface preparation of pavements prior to resealing. When embedment of aggregate
into soft base materials or poorly prepared maintenance patches occurs, there is a possibility of
subsequent flushing and loss of surface texture and, consequently, unsatisfactory levels of skid
resistance.

The design philosophy follows previous Austroads methods that are loosely based on the concept,
as originally proposed by Hanson (1935), that to achieve a satisfactory sprayed seal, the voids
within the sealing aggregate mosaic should be filled to about one-half to two-thirds with binder.
Adjustments for differing aggregate shape and traffic are applied to develop a basic binder
application rate. To this, further allowances are applied to cater for the surface texture of the
underlying substrate, embedment of the seal into the underlying substrate, and any binder
absorbed by either the sealing aggregate or the underlying substrate.

Individual sections cater for the design of:


ƒ single/single seals with C170, C320 or multigrade
ƒ single/single seals with polymer modified binders
ƒ single/single seals with emulsion binders
ƒ double/double seals with C170, C320 or multigrade
ƒ double/double seals with polymer modified binders
ƒ geotextile reinforced seals
ƒ fibre reinforced seals
ƒ scatter coat (sometimes referred to as a rack-in coat).

The design sections are intended to be self sufficient within each section. This has resulted in
duplication of many tables and figures throughout the document. However, this should make the
document easier to use in that designers will not be required to leaf through the document to locate
important tables and figures that may have been introduced in earlier sections.

Austroads 2006

— i—
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Throughout the document ‘Key Points’ are included to draw to the attention of designers,
particularly those who may be new to or have limited experience in seal design, items such as:
good practice, advice on interpretation of data, the influence of traffic, and potential problems or
risks associated with the treatment selected or the design being considered.

A brief section has been included describing the main materials used in sprayed seals. This
information should help users decide what materials and applications are likely to be successful for
a given situation.

Worked examples have been added in Appendix A.

Austroads 2006

— ii —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 General .................................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Selection of treatment type and materials ............................................................................. 2
1.3 Application of seal design procedure to various seal types ................................................... 2
1.3.1 Single/single seals ................................................................................................... 2
1.3.2 Double/double seals ................................................................................................ 3
1.3.3 Geotextile reinforced seals and fibre reinforced seals ............................................. 3
1.4 Design philosophy ................................................................................................................. 3
1.4.1 Single/single seals – size 10 mm aggregates and larger ........................................ 3
1.4.2 Single/single seals – size 7 mm and smaller aggregates ........................................ 5
1.4.3 Other seal types....................................................................................................... 5
1.5 Calculation of design traffic.................................................................................................... 5
1.5.1 General .................................................................................................................... 5
1.5.2 Single carriageway - two way traffic ........................................................................ 7
1.5.3 Dual carriageway - one way traffic........................................................................... 7
1.5.4 Large heavy vehicles (LHV)..................................................................................... 8
1.5.5 Short term traffic variations...................................................................................... 9
1.5.6 Access roads to quarries, mining locations, etc....................................................... 9
1.6 Average least dimension (ALD) ........................................................................................... 10
2 SINGLE/SINGLE SEALS – SIZE 10 MM AND LARGER AGGREGATES ........................ 12
2.1 Design binder application rate ............................................................................................. 12
2.1.1 Abbreviations ......................................................................................................... 12
2.1.2 General .................................................................................................................. 12
2.1.3 Basic Voids Factor (Vf) .......................................................................................... 14
2.1.4 Adjustments to the Basic Voids Factor .................................................................. 15
2.1.5 Design Voids Factor (VF) ...................................................................................... 16
2.1.6 Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb)........................................................................ 16
2.1.7 Allowances applied to basic binder application rate .............................................. 17
2.1.8 Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) ..................................................................... 23
2.2 Aggregate Spread Rate ....................................................................................................... 23
3 SINGLE/SINGLE SEALS – SIZE 7 MM AND SMALLER AGGREGATES ........................ 25
3.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 25
3.2 Binder application rate ......................................................................................................... 26
3.2.1 Basic binder application rate (Bb).......................................................................... 26
3.2.2 Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) ..................................................................... 26
3.3 Aggregate Spread Rate ....................................................................................................... 27
4 SINGLE/SINGLE SEAL WITH POLYMER MODIFIED BINDER ........................................ 28
4.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 28
4.2 Design for size 10 mm and larger aggregate....................................................................... 28
4.2.1 PMB binder application rate................................................................................... 28
4.2.2 SAMI treatments .................................................................................................... 31
4.2.3 Aggregate Spread Rate ......................................................................................... 31
4.3 Size 7 mm and smaller aggregates ..................................................................................... 32
4.3.1 Binder application rate ........................................................................................... 32
4.3.2 Aggregate Spread Rate ......................................................................................... 32

Austroads 2006

— iii —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

5 SINGLE/SINGLE SEALS WITH BITUMEN EMULSION BINDER...................................... 33


5.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 33
5.2 Single/single seals – aggregates size 10 mm and larger .................................................... 34
5.2.1 Binder application rate ........................................................................................... 34
5.2.2 Aggregate Spread Rate ......................................................................................... 35
5.3 Single/single seals – aggregates size 7 mm and smaller .................................................... 36
5.3.1 Binder application rates ......................................................................................... 36
5.3.2 Aggregate Spread Rate ......................................................................................... 36
6 DOUBLE/DOUBLE SEALS ................................................................................................ 37
6.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 37
6.2 Both applications with little or no trafficking between applications ...................................... 38
6.2.1 General .................................................................................................................. 38
6.2.2 First application...................................................................................................... 38
6.2.3 Second application ................................................................................................ 40
6.2.4 Varying surface texture of finished seal ................................................................. 41
6.3 Second application delayed................................................................................................. 41
6.3.1 General .................................................................................................................. 41
6.3.2 Aggregate Spread Rate ......................................................................................... 41
7 DOUBLE/DOUBLE SEAL WITH PMB................................................................................ 43
7.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 43
7.2 Both applications with little or no trafficking between applications ...................................... 43
7.2.1 First application using a PMB ................................................................................ 43
7.2.2 Second application using a PMB ........................................................................... 43
7.2.3 Second application using C170/320, multigrade ................................................... 44
7.3 Second application delayed................................................................................................. 44
8 DOUBLE/DOUBLE SEALS WITH BITUMEN EMULSION BINDER .................................. 45
9 GEOTEXTILE REINFORCED SEALS (GRS) ..................................................................... 46
9.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 46
9.1.1 Applications ........................................................................................................... 46
9.1.2 Geotextile fabric..................................................................................................... 46
9.1.3 Design procedure .................................................................................................. 46
9.2 Binder application rate ......................................................................................................... 47
9.2.1 Preliminary Design Binder Application Rate .......................................................... 47
9.2.2 Binder fabric retention allowance........................................................................... 47
9.2.3 Final Design Binder Application Rate .................................................................... 47
9.3 Aggregate Spread Rate ....................................................................................................... 47
10 FIBRE REINFORCED SEALS ............................................................................................ 48
10.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 48
10.2 Binder application rate ......................................................................................................... 48
10.3 Design Aggregate Spread Rate........................................................................................... 48

Austroads 2006

— iv —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

11 SELECTION OF TREATMENT TYPES .............................................................................. 49


11.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 49
11.2 Specialty seals/treatments................................................................................................... 49
11.2.1 Inverted seal .......................................................................................................... 49
11.2.2 Dry matting ............................................................................................................ 49
11.2.3 Cape seals............................................................................................................. 51
11.2.4 Variable spray rates............................................................................................... 51
11.2.5 Surface enrichment................................................................................................ 51
11.2.6 Rejuvenation.......................................................................................................... 52
11.3 Binders................................................................................................................................. 52
11.3.1 Conventional bitumen ............................................................................................ 52
11.3.2 Multigrade bitumen ................................................................................................ 53
11.3.3 Polymer modified binder (PMB) ............................................................................. 53
11.3.4 Bitumen emulsion .................................................................................................. 54
11.4 Geotextiles........................................................................................................................... 54
11.5 Aggregates .......................................................................................................................... 54
11.5.1 General .................................................................................................................. 54
11.5.2 Aggregate properties ............................................................................................. 54
11.5.3 Selection of aggregate size ................................................................................... 55
12 PRIMING AND PRIMERSEALING...................................................................................... 57
12.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 57
12.2 Prime ................................................................................................................................... 57
12.2.1 Function of a prime ................................................................................................ 57
12.2.2 Selection and design for priming ........................................................................... 57
12.2.3 When to prime ....................................................................................................... 58
12.2.4 Life expectancy of prime........................................................................................ 59
12.3 Primerseals.......................................................................................................................... 59
12.3.1 General .................................................................................................................. 59
12.3.2 Selection of primerbinder....................................................................................... 59
12.3.3 Primerbinder application rates ............................................................................... 60
12.3.4 Selection of aggregate size for primerseals........................................................... 61
12.3.5 Aggregate spread rates for primerseals ................................................................ 61
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 62
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................... 65

Austroads 2006

— v—
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

TABLES
Table 1.1: Estimation of Design Traffic from AADT for single carriageways ............................... 7
Table 1.2: Estimation of Design Traffic from AADT for dual carriageways.................................. 8
Table 2.1: Adjustment to Basic Voids Factor for aggregate shape (Va).................................... 15
Table 2.2: Adjustment (Vt) to Basic Voids Factor for traffic effects ........................................... 16
Table 2.3: Surface texture allowance for existing surfacing, As (L/m2)..................................... 19
Table 2.4: Design Aggregate Spread Rates for single/single seals (Class 170 bitumen,
Class 320 bitumen, multigrade)................................................................................ 24
Table 3.1: Basic Binder Application Rates for size 7 mm and smaller aggregates ................... 26
Table 3.2: Design Aggregate Spread Rates for single/single seals with 7 mm aggregate........ 27
Table 4.1: PMB factors (PF)...................................................................................................... 30
Table 4.2: Design Aggregate Spread Rates for single/single seals using PMB ........................ 32
Table 5.1: Emulsion factor......................................................................................................... 34
Table 5.2: Aggregate spread rates for single/single seals using bitumen emulsion.................. 35
Table 5.3: Aggregate spread rates for 7 mm single/single seals using bitumen emulsion........ 36
Table 6.1: Amendment of Design Voids Factor for the first application of a double/double seal38
Table 6.2: Aggregate Spread Rates for first application of double/double seal ........................ 39
Table 6.3: Aggregate Spread Rates for second application of a double/double seal................ 40
Table 9.1: Typical binder retention allowance for geotextile reinforced seals ........................... 47
Table 10.1: Typical binder allowances for glass fibre.................................................................. 48
Table 11.1: Guide to the selection of sprayed seals ................................................................... 50
Table 11.2: Generally recommended aggregate sizes for sprayed seal treatments ................... 56
Table 12.1: Guide to grade and rates of application of primer .................................................... 58
Table 12.2: Selection of type and grade of primerbinder ............................................................ 59
Table 12.3: Basic primerbinder application rates (total volume of binder) .................................. 60
Table 12.4: Embedment allowances for primer seals ................................................................. 61

Austroads 2006

— vi —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Single/single seal (single application of binder & single application of aggregate) .... 2
Figure 1.2: Double/double seal (double application of binder & double application of aggregate)3
Figure 1.3: Flow chart for design of binder application rates for a single/single seal ................... 4
Figure 1.4: Three dimensional shape of a sealing aggregate particle........................................ 10
Figure 2.1: Design process for single/single seals ..................................................................... 13
Figure 2.2: Basic Voids Factor (Vf) – traffic volume 0 to 500 vehicles/lane/day......................... 14
Figure 2.3: Basic Voids Factor (Vf) - traffic volume 500 to 10,000 vehicles/lane/day................. 14
Figure 2.4: Embedment allowance for initial treatments............................................................. 21
Figure 3.1: Design method for size 7 mm and smaller aggregate .............................................. 25
Figure 9.1: A single/single geotextile reinforced seal ................................................................. 46
Figure 11.1: Dry matting technique .............................................................................................. 50
Figure 11.2: Cape seal ................................................................................................................. 51
Figure 12.1: Prime ........................................................................................................................ 57
Figure 12.2: Primerseal ................................................................................................................ 59

Austroads 2006

— vii —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
A single application of binder and single application of aggregate, termed a single/single seal, is
the most common form of sprayed seal used in Australia. The design of rates of application of
binder and aggregate for single/single seals forms the basis of the design procedures for all other
sprayed seal types including modified binders or multiple applications of binder and/or aggregate.

The use of single/single seals on unbound granular base materials has been at the heart of the
ability of road agencies in Australia to provide all weather roads over great distances and remote
areas at relatively low cost. Increases in traffic volumes, particularly the increase in the size and
number of heavy vehicles used for the movement of freight in rural areas, has placed greater
demands on the performance of sprayed seals. The continued success of sprayed seal surface
treatments requires care in both the selection of surfacing type and the design process.

ARRB conducted a National Sprayed Sealing Workshop for Austroads in February 2005. This was
attended by representatives from state road authorities, local government and industry. Issues
raised and discussed at the workshop included:
ƒ The importance of selection of an appropriate seal type. This is necessary in order to have
confidence in the design of rates of application of binder and aggregate. Poor selection often
results in a lower than expected standard of performance of sprayed seals.
ƒ Concern with the quality of granular base materials and standards of surface preparation as
well as concern with the standards of preparation of existing pavements prior to resealing.
Embedment of aggregate into soft base materials or poorly prepared maintenance patches
has a major impact on subsequent flushing and loss of surface texture of sprayed seals and,
consequently, unsatisfactory levels of skid resistance.

This procedure for the design of sprayed seal surfacings is an update of the Practitioners guide to
the design of sprayed seals (Austroads 2002). It also supersedes the design guidelines provided
in Austroads Provisional sprayed seal design method (Austroads 2001).

This update is derived from a combination and consolidation of the two earlier guides, and
monitoring data obtained from subsequent validation trials. In addition, the opportunity has been
taken to address some of the issues raised at the national workshop, and other feedback, and the
document includes a brief guide to selection of sprayed treatments as well as guidance on
selection and design of primes and primerseals.

Monitoring of the validation trials has revealed that there are still several aspects of the seal design
method that need to be investigated and require collection of further data. These aspects include
matters such as:
ƒ potential embedment of aggregate – determination of a more accurate design allowance and
development of a simpler and quicker method of measurement
ƒ the effect of large heavy vehicles on the rolling/packing of aggregates in sprayed seals and
therefore adjustments that may be required to be applied in the design as well as defining
limits for the practical use of different sprayed seal types.

This document is, for convenience, divided into a number of separate sections for each type of
sprayed sealing treatment. Although the basic design philosophy applies to all treatments, they
are sufficiently different to warrant being separated. The design philosophy is based on the design
of a single/single seal, and this design is explained in detail.

Austroads 2006

— 1—
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

The design process is outlined for the other treatments (including reference to the appropriate
tables/figures contained in the single/single design section), plus additional information required in
order to complete the design of the particular treatment.

Designers should continue to apply their own judgement based on proven performance of sprayed
seals in the application being considered, and take into account local practices and procedures
that may apply to the design of application rates. It is requested that feedback be provided to
Austroads on any anomalies detected, or problems encountered, in using this sprayed seal design
method.

1.2 Selection of treatment type and materials


The importance of selecting the right surfacing for the conditions at the site is of primary
importance. It is also necessary to consider the practicality of a sprayed seal being able to provide
a reasonable level of service. Enhancements to sprayed seal performance can be made with
multigrade and polymer modified binders, double/double seals and specialty treatments. Some
situations may necessitate a more substantial treatment such as hot mix asphalt. There are no
quantitative measures available to define where a seal will perform and where it will quickly exhibit
distress, and designers must rely on experience and, if necessary, seek expert advice on the
practicalities of using a particular surface treatment.

Sprayed seals involve the use of bituminous binders, additives, modifiers, aggregate and other
materials according to the type of treatment, performance expectations and the prevailing
application conditions.

Section 11 of this guide provides a brief guide to selection of sprayed seal surfacing type and the
main materials used. Further guidance on selection of surfacing type and materials used in
sprayed seals is provided in the Austroads Sprayed Sealing Guide (Austroads 2004) and Guide to
selection of roads surfacings (Austroads 2003).

1.3 Application of seal design procedure to various seal types


1.3.1 Single/single seals
Single/single seals (see Figure 1.1) consist of one layer of binder covered with a single layer of
aggregate. It is the most common treatment used, particularly on very low to medium trafficked
rural roads.

Sealing binder
Uniform-sized aggregate

Primer penetration into base


Base

Figure 1.1: Single/single seal (single application of binder & single application of aggregate)

Small differences apply to the design of the rates of application of binder and aggregate spread
rates for single/single seals using aggregates 10 mm and larger, and those using aggregates 7 mm
and smaller. Separate sections are provided for the design for seals with:
ƒ 10 mm and larger aggregate
ƒ 7 mm and smaller aggregate.

Austroads 2006

— 2—
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Further separate sections are provided for variations to the single/single design procedure applied
to:
ƒ polymer modified binders
ƒ bitumen emulsion binders.

1.3.2 Double/double seals


Double/double seals (see Figure 1.2) consist of two applications of binder, each followed by an
application of aggregate. The design procedure for double/double seals is based on the procedure
for single/single seals with particular allowances and variations applied to binder and aggregate
application rates. Further allowances are made for polymer modified binders and bitumen
emulsions and these variations are also described in separate sections.

Second (smaller) aggregate


Second binder

First (larger) aggregate


First binder
Prime/primerseal
Base

Figure 1.2: Double/double seal (double application of binder & double application of aggregate)

1.3.3 Geotextile reinforced seals and fibre reinforced seals


Separate sections are provided for the design of geotextile reinforced seals and fibre reinforced
seals. Seal reinforcement is used to improve waterproofing and resistance to cracking of seals
placed over cracked or weak pavements. The design of reinforced seals is also based on the
design of single/single seals with appropriate allowances for additional binder retained by the
geotextile fabric or fibreglass reinforcing material.

1.4 Design philosophy


1.4.1 Single/single seals – size 10 mm aggregates and larger
The design philosophy adopted applies principally to the design of the most common type of
sprayed seal, the single/single seal using conventional bitumen as the binder. Assumptions used
in the design of single/single seals are:
ƒ aggregate is single-sized and of appropriate quality
ƒ average least dimension (ALD) of the aggregate is an important input into the design method
and must be representative of the aggregate being used
ƒ design traffic volume is expressed in vehicles/lane/day (v/l/d) and based on Average Annual
Daily Traffic (AADT)
ƒ aggregate is spread in a uniform layer of one stone thickness, with particles in continuous,
partly interlocked contact and the least dimension near vertical
ƒ there is no separate allowance to be made for whip-off in the design aggregate spread rate
ƒ aggregate spread rate determines the inter-aggregate void space in the seal layer, and
hence the amount of binder required. Failure to achieve, within practical limits, the design
aggregate spread rate will result in the design binder application rate being incorrect

Austroads 2006

— 3—
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

ƒ a single layer of aggregate particles settles with, typically, 40–60% voids after orientation and
packing of the aggregate by rolling and trafficking
ƒ binder rise should be a minimum of about 35–40% up the height of the aggregate particle
after initial rolling and trafficking, increasing to between 50–65% (i.e., 1/2–2/3) about two
years after construction
ƒ aggregate particles may penetrate (embed) into the base
ƒ reseals interlock with the existing surfacing
ƒ binder may be absorbed into the base and, sometimes, by the aggregate
ƒ the proportion of voids to be filled with binder may be varied to optimise requirements such
as surface texture, maximum seal life, and for specific applications such as non-traffic areas.
A minimum texture is generally required for skid resistance
ƒ preliminary treatments such as primes and primerseals have been correctly designed and
applied. If this has not been achieved, remedial work should be undertaken prior to, and well
in advance of, the commencement of sealing.

ƒ all application rates determined by this method are expressed in L/m2 of residual binder at
the standard reference temperature of 15°C.

Sprayed seals are a system, and sealing trials and subsequent work have shown that the design of
the rates of application of binder and aggregate spread rates are both of major importance in
achieving a satisfactory performance for the service conditions.

A general schematic of the process for determination of binder application rates for single/single
seals is shown in Figure 1.3.

Basic voids
Traffic volume factor

Aggregate shape
adjustment
Design voids
factor
Traffic adjustment

Basic binder
ALD application rate

Embedment
allowance

Existing surface
condition Design binder
allowance application rate

Absorption
allowance

Figure 1.3: Flow chart for design of binder application rates for a single/single seal

Austroads 2006

— 4—
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

1.4.2 Single/single seals – size 7 mm and smaller aggregates


The design method for seals with aggregate size 7 mm or smaller, where the aggregate layer may
vary between one and up to three aggregate particles in thickness, differs from the method for
seals with larger aggregate in that:
ƒ small sized sealing aggregates are not generally tested to determine the average least
dimension
ƒ small aggregate seals are often used as correction courses to provide an interim, even
surfacing, with uniform texture prior to the placement of a more durable seal treatment
ƒ small aggregate sizes are appropriate on low to medium traffic roads, particularly over
existing seals with large aggregates and high surface texture
ƒ small aggregate seals are used in situations that can tolerate, or only require, a reduced
surfacing life, such as where a temporary surfacing is required.

1.4.3 Other seal types


The design philosophy adopted applies principally to the design of the most common type of
sprayed seal, a single/single seal using conventional bitumen as the binder.
Various alternatives were considered for the design of other types of seals (e.g. double/double
seals and use of modified binders). Based on various sealing trials and observations of existing
treatments that have given satisfactory performance, the approach most appropriate is to base the
design of other seal types on the design procedure for single/single seals, with appropriate
amendments in the procedure, and additional information as required.
It is therefore strongly recommended that designers of sprayed surfacing treatments familiarise
themselves with the required information and tables/charts used in the design procedure for
single/single seals in Section 2, prior to designing other seal types.

1.5 Calculation of design traffic


1.5.1 General
Accurate traffic volumes are an essential requirement for the determination of appropriate rates of
application of binder. The traffic volume data should be expressed in terms of the total number of
vehicles, and the composition in terms of light and heavy vehicles (heavy vehicles are those over
3.5 tonne gross mass). Worked examples have been included in Appendix A.

Failure to determine the Design Traffic as accurately as possible is a common problem and this
may (and often does) result in an inappropriate seal design leading to reduced service life because
of early loss of aggregate or flushed seals with low texture.
It is important to determine the volume and composition of the design traffic as close as possible to
the work site. If traffic volumes provided are considered to be not representative, a traffic count
should be determined for the site using automatic or manual traffic counts.
When the total count is considered to be representative, but the traffic distribution is uncertain, a
site investigation should be conducted to provide a reliable estimate of traffic distribution for each
lane. For example, this may be the case where heavy traffic does not travel predominantly in the
left hand lane as commonly accepted/observed due to interference from turning traffic, stop/start
traffic, parking lanes etc., such as on roads through urban areas, rural towns, tourist areas, etc.

Austroads 2006

— 5—
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Traffic data is generally provided as the total traffic volume on the road and not for individual lanes,
shoulders etc. Traffic volume may be given as:
ƒ Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT), which is the most common method used by state road
authorities
ƒ 12 hour or 24 hour count at a particular date or time. State road authorities can generally
provide factors to convert the 12 and 24 hour counts to AADT. For example, on medium to
low traffic roads, a factor of the order of 1.25 to 1.30 is typically used to convert 12 hour
counts to AADT. For a freeway or other very busy urban road, with a large percentage of
traffic travelling at night, the factor is generally 1.45 to 1.50, and can be as high as 2.0 in
some instances
ƒ vehicles per lane per day (v/l/d), generally on multiple lane urban and rural roads where the
traffic count is taken for individual lanes.

Design Traffic, when determined from AADT, must take into account the following:

ƒ the number of carriageways (generally single or dual)


ƒ the direction of traffic (one-way or two-way)
ƒ number of lanes
ƒ percentage of the total traffic travelling in each lane.

Design Traffic should be the best estimate of traffic using each lane. On multi-lane roads, the
proportion of heavy vehicles should be calculated separately for each lane, based on the total mix
of light and heavy vehicles estimated to use each lane. Adopting, for each lane, an overall heavy
vehicle percentage given as part of AADT (e.g. 28%) will often result in an incorrect Design Traffic
and/or Traffic Adjustment being applied.

A separate design is required for each lane of traffic having either a different traffic volume (v/l/d)
and/or different proportion of heavy vehicles.

It is important to use a traffic count taken as close as possible to the location of the proposed
sealing work. This particularly applies to rural roads connecting townships where the traffic counts
are often taken at or near the town limits where the traffic volume is higher than elsewhere on the
road.

It is usually assumed that traffic in each direction is equal to about half the AADT for the facility,
unless it is evident that distribution of traffic, in both volume and proportion of heavy vehicles, is not
uniform.

In some locations, the proportion of heavy vehicles in each lane may not be uniform or may not be
equal in both directions because of restrictions, specified routes, specified lanes such as bus
lanes, overtaking/climbing lanes, or roads with a third lane in the centre used as passing lanes by
traffic in both directions.

Austroads 2006

— 6—
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

For the purpose of this design method, where general references are made to typical traffic
volumes, the following descriptions apply:

very low: ≤ 200 v/l/d

low: 201–750 v/l/d

medium: 751–2000 v/l/d

high: >2000 v/l/d

1.5.2 Single carriageway – two way traffic


A single carriageway is the most common sealed road pavement in rural areas and traffic needs
only to be apportioned to each lane. The width of sealed pavement influences the traffic pattern.
Assuming that traffic is equal in both directions, Table 1.1 provides a guide to estimating the
Design Traffic.

Table 1.1: Estimation of Design Traffic from AADT for single carriageways

Estimated Design Traffic


Width of seal (m) Comment
(v/l/d)
3.7 - 5.6 AADT Seal width is considered too narrow for 2 lanes
Traffic is considered to predominantly travel in distinct lanes on seals
6.2 - 7.4 ½ × AADT
of this width, especially if the centre line and/or lanes are line marked
Sealed shoulders, parking lanes, adopt < 50 If not line marked, some of the traffic may wander onto the shoulder
identified by edge line marking to and < 50 v/l/d may not be appropriate. If in doubt, a traffic count
be separate from the traffic lanes should be conducted.
Overtaking lanes (in one direction)
left hand lane (3.7m) 60–80% of ½ × AADT Determine % of HV for each lane If in doubt, arrange a traffic count
as a proportion of the total traffic for each lane
right hand lane (3.7 m) 20–40% of ½ × AADT volume in that lane.
Single lane in opposite direction ½ × AADT %HV same as in AADT
On and off ramps on freeways or Traffic volumes (AADT) before and past the ramp, may provide a good indication of AADT on ramp.
urban road systems Otherwise, arrange a traffic count. Traffic volume on the road connected to the ramp may also provide
additional useful information to determine AADT on the ramp.
Service roads to major roads For one-way traffic, the Design AADT refers to traffic using the service road only. If not available
Traffic is equal to the AADT arrange a traffic count..
For two way traffic use ½ AADT

1.5.3 Dual carriageway – one way traffic


AADT is usually defined as the total traffic carried by both carriageways, but this should be
confirmed. Where it is the total traffic for both carriageways, the first step is to determine the traffic
on each carriageway, and this is generally assumed to be ½ AADT.

For heavily trafficked roads, with more than two lanes in each direction, an actual traffic count may
be available for each lane and this should be the traffic volume used in the design.

For rural freeways and highways, or duplicated roads into rural townships (classed as urban type
location) with medium to high traffic volumes, Table 1.2 provides a guide to estimating the Design
Traffic from AADT.

Austroads 2006

— 7—
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

The traffic volumes used throughout the seal design procedures are based on the general mix of
light and heavy vehicles (HV), with the heavy vehicle proportion assumed to be between 5 and
10% of the total. If heavy vehicles make up more than 10% of the total, the actual percentage
should be determined. This is particularly important where the road may be an access to an
industrial estate, a quarry access road, a road connecting major industrial centres, etc. It is also
important to note in these instances whether the heavy vehicles are evenly loaded/unloaded in
both directions, or predominantly travel loaded/empty in one direction only. Generally the heavy
vehicles use the left hand lanes on multi-lane carriageways, and the climbing/passing lane
conditions provided that the additional lane is of sufficient length to allow the heavy vehicles to
change lanes without undue interference.

Table 1.2: Estimation of Design Traffic from AADT for dual carriageways

Lane Estimated Design Traffic


Comments
(assumed 3.7m wide) (v/l/d)
½ AADT divided by the number of
lanes in the carriageway These roads are usually in urban areas or linking major centres.
Multi lane, heavily trafficked OR Traffic volume is often > 2000 v/l/d in all lanes but the % heavy
vehicles may vary between lanes.
½ AADT x % traffic in each lane
2 lane carriageway
left hand (outer) lane 60 to 80% of ½ AADT 60% for urban / 80% for rural Each carriageway = ½ AADT
right hand (inner) lane 40 to 20% of ½ AADT 40% for urban / 20% for rural
Sealed shoulders, Parking lanes On some busy roads, trucks may tend to travel partially on the
identified by edge line marking to adopt < 50 shoulder, and this must be taken into account. A traffic count
be separate from the traffic lanes should be conducted, and/or traffic pattern determined.
Merged traffic is ½ AADT, but design of binder application rates
Where two lanes merge into one
½ AADT and layout of sprayer runs within the merge area require
(at end of a duplicated section)
particular care.
If actual traffic counts are not available for ramps, traffic on the
Off and on ramps % of ½ x AADT side road, before and past the ramp, may provide an indication of
the traffic volume using the ramp.

1.5.4 Large heavy vehicles (LHV)


Since the initial development of the Austroads (2001) seal design method there has been a
national increase in the number of large heavy vehicles (LHV), particularly in rural areas of NSW,
QLD and WA. Based on data collected in rural areas, the traffic adjustment for heavy vehicles has
been amended and updated to reflect this change.

An investigation is currently being conducted into the effect of these large heavy vehicles,
compared to a standard two axle truck with a combined load of around 15 tonne. As an interim
measure for this seal design method, it has been agreed to determine a design traffic volume and
proportion of equivalent heavy vehicles based on the following:

Equivalent Heavy Vehicles (EHV)% = HV% + LHV% × 3

where:
HV and LHV are as obtained from annual traffic count or on-site counts.

LHV includes B-Doubles and other heavy truck/trailer combinations with seven or more axles
(Austroads vehicle class 10 and above - see Appendix B).

Austroads 2006

— 8—
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

The value of EHV calculated by this procedure is used solely for the determination of adjustments
to the basic voids factor for the effects of traffic (Table 2.2) and does not alter the design traffic
volume.

Designers must apply caution when designing binder application rates for seals used by these
large heavy vehicles. They should monitor and compare their design against actual seal
performance to provide additional information in order to be able to make appropriate additional
amendments for traffic adjustments in future designs. Refer Appendix A for some worked
examples on converting LHV to EHV.

1.5.5 Short term traffic variations

Short term traffic variations may occur as a result of a range of factors including:
ƒ seasonal variation on roads in tourist areas
ƒ school holidays
ƒ grain harvest
ƒ specific events (e.g. local show days, race days, etc.)
ƒ staging of construction or rehabilitation work.

Designers need to be aware of the impact of undertaking sprayed seal work at a time when the
traffic conditions vary from that applicable to normal use. Where possible, the impact of short term
variation should be minimised by avoiding undertaking work during, or shortly before, abnormal
events. Generally, the traffic volume used in seal design should be that estimated to apply at the
time, or within the first few months, of sealing. The influence of anticipated weather conditions
coinciding with the expected higher traffic volumes should also be considered in determining
design application rates.

It is suggested a design is carried out for both traffic conditions (normal and short term), and final
design rates of application determined taking into account risk factors such as potential loss of
aggregate (low binder rates) and potential flushing (high binder rates).

1.5.6 Access roads to quarries, mining locations, etc.


Traffic in these locations often consists predominantly of heavy vehicles and large heavy vehicles
(HV and LHV) with only a few light vehicles and cars. In such circumstances, the determination of
an appropriate traffic volume for selection of the Basic Voids Factor at the start of the design
process, can be difficult.

Adjustments to binder application design rates for proportions of heavy vehicles greater than 15%
and up to 45% of total traffic are provided in Part 2.1.4 and Table 2.2 of the design procedure for
single/single seals. Where the proportion of heavy vehicles is greater than 45% of the total traffic,
the following procedure may be used for selection of an alternative Basic Voids Factor.

The procedure is based on the assumption that the Basic Voids Factors shown in Figure 2.2 and
Figure 2.3 of Section 2.1.3 have been developed around a mixture of light and heavy vehicles
where the proportion of heavy vehicles is typically around 10% of the total. Multiplying the number
of heavy vehicles by 10 provides a nominal design traffic volume for selection of an alternative
Basic Voids Factor.

Austroads 2006

— 9—
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

The procedure is as follows:


1. determine Equivalent Number of Heavy Vehicles (HV + 3.0 × LHV)
2. multiply Equivalent Number of Heavy Vehicles x 10 + actual number of light vehicles, to
determine a nominal design traffic volume
3. select a Basic Voids Factor based on this nominal traffic volume.

When using this procedure, the voids factor reductions for the proportion of heavy vehicles in
normal, flat conditions (Table 2.2) do not apply, but additional reductions in voids factor of up to
0.02 L/m2/mm should still be made for channelised or slow moving vehicles.

1.6 Average least dimension (ALD)


The concept of an aggregate particle tending to lie with its least dimension vertical is central to the
volumetric design of a sprayed seal.

The least dimension is defined as the smallest dimension of a particle when placed on a horizontal
surface (see Figure 1.4). The shape is most stable when lying with its least dimension (A) vertical.
If placed with the width (B) or the depth (C) of the shape vertical, it would require less energy to
knock the aggregate particle over so that the least dimension (A) was again vertical, particularly if
the particle is other than cubic. Thus in a seal, the final orientation of most particles is such that
the least dimension is near vertical, providing that there is sufficient room for the particles to re-
align.

A
B

Figure 1.4: Three dimensional shape of a sealing aggregate particle

The least dimension may be only marginally smaller than the other two dimensions, as in the case
of almost cubical aggregates, or can be much less in the case of flaky aggregates.

ALD can be determined by:


ƒ direct measurement (AS1141.20.1 for 10 mm or larger nominal size or AS1141.20.2 for
5 mm and 7 mm nominal sizes)
ƒ AS1141.20.3 involving calculating (or using a nomograph) the ALD from the grading, median
size, and flakiness index.

ALD determined by either method can be used in this design method.

Austroads 2006

— 10 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

ALD is the critical parameter in the Austroads sprayed seal design procedures. It is used to
calculate both the aggregate spread rate and the design binder application rate. The design
procedures assume that, for 10 mm and larger, only a single layer of aggregate particles adheres
to the binder film, but for 7 mm and smaller aggregates, the aggregate layer can often be two (or
more) aggregate particles in thickness.
Particles rearrange during construction rolling into a more stable position with the least dimension
tending towards vertical. This can only happen if there is sufficient space (provided by the
aggregate spread rate) for the aggregate particles to move.

At the design spread rate, with an interlocked mosaic, particles provide mutual support and can
thus provide greater resistance to the shearing and plucking action of traffic. If the spread rate is
too heavy, the contact to contact mosaic may form in a more random orientation. The void volume
in this random orientation is considerably higher (up to 25% more) than is the case where a large
percentage of the particles lie with the least dimension vertical. If the aggregate spread rate is too
light, the particles will not be able to form a fully interlocked mosaic resulting in a lower binder rise
and possible reduced seal life.

Aggregate particles in a sprayed seal continue to reorientate under traffic. The rate of reorientation
and amount of change in void volume is dependent on the traffic volume and, in particular, the
number of heavy vehicles. This reorientation occurs mainly during the first one or two years of
service. High traffic volumes result in the least dimension of nearly all particles being near vertical
and interlocking with each other. The extent of reorientation is less at low traffic volumes resulting
in greater random orientation of aggregate particles and greater void volume.

For the binder application rate to fill the voids in the aggregate mosaic to a depth of about two
thirds up the aggregate, it is essential that the aggregate is spread at the design rate.

The importance of using a representative ALD cannot be overemphasised. Poor sampling


techniques and/or inaccurate testing procedures to determine ALD will result in incorrect aggregate
design spread rates and inaccurate design binder application rates.

It is poor practice to use assigned or nominal values of ALD for a particular nominal size of
aggregate. ALD of individual aggregate samples can vary by up to 17% within normally specified
ranges of grading and flakiness index, resulting in an equivalent variation in the design rates of
basic binder application and aggregate spread rate. It is thus important to monitor the ALD of
aggregate stockpiles regularly within a sufficiently comprehensive sampling scheme to
progressively evaluate whether seal design changes are warranted.

Austroads 2006

— 11 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

2 SINGLE/SINGLE SEALS – SIZE 10 MM AND LARGER


AGGREGATES
2.1 Design binder application rate
2.1.1 Abbreviations
The following terms and abbreviations are used in the procedures for the design of the binder
application rate:
Vf = Basic Voids Factor
Va = Voids factor adjustment applied to aggregate shape
Vt = Voids factor adjustment applied to traffic effects
VF = Design Voids Factor
Bb = Basic Binder Application Rate (before application of allowances)
PF = Polymer modified binder factor (applied to Basic Binder Application Rate)
Bbm = Modified Basic Binder Application Rate (for PMB)
EF = Emulsion factor (applied to Basic Binder Application Rate)
As = Allowance for surface texture
Ae = Allowance for embedment
Aba = Allowance for binder absorption
Bd = Design Binder Application Rate (after application of allowances).

2.1.2 General
The design objective is for the residual binder to be about 50% to 65% of the height of the
aggregate layer two years after construction. The quantity of binder required will depend on the
size, shape and orientation of the aggregate particles, embedment of aggregate into the base,
texture of surface onto which the seal is being applied, and absorption of binder into either the
pavement or aggregate.

All application rates determined by this method are expressed in L/m2 of residual binder at the
standard reference temperature of 15°C.

Orientation and aggregate penetration into the binder are mainly functions of construction rolling,
traffic compaction and substrate properties. It is essential that adequate, timely rolling is carried
out, particularly at very low traffic volumes (<200 v/l/d) to achieve initial aggregate interlock,
orientation and adhesion with, and penetration into, the binder film.

The binder quantity required is also influenced by the shape of the aggregate and the volume and
nature of the traffic, in particular, heavy vehicles. Depending on the aggregate properties and
traffic conditions, adjustments may be required to be applied to the Basic Voids Factor, Vf, to
determine an appropriate Design Voids Factor, VF.

The basic design is based on:


ƒ average shaped, one sized aggregates, i.e. with a flakiness of about 15% to 25%. More
cubical or rounded aggregate particle shapes require a higher quantity of binder to aid
retention compared to elongated flaky particles.

Austroads 2006

— 12 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

ƒ a traffic mix with 10%, or less, heavy vehicles. If the actual traffic mix includes a higher
percentage of heavy and large heavy vehicles, a reduction in the required binder quantity will
most likely be necessary due to additional reorientation and aggregate embedment. A
further reduction in the required binder quantity may be necessary in situations where the
traffic is channelised, or on climbing grades.

Allowances for existing surface texture conditions, aggregate and pavement absorption, and for
hardness of the existing surface of the base (as determined by the ball penetration test, Austroads,
2003) are added to or subtracted from the basic binder application rate.

Further modifications are made to basic binder application rates for polymer modified binders and
bitumen emulsions as described in Sections 4 and 5.

A flow chart for determination of aggregate design spread rates and design binder application rates
for single/single sprayed seals is shown in Figure 2.1.

Seal intentions
ƒ road environment
Basic Voids Factor, Vf
ƒ asset management criteria (L/m2 /mm) Traffic volume (v/l/d)
ƒ treatment type

Aggregate, Va
shape and size

Void factor Traffic effects, Vt


adjustments ƒ composition
2
(L/m /mm) ƒ untrafficked areas
ƒ short term effects
ƒ climbing lanes
ƒ curvature Design aggregate spread
ƒ intersections Design Voids Factor, VF rate
ƒ narrow lanes (L/m2 /mm)

Basic binder application


Aggregate ALD
rate, Bb (L/m2) = VF x ALD

Surface texture, As

Design binder
Allowances Binder absorption, Aba application rate,
(L/m2 ) 2
Bd (L/m )

Embedment, Ae

Figure 2.1: Design process for single/single seals

Austroads 2006

— 13 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

2.1.3 Basic Voids Factor (Vf)


The Basic Voids Factor, Vf (L/m2/mm), is related to traffic level and is determined from Figure 2.2
or Figure 2.3 (depending on traffic volume) and should be read to the nearest 0.01 L/m2/mm.

The central target line is used to determine the Basic Voids Factor in all cases.
The volume and composition of traffic has a direct effect on the performance of a sprayed seal. It
is critical that the traffic volume used in the design is representative of the actual traffic on the area
being considered.
If traffic is given in AADT, this must be separated into vehicles/lane/day for each lane/section of the
road being considered (see Section 1.5).

Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3 also contain upper and lower limits that represent indicative confidence
limits for the Design Voids Factor, VF, after applying aggregate and traffic adjustments to the Basic
Voids Factor, Vf.

0.30
Upper limit
Target
Basic voids Factor, Vf (L/m /mm)

Lower limit
2

0.25

0.20

0.15
0 100 200 300 400 500

Traffic volume (v/l/d)

Figure 2.2: Basic Voids Factor (Vf) – traffic volume 0 to 500 vehicles/lane/day

0.20
Upper limit
Target
Basic Voids Factor, Vf (L/m /mm)

Lower limit
2

0.15

0.10

0.05
500 2500 4500 6500 8500

Traffic volume (v/l/d)

Figure 2.3: Basic Voids Factor (Vf) - traffic volume 500 to 10,000 vehicles/lane/day

Austroads 2006

— 14 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

The upper limit indicates the Design Voids Factor beyond which the resultant binder level may be
too high and texture depth too low, with an increased potential risk of flushing/bleeding.
The lower limit indicates the Design Voids Factor beyond which the resultant binder level may be
too low and texture depth too high, with an increased potential of early loss of aggregate.
Designers must exercise caution if adopting Design Voids Factors outside these limits.

2.1.4 Adjustments to the Basic Voids Factor


The Design Voids Factor, VF (L/m2/mm), is determined by adjusting the Basic Voids Factor (Vf) to
account for abnormal aggregate shape (Va) and effect of traffic (Vt). These factors may be
positive or negative and are cumulative.
(a) Adjustment for aggregate shape (Va)
An adjustment, Va, is made to the Basic Voids Factor (Vf) to account for variation in aggregate
shape in accordance with Table 2.1.

Table 2.1: Adjustment to Basic Voids Factor for aggregate shape (Va)

Flakiness index Shape adjustment Va


Aggregate type Aggregate shape
(%) (L/m2/mm)
Very flaky > 35 Considered too flaky and not
recommended for sealing
Flaky 26 to 35 0 to - 0.01
Crushed or partly crushed
Angular 15 to 25 Nil
Cubic < 15 + 0.01
Rounded n.a 0 to + 0.10
Not crushed Rounded n.a + 0.01

(b) Adjustment for traffic effects (Vt)


The Basic Voids Factors, Vf, described in section 2.1.3, have been developed for an average mix
of light and heavy vehicles in a free traffic flow situation. Where this assumption is not correct, an
adjustment, Vt, needs to be made to compensate for variations in the traffic composition, in
particular for non-trafficked areas, overtaking lanes with few heavy vehicles or for large proportions
of heavy vehicles, channelisation or concentration of traffic, and slow moving heavy vehicles in
climbing lanes or stop/start conditions (refer Table 2.2).

Traffic normally wanders within traffic lanes resulting in wheelpath travel up to 1.2 m wide. Where
traffic is constrained (channelled) from wandering such as on single lane bridges, tight radius
curves or narrow lane widths, an appropriate adjustment to the Basic Voids Factor (Vf) must be
made to reduce the risk of the seal bleeding. For example, a narrow single lane bridge may
increase the effective traffic loading in the wheel path by as much as threefold when the cumulative
effects of combining lane volumes and constraining traffic to a confined path are taken into
account.

Possible short increases in traffic volumes such as during grain harvest, local field days, etc. may
occur early in the life of the seal. Designers should take this into account and may need to make
some adjustment to the traffic volumes and Design Voids Factor adopted in the design procedure.

Where a short term traffic increase is only for a few days, it is preferable to defer the sealing work,
for example to avoid a local annual field day or race meeting.

Austroads 2006

— 15 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Seasonal variation, particularly an increase in large heavy vehicles such as large truck and trailer
combinations, B-doubles or larger combinations during hot summer periods, can affect the
performance of a seal for up to two summers after construction. This applies mostly to annual
crops harvested during the hotter weather conditions, stock transport etc.
Consideration should be given to changing the type of treatment and/or binder if the increase is
relatively large compared to the Average Annual Daily Traffic.
If unsure, design the rates of application for the normal and worst traffic cases before deciding on
deferral of work, selection of an alternative treatment or selection of a final design.

Table 2.2: Adjustment (Vt) to Basic Voids Factor for traffic effects

Adjustment to Basic Voids Factor (L/m2/mm)


Traffic Flat or downhill Slow moving – climbing lanes
Normal Channelised* Normal Channelised*
On overtaking lanes of multi-lane rural roads
+0.01 0.00 n.a. n.a.
where traffic is mainly cars with ≤10% of HV
Non-trafficked areas such as shoulders, medians,
+0.02 n.a. n.a. n.a.
parking areas
0 to 15% Equivalent Heavy Vehicles (EHV) Nil -0.01 -0.01 -0.02
16 to 25% Equivalent Heavy Vehicles (EHV) -0.01 -0.02 -0.02 -0.03
26 to 45% Equivalent Heavy Vehicles (EHV) - 0.02 - 0.03 - 0.03 - 0.04**
> 45% Equivalent Heavy Vehicles (EHV) - 0.03 - 0.04** - 0.04** - 0.05**
N/A Not applicable
EHV Equivalent Heavy Vehicles, includes both Heavy Vehicles and Large Heavy Vehicles × 3 (See Section 1.5.4).
* Channelisation - a system of controlling traffic by the introduction of an island or islands, or markings on a carriageway to direct traffic into predetermined
paths, usually at an intersection or junction. This also applies to approaches to bridges and narrow culverts.
** See ‘Key point’ below.

If adjustments for aggregate shape and traffic effects result in a reduction in Basic Voids Factor of
0.4 L/m2/mm or more, special consideration should be given to the suitability of the treatment and
possible selection of alternative treatments. Note that the recommended MINIMUM Design Voids
Factor is 0.10 L/m2/mm in all cases.

2.1.5 Design Voids Factor (VF)


The Design Voids Factor is now calculated as shown below.

VF = Vf+ Va + Vt

Selection of an alternative type of treatment should be considered where the Design Voids Factor
is at, or close to, the minimum recommended value of 0.10 L/m2/mm. For example, use of a
polymer modified binder to aid aggregate retention or a double/double seal to provide a more
robust treatment.

2.1.6 Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb)


The procedure for the determination of the Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb (L/m2), for the
proposed seal is as follows (see also Figure 1.4):
ƒ determine the Design Voids Factor, VF as described above.

Austroads 2006

— 16 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

ƒ determine the Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb, to the nearest 0.01 L/m2 by multiplying the
Design Voids Factor (VF) by the ALD, as shown in the following equation:

Bb = VF x ALD (L/m²)

For example: VF = 0.16 L/m2/mm and ALD = 5.8 mm


Bb = 0.16 x 5.8 = 0.928 = 0.93 L/m².

If multigrade bitumen is used for high stress seals or in place of conventional bitumens in high
temperature areas, a multiplication factor may be applicable (see Table 4.1). Research is being
conducted to determine the applicability of multigrade bitumen factors.

2.1.7 Allowances applied to basic binder application rate


The following allowances need to be considered to complete the design. Allowances are
determined to the nearest 0.1 L/m2 and are cumulative. They must be added to or subtracted from
the Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb (L/m²), to determine the Design Binder Application Rate, Bd
(L/m2).

Allowances in L/m2 are made for the following:


ƒ surface texture of existing surface, as shown in Table 2.3
ƒ potential aggregate embedment into the existing surface
ƒ potential binder absorption into the existing pavement
ƒ potential binder absorption into the sealing aggregate.

(a) Surface texture allowance (As)


Measurement of surface texture
Surface texture allowance is based on measurement of the existing surface texture using the ‘sand
patch’ method – Austroads Test Method AG:PT/T250.
Texture measurements should be taken at least every 400 to 500 m or where there is a visual
change in texture, such as a change to a seal of different aggregate size.
It is recommended the texture depth be measured both in the wheel paths and between/outside
wheel paths. This will assist in deciding if separate design rates of binder need to be considered
across the lane. If the difference in texture allowance is 0.3 L/m² or greater, one of the following
alternatives may assist in achieving optimal performance across the full width of the seal.
ƒ Regulate the surface with a 5 mm or 7 mm seal.
ƒ Pre-spray the coarse textured areas using the techniques described in Pavement Work Tip
No 36.
Use a bitumen sprayer with a variable rate spray bar.

Surface texture allowance for existing seals


Table 2.3 provides a guide to binder application rate allowances for different sizes of aggregate for
a seal over various existing seal sizes and textures. The allowances are based on an assumption
of satisfactory interlock between aggregates. Aggregates that have unusual (atypical) shape or
size may require minor variations from the tabulated values.

Austroads 2006

— 17 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Texture allowance for asphalt


For an asphalt surface, the sand patch test is usually not appropriate. Based on experience, the
texture allowance for hardened and aged asphalt surfaces is typically between +0.0 to +0.3 L/m2.
Embedment into freshly placed asphalt or asphalt that is slick with fatty patches, may also need to
be considered (see sub section (c), below).

Texture allowance for slurry surfacing


For slurry surfacing, the sand patch test is, again, usually not appropriate. Similar to asphalt, a
typical allowance is between +0.0 to +0.3 L/m2.

Texture allowance for concrete surfaces


The concrete must be primed and, in order to get a satisfactory seal over a well-primed concrete
surface, the allowance should be +0.2 to +0.4 L/m2, even on smooth surfaces, to compensate for
the lack of aggregate embedment and interlock into the texture of the concrete surface. For broom
dragged or tyned surfaces, the allowance can be as high as +0.4 to +0.5 L/m2.

Some aggregate sizes will not be readily compatible with existing seal sizes and texture depths.
For example: small-sized reseals will generally not give good results over flushed large-sized
seals, and 10 mm reseals may sometimes not interlock well with existing hungry coarse textured
16, 14 and 10 mm seals.
Allowances to be applied for existing surface texture may be substantial, and require a degree of
judgement by the designer.
Consideration should be given to changing the size of aggregate and/or the treatment if surface
texture allowances required become excessive, say exceeding 0.5 L/m².
On surfaces with low texture depths (e.g. <0.5 mm), it may not be possible to measure the texture
adequately, and a visual assessment may be necessary. This may particularly apply to asphalt,
slurry, concrete, timber and primed surfaces (see the following notes).

Austroads 2006

— 18 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Table 2.3: Surface texture allowance for existing surfacing, As (L/m2)

Aggregate size of Measured texture Surface texture Aggregate size of Measured texture Surface texture allowance
proposed seal depth (mm) allowance (L/m2) proposed seal depth (mm) (L/m2)
Existing: 14, 16 or 20 mm seal Existing: 5 or 7 mm seal
0 to 0.3 Note 1 0 to 0.3 Note 1
0.4 to 0.6 Note 2 0.4 to 0.9 +0.1
0.7 to 0.9 +0.1 1.0 to 1.5 +0.2
5 or 7 mm
5 or 7 mm 1.0 to 1.3 +0.2 1.6 to 2.2 +0.3
1.4 to 1.9 +0.3 2.3 to 3.2 +0.4
2.0 to 2.9 +0.4 >3.2 +0.5
>2.9 +0.5 0 to 0.3 Note 1
0 to 0.3 -0.1 0.4 to 0.7 +0.1
0.4 to 0.5 0 10 mm 0.8 to 1.1 +0.2
0.6 to 0.7 +0.1 1.2 to 1.8 +0.3
10 mm 0.8 to 0.9 +0.2 >1.8 Note 3
1.0 to 1.3 +0.3 0 to 0.2 Note 1
1.4 to 1.8 +0.4 0.3 to 0.6 +0.1
>1.8 Note 3 0.7 to 0.9 +0.2
14 mm
0 to 0.3 -0.1 1.0 to 1.4 +0.3
0.4 to 0.5 0 1.5 to 2.0 +0.4
0.5 to 0.6 +0.1 >2.0 +0.5
0.6 to 0.7 +0.2 Existing: asphalt/slurry surfacing
14 mm
0.8 to 0.9 +0.3 0 to 0.1 0
1.0 to 1.3 +0.4 0.2 to 0.4 +0.1
1.4 to 1.8 +0.5 All 0.5 to 0.8 +0.2
>1.8 Note 3 0.9 to 1.4 +0.3
Existing: 10 mm seal >1.4 +0.4
0 to 0.3 Note 1
0.4 to 0.9 +0.1
1.0 to 1.4 +0.2
5 or 7 mm
1.5 to 2.0 +0.3
2.1 to 2.7 +0.4 Notes:
>2.7 +0.5 1. Embedment considerations dominant
0 to 0.3 Note 1
0.4 to 0.7 +0.1 2. Specialised treatments necessary
10 mm 0.8 to 1.1 +0.2 3. This treatment might not be advisable depending on the shape and
1.2 to 1.7 +0.3 interlock of aggregates so alternative treatments (surface enrichment,
>1.7 Note 3 small size seal or others) should be considered
0 to 0.2 Note 1
0.3 to 0.6 +0.1 4. For application of aggregate sizes greater than 14 mm, adopt
allowances applicable to 14 mm aggregate.
0.7 to 0.9 +0.2
14 mm
1.0 to 1.2 +0.3
1.3 to 1.7 +0.4
>1.7 Note 3

Texture allowance for timber surfaces


Timber may be untreated, primed, coated or impregnated. Similar to concrete, and as a guide, an
allowance of between +0.2 to +0.4 L/m2 may be appropriate.

Texture allowance for primes or primerseals


In addition to texture allowance, the ball penetration test (see embedment allowance (c)) should be
carried out to determine if an allowance for embedment is also required, particularly on areas
trafficked by heavy and large heavy vehicles:

Austroads 2006

— 19 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

ƒ primerseals - a texture allowance is determined similar to existing sealed surfaces


ƒ primes – some pavement materials present a coarse textured surface and it may be possible
to measure surface texture. If not, and based on experience, the texture allowance is
generally in the order of +0.0 to +0.3 L/m2.

Texture allowance for regulation or patched areas


Shape correction of pavements and maintenance patching prior to sealing is often carried out
using asphalt or premix. Allowance may need to be made for patches that are much smoother in
texture than the surrounding seal, particularly if the affected area is substantial.

In addition, if the regulation/patching has not had time to cure, there is an increased risk of
aggregate embedment, with resulting flushing of the seal over those areas. The
regulation/patching should be allowed to cure to minimise the risk of flushing/bleeding.
Recommended minimum curing times are three months in hot weather and six months in cooler
weather (see also Austroads & AAPA Pavement Work Tip No. 9).

(b) Embedment allowance (Ae)


General
Embedment allowance compensates for loss of voids in the seal under traffic due to the aggregate
being forced into the surface of the substrate. This depth of embedment will depend on the volume
and mass of traffic and the condition (hardness) of the surface being sealed.

Embedment problems can generally be recognised by the fact that the wheel paths will fill up with
binder in a very short time period (weeks), while the remainder of the seal remains coarser
textured. Long term, very slow reduction in texture is a separate issue and not part of this step in
the design process.

Initial treatments
Embedment of aggregate may occur in initial treatments applied over:
ƒ a soft base
ƒ primed or primersealed surfaces.

Typical embedment allowances (in L/m2) are shown in. Pavement surface hardness should be
determined in accordance with the Ball penetration test, Austroads Test Method AG:PT/T251.

Austroads 2006

— 20 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

4
See note

Ball penetration (mm)


3

2
-0.1 L/m2
1
Nil
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Traffic volume (vehicles/lane/day)

Figure 2.4: Embedment allowance for initial treatments

It is recommended that following alternatives be considered where the ball embedment value
exceeds 3 mm:
(a) If due to moisture, defer sealing to allow the surface to harden as it dries back. The surface
should be retested once it has dried sufficiently.
(b) Apply a small aggregate seal as the first seal to act as an armour-coat and minimise the
amount of embedment of the larger aggregate applied at a later date, say after about 12
months.

To minimise potential risk of flushing/bleeding it is recommended that:


(c) Primerseals with cutback bitumen primerbinder should not be sealed for at least 12 months
after placement. If a primerseal must be sealed sooner, it should not be covered within six
months, including at least three months of HOT weather. A shorter curing period applies to
primerseals using bitumen emulsion.
(d) A surface primed with cutback bitumen should be allowed to cure for a minimum period of
three days prior to sealing. Otherwise, the possibility of absorption of binder and the potential
cutting back effect of the cutter in the primer must be taken into consideration. Bitumen emulsion
primers (specialty grades) can often be sealed after one or two days curing depending on
prevailing drying conditions.

Reseals
Embedment of aggregate may occur in reseals:
ƒ if there is free binder on the surface being resealed
ƒ when applying a reseal over fresh asphalt or slurry surfacing
ƒ when applying a reseal over fresh maintenance patching. Patches that are soft and/or porous
can cause problems with embedment and/or binder absorption. Maintenance patches
should be allowed to cure for a minimum of two to six months depending on type of patching
material (see Pavement Work Tip No 9).

Austroads 2006

— 21 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Where the binder in the existing seal is relatively soft, some embedment may occur. The ball
penetration test, referred to above, has been found to provide poor correlation with field
performance for flushed bitumen surfaces and further research is required to determine
appropriate allowances. In the meantime, designers must apply their own judgement in providing
suitable allowances. Where surfaces are severely flushed, alternative treatments may need to be
considered. Alternative treatments include:

ƒ specialty treatments (Section 11.2)


ƒ surface correction using solvent and aggregate (see Pavement Work Tip No. 7)
ƒ removal of excess bitumen by high pressure water (see Pavement Work Tip No. 44)
ƒ selection of a surfacing type other than a sprayed seal.

(c) Binder absorption allowance (Aba)


General
It will be necessary to increase the binder application rate to allow for any binder absorption by
pavement and/or aggregate, Aba, but it is not possible to give a general allowance.

Binder absorption by pavement


Initial treatments

Binder from a seal may drain into voids in the surface of the base course if these have not been
adequately filled by the prime or primerseal. This is most likely to occur in sandy or silty rubble
base materials (sandstone, limestone or silty gravels) in a hot dry climate. For unusually
absorptive pavement surfaces, particularly in hot climates, long-term absorption of the binder into
the base course can occur. The allowance for this will generally be between +0.1 to +0.2 L/m2.
Where more than 0.2 L/m2 is required, an alternative treatment should be considered.

Alternative treatments may comprise:


ƒ use of a different class of binder, including PMB
ƒ modification or stabilisation of the base course
ƒ use of a 5 or 7 mm initial seal, followed by a larger aggregate seal one or two years later.

In extreme cases, binder absorption into base materials may lead to the need for surface
enrichment or a small aggregate reseal being required within one or two years.

As previously stated, it is strongly recommended that all new pavement surfaces should be primed
or primer-sealed. However, in some areas a seal is applied directly to the prepared granular
pavement and the following binder absorption allowances provide a guide for use in these
situations:

ƒ granular unbound pavements allow +0.2 to +0.3 L/m2

ƒ pavements using cementitious binders allow +0.1 to +0.2 L/m2

ƒ bitumen stabilised pavements allow -0.2 to 0.0 L/m2

ƒ pavements using chemical binders For the use of chemical binders, refer to
Austroads publication Series Part 4D.

Austroads 2006

— 22 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Reseals

Binder absorption into the existing surface will seldom be a problem unless the existing surface is
visibly open and porous.

Binder absorption by aggregate


Absorptive aggregates may fall into two general categories:
ƒ porous, e.g. sandstone, rhyolite etc.
ƒ vesicular (full of cavities), e.g. scoria, slags etc.

In general, binder absorption into aggregate is not applicable, but if an allowance is required, it
does not usually exceed 0.1 L/m2.

2.1.8 Design Binder Application Rate (Bd)


The design is based on using conventional bitumen such as Class 170, 320 or multigrade bitumen
as the binder. Guidance on determination of design binder application rate for polymer modified
binders and bitumen emulsion binders is provided in Sections 4 and 5.

The Design Binder Application Rate, Bd, is determined by the following equation:

Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) = Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb) + Allowances (L/m2)

where:
Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) is in L/m2, rounded to nearest 0.1 L/m2
Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb) is in L/m2, rounded to nearest 0.01 L/m2 (refer 2.1.6)
Allowances are in L/m2, as determined in Section 2.1.7 (see also Table 2.3 and Figure 2.4).

For example: Bb = 0.97 L/m2 and surface texture allowance is + 0.3 L/m2
Bd = 0.97 + 0.3 = 1.27 = 1.3 L/m2 (rounded to nearest 0.1).

2.2 Aggregate Spread Rate


The amount of 10 mm or larger aggregate required in single/single sprayed seals is based on the
Average Least Dimension (ALD) of the aggregate.

Traffic will influence the packing of the aggregate (and hence the void space to be filled with
binder) and some adjustment in the spread rate is required for different design traffic volumes in
order to achieve a satisfactory, tightly packed mosaic of aggregate after rolling and trafficking.

The design Aggregate Spread Rates (ASR) for single/single seals using Class 170 bitumen, Class
320 bitumen or multigrade binder, to produce a satisfactory aggregate mosaic are shown in Table
2.4. Adjustments to design aggregate spread rates when using polymer modified binders and
bitumen emulsions are described in Sections 4 and 5.

Austroads 2006

— 23 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Table 2.4: Design Aggregate Spread Rates for single/single seals


(Class 170 bitumen, Class 320 bitumen, multigrade)

Aggregate Spread Rate


Traffic conditions
(m2/m3)
Traffic > 200 v/l/d 900 / ALD
Very low traffic ≤ 200 v/l/d 850 / ALD

The spread rate is based on ALD and it is therefore important that the ALD used is representative
of the aggregate supply to be used.
The aggregate spread rate for very low traffic roads (≤ 200 v/l/d) is about 5% heavier than that for
more heavily trafficked roads to achieve both a satisfactory aggregate mosaic and to avoid pick-up
of binder by the aggregate spreader/trucks due to the relatively heavier rates of application of
binder.
To achieve a satisfactory aggregate mosaic, the actual spread rates may have to be varied in
practice by as much as ±10 m2/m3 from the design spread rate given above.
It is NOT required to add an allowance for whip off to the Design Aggregate Spread Rate.
Stockpile wastage should be accounted for separately. A typical allowance for stockpile wastage
is an additional 5% to 10 % of aggregate above the quantity (tonnes or m³) required to cover the
proposed works at the design spread rate.

Austroads 2006

— 24 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

3 SINGLE/SINGLE SEALS – SIZE 7 MM AND SMALLER


AGGREGATES
3.1 General
The design philosophy for size 7 mm and smaller aggregates is similar to that applied to size
10 mm and larger aggregates except that:
ƒ the sealing aggregate is not generally tested to determine the average least dimension
ƒ 7 mm seals or smaller are often used as correction courses to provide an interim even
surfacing prior to the placement of a more durable surface treatment
ƒ 7 mm seals or smaller are used in situations that can tolerate a reduced surfacing life, such
as where a temporary surfacing is required
ƒ 7 mm seals can be used economically on lightly trafficked roads as initial seals on poorer
quality pavements, or as reseals over coarse textured hungry existing surfaces.

Information required:
ƒ ALD etc., or aggregate grading as a minimum if no ALD information available
ƒ design traffic, including % heavy vehicles
ƒ allowances for surface texture, absorption, etc.

Figure 3.1 illustrates the design method for size 7 mm and smaller aggregate.

NO ALD ALD
Basic Binder Basic Voids
Traffic volume Application Traffic volume Factor, Vf
(v/l/d) Rate, Bb (v/l/d) 2
(L/m /mm)
2
(L/m )

Design Voids Factor, VF


2
(L/m /mm)
VF = Vf + Vt + Va

Basic Binder
Allowances Application Rate, Bb
2
(L/m ) 2
(L/m )

Design Binder Application


Fate, Bd
2
(L/m )
Bd = Bb + Allowances

Figure 3.1: Design method for size 7 mm and smaller aggregate

Austroads 2006

— 25 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

3.2 Binder application rate


3.2.1 Basic binder application rate (Bb)
The Basic Binder Application Rate can be determined as follows.

If ALD is not available, determine a Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb (L/m2), from Table 3.1,
taking into account the information provided in the ‘Key Points’ (see notes to table 3.1).

Table 3.1: Basic Binder Application Rates for size 7 mm and smaller aggregates

Traffic Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb


(v/l/d) (L/m2)
< 100 1.0 to 0.8
100 – 600 0.9 to 0.7
601 – 1200 0.8 to 0.6
1201 – 2500 0.7 to 0.5
> 2500 0.5
Notes to Table 3.1
1. The lower of the basic binder application rates should be selected for use with flaky aggregates (FI > 25%). The higher of the basic binder application rates
should be selected for use with more cubically shaped aggregates.
2. The lower of the basic binder application rates should be used where traffic includes HV of 15% or higher.
3. If not certain of the conditions and traffic composition, but it appears to be ‘normal’, it is recommended the mid-point basic binder application rate be selected.
4. If the smaller aggregate is part of the second application of a double/double seal applied within say two months after the first application, then it is recommended
that the lower of the basic binder application rates be selected and no allowances added.

If ALD is available, then the procedure for design of single/single seals with size 10 mm or larger
aggregates may be applied, i.e.
ƒ determine Basic Voids Factor from Figure 2.2 or Figure 2.3.
ƒ apply appropriate adjustments to the Basic Voids Factor for aggregate Va (Table 2.1) and
traffic Vt (Table 2.2), to determine Design Voids Factor, VF
ƒ determine Basic Binder Application Rate from VF × ALD.

3.2.2 Design Binder Application Rate (Bd)


The design is based on using conventional bitumen such as Class 170, 320 or multigrade bitumen
as the binder. Guidance on determination of design binder application rates for polymer modified
binders and bitumen emulsion binders is provided in Sections 4 and 5.

The Design Binder Application Rate, Bd, is determined by the following equation:

Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) = Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb) + Allowances (L/m2)

where:
Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) is in L/m2, rounded to nearest 0.1 L/m2
Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb) is in L/m2, rounded to nearest 0.1 L/m2 (refer 3.2.1)
Allowances are in L/m2, as determined in Section 2.1.7 (see also Table 2.3 and Figure 2.4).

For example: Bb = 0.8 L/m2 (Table 3.1) and surface texture allowance is + 0.3 L/m2 (Table 2.3)
Bd = 0.8 + 0.3 = 1.1 L/m2 (rounded to nearest 0.1).

Austroads 2006

— 26 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

3.3 Aggregate Spread Rate


In general, the design Aggregate Spread Rate (ASR) for single/single seals is based on 900/ALD.
Typically, this means a spread rate between 200–250 m2/m3 for aggregates with a typical ALD of
3.7 mm–4.5 mm. However, the broad ranges of typical spread rates for 7 mm and smaller
aggregates take into account different seal objectives:
ƒ lighter aggregate applications are used in conjunction with light binder application rates
where the seal is designed to fill the spaces in a coarse textured surface, e.g. correction
seals
ƒ heavier aggregate applications are applied where a completely interlocked aggregate layer is
required. This may result in aggregate layers varying in thickness from one to several
aggregate particles.

A guide to the selection of appropriate design Aggregate Spread Rates is shown in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2: Design Aggregate Spread Rates for single/single seals with 7 mm aggregate

Number of aggregate Rate


Seal aim
thicknesses (m2/m3)
Normal ALD based design, small aggregate
1 900 / ALD
mosaic
Correction seal (light binder and aggregate
1 260 – 290
application rates) to fill in coarse texture only
Normal, small aggregate mosaic, no ALD 1 to 2 200 – 250

Austroads 2006

— 27 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

4 SINGLE/SINGLE SEAL WITH POLYMER MODIFIED BINDER


4.1 General
The design of the binder rates of application and aggregate spread rates for a single/single seal
using polymer modified binder (PMB) is based on the same philosophy, assumptions and
procedures used to design standard single/single seals as described in Sections 2 and 3.

In general, polymer modified binders are used in applications where conventional binder cannot
provide adequate service, such as areas with high traffic stresses, cracked pavements, aggregate
retention on high speed roads etc.
Applications include:
ƒ aggregate retention (AR)
ƒ holding treatment (HT)
ƒ weak pavement (WP)
ƒ high stress seals (HSS)
ƒ strain alleviating membrane (SAM)
ƒ strain alleviating membrane interlayer (SAMI).

All polymer modified binders are more viscous and elastic than conventional binder, and may be
applied at higher rates of application for increased effectiveness. The design process is modified
to achieve this by using ‘polymer factors’ which are specific to the different treatments and class of
PMB.
The design process is summarised as follows:
1. determine Basic Voids factor, Vf
2. apply adjustments Va and Vt for aggregate and traffic as appropriate
3. determine Design Voids Factor, VF
4. determine Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb (VF x ALD)
5. determine PMB Factor, PF, from Table 4.1
6. determine Modified Basic Binder Application Rate, Bbm (multiply Bb x PF)
7. determine Allowances
8. determine Design Binder Application Rate, Bd, from Bbm + Allowances.

Note that steps 5 and 6 are additional adjustments for single/single seal design using PMB binders
compared to conventional bitumen.

4.2 Design for size 10 mm and larger aggregate


4.2.1 PMB binder application rate
The following procedure applies to all PMB treatments except SAMI treatments.
(a) Basic Voids Factor (Vf)
The Basic Voids Factor, Vf (L/m2/mm), is related to traffic level and is determined from Figure 2.2
or Figure 2.3 (depending on traffic volume), and is read to the nearest 0.01 L/m2/mm – see Section
2.1.3.

Austroads 2006

— 28 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

The central target line is used to determine the Basic Voids Factor for all PMB applications.

Upper limit and lower limit – PMB binders are less sensitive to temperature changes and the
flushing/stripping potential is reduced compared to conventional binder. This is based on the
assumption that adequate adhesion is achieved between the PMB and aggregate.

(b) Adjustments
Adjustments are made to the Basic Voids Factor (Vf) to account for aggregate shape (Va) and
traffic effects (Vt) – see Table 2.1 and 2.2, Section 2.1.4.

(c) Design Voids Factor (VF)


Design Voids Factor is calculated using the formula:
Design Voids Factor, VF = Vf +Va + Vt

(d) Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb)


The Basic Binder Application rate is determined from the Design Voids Factor and ALD using the
formula:
Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb = VF x ALD (L/m², rounded to nearest 0.01)

(e) Modified Basic Binder Application Rate, (Bbm)


For most PMB applications, the Modified Basic Binder Application Rate, Bbm, is increased over
conventional Class 170/320 or multigrade binder. Appropriate PMB factors for commonly used
types and applications of PMB are shown in Table 4.1.

The PMB factors in Table 4.1 apply solely to this design method. If they are used with another
design method, the rates of application of modified binder may not be correct for the conditions.
The PMB factors are based on the PMB materials as specified in Austroads Framework
specification T41/06. If polymer modified binders other than those listed are used, an appropriate
factor needs to be determined by the designer for the particular material.
When the PMB is used in emulsion form, the Emulsion Factor EF may also apply (refer to
Section 7).

Austroads 2006

— 29 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Table 4.1: PMB factors (PF)

Class of PMB PMB factor Type of treatment


Aggregate retention (AR)
S10E 1.1 The factors for AR may be increased by 0.1 on low traffic applications, but reduced by 0.1 on high
to very high traffic applications and/or high temperature locations in order to minimise flushing.
S35E 1.1
Holding treatment (HT)
S10E 1.2
The factors for HT may be increased by 0.1 on low traffic applications, but reduced by 0.1 on high
S35E 1.2
to very high traffic applications and/or high temperature locations in order to minimise flushing.
S45R/S15RF 1.3
Weak pavements (WP)
S20E 1.3 The factors for WP may be increased by 0.1 on low traffic applications where maximum
S45R/S15RF 1.3 waterproofing is desired and the potential for flushing is low, but reduced by 0.1 on very high traffic
volume applications.
As a waterproofing seal under OGA (not a SAMI)
S10E, S35E 1.3 Being placed under open graded asphalt, there is little risk of bleeding and the factors should not
require further adjustment, although they may be increased, if required, by 0.1 to provide
S45R, S15RF 1.4
maximum waterproofing.
High Stress Seal (HSS)
S10E, S35E 1.0 Generally these factors should not be adjusted.
S20E, S45R, S15RF 1.1
They may be reduced, if required, by 0.1 on very high traffic applications and/or hot to very hot
M500/170 1.1
locations to minimise flushing or binder pick-up.
Strain Alleviating Membrane (SAM)
S10E 1.2
The SAM factors are designed to provide the maximum practicable binder application rate to
S20E 1.3 optimise resistance to reflective cracking and to waterproof the pavement. They may be reduced,
S35E 1.2 if required, by 0.1 on very high traffic applications and/or hot to very hot locations to minimise
flushing or binder pick-up.
S45R, S15RF 1.4
Strain Alleviating Membrane Interlayer (SAMI)
S25E 1.6 The SAMI factors are designed to optimise the resistance to reflective cracking under Dense
S55R, S20RF 1.8 Graded Asphalt. The factors may be increased by as much as 0.5 when the SAMI is designed to
minimise reflective cracking under Open Graded Asphalt.

The Modified Basic Binder Application Rate, Bbm, for PMB is calculated using the formula:

Modified Basic Binder Application Rate, Bbm = Bb x PF (L/m², rounded to nearest 0.1)

(f) Allowances
The following allowances are determined to the nearest 0.1 L/m2 and are cumulative.

Surface texture (As)


Apply as for a normal seal design. Refer Table 2.3.

Embedment (Ae)
Apply as for a normal seal where the modified binder seal is used as an initial treatment over a soft
primed or primersealed surface.

Austroads 2006

— 30 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Absorption (Aba)
PMB is more viscous than conventional binder and no allowance should be required for absorption
by the pavement or aggregate.

(g) Design binder application rate (Bd)


Design Binder Application Rate is calculated using the formula:
Bd = Modified Basic Binder Rate (Bbm) + Allowances (L/m2, rounded to nearest 0.1)

SAM Treatments: For a SAM treatment to provide effective crack reflection performance, a
minimum Design Binder Application Rate of 1.5 L/m² is recommended.
If necessary, a larger aggregate size or other treatment may be selected to ensure minimum
application rates can be achieved.

4.2.2 SAMI treatments


SAMI treatments use highly modified binders and are applied at high rates of application. SAMI
treatments are usually designed to be overlaid with asphalt within 1 day (2 days maximum) after
construction. If they are left for a longer period under traffic, they should be designed as a SAM
treatment to reduce the risk of flushing or bleeding.

As a SAMI is trafficked for only a short period, or not at all, the normal Basic Voids Factors and
Adjustments do NOT apply. A Design Voids Factor (VF) of between 0.16 and 0.18 is generally
suitable, with VF = 0.17 appropriate for most designs. The lower or higher value may be adopted
taking into account the volume and type of traffic the SAMI will be exposed to during its short life.
Design Binder Application Rate (SAMI) = (0.17 x ALD x PF) + Allowances (L/m², rounded to
nearest 0.1)
where:
PF is the PMB Factor from Table 4.1.

SAMI Treatments: For a SAMI treatment to provide effective crack reflection performance, a
minimum Design Binder Application Rate of 1.8 L/m² is recommended.
This minimum binder application rate can generally be achieved with a 10 mm single/single seal
but 14 mm aggregate may be used where higher binder application rates are required to control
more severe cracking or when being placed as a waterproofing layer under open graded asphalt.

4.2.3 Aggregate Spread Rate


To achieve a satisfactory mosaic and to avoid binder pick-up for 10 & 14 mm sealing applications
using PMB, e.g. High Stress Seal (HSS), Strain Alleviating Membrane (SAM), Strain Alleviating
Membrane Interlayer (SAMI), etc., the Aggregate Spread Rate needs to be heavier than for
conventional bitumen and multigrade binders.

Aggregate Spread Rates are based on ALD, as for a conventional binder, but adjusted for both the
increased rates of application of binder and reduced aggregate re-orientation due to the more
viscous binder, see Table 4.2.

Austroads 2006

— 31 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Table 4.2: Design Aggregate Spread Rates for single/single seals using PMB

Traffic Aggregate Spread Rate


(v/l/d) (m2/3)
< 300 750 / ALD
≥ 300 800 / ALD

4.3 Size 7 mm and smaller aggregates


4.3.1 Binder application rate
(a) Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb)
If an ALD is not available, then determine a Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb (L/m2), from Table
3.1, Section 3.2, taking into account aggregate shape and design traffic.

If an ALD is available, determine the Basic Voids Factor, Vf, apply the adjustments Va, and Vt, as
appropriate to determine the Design Voids Factor, VF and multiply by the ALD to obtain the Basic
Binder Application Rate, Bb.

(b) Modified Basic Binder Application Rate (Bbm)


Similar to the procedure for the larger aggregates, multiply the Basic Binder Application Rate by
the appropriate PMB Factor for the type of application (Table 4.1). PMB treatments using 7 mm
aggregates are generally ‘Aggregate Retention’ and ‘HSS’ type treatments.

Modified Basic Binder Application Rate, Bbm = Bb x PF (L/m², rounded to nearest 0.1)

(c) Design Binder Application Rate (Bd)


Determine the Design Binder Application Rate by adding the appropriate allowances to the
Modified Basic Binder Application Rate. Allowances required are generally for surface texture
(Table 2.3) only, as allowances for absorption and embedment will generally not apply to the types
of treatment for which the smaller aggregates may be used.

Design Binder Application Rate Bd = Bbm + Allowances (L/m², rounded to nearest 0.1)

4.3.2 Aggregate Spread Rate


In general, a heavier design Aggregate Spread Rate is required with polymer modified binders.
Similar to the larger aggregates, the Aggregate Spread Rate needs to be increased by 10 – 20% in
comparison to conventional binders and the typical Aggregate Spread Rate for size 7 mm
aggregates is 160 – 200 m2/m3.

If an ALD is available, refer to Table 3.2 for calculation of Aggregate Spread Rate but increase the
rate (heavier) by 10 – 20% depending on Design Binder Application Rate and Design Traffic.

Austroads 2006

— 32 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

5 SINGLE/SINGLE SEALS WITH BITUMEN EMULSION


BINDER
5.1 General
The design of the binder rates of application and Aggregate Spread Rates for a single/single seal
using emulsion binder is based on the same philosophy, assumptions and procedures used to
design standard single/single seals as described in Sections 2 and 3.

Designers should be aware of limitations on the use of standard bitumen emulsions (60% residual
binder) for single/single seals. Depending on temperature and surface texture and surface
gradient, the maximum rate of application of standard emulsions is typically 0.8 to 1.0 L/m2 of
residual binder. This generally limits the maximum size of aggregate in single/single seals to
10 mm. An alternative procedure to enable use of larger sizes of aggregates is a double/double
seal (see Section 8). High binder content bitumen emulsions (≥ 67% residual binder) can generally
be applied at rates of up to 2.0 L/m2 of residual binder without risk of run-off.

Design Binder Application Rates for seals with bitumen emulsion are determined using the
procedures and design factors applied to conventional binders described in Sections 2 and 3, or for
polymer modified binders described in Section 4. An emulsion factor is applied to the Basic Binder
Application Rate (before allowances) when using high bitumen content emulsions to provide a
greater volume of binder around the aggregate particles to compensate for reduced aggregate
reorientation as a result of rapid increase in binder stiffness after the initial breaking and curing of
the emulsion. This factor is in addition to PMB factors applied to polymer modified bitumen
emulsion binders.

Where a pavement has been stabilised with cementitious or chemical binders is to be primed,
primersealed or sealed using a bitumen emulsion, a check on the compatibility of the emulsion with
the stabilised material should be undertaken. Emulsions are likely to be compatible with bitumen
stabilised pavements.

Rates of application designed by this procedure refer to residual binder (L/m2 at 15°C) and further
adjustments for the water content of emulsions, as well as temperature, must still be applied to
determine field spraying rates.

Some minor adjustments are also made to Aggregate Spread Rates, when using bitumen emulsion
binders as described in Section 5.2.2 and 5.3.2.

The design process is summarised as follows:


1. determine Basic Voids Factor, Vf
2. apply adjustments Va and Vt for aggregate and traffic as appropriate
3. determine Design Voids Factor, VF
4. determine Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb (VF x ALD)
5. determine Emulsion Factor, EF, from Table 5.1
6. determine Modified Basic Binder Application Rate, Bbm (multiply Bb x EF)
7. determine Allowances (see note above on compatibility issues when applying to stabilised
pavements)
8. determine Design Binder Application Rate, Bd, from Bb x EF + Allowances.

Austroads 2006

— 33 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Note that steps 5 and 6 are additional adjustments for single/single seal design using bitumen
emulsion binders compared to conventional bitumen.

5.2 Single/single seals – aggregates size 10 mm and larger


5.2.1 Binder application rate
(a) Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb)
Basic Binder Application Rate is determined as follows:
ƒ determine Basic Voids Factor (Vf) in accordance with Figure 2.2 or Figure 2.3 as described
in Section 2.1.3
ƒ determine Design Voids Factor (VF) by applying adjustments for aggregate and traffic as
described in Sections 2.1.4 and 2.1.5
ƒ determine Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb) using the equation, Bb = VF x ALD (L/m2) as
described in Section 2.1.6.

(b) Modified Basic Binder Application Rat,( Bbm)


An emulsion factor is applied to the Basic Binder Application Rate (before allowances) when using
high bitumen content emulsions to provide a greater volume of binder around the aggregate
particles to compensate for reduced aggregate reorientation as a result of rapid increase in binder
stiffness after the initial breaking and curing of the emulsion.

The Modified Basic Binder Application Rate, Bbm, for bitumen emulsion is calculated using the
formula:
Bbm* = Bb* x EF (L/m², rounded to nearest 0.1)
where:
Bbm* = Modified Basic Binder Application Rate (emulsion) rounded to the nearest 0.1 L/m2
Bb* = Basic Binder Application Rate
EF = Emulsion Factor (from Table 5.1).
Note:* Binder application rates are residual binder and do not include the water content of
emulsion.

Table 5.1: Emulsion factor

Product Emulsion factor (EF)


Conventional emulsion (60%) 1.0
High bitumen content emulsion (≥67 %) 1.1 to 1.2

When polymer modified binder emulsions are used, a PMB factor (Table 4.1, Section 4) is applied
in addition to the emulsion factor. The Modified Basic Binder Application Rate (polymer modified
emulsion binder) is then calculated as:
Bbm* = Bb* x PF x EF (L/m², rounded to nearest 0.1)

Austroads 2006

— 34 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

where:
Bbm* = Modified Basic Binder Application Rate (emulsion) rounded to the nearest 0.1 L/m2
Bb* = Basic Binder Application Rate
PF = PMB Factor (Table 4.1)
EF = Emulsion Factor (from Table 5.1).
Note:* Binder application rates are residual binder and do not include the water content of
emulsion.
(c) Design Binder Application Rate (Bd)
Where emulsion binders are used, the Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) is determined by the
following equation:
Bd* = Bbm* + Allowances
where:
Bbm* = Modified Basic Binder Application Rate
Allowances are in L/m2, as determined in Table 2.3 and Figure 2.4 (refer 2.1.7)
Note:* Binder application rates are residual binder and do not include the water content of
emulsion.

5.2.2 Aggregate Spread Rate


To achieve a satisfactory mosaic for 10 and 14 mm seals using emulsion binders, including both
emulsified conventional bitumen and emulsified PMB, the required Aggregate Spread Rate needs
to be heavier than for conventional bitumen and should be calculated in accordance with Table 5.2.

Table 5.2 provides for a lighter Aggregate Spread Rate for seals placed with a scatter coat of small
sized aggregate. A scatter coat is sometimes used with single/single seals and emulsion binder to
reduce the risk of aggregates being dislodged by traffic during the initial curing period of the
bitumen emulsion.

Table 5.2 also provides for a heavier Aggregate Spread Rate, by about 5%, for very low traffic
(< 200 v/l/d).

Table 5.2: Aggregate spread rates for single/single seals using bitumen emulsion

Aggregate Spread Rate


Application (m2/m3)
Traffic < 200 v/l/d Traffic ≥ 200 v/l/d
Single layer of aggregate 750 / ALD 700 / ALD
Layer of large aggregate plus First layer 800 / ALD 750 / ALD
scatter coat of 7 mm/smaller Scatter coat 400 to 600 400 to 600

Austroads 2006

— 35 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

5.3 Single/single seals – aggregates size 7 mm and smaller


5.3.1 Binder application rates
(a) Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb)
If an ALD is available, the Basic Binder Application Rate is determined using the procedures
described for single/single seals of aggregate size 10 mm or larger in Section 5.2 above.

If an ALD is not available, then the Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb (L/m2), is determined from
Table 3.1, Section 3.2, taking into account aggregate shape and design traffic.

(b) Design Binder Application Rate (Bd)


Where emulsion binders are used, the Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) is determined by the
following equation:
Bd* = Bb x EF + Allowances
where:
Bd = Design Binder Application Rate (emulsion) rounded to the nearest 0.1 L/m2.
Bb = Basic Binder Application Rate
EF = Emulsion Factor (from Table 5.1).
Allowances are in L/m2, as determined in Section 2.1.7 (see also Table 2.3 and Figure 3.1).
Note:* Binder application rates are residual binder and do not include the water content of
emulsion.

5.3.2 Aggregate Spread Rate


Spread rates for aggregates size 7 mm and smaller, used in conjunction with bitumen emulsion
binders, are shown in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3: Aggregate spread rates for 7 mm single/single seals using bitumen emulsion

Number of aggregate Rate


Seal type
thicknesses (m2/m3)
1 260 to 290
Seal / reseal
>1 200 to 250
Scatter (rack-in) coat 1 400 to 600

Austroads 2006

— 36 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

6 DOUBLE/DOUBLE SEALS
6.1 General
This section applies to the design of double/double seals with Class 170, Class 320 bitumen or
multigrade binder. Guidance on design of double/double seals using polymer modified binders and
bitumen emulsion binders is provided in Sections 7 and 8.

A double/double seal consists of two applications of binder each followed by an application of


aggregate. Double/double seals may be designed and placed in two ways:
ƒ both applications placed with little or no trafficking between applications, usually on the same
or consecutive days
ƒ the second application delayed by up to 12 months.

The second application should have an aggregate of no more than half the nominal size used in
the first application. Suitable combinations are:
ƒ 20 and 10 mm, 20 and 7 mm or 20 and 5 mm
ƒ 14 and 7 mm or 14 and 5 mm
ƒ 10 and 5 mm.

1. The recommended design approach is most appropriate where both applications are to be
applied on the same or consecutive days.
In this approach, combinations of aggregates such as 14/10 or 16/10 mm, where the second
aggregate application is greater than half the size of the first, are NOT recommended. In
such cases, the second aggregate can bridge over void spaces in the first aggregate. Binder
from the second application is lost into the open texture of the first layer, resulting in
insufficient binder to hold the second aggregate application in place and a consequent risk of
stripping or very coarse texture. Increasing the second rate of application of binder to
compensate for texture in the first aggregate application leads to a very high combined total
application of binder and consequent risk of flushing and bleeding.

2. Where the second application is delayed, the design procedure is comparable to a normal
single/single seal followed by a reseal, and the selection of the second aggregate size is less
critical. Designers must, however, recognise the risk of flushing and bleeding associated
with resealing before adequate aggregate reorientation and hardening of the binder in the
first seal, and the second application should be delayed for 12 months, or more, if practical.
This also allows a reasonable indication of final orientation of the aggregate and surface
texture of the mosaic for the design of the second application.
Delaying the second application for an extended period is less important where the second
application involves the light application of a small sized aggregate designed to occupy the
gaps between the larger aggregate particles in the first application and where the binder
application does not include any surface texture allowances.

Austroads 2006

— 37 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

6.2 Both applications with little or no trafficking between applications


6.2.1 General
Where, as recommended, the second application is to be applied immediately after the first with
little or no trafficking between applications, the following design procedure is used.

6.2.2 First application


(a) Design procedure
The first application is designed using the same procedure as for a single/single seal, but taking
into account the fact that the voids in this layer will be reduced by the smaller aggregate in the
second application. The design process is as follows:
1. determine Basic Voids Factor, Vf
2. apply adjustments Va and Vt as appropriate
3. determine Design Voids Factor, VF
4. amend the Design Voids Factor, VF, by multiplying by a Reduction Factor RF
5. determine Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb (VF x RF x ALD)
6. determine Allowances
7. determine Design Binder Application Rate, Bd, from Bb + Allowances.

(b) Basic Voids Factor (Vf)


The Basic Voids Factor, Vf (L/m2/mm), is related to traffic level and is determined from Figure 2.2
or Figure 2.3 (depending on traffic volume), and should be read to the nearest 0.01 L/m2/mm.

The central target line is used to determine the Basic Voids Factor in all cases since the first
application of a double/double seal is less sensitive to minor variations in binder application rates.

(c) Adjustments to Basic Voids Factor


The Design Voids Factor, VF (L/m2/mm), is determined by adjusting the Basic Voids Factor (Vf) to
account for aggregate shape (Va), refer Table 2.1, and traffic effects (Vt), refer Table 2.2.

(d) Design Voids Factor (VF)


The voids relationship in the first application seal of a double/double seal is affected by the use of
the smaller aggregate in the second application, which partially fills and therefore reduces the air
voids. This is compensated for by amending the Design Void Factor, VF, in accordance with the
reduction factors shown in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1: Amendment of Design Voids Factor for the first application of a double/double seal

Design traffic Reduction factor (RF) to amend VF


(v/l/d)
< 500 0.75
500 – 1000 0.80
1001 – 2000 0.85
> 2000 0.90

Amended Design Voids Factor, VF1 = (Vf + Va + Vt) x RF (L/m2/mm)

Austroads 2006

— 38 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

(e) Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb)


The Basic Binder Application Rate is calculated using the amended Design Voids Factor as
follows:
Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb = VF1 x ALD (L/m², rounded to nearest 0.01)

(f) Allowances applied to Basic Binder Application Rate


The following allowances are determined to the nearest 0.1 L/m2 and are cumulative. They must
be added to, or subtracted from, the Basic Binder Application Rate to determine the Design Binder
Application Rate, Bd (L/m2).

Allowances, in L/m2, are made for the following:


ƒ surface texture of existing surfacing (Table 2.3)
ƒ possible binder absorption by the existing pavement
ƒ possible binder absorption by the aggregate
ƒ possible aggregate embedment into existing surface (for sealing over primed and
primersealed treatments only) (Figure 2.4).

(g) Design Binder Application Rate (Bd)


The design is based on using conventional bitumen such as Class 170, 320 or multigrade bitumen
as the binder. The Design Binder Application Rate, Bd, is determined by the following equation:
Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) = Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb) + Allowances (L/m2)

For example: Bb = 0.94 L/m2 and surface texture allowance is + 0.3 L/m2
Bd = 0.94 + 0.3 = 1.24 = 1.2 L/m2
where:
Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) is in L/m2, rounded to nearest 0.1 L/m2
Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb) is in L/m2, rounded to nearest 0.01 L/m2 (refer 3.2.1)
Allowances are in L/m2, as determined in Section 2.1.7 (see also Table 2.3 and Figure 2.4).

(h) Aggregate Spread Rates


As for a single/single seal the design Aggregate Spread Rate is based on ALD, but reduced by
about 10% to provide a slightly more open mosaic to allow the second application of aggregate to
more firmly interlock. Aggregate Spread Rates for the first application of a double/double seal are
shown in Table 6.2.

Table 6.2: Aggregate Spread Rates for first application of double/double seal

Design traffic (v/l/d) Aggregate Spread Rate (m2/mm)


> 200 950 / ALD
≤ 200 900 / ALD

Austroads 2006

— 39 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

6.2.3 Second application


(a) Design procedure
The design process is:
1. determine Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb
2. determine Allowances – Allowances are generally NIL for the second application. The only
allowance that could be considered is binder absorption into the aggregate, but this is
unlikely for normal aggregates
3. determine Design Binder Application Rate, Bd.

(b) Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb)


As the Design Traffic is the same for both layers, the Design Voids Factor is the same as first
application before application of the reduction factor (RF). The Basic Binder Application Rate for
the second application using 10 mm or 7 mm aggregate with known ALD is calculated from:
Bb = VF x ALD (L/m²), rounded to nearest 0.1

If the aggregate in the second application is 7 mm or smaller, without a known ALD, determine the
Basic Binder Application Rates from Table 3.1, based on the Design Traffic.

(c) Design Binder Application Rate (Bd)


No further allowances are applied to the second binder application rate for surface texture,
embedment or absorption, therefore:
Bd = Bb (L/m²)

(d) Aggregate Spread Rate


Aggregate in the second application is normally no more than half the size of the first, and the
spread rate is just sufficient to fill the voids in the first application. Table 6.3 may be used as a
guide to design Aggregate Spread Rates.

Table 6.3: Aggregate Spread Rates for second application of a double/double seal

Aggregate size Number of aggregate Aggregate Spread Rate


(mm) thicknesses (m2/m3)
10 1 1050 / ALD – 1100 / ALD
7 (ALD known) 1 1100 / ALD – 1150 / ALD
7, 5 (no ALD) 1 250 – 300

For the second application, the design aggregate spread rate may be up to 30% less than for a
normal single/single design.

Austroads 2006

— 40 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

6.2.4 Varying surface texture of finished seal


Double/double seals are versatile in that, by altering the Design Binder Application Rates in the
first and second applications, it is possible to achieve different texture outcomes. This may be
done by adding the two Design Binder Application Rates, and distributing it at different proportions
between the two applications:
ƒ To achieve a coarser texture, such as desired on high speed roads, proportion as follows:
first application = 55% of total binder
second application = 45% of total binder.
ƒ To provide a finer texture, suitable for low speeds, to minimise tyre noise or for pedestrian
use, proportion as follows:
first application = 45% of total binder
second application = 55% of total binder.

It should be noted that in this case the first application is very vulnerable to traffic damage, and the
second application must be applied on the same day or without any intervening traffic.

6.3 Second application delayed


6.3.1 General
If the second application cannot be applied within a few days, or up to several months after the first
application, and the seal will be trafficked during this period, the outcomes become more difficult to
predict. Designers must modify binder application rate allowances for surface texture, as well as
aggregate spread rates, depending on the extent of trafficking of the first application.

The design procedure is as follows:


1. Design the first application as a single/single seal (Section 2). DO NOT apply the Reduction
Factor as shown in Table 6.1, Section 6.2.2.
2. Design the second application as a single/single seal also, as appropriate for 10 mm or 7 mm
and smaller aggregates, refer 4.2.2. In this design, measure the surface texture of the first
application and determine allowance from Table 2.3. If the time delay is short, include only
part of the texture allowance (perhaps only 20 – 30%).
The longer the delay, the more texture allowance is applied. After about 12 months, the full
allowance is generally applicable. The texture MUST be measured each time the design is being
considered, and the appropriate allowance determined.

It may be preferable to delay the second application up to 12 months to let the first application
settle down, and this should provide a better indication of any texture allowance that should be
applied. If the binder is still lively in the first application, the surface texture allowance should be
reduced, possibly by as much as 30% less than the value given in Table 2.3.

6.3.2 Aggregate Spread Rate


(a) First application
The Aggregate Spread Rate is 900/ALD for when Design Traffic exceeds 200 vehicles/lane/day,
and 850/ALD for very low traffic volumes (< 200 v/l/d).

Austroads 2006

— 41 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

(b) Second application


The Aggregate Spread Rate for the second application should be just sufficient to fill the voids in
the first, and is designed similarly to section 6.2.3, Table 6.3 but aiming at the heavier end of the
range of Design Spread Rate.

Austroads 2006

— 42 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

7 DOUBLE/DOUBLE SEAL WITH PMB


7.1 General
This section covers the design of a double/double seal using a polymer modified binder. It is
strongly recommended that a primer or primerseal be placed on a new pavement prior to the
application of PMB seal.

The procedure to design the rates of application for a modified binder seal is based on the design
of a normal double/double seal. In general, polymer modified binders are used in situations where
the conventional binder cannot cope, such as high traffic stresses and/or cracking of pavements.
The polymer modified binder is more viscous than conventional binder, and applied at increased
rates of application for effectiveness. To achieve this, the design includes Polymer Factors (PF)
for the various applications.
A double/double seal is not recommended as a SAMI treatment.
Double/double seals with polymer modified binder may be a combination of:
ƒ both applications using the same class of PMB
ƒ first application using a medium to highly modified PMB, followed by the second application
using a lower modification PMB
ƒ first application using a PMB, followed by the second application using a conventional
C170/320 or multigrade.
The recommended design approach is most appropriate for both applications to be applied on the
same or consecutive days with little or no trafficking between applications.

7.2 Both applications with little or no trafficking between applications


Where the second application is to be applied immediately after the first with little or no trafficking
between applications, the following design procedure may be used.

7.2.1 First application using a PMB


1. Determine the first binder application using the same procedure as for the first application of
a normal double/double seal (Section 6), but determine the Modified Basic Binder Application
Rate (Bbm) using the polymer modified binder factors in Table 4.1 (Section 4).
2. Add the normal allowances for surface texture and embedment to determine the Design
Binder Application Rate (Bd). Absorption is generally not applicable with PMB.
7.2.2 Second application using a PMB
1. If the aggregate is 10 mm (or an ALD is available for a 7 mm), determine the Design Voids
Factor as for a single/single seal, and follow the procedure for polymer modified binders
(Section 5) to determine the Modified Basic Binder Application Rate.
2. If the aggregate is size 7 mm or smaller, without an ALD, determine the Basic Binder
Application Rate from Table 3.1 and follow the procedure for polymer modified binders in
Section 5 to determine the Modified Basic Binder Application Rate.
3. Do NOT add allowances for surface texture, embedment or absorption.
4. The aggregate spread rate should be just sufficient to fill the voids in the first application.

Austroads 2006

— 43 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

7.2.3 Second application using C170/320, multigrade


1. If the aggregate is 10 mm (or an ALD is available for 7 mm), determine the Design Voids
Factor as for a single/single seal.
2. Determine the Basic Binder Application Rate from VF x ALD.
3. If the aggregate is size 7 mm or smaller, without an ALD, determine the Basic Binder
Application Rate from Table 3.1.
4. Do NOT add Allowances for surface texture, embedment or absorption.
5. The aggregate spread rate should be just sufficient to fill the voids in the first application.

7.3 Second application delayed


When the second application is delayed, it becomes more difficult to predict the outcome. If
unsure, it is recommended the second application be delayed for 12 months, or longer if practical,
to allow the first application to settle down and provide a reasonable indication of final orientation of
the aggregate and surface texture of the mosaic.

Design notes for double/double seals with Class 170, 320 or multigrade bitumen should be
followed with the use of polymer modified binder factors, Table 4.1, Section 4, where appropriate.

Austroads 2006

— 44 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

8 DOUBLE/DOUBLE SEALS WITH BITUMEN EMULSION


BINDER
The design of double/double seals for bitumen emulsion binders follows the same design
procedure as double/double seals using Class 170, 320 or multigrade binder (Section 6) or for
polymer modified binders (Section 7) with the following differences:
ƒ use of bitumen emulsion factor (Table 5.1, Section 5)
ƒ potential to vary relative proportions of binder sprayed in first and second applications to
cater for specific characteristics of bitumen emulsions.

The second difference is a technique particularly applied to the use of standard bitumen emulsions
(60% binder content) where binder run-off places limitations on the size of aggregate that can be
used in a single/single seal. When using this technique, the total amount of binder is determined
for both applications but the rate of application of binder for the first application is reduced to a
maximum of 0.8 L/m2 of residual binder. The balance of the total design binder is then applied as
the second binder application followed by the second application of the smaller sized aggregate.
This procedure can only be used where there is no trafficking of the first application of aggregate
prior to the second application.

Austroads 2006

— 45 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

9 GEOTEXTILE REINFORCED SEALS (GRS)


9.1 General
9.1.1 Applications
Geotextile reinforced sprayed seals (GRS) are used to improve seal performance as a
waterproofing membrane over cracked or weak pavements, or as an asphalt interlayer. A full
description of GRS is provided in Austroads (2005).

Typical applications of GRS include:


ƒ single/single seal with 10 mm or 14 mm aggregate and Class 170 bitumen binder
ƒ single/single seal with a large (14 mm) aggregate and PMB binder
ƒ double/double seal with either PMB or Class 170 bitumen binder in the first application and
Class 170 bitumen in the second application.

Double/double seals are preferred as aggregate retention can be difficult in a single/single GRS.
Single/single GRS is more often used in interlayer applications. Small aggregate sizes (7 mm and
smaller) are not suited to GRS applications except as the second application of a double/double
seal.

Sealing aggregate
Main binder application
Geotextile
First binder application
(tack or bond coat)
Weak or cracked base

Figure 9.1: A single/single geotextile reinforced seal

9.1.2 Geotextile fabric


A minimum fabric mass of 130 g/m2 is used for general sealing applications with 10 mm aggregate.
Aggregates larger than 10 mm have an increased potential for puncturing the fabric, particularly
when used as an initial treatment over a soft base, and heavier grades of fabric (175 to 200 g/m2)
are preferred for such applications.

Geotextiles made from polyester are preferred when using hot bitumen as they have a higher
melting point. Where polypropylene fabric is used, the binder temperature should not exceed
170°C.

9.1.3 Design procedure


GRS (seals or reseals) are designed in accordance with conventional design procedures for the
relevant seal type (single/single or double/double) and binder type. Allowances are then added for
binder retention by fabric.

Austroads 2006

— 46 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

9.2 Binder application rate


9.2.1 Preliminary Design Binder Application Rate
A preliminary Design Binder Application Rate is determined using the procedures described for the
relevant seal type including all appropriate allowances for aggregate shape, traffic effects, binder
type, surface texture, embedment and absorption.

9.2.2 Binder fabric retention allowance


A binder fabric retention allowance is added to the preliminary Design Binder Application Rate for
the amount of binder required to saturate the fabric. The extent of the binder retention allowance
varies from 0.9 to 1.3 L/m2 of residual binder, depending on the thickness and characteristics of the
geotextile fabric and type of binder being used.

Where possible, the allowance for retention of the binder by fabric should be calculated using an
appropriate test procedure, (ASTM D6140-00) and covers:
ƒ material thickness (mm) under 2 kPa pressure (AS3706.1-90)
ƒ unit mass (g/m2) of fabric (unprocessed material)
ƒ unit mass (g/m2) of fabric (processed material).

Typical allowances for binder retention are shown in Table 9.1.

Table 9.1: Typical binder retention allowance for geotextile reinforced seals

Geotextile grade Retention allowance (L/m2)


130 - 140g/m2 0.9 to 1.0
175 - 200g/m2 1.1 to 1.3

9.2.3 Final Design Binder Application Rate


The final Design Binder Application Rate, including the fabric retention allowance, is apportioned
between the tack coat or bond coat and the seal coat binder. Tack coat application rates, typically,
vary between 0.4 and 0.8 L/m2 depending on surface texture, weather conditions and amount of
cutter oil.

9.3 Aggregate Spread Rate


Design of Aggregate Spread Rate for GRS is based on the design of the relevant seal type with no
further allowances.

Austroads 2006

— 47 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

10 FIBRE REINFORCED SEALS


10.1 General
Fibre reinforced seals (FRS) are supplied in Australia as a proprietary process, including specific
grades of high bitumen content polymer modified bitumen emulsion and glass fibre as well as the
use of specialised equipment for spreading of glass fibre in conjunction with application of bitumen
emulsion binder. Advice from suppliers should be sought on availability and suitability for particular
applications, as well as confirmation of design application rates.

FRS consist of a layer of glass fibre strands sandwiched between two coats of polymer modified
bitumen emulsion. Applications of FRS are similar to geotextile reinforced seals and include use
as a Strain Alleviating Membrane (SAM) and Strain Alleviating Membrane Interlayer (SAMI).

The design of FRS is based on conventional single/single design procedures, including allowances
for polymer and bitumen emulsion, plus an appropriate allowance for the amount of binder required
to coat the fibres.

A further guide to FRS is provided in (Austroads, 2005b).

10.2 Binder application rate


The Design Binder Application Rate is determined using the procedures for a conventional
single/single seal including all appropriate allowances for aggregate shape, traffic effects, PMB
Factor, Emulsion Factor, surface texture, embedment and absorption.

A further allowance is added to the Design Binder Application Rate for coating of the glass fibres,
depending on the rate of application of glass fibre. Typical allowances are shown in Table 10.1.

Table 10.1: Typical binder allowances for glass fibre

Glass fibre Binder allowance


Seal type
(g/m2) (L/m2 of residual binder)
SAM 60 0.2
SAMI 90 0.3

10.3 Design Aggregate Spread Rate


Aggregate Spread Rates are the same as for conventional single/single seals with bitumen
emulsion binders. A scatter coat of a small sized aggregate is generally applied to 10 mm and
14 mm aggregates. The scatter coat is usually applied at a rate of 350 to 400 m2/m3 using 7 mm
or 5 mm aggregate on 14 mm seals and 5 mm aggregate on 10 mm seals.

Austroads 2006

— 48 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

11 SELECTION OF TREATMENT TYPES


11.1 General
In its broadest context, the term design includes the choice of surfacing type as well as the design
of binder and aggregate application rates. The most common form of sprayed seal is a
single/single seal consisting of one layer of Class 170 bitumen binder covered with a single layer of
aggregate. Design of single/single seals forms the basis of the procedures described in this
document. Choices available to the designer include size of aggregate and a range of binder
options to improve performance at higher ambient temperatures, enhanced resistance to the
stresses of heavier traffic or improved waterproofing of cracked or weak pavements.

There are no quantitative measures available to define the limits of performance of different sizes
and types of sprayed seals, or where no sprayed seal can be expected to provide a reasonable
level of service and a different type of surfacing is required. Table 11.1 and Table 11.2 provide a
summary of selection of surfacing type for a range of traffic, pavement strength and climatic
conditions. A more detailed guide to selection of surfacing type is provided in the Guide to
selection of road surfacings (Austroads 2003), Sprayed sealing guide (Austroads 2004),
Specification framework for modified binders (Austroads 2006b), and Selection of modified binders
(Austroads 2006a).

Different choices involve different costs and different risks in performance outcomes. Designers
should apply life cycle cost analysis, where appropriate, to the selection of surfacing type and use
their own experience and judgment in the selection and detailed design of the surfacing. Where
that experience is inadequate, designers should seek specialist advice.

11.2 Specialty seals/treatments


There have been a number of specialty seals developed to meet specific surfacing needs.
Generally, the procedures described in this document do not apply to these specialty seals.
However, some brief information is provided here to provide users with an indication of what other
treatments are possible. Further information is contained in the Austroads sprayed sealing guide
(Austroads 2004).

11.2.1 Inverted seal


An inverted seal is a double/double seal that is ‘inverted’ from the normal double/double seal, such
that the smallest size aggregate is on the bottom coat, and the largest size aggregate is in the
topcoat. For example it is a 7/14 rather than a 14/7 seal. Both applications are laid on the same
day.

It is useful in restoring uniformity to a surface that has a variation in transverse surface texture. It
is also suitable in treating bleeding seals where a possible increase in tyre noise is not a problem.
It can be designed using the double/double seal design procedures in Section 4.

11.2.2 Dry matting


Dry matting is a technique using two applications of aggregate sandwiched around a solitary
application of bitumen emulsion binder. It is a corrective treatment used to restore surface texture
of partly stripped surfaces.

Austroads 2006

— 49 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Table 11.1: Guide to the selection of sprayed seals

Traffic (in v/l/d)


> 2000 ≤ 2000
Heavy vehicles Heavy vehicles
Performance environment > 15% ≤ 15% > 15% ≤ 15%
High stress areas (e.g. small radii roundabouts, No sprayed seal S/S + scatter coat or Cape seal or D/D or S/S + mod 3
intersections, turning lanes, etc.) suitable D/D + mod 3 D/D + mod 3
Grades > 5% D/D + mod 3 D/D or S/S + mod 3 D/D or S/S + mod 3 S/S or D/D
Stiff HSS S/S HSS S/S
Pavement strength
Weak SAM (D/D only) HSS SAM (S/S) + mod 3 HSS
Hot D/D + mod 2 S/S + mod 2 D/D or S/S + multi S/S + multi
Temperature Temperate D/D S/S D/D or S/S S/S
Cold D/D + mod1 D/D or S/S + mod1 D/D S/S
Legend
S/S: Single/single, C170/320 or multigrade binder Climate: Weighted mean annual pavement temperatures
D/D: Double/double, C170 or 320 or multigrade binder (WMAPT)
Cape Seal: Single/single seal filled in with a slurry Hot: WMAPT > 35˚C e.g. Ayr, Cairns, Townsville, Mt Isa
Temperate: WMAPT 29˚C < WMAPT ≤ 35˚C e.g. Rockhampton,
HSS: High Stress Seal is a S/S or D/D, with 7, 10 or 14 mm Roma, Mackay, Gympie, Brisbane
aggregate, medium/high concentration PMB, multigrade
binder C600/170 Cold: WMAPT ≤ 29˚C e.g. Warwick, Kingaroy, Toowoomba

Scatter coat: Light application of small aggregate, 7 or 5 mm, to


temporarily ‘lock in’ a larger aggregate. Suitable for
intersections, driveways, turning slots Pavement strength
Mod 1: Lightly modified PMB, S10E, S35E, 10% crumb rubber Stiff: Rebound deflections < 0.9 mm
Mod 2: Multigrade or lightly modified PMB, S10E, S35E, 10% Deflection ratio > 0.8 - rigid or bound
crumb rubber 0.6 to 0.7 - stiff unbound
Mod 3: Higher grade PMB, S20E, S45R Residual deflections < 0.15 mm
Applications also include small radii roundabouts,
intersections, cul-de-sacs, turning lanes, etc. Weak: Rebound deflections > 0.9 mm
Multi: Multigrade binder Class 600/170 Deflection ratio < 0.6 - potentially weak pavement
No sprayed seal suitable: when applying sprayed seals in highly Residual deflections > 0.15 mm
stressed areas as defined here, that wherever asphalt is
available, it should be the first choice of surfacing.

An alternative form of dry matting has been used to reduce embedment into a flushed bitumen
surface by spreading a small sized aggregate (dry) onto the surface prior to spraying of binder and
spreading of the principal aggregate.

Infill aggregate
Final aggregate
Dry matting binder
Partly stripped seal
Original seal binder
Base

Figure 11.1: Dry matting technique

Austroads 2006

— 50 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

11.2.3 Cape seals


Cape seal was developed and first used in the Cape Province, South Africa. It is constructed by
applying a single/single seal to the pavement (usually using a size 20 mm aggregate) followed by a
slurry surfacing that can either partially fill the void space between the bitumen and the top of the
aggregate, or completely cover the top of the aggregate. This is achieved by either a single or
double application of slurry.

This type of treatment provides a very robust surfacing and the surface characteristics are
substantially those of slurry. It has been used in rural areas to provide a surfacing with high shear
resistance, comparable to that of asphalt, but in areas where asphalt is not economically available.
However, the underlying substrate needs to be in good condition and bases with a high deflection
or extensive cracking are unsuitable for treating with a cape seal.

Slurry surfacing infill

Large aggregate

Initial binder application

Base

Figure 11.2: Cape seal

11.2.4 Variable spray rates


Surface texture has an important influence on the amount of binder required to produce an
effective sprayed seal. It may be impossible to design a single binder application rate for flushed
wheel path areas and for the highly textured non-trafficked areas across a pavement. Variable
binder application rates across the bar are possible and can be used in spraying a different
application rate in wheel paths to areas outside the wheel paths. Where specialised spraying
equipment is not available, an alternative technique for pre-spraying to correct pavement surface
texture is described in Pavement Work Tip No. 36.

Some situations arise where effective corrective treatments or effective reseals cannot be achieved
and alternative surfacings such as hot mix asphalt or slurry surfacing need to be considered. In
some instances, it may be more effective and economic to remove the existing surfacing entirely
and re-prepare the pavement for an initial treatment.

11.2.5 Surface enrichment


An enrichment treatment is used to extend the life of an existing sprayed seal surface by providing
additional fresh binder to prevent aggregate loss. It consists of spraying a light application of a
light grade of bituminous material (cutback or emulsion) or foamed bitumen onto the surface so
that it can run into the voids in the existing aggregate. While the treatment is not a sprayed seal as
such, it is applied using the same delivery systems as sprayed seals.

As this treatment increases the amount of binder in the layer, care must be taken to ensure that
adequate surface texture remains. This treatment extends the life of the surfacing by ensuring the
retention of the existing cover aggregate, and can waterproof the surface.

Austroads 2006

— 51 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

11.2.6 Rejuvenation
Surface rejuvenation is a similar process to an enrichment treatment where a proprietary
rejuvenating agent is sprayed onto the existing surface and replaces the lost oils and resins in
oxidised bitumen. Rejuvenation can extend the life of an existing seal by reducing the effects of
binder oxidation. To achieve the optimum benefit of rejuvenation, it is good practice to cover with a
small aggregate seal within three hours of the application of the rejuvenating agent.

Rejuvenation treatments are normally only used where traffic can be diverted onto another lane or
road and traffic volumes are low.

11.3 Binders
11.3.1 Conventional bitumen
(a) General
Residual bitumen is a viscous product obtained from the refining of crude oil. Bitumen is
temperature sensitive, i.e., the material is fluid when heated allowing it to be pumped and sprayed.
When cold, it is a plastic solid providing sufficient stiffness to retain aggregate and resist the forces
of traffic. Flow or deformation properties are important when considering selection and application.

Other key characteristics of bitumen include:


ƒ adheres strongly to most materials
ƒ water resistant
ƒ flexible and ductile
ƒ durable
ƒ low toxicity
ƒ low cost.

This combination of properties makes bitumen an effective binder for sprayed seals.

Bitumen is generally supplied and applied hot, as this is usually the most economic form of binder
delivery system. The technology involved is well developed, widely understood and supported by
government and industry investment in equipment and other resources. Bitumen can also be
applied as a bitumen emulsion or foamed bitumen and these delivery systems have certain
advantages and disadvantages compared to hot bitumen.

(b) Classification and properties of bitumen


The properties of bitumen for road making are specified in AS 2008 Residual bitumen for
pavements. This Australian standard classifies and specifies the properties of conventional
pavement grade bitumens most widely used in Australia.

The following classes are most commonly used in sprayed works in Australia:
ƒ Class 170 the most commonly used class for sprayed sealing
ƒ Class 320 sometimes used for sprayed sealing in areas where pavement temperatures or
traffic stresses were high, but has been largely superseded by Multigrade bitumen
(M500/170).

Austroads 2006

— 52 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

In New Zealand the sealing grade bitumens are characterised by penetration grade and consist of:
ƒ 180/200 penetration – generally used in sprayed seal work (the approximate equivalent of
Class 50 bitumen)
ƒ 130/150 penetration – a slightly harder grade used as an alternative to 180/200 (approximate
viscosity between that of Class 50 and Class 170 bitumen)
ƒ 80/100 penetration – generally only used in sprayed seals in hotter areas or when resealing
fatty or bleeding seals (the approximate equivalent of Class 170 bitumen).

11.3.2 Multigrade bitumen


The properties of multigrade bitumen for road making are specified in Austroads Specification
framework for polymer modified binders and multigrade bitumens (2006b).

Multigrade binders are formulated to be less temperature sensitive than conventional bitumens.
This provides some of the advantages of increased binder stiffness at higher temperatures while
retaining satisfactory low-temperature characteristics. Although initially introduced for use in
asphalt, a multigrade binder has been developed for sprayed seal work (designated as M500/170)
to provide an improvement in aggregate retention at higher pavement temperatures.

Multigrade binder is treated as a conventional bitumen (Class 170 or Class 320) in the design
procedures.

Multigrade may be used for high stress seals and in place of conventional bitumens in high
temperature areas.

11.3.3 Polymer modified binder (PMB)


The properties of polymer modified binders for road making are specified in Austroads Specification
framework for polymer modified binders and multigrade bitumens (2006b).

Polymer modified binder consists of bitumen blended with a synthetic polymer or crumb rubber.
PMBs are used to enhance the performance of binders on heavily trafficked or distressed
pavement surfaces, often in adverse climatic conditions. Property improvements include reduced
temperature susceptibility, increased elasticity or resilience, increased cohesion and improved
tenacity once a bond has been established. In terms of sprayed surfacings, performance
improvements include less risk of bleeding, good crack suppression, better aggregate retention
and less deformation at high temperatures. These improvements are the basis of the use of PMBs
in strain alleviating membranes (SAMs), strain alleviating membrane interlayers (SAMIs) and high
stress seals (HSSs).

Polymer groups are coded as follows:


ƒ E for elastomeric polymers including styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS), styrene-butadiene
rubber (SBR) and polybutadiene (PBD). Binders modified with this type of polymer have
improved resilience or elasticity and are less temperature susceptible and are widely used as
HSSs, SAMs and SAMIs.
ƒ P for plastomeric polymers including ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyethylene (PE).
Binders modified with this type of polymer have increased stiffness and are used in high
stress seals (HSSs).
ƒ R for crumb rubber materials. Crumb rubber is generally obtained from shredding and
grinding of scrap rubber from vehicle tyres. When blended with bitumen the material
behaves as a form of elastomer and is used in HSS, SAMs and SAMIs.

Austroads 2006

— 53 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

A detailed guide to the selection of polymer modified binders is provided in Austroads (2006a).

11.3.4 Bitumen emulsion


Bitumen emulsions are (usually) two phase systems consisting of two immiscible liquids, bitumen
and water. The bitumen phase can be dispersed in the aqueous phase by mechanically shearing it
in a colloid mill. The dispersion of bitumen particles is held in suspension in water by a chemical
emulsifier which usually imparts an electrical charge so that the resulting electrostatic forces
prevent the globules from readily coalescing. That is, like charges on each dispersed bitumen
particle repel and prevent the particles from coalescing and settling from the suspension.

Emulsions can be used for almost any purpose for which cutback bitumens are used and are
suited to a number of other applications where the use of cutbacks is not appropriate.

The types and grades of bitumen emulsions are given in AS 1160. A number of factors will
influence the selection of the type and grade of emulsion and users are referred to the Austroads
emulsion guide.

11.4 Geotextiles
Geotextiles may be used to reinforce sprayed seals for improved waterproofing over cracked or
weak pavements. Geotextiles reinforced seals Austroads (2005b) contains detailed information on
these and other uses of geotextiles and the range of materials available.

The material preferred for reinforcement of sprayed seals is a non-woven needle punched
polyester geotextile. This type of material has been used in sprayed seals over cracked
bituminous wearing courses, cement stabilised bases with shrinkage cracks, and on lightly
trafficked roads with base courses made of heavy clays with plasticity indices of 30 to 35. Table
12.2 presents the properties required of a geotextile for use in sprayed sealing.

11.5 Aggregates
11.5.1 General
Aggregate is the load bearing and wearing component of most sprayed seals. The functions of an
aggregate are to:
ƒ spread the wheel loads to the underlying pavement
ƒ provide a skid resistant surface
ƒ provide surface drainage during wet weather
ƒ provide a durable abrasion resistant surface that will withstand traffic and weathering
ƒ interlock and impart stability to the treatment
ƒ bond to the bituminous binder.

To fulfil these functions aggregate must be derived from selected sources and have appropriate
properties as described in AS 2758.

11.5.2 Aggregate properties


The properties required of aggregate may be varied according to the intended type of treatment
and traffic conditions. In general, higher quality aggregate is required for heavy traffic conditions
(e.g. areas of high stress) and in treatments expected to have a long service life.

Austroads 2006

— 54 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

The suitability of aggregates may be evaluated by a series of Australian Standard tests (AS 1141:
Methods for sampling and testing aggregates) or in state road authority test methods. Typical
limits for these tests for sprayed seals are given in AS 2758.2 and state road authority
specifications. Specific information on the use of slag materials is given in the Roads and Traffic
Authority of NSW (1993). Other manufactured materials such as calcined bauxite are often
supplied as proprietary materials for specific purposes and specifications vary. Expert advice
should be sought on these materials.

11.5.3 Selection of aggregate size


Aggregate sizes ranging from sand up to 20 mm are used in sprayed seals.

Aggregate sizes up to 14 mm are common in single/single seals. Ten mm and 14 mm aggregate


are usually used where there is sufficient traffic volume to warrant the use of large sized
aggregates. For lower traffic volume roads and low speed environments, the use of 7 mm
aggregate is often more appropriate.

Sixteen mm and 20 mm are occasionally used in single/single seals but have the following
disadvantages:
ƒ high tyre/road noise
ƒ increased risk of damage to vehicles from flying loose aggregate particles on new work
ƒ higher binder application rates
ƒ increased cost.

The primary use of 16 and 20 mm aggregates is in combination with a smaller sized aggregate in
double/double seals. Normal combinations of aggregate in double/double and single/double seals
are:
ƒ 10 mm with a 5 mm aggregate
ƒ 14 or 16 mm with a 5 or 7 mm
ƒ 20 mm with a 5, 7 or 10 mm aggregate.

Five mm and 7 mm aggregate sizes may be used as:


ƒ a second application on top of a size 10, 14, 16 or 20 mm seal
ƒ a surfacing treatment for very lightly trafficked pavement, or for pavements where a fine
surface texture is required
ƒ part of a temporary treatment to waterproof and cure the pavement after construction before
trafficking, e.g. new construction which will not be opened to traffic for some time
ƒ part of a ‘scatter coat’ or ‘racked-in’ treatment to a large sized seal, where the points of the
aggregate from the original seal form the running surface
ƒ a corrective treatment prior to resurfacing.

A guide to the most commonly used sizes is shown in Table 11.2.

Austroads 2006

— 55 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Table 11.2: Generally recommended aggregate sizes for sprayed seal treatments

Treatment Common sizes Comment


Initial treatment (Primerseal) A small sized aggregate will carry construction traffic at lowest
To be resealed before opening Sand or 5 or 7 mm cost and avoid presenting a very coarse texture that may
to traffic. require additional binder when applying the final seal.
Under traffic 7 mm for firm pavements and low traffic, The maximum size used in primersealing is 10 mm due to the
or 10 mm in all other cases use of low viscosity binders.
Initial treatment (Prime and
seal)
As a temporary treatment to be Sand or 5 or 7 mm For low traffic roads, 7 mm and 10 mm sprayed seals can
resealed before opening to provide adequate service at lowest initial cost. 14 mm sizes
traffic. are initially more expensive but can be cost effective in some
light traffic applications where surface enrichment is used to
To be opened to traffic after 7 or 10 mm for firm pavements and low extend the life of the seal. (Surface enrichment may be done a
sealing. traffic. 10 mm for soft pavements and number of times)
low traffic. 14 mm or 10 mm for high
traffic pavements.
Final seal or reseal
Existing seal 7 mm, or asphalt Generally 7 or 10 mm for low traffic and
surface. 14 mm for high traffic (but reduce to If the existing surface texture is uneven, it may be very difficult
10 mm if noise is an issue). to successfully reseal. In such cases a corrective treatment
using 5 or 7 mm aggregate may provide a more even surface
Existing seal 10 mm. 7 mm for low traffic or 14 mm for high
texture which can subsequently be resealed with a larger
traffic (see comment).
aggregate size.
Existing seal 14 or 16 mm. 7 mm for low traffic or 10 mm for high
traffic (see comment).
SAM SAM seals for resistance to cracking should use aggregates of
Existing seal 7 mm or an Generally 14 mm. 14 mm size to provide a suitable heavy binder application.
asphalt surface. This may be reduced to 10 mm if noise is an issue or where
required to mesh with an existing coarse textured seal but
Existing seal 10 mm. 14 mm
performance levels will be reduced. Alternatively, double
Existing seal 14 mm. 10 mm (see comment) application seals can be considered.
Generally, a SAMI seal requires 1.6 to 2.0 L/m2 of polymer
SAMI seals modified binder to provide sufficient binder to resist reflection
Asphalt surface or sprayed seal Generally 10 mm. cracking. Risk of flushing of a 10 mm seal at such application
surface. rates is minimal where the seal is only trafficked for a short
period before applying asphalt.
Single application geotextile reinforced sprayed seals require
high binder application rates and highly modified binder to
effectively hold aggregate in place. Risks of poor performance
Geotextile reinforced sprayed are increased with 10 mm aggregates although 10 mm
seals aggregates are suitable where the seal is to be covered with
To remain as a sprayed seal Generally 14 mm. asphalt. Alternatively, double application geotextile reinforced
surface. sprayed seals using PMB or Class 170 binder substantially
reduce the risk associated with premature stripping.
To be surfaced with asphalt. Generally a 10 mm. If the existing surface on which a single application geotextile
sprayed seal is placed is coarse (>1.5 mm) an initial
application of a 7 mm sprayed seal may be used to reduce the
texture and reduce risk of premature stripping.
Special seal locations
Fords/ areas subject to A heavy robust surfacing is required. Generally this involves a double application seal using combinations
inundation. of 20 mm with 10 or 7 mm, or 14 mm with 7 mm.
Flushed areas. If single application seals or corrective treatments are considered unsuitable, then an effective alternative
can be a double application seal using 20 mm with 10 or 7 mm.
Shoulders on highways and Generally the greatest durability is obtained with two application seals using a combination of 14 mm with
freeways. 7 mm (or 20 mm plus 10 mm where a heavier treatment is required to resist reflection cracking).
Dusty desert country. Consider double application seal where the role of the top seal coat is to protect the binder in the bottom
coat from deterioration/contamination from dust.

Austroads 2006

— 56 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

12 PRIMING AND PRIMERSEALING


12.1 Introduction
The information in this section is provided to assist designers with background information on
temporary treatments such as priming and primersealing, which are commonly used as preliminary
initial treatments on pavements.

Primes and primerseals generally perform well when they are applied in acceptable weather
conditions and on pavements that are properly constructed and prepared. When the treatments
are applied in less than favourable conditions, a lower, or possibly an unacceptable standard of
performance is to be expected.

12.2 Prime
12.2.1 Function of a prime
Priming is the application of a suitable primer to a prepared pavement as a preliminary treatment to
the application of a bituminous surfacing.

The function of priming is to assist in achieving and maintaining a strong bond between the
pavement and the final treatment. To achieve this, the properties of a primer should enable it to:
ƒ suppress surface dust
ƒ seal surface pores in the pavement material
ƒ strengthen the pavement near its surface
ƒ waterproof the pavement binding materials.

Primer showing
penetration into base

Base

Figure 12.1: Prime

12.2.2 Selection and design for priming


There is no formal design method for selection and design for priming which is usually based on
experience with the local pavement materials and prevailing weather conditions. A general guide
to selection of grade of cutback bitumen primer and primer application rates is shown in the Table
12.1.

Austroads 2006

— 57 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Table 12.1: Guide to grade and rates of application of primer

Primer
Pavement Rate of application
Grade
L/m2
Tightly bonded Light 0.6 to 1.1
Medium porosity Medium 0.8 to 1.1
Porous Heavy to very heavy 0.9 to 1.3
Limestone Heavy to very heavy 2 applications
1st @ 0.7 to 0.9
2nd @ 0.5 to 0.7
Sandstone Heavy to very heavy 2 applications
1st @ 0.7 to 0.9
2nd @ 0.5 to 0.7
Hill gravels, granitic sands Light 0.8 to 1.1
Stabilised Very light to light 0.5 to 0.8
Concrete Very light 0.2 to 0.4

Standard grades of bitumen emulsion are generally not suitable for priming but proprietary grades
have been developed that should be used in accordance with manufacturer’s guidelines.

Where a pavement has been stabilised with cementitious or chemical binders is to be primed with
a bitumen emulsion, a check on the compatibility of the emulsion with the stabilised material
should be undertaken. Emulsions is likely to be compatible with bitumen stabilised pavements.

12.2.3 When to prime


Priming provides some flexibility between the time of completing construction and applying the
initial treatment seal. It improves the bond between the pavement and the final treatment and
reduces the risk of failure of the treatment.

It is recommended practice to prime all newly constructed granular pavements prepared for
sprayed seal or asphalt initial treatments, unless the proposed treatment is a primerseal, or a layer
of asphalt of more than 100 mm thickness.

The pavement should be allowed to dry out on the top, and to a depth of 5 to 10 mm, in order to
allow the primer to penetrate into the pavement pores and provide a good strong bond for the final
treatment.

Concrete pavements and timber surfaces such as bridge decks should also be primed to assist
and provide an adequate bond between the pavement surface and sprayed seal or asphalt
treatment. This applies in particular to conditions where a SAMI is to be applied over a concrete
surfacing prior to placing an asphalt overlay.

Where traffic at the time of application exceeds 200 v/l/d, the alternative of primersealing is
recommended as this causes less inconvenience to the road user.

Priming should only be carried out in the warmer and drier time of the year, except in areas where
the pavement may be closed to traffic and the probability of run-off of primer due to wet weather is
minimal.

Austroads 2006

— 58 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

12.2.4 Life expectancy of prime


With a suitable type and grade of primer of the required viscosity, applied at the correct rate of
application for the type of pavement material and conditions, the life that can be expected without
further treatment, other than normal maintenance, will be several weeks. Life will be longer on
roads with very low traffic, and up to several months if not trafficked.

A cutback bitumen primer should be allowed to cure for at least 3 days prior to sealing. If less than
three days curing is likely then this must be taken into consideration in the seal design.

Bitumen emulsion primers will set up and cure quicker, and can often be sealed or covered with
asphalt, after about 24 hours in warm weather conditions.

12.3 Primerseals
12.3.1 General
There is no formal design method at this stage. The following guidelines are provided to assist
with selection of the type of primerbinder and determining application rates.

The success of a primerseal relies on:


ƒ selection of an appropriate primerbinder
ƒ selection of an appropriate aggregate size
ƒ primerbinder and aggregate application rates
ƒ preparation and condition of base materials
ƒ application procedures (workmanship).

Small to mid-sized aggregate


Primerbinder showing
penetration into base
Base

Figure 12.2: Primerseal

12.3.2 Selection of primerbinder


The choice of primerbinder is mainly influenced by the prevailing weather conditions, as well as the
expected life of the treatment, and timing and type of final treatment. A guide to selection of type
and grade of primerbinder is shown in Table 12.2. Where a pavement stabilised with cementitious
or chemical binder is to be primer sealed using a bitumen emulsion, a check on the compatibility of
the emulsion with the stabilised material should be undertaken. Emulsions will always be
compatible with bitumen stabilised pavements.

Table 12.2: Selection of type and grade of primerbinder

Primerbinder Recommended use


Light to medium grade of cutback bitumen. Cool and/or damp conditions. Tightly bonded or medium porosity pavements.
Heavy grade of cutback bitumen. Warmer and/or drier conditions. Porous type pavements.
Bitumen emulsion (60% or 67% residual All year, but more suited to cool and/or damp conditions. Porous type pavements. When final
bitumen content). surfacing is to be applied immediately or before adequate curing of a cutback bitumen.

Austroads 2006

— 59 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

12.3.3 Primerbinder application rates


Basic primerbinder application rates are shown in Table 12.3. These rates refer to the total
volumes of the mixtures (i.e. including cutter oils and/or water content) expressed at 15°C. Rates
will generally need to be adjusted in line with allowances for absorption, surface condition and
aggregate embedment.

Allowances for absorption are not generally required for primerseals except for unusually porous
pavement materials such as sandy or silty rubble base course (sandstone, limestone or silty
gravels), particularly in hot dry climates. In such cases, an allowance of +0.1 to +0.2 L/m2 may be
applied.

Pavements stabilised with cementitious binders: The surface of a typical cement stabilised base
course would be expected to have less voids and a tighter surface finish than an unstabilised
material. It is likely that the surface of the base course would be less absorptive and an
absorption allowance of up to -0.1 L/m2 should be used.

Bitumen stabilised materials: Some binder may be available from the stabilisation process and the
absorption allowance should be reduced by up to -0.1 L/m2. In special circumstances the
reduction may be -0.2 L/m2.

Pavements stabilised with chemical binders: For the use of chemical binders, refer to Austroads
publication Series Part 4D.

Aggregate embedment allowances depend on the volume and mass of traffic and condition
(hardness) of the pavement, in particular the top 20 mm of the surface layer. A guide to
embedment allowance (Austroads Test Method AG:PT/T251) is shown in Table 12.4.

Table 12.3: Basic primerbinder application rates (total volume of binder)

Total primerbinder application rate


Traffic Aggregate size (L/m2 at 15°C)
(v/l/d) (mm) Bitumen emulsion
Cutback bitumen
60% 67%
5 or 7 1.3 1.6 1.4
≤ 150
10 1.4 1.8 1.6
5 or 7 1.2 1.5 1.3
151 to 1200
10 1.3 1.6 1.4
5 or 7 1.1 1.4 1.2
1201 to 2500
10 1.2 1.5 1.3
> 2500 Primersealing is not recommended.

Primerbinder application rates refer to the total volumes of the mixtures (i.e. including cutter oils
and/or water content) expressed at 15°C.

Austroads 2006

— 60 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Table 12.4: Embedment allowances for primer seals

Ball penetration value Traffic (v/l/d)


(mm) ≤ 150 151 to 1200 1201 to 2500
< 1.0 Nil Nil Nil
1.0 to 2.0 Nil - 0.1 - 0.1
2.1 to 3.0 Nil - 0.1 - 0.2
3.1 to 4.0 Nil (see note 1) see note 1 see note 1
> 4.0 see note 2 see note 2 see note 2
Note 1: For ball penetration values exceeding 3 mm, maximum aggregate size should be limited to 7 mm.
Note 2: For ball penetrations > 4 mm, primersealing is not generally recommended, particularly at higher traffic volumes (> 1200 v/l/d) and alternative treatments,
or re-preparation of the pavement, should be considered.

Where ball embedment exceeds 4 mm, re-preparation of the pavement, including possibilities for
improvement in quality of the pavement material, armour coating with a thin layer of good quality
material, stabilisation, etc. should be considered.

12.3.4 Selection of aggregate size for primerseals


The aggregate size will depend on traffic and climatic conditions. For less than 200 v/l/d, size 5 or
7 mm aggregate is appropriate, and for higher traffic situations use 7 or 10 mm size aggregate.
However, if the conditions are either very hot and/or wet, and the traffic is in excess of 600 v/l/d, a
size 10 mm aggregate may be used.

12.3.5 Aggregate spread rates for primerseals


Aggregate spread rates should be in the range:
ƒ 120 to 140 m²/m3 for 5 and 7 mm aggregates
ƒ 100 to 120 m²/m3 for 10 mm aggregates.

Austroads 2006

— 61 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

REFERENCES
General publications
ASTM 2005, Standard test method to determine asphalt retention of paving fabrics used in asphalt paving for
full-width application, D6140-00.

Austroads 1990, Design of sprayed seals, Austroads Sydney.

Austroads 2001, Austroads provisional sprayed seal design method, revision 2000, AP-T09/01-2001,
Austroads Sydney.

Austroads 2002, Practitioners guide to design of sprayed seals – Revision 2000 method, AP-T17/02,
Austroads Sydney.

Austroads 2003, Guide to selection of road surfacings, 2nd ed, AP-G63/03, Austroads, Sydney.

Austroads 2004a, Sprayed sealing guide, AP-G76/04, Austroads, Sydney.

Austroads 2005b, Geotextile reinforced seals, AP-G37/05, Austroads, Sydney.

Austroads 2005, Fibre-reinforced seals, AP-T38/05, Austroads, Sydney.

Austroads 2006a, Guide to the selection and use of polymer modified binders and multigrade bitumens, AP-
T42/06, Austroads, Sydney.

Austroads 2006b, Specification framework for polymer modified binders and multigrade bitumens, AP-
T41/06, Austroads, Sydney.

Hanson, FM 1935, ‘Bituminous surfacing treatment of rural highways’, Proc. NZ Society of Civil Engineers,
vol 21, pp 89–179.

NITRR 1986, Surfacing seals for rural and urban highways, Draft TRH3, National Institute for Transport and
Road Research, Pretoria.

RTA 1993, A Guide to the use of slags in roads, pp 26.

Australian Standards
Standards Australia 1999, Methods for sampling and testing aggregates, AS 1141 - 1999, Standards
Australia, North Sydney.

Standards Australia 1996, Bituminous emulsions for construction and maintenance of pavements, AS 1160 -
1996, Standards Australia, North Sydney.

Standards Australia 1997, Residual bitumen for pavements, AS 2008 - 1997, Standards Australia, North
Sydney.

Standards Australia 1997, Cutback bitumen, AS 2157 - 1997, Standards Australia, North Sydney.

Standards Australia 2002, Methods of testing bitumen and related roadmaking products, AS 2341 - 2002,
Standards Australia, North Sydney.

Standards Australia 1999, Oils for reducing the viscosity of residual bitumen for pavements, AS 3568 - 1999,
Standards Australia, North Sydney.

Austroads 2006

— 62 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Standards Australia 1996, Aggregates and rock for engineering purposes, Part 2: Aggregates for sprayed
bituminous surfacing, AS 2758.2 - 1996, Standards Australia, North Sydney.

Standards Australia 2003, Geotextiles – Methods of test, Part 1, General requirements, sampling,
conditioning, basic physical properties and statistical analysis, AS 3706.1 - 2003, Standards Australia,
North Sydney.

Austroads Test Methods


Austroads 2003, Average least dimension of aggregate by direct measurement (nominal size 10 mm and
greater), AG:PT/T051 – 2003, viewed 23 February 2006, <http:// www.austroads.com.au>.

Austroads 2003, AG:PT/T052 Absorption of bituminous binder into aggregate, AG:PT/T051 – 2003,
viewed 23 February 2006, <http:// www.austroads.com.au>.

Austroads 2003, AG:PT/T250 Surface texture depth (Pestle method), AG:PT/T051 – 2003, viewed 23
February 2006, <http:// www.austroads.com.au>.

Austroads 2003, AG:PT/T251 Ball penetration test, AG:PT/T051 – 2003, viewed 23 February 2006, <http://
www.austroads.com.au>.

Austroads 2003, AG:PT/T253 Seal behaviour, AG:PT/T051 – 2003, viewed 23 February 2006, <http://
www.austroads.com.au>.

Austroads 2005, AG:PT/T252 Penetration of road base by bituminous primers or primer binders,
AG:PT/T051 – 2005, viewed 23 February 2006, <http:// www.austroads.com.au>.

Austroads 2005, AP-T37/05: Geotextile Reinforced Seals, <http:// www.austroads.com.au>.

Austroads 2005, AP-T41/06: Specification framework for polymer modified binders and multigrade
Bitumens, <http:// www.austroads.com.au>.

Austroads 2005, AP-T42/06: Guide to the selection and use of polymer modified binders and multigrade
bitumens, <http:// www.austroads.com.au>.

Austroads test methods may be downloaded free from the Austroads website at www.austroads.com.au.

Austroads/AAPA Pavement Work Tips (Sprayed Sealing Topics)


Austroads & AAPA 1997, Priming and sealing, Work Tip No. 1 – 1997, viewed 23 February 2006, <http://
www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads & AAPA 1998, Treatment of bleeding or flushed surfaces, Work Tip No. 7 – 1998, viewed 23
February 2006, <http:// www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads & AAPA 1998, Preparing pavements for resealing, Work Tip No. 9 – 1998, viewed 23 February
2006, <http:// www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads & AAPA 2000, Sprayed sealing – selection of initial treatments, Work Tip No. 18 – 2000, viewed
23 February 2006, <http:// www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads & AAPA 2000, Sprayed sealing – selecting aggregate size, Work Tip No. 19 – 2000, viewed 23
February 2006, <http:// www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads & AAPA 2001, Geotextile reinforced sprayed seals, Work Tip No. 25 – 2001, viewed 23 February
2006, <http:// www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads 2006

— 63 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Austroads & AAPA 2002, Sprayed seals – a brief description, Work Tip No. 32 – 2002, viewed 23 February
2006, <http:// www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads & AAPA 2003, Sprayed seals – pre-spraying to correct surface texture, Work Tip No. 36 – 2003,
viewed 23 February 2006, <http:// www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads & AAPA 2003, Sprayed sealing – surface enrichment, Work Tip No. 38 - 2003, viewed 23
February 2006, <http:// www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads & AAPA 2004, Sprayed sealing – binder volume correction, Work Tip No. 40 – 2004, viewed 23
February 2006, <http:// www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads & AAPA 2004, Selection and design of primerseals, Work Tip No. 43 – 2004, viewed 23 February
2006, <http:// www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads & AAPA 2004, High pressure water retexturing, Work Tip No. 44 – 2004, viewed 23 February
2006, <http:// www.aapa.asn.au>.

Austroads & AAPA Work Tips may be downloaded free from the AAPA website at www.aapa.asn.au.

Austroads 2006

— 64 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

APPENDIX A WORKED EXAMPLES


A.1 General
Following are four design examples using this method to show typical designs for determining
rates of application of binder and aggregate spread rates. These examples cover:
ƒ single/single reseal on a heavily trafficked rural highway
ƒ double/double reseal on an access road carrying a high percentage of heavy vehicles
ƒ single/single seal on a low traffic volume rural road
ƒ single/single SAM reseal on a medium trafficked rural road.

These cover a range of traffic volumes and highlight the various adjustments and allowances that
should be taken into consideration, as well as the calculations that must be carried out to
determine the binder design application rate and aggregate spread rate.

For convenience a pro-forma has been used for these design examples. It generally follows the
procedure recommended in Figure 1.3 in the body of this report. ‘Determination of aggregate and
binder application rates for single/single sprayed seals’ and will assist with ensuring that all
relevant adjustments and allowances are taken into consideration in the design process.

Attention to detail is most important to ensure the design being prepared is appropriate to the job
conditions. Some common errors observed in the design process, which directly affect the rates
and therefore the outcome and performance of the sprayed seal are:
ƒ insufficient attention being given to obtaining the latest traffic volumes required to determine
the appropriate design traffic, particularly on the more complex and/or multi-lane situations
ƒ not checking that the aggregate details provided by the supplier are relevant and apply to the
aggregate being used on the job.

A.1.1 Example 1 – Single/single reseal - 14 mm reseal on a highway with a high traffic


volume
One carriageway of a duplicated highway is to be resealed to provide waterproofing and skid
resistance for at least 5 years, at which time it is expected this section will be rehabilitated and
upgraded by the addition of another lane.

Sealing binder
14mm aggregate
Existing seal
Base

The area to be resealed is on a long uphill section of the highway.

Austroads 2006

— 65 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Job details

Sealed pavement consists of two traffic lanes of 3.7 m width plus a sealed 2.7 m shoulder on the
left-hand side.

The left-hand lane was rutted and also had some distressed areas. This has been patched and
regulated with asphalt, about 12 months ago. The surface texture is uniform in appearance. It is
too smooth for the sand patch test to determine a surface texture, and an allowance, based on
experience, of +0.1 L/m2 is considered appropriate.

The right-hand lane is a seal of size 10 mm basalt aggregate. It is reasonably uniform in


appearance and texture, although along the edges and between the wheel paths the texture is
slightly coarser, but not enough to warrant a correction treatment. Sand patch test results give an
average surface texture of 1.5 mm.

The shoulder is a seal of size 7 mm basalt applied at some stage to prevent further loss of the
original size 10 mm aggregate. It is uniform in appearance but has a very coarse texture. The
sand patch test results give an average surface texture of about 2.4 mm.

Traffic data
Traffic – 15,000 AADT, including 18% heavy vehicles, consisting of:
ƒ heavy vehicles = 10% (HV)
ƒ large heavy vehicles = 8% (LHV)

Assume traffic is equal over the two carriageways, thus each carriageway carries 15000/2 = 7500
vehicles per day.

Assume:
ƒ outside lane (LH) takes 60% = 60/100 x 7500 = 4500 v/l/d
ƒ median lane (RH) takes 40% = 40/100 x 7500 = 3000 v/l/d
ƒ shoulders = adopt < 50v/l/d

It is assumed that nearly all the heavy vehicles will travel in the LH lane. Heavy vehicles are 18%
of the total AADT, and it is necessary to calculate the actual % of equivalent heavy vehicles in the
LH lane in order to be able to make an appropriate adjustment to the basic voids factor.

Austroads 2006

— 66 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

LH lane:
Equivalent heavy vehicles (EHV) = HV + LHV
= 10/100 x 7500 + 8/100 x 7500
= 750 + 600 = 1350
EHV (used for traffic adjustments) = 750/4500 x 100 + 600/4500 x 3 x 100
= 16.6 + 40 = 57%
RH lane: Heavy vehicles will be less than 5%
Shoulder: Heavy vehicles = 0%

Aggregate details
Size/type: 14 mm, basalt
Flakiness index: 22 %
ALD: 8.6 mm

Table A.1: Example 1 - Design calculations

Job location Symbol Units Kerb lane Median lane Shoulders


Traffic - AADT 15000 15000 Adopt < 50
Design Traffic - v/l/d 4500 3000 See Table 1.2
Basic Voids Factor Vf - 0.13 (Fig 3b) 0.14 0.23 (Fig 3a)
Adjustments:
Aggregate Shape Va L/m²/mm nil nil nil
Traffic Effects Vt L/m²/mm - 0.04 (Table 2.2) 0.01 + 0.02 (Table 2.2)
Other - L/m²/mm nil Nil Nil
Design Voids Factor VF L/m²/mm - 0.09 0.15 0.25
Vf + Va + Vt See Note 1
ALD of aggregate ALD mm 8.6 8.6 8.6
Basic Binder Rate Bb L/m² 0.09 x 8.6 = 0.78 0.15 x 8.6 = 1.29 0.25 x 8.6 = 2.15
VF x ALD
Allowances:
Surface texture Ast L/m² + 0.1 + 0.4 + 0.4
Binder Abs. by Agg Aba L/m² nil nil nil
Pav Ap L/m² nil nil nil
Embedment Ae L/m² nil nil nil
Design Binder Rate Bd L/m² 0.78 + 0.1 = 0.88 1.29 + 0.4 = 1.69 2.15 + 0.4 = 2.55
Bb + Ast + Aba + Ae adopt 0.9 adopt 1.7 adopt 2.5
see Note 2
Aggregate Spread Rate - m2/m3 900/8.6 = 104.6
adopt 105 adopt 105 adopt 105
NOTE:
1 This is below the recommended VF of 0.1, and there is a high risk of losing the aggregate during initial trafficking. To minimise this, use a PMD for
Aggregate Retention (and amend the design) or adopt a double/double treatment.
2 2.50L/m2 for the shoulder is considered to be an expensive option for a reseal and has a high risk of binder drainage in hot weather. The preferred
alternative is to consider selecting 7 mm aggregate (or 10 mm) as this will be cheaper whilst providing the necessary waterproofing, and texture is not an
issue.

Austroads 2006

— 67 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

A.1.2 Example 2 – Double/double seal


An access road to an industrial subdivision has been primersealed (7 mm) to cater for construction
traffic. The final double/double seal is to be applied prior to opening to traffic, which is expected to
include heavy vehicles delivering building and construction materials.

Second (smaller) aggregate


Second binder
First (larger) aggregate
First binder
Primerseal
Base

Both applications will be completed on consecutive days prior to opening to traffic.

Job details
The alignment is straight and level. An intersection near the end of the work, providing access into
the subdivision, will be surfaced with dense graded asphalt.

Pavement is 7.6 m between kerbs.

Existing primerseal is a size 7 mm, with a uniform surface texture – average about 1 mm as
measured with the sand patch test.

The primerseal is over 12 months old and has a very tight mosaic. Aggregate embedment of the
final seal is considered to be nil.

Aggregate
Size/type: 14 mm & 7 mm basalt
Flakiness index: 15 % < 35%-
ALD: 8.7 mm Not measured
Aggregate absorption Nil Nil

Traffic data
Traffic is estimated to be about 1800 AADT, with 35% heavy vehicles which will mainly be large
trucks and semi-trailers with few very large vehicles.

For a width of 7.6 m there will be two lanes of traffic, and the design traffic is 1800/2 = 900 v/l/d.

EHV = HV + LHV
= 35 + 0 x 3
= 35% (in the range of 26 – 45% in Table 2.2)

Austroads 2006

— 68 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Table A.2: Example 2 - Design calculations

Job location Symbol Units 1st Application (14 mm) 2nd Application (7 mm)
Traffic - AADT 1800 1800
Design Traffic - v/l/d 900 900
Basic Voids Factor Vf - 0.16, reduce by 20% = 0.13 See Table 4.1
Adjustments:
Aggregate Shape Va L/m2/mm + 0.1 n.a.
Traffic Effects Vt L/ m2/mm - 0.02
Other Nil
L/ m2/mm
Design Voids Factor VF L/ m2/mm 0.0.12 n.a.
Vf + Va + Vt
ALD of aggregate ALD mm 8.7 n.a.
Basic Binder Rate Bb L/m² 0.12 x 8.7 = 1.04 Table 4.2
VF x ALD 0.6 – 0.8 (600 to 1200 v/l/d)
for 900 v/l/d adopt 0.7
Allowances:
Surface texture Ast L/m² + 0.2 n.a.
Binder Abs. by Agg Aba L/m² nil, nil Nil
Pav Ap L/m² nil n.a.
Embedment Ae nil Nil
Design Binder Rate Bd L/m² 1.04 + 0.2 = 1.24
Bb+Ast+Aba+Ap adopt 1.2 0.7
Aggregate Spread Rate Asr m2/m3 900/8.7 * 1.1 = 113.8 Range 300 – 340
adopt 114 Adopt 310

A.1.3 Example 3 – Single/single 7 mm seal


An initial treatment seal is required on a low traffic semi-rural road that provides access to the local
schools and small shopping strip. Traffic is mainly cars, some school buses and a few delivery
vehicles and garbage collection. This council road has been recently reconstructed and primed.
Because of the relatively soft condition of the type of pavement material, it has been decided to
apply an inverted seal, with 7 mm as the initial treatment. The second treatment is a 10 mm seal
programmed to be applied in about 12 months.

Small sized aggregate


Primed surface
penetration into base
Granular base (soft)

Job details
a) alignment is straight and level, seal is to be 7.4 m wide
b) existing primed surface has a ball penetration value of 4 mm. The surface is uniform but
slightly roughened. The colour of the surface is dark brown to black and is considered
waterproof.

Austroads 2006

— 69 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Aggregate
Size/type: 7 mm crushed river gravel
Flakiness index: 5%
Shape: Cubical
ALD: not measured

Traffic data
Traffic is estimated to be about 200 - 250 AADT, with less than 5% heavy vehicles.

Table A.3: Example 3 - Design calculations

Job location Symbol Units 1st Application (10 mm)


Traffic - AADT 200 to 250
Design Traffic - v/l/d Assume 125
Basic Voids Factor Vf - n.a.
Adjustments:
Aggregate Shape Va L/m2/mm n.a.
Traffic Effects Vt L/m2/mm n.a.
Other - L/m2/mm n.a.
Design Voids Factor VF L/m2/mm n.a.
Vf + Va + Vt
ALD of aggregate ALD mm n.a.
Basic Binder Rate Bb L/m² Refer Table 3.1
VF x ALD Basic binder rate 0.9 to 0.7
At 125v/l/d – adopt 0.9
Allowances:
Surface texture Ast L/m² + 0.1 (visual)
Binder Abs. by Agg Aba L/m² nil
Pav Ap L/m² +0.1
Embedment Ae Nil for 7 mm
Design Binder Rate Bd L/m² 0.9 + 0.1 + 0.1 = 1.1
BB + AST + ABA + AE Adopt 1.1
Aggregate Spread Rate Ast m2/m3 Range 200 to 250
Adopt 225

A.1.4 Example 4 – Single/single SAM 10 mm reseal


A rural road is to be resealed. The traffic is increasing, and due to the nature of the pavement
material and the prolonged dry conditions the pavement is cracked quite extensively, but there is
no loss of shape and the crack activity would be rated as low and cracks are generally only about 2
to 3 mm in width. Because the sub-grade is considered moisture sensitive, it has been decided to
apply a SAM to minimise reflection cracking.

Austroads 2006

— 70 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

aggregate
SAM binder
Cracks
Cracked base

Job details
The alignment is across mildly undulating country.

Sealed width is 6.8 m.

Existing seal is a size 14 mm initial treatment, about 15 years old, with minor single stone
aggregate loss only.

Surface texture – fairly uniform, average about 2.3 mm as measured with the sand patch test. For
a C170 binder seal it is recommended the aggregate size be changed to 7 mm because of the
deep texture. However, a 7 mm aggregate is not suitable for a SAM, and a PMB binder is more
tolerant and has greater aggregate retention. (refer Table 2.3, note 3).

Aggregate
Size/type: 10 mm, schist (good quality local aggregate)
Flakiness index: 18 %
ALD: 6.4 mm

Binder
Because the cracking is considered environmental and slow moving, suitable PMBs are S10E,
S35E or S45R. The PMB selected is S35E. The polymer modified binder factor (PF) is 1.2 for this
PMB (refer Table 4.1).

Traffic data
Traffic is estimated to be about 300 AADT, with 12% heavy vehicles which will mainly be large
trucks and semi-trailers with few very large vehicles. Although the seal width is only 6.8m wide,
the traffic lanes are not considered to be narrow enough to prevent some traffic wander and traffic
conditions are considered to be ‘normal’ (refer Table 2.2).

Austroads 2006

— 71 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Table A.4: Example 4 - Design calculations

Job location Symbol Units Reseal (10 mm)


Traffic - AADT 300
Design Traffic - v/l/d 150
Basic Voids Factor Vf - 0.20
Adjustments:
Aggregate Shape Va L/m2/mm n.a.
Traffic Effects Vt L/m2/mm n.a.
Other - L/m2/mm n.a.
Design Voids Factor VF L/m2/mm 0.20
Vf + Va + Vt
ALD of aggregate ALD mm 6.4
Basic Binder Rate Bb L/m² 0.2 x 6.4
VF x ALD = 1.28
Modified Binder Rate L/m² PF = 1.2 (refer Table 4.1)
Bb x PF 1.28 x 1.2 = 1.54
Allowances:
Surface texture Ast L/m² Adopt 0.5 (table 2.3, and details above)
Binder Abs. by Agg Aba L/m² nil
Pav Ap L/m² nil
Embedment Ae n.a. for reseal
Design Binder Rate Bd L/m² 1.54 + 0.5 = 1.94
BB + AST + ABA + AE Adopt 1.9
(this is satisfactory as the minimum recommended binder rate for a SAM is
1.5)
Aggregate Spread Rate Asr m2/m3 750/ALD (refer Table 4.2)
750//6.4 = 117
Adopt 120

Austroads 2006

— 72 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

APPENDIX B VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION TABLE

Austroads 2006

— 73 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

APPENDIX C SUMMARY OF TABLES AND DESIGN FACTORS


C.1 Design procedure for single/single seals aggregates size 10 mm
and larger
General
The following procedure is a summary of the design factors and tables contained in Sections 2, 4,
and 5 of the guide. For interpretation and guidance in use of the tables and design procedure
reference should be made to the relevant text in Sections 2, 4 and 5.

A flow chart for design of single/single seals is provided in Figure 2.1.

Seal Intentions
ƒ Road environment
Basic Voids Factor, Vf
ƒ Asset management criteria (L/m2 /mm) Traffic volume (v/l/d)
ƒ Treatment type

Aggregate, Va
shape and size

Void factor Traffic effects, Vt


adjustments ƒ composition
2
(L/m /mm) ƒ untrafficked areas
ƒ short term effects
ƒ climbing lanes
ƒ curvature Design Aggregate Spread
ƒ intersections Design Voids Factor, VF Rate
ƒ narrow lanes (L/m2 /mm)

Basic Binder Application


Aggregate ALD
Rate, Bb (L/m2) = VF x ALD

Surface texture, As

Design Binder
Allowances Binder absorption, Aba Application Rate,
(L/m2 ) 2
Bd (L/m )

Embedment, Ae

Figure 2.1 (rpt): Design concept of single/single seals

Austroads 2006

— 74 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Abbreviations
The following terms and abbreviations are used in the procedures for the design of the binder
application rate:
Vf = Basic Voids Factor
Va = Voids factor adjustment applied to aggregate shape
Vt = Voids factor adjustment applied to traffic effects
VF = Design Voids Factor
Bb = Basic Binder Application Rate (before application of allowances)
PF = Polymer modified binder factor (applied to Basic Binder Application Rate)
EF = Emulsion factor (applied to Basic Binder Application Rate)
As = Allowance for surface texture
Ae = Allowance for embedment
Aba = Allowance for binder absorption
Bd = Design Binder Application Rate (after application of allowances).

Basic Voids Factor (Vf)


The Basic Voids Factor, Vf (L/m2/mm), is related to traffic level and is determined from Figure 2.2
or Figure 2.3 (depending on traffic volume), and should be read to the nearest 0.01 L/m2/mm.

0.30
Upper limit
Target
Basic voids Factor, Vf (L/m /mm)

Lower limit
2

0.25

0.20

0.15
0 100 200 300 400 500

Traffic volume (v/l/d)

Figure 2.2a (rpt): Basic Voids Factor (Vf) – traffic volume 0 to 500 vehicles/lane/day

Austroads 2006

— 75 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

0.20
Upper limit
Target
Basic Voids Factor, Vf (L/m /mm)

Lower limit
2

0.15

0.10

0.05
500 2500 4500 6500 8500

Traffic volume (v/l/d)

Figure 2.3 (rpt): Basic Voids Factor (Vf) - traffic volume 500 to 10,000 vehicles/lane/day

The upper limit indicates the Design Voids Factor beyond which the resultant binder level may be
too high and texture depth too low, with the increased potential risk of flushing/bleeding.

The lower limit indicates the Design Voids Factor beyond which the resultant binder level may be
too low and texture depth too high, with the increased potential of early loss of aggregate.

Designers must exercise caution if adopting Design Voids Factors outside these limits.

Adjustments to the Basic Voids Factor


(a) Adjustment for aggregate shape (Va)

Table 2.1 (rpt): Aggregate shape adjustment (Va) to Basic Voids Factor

Aggregate type Aggregate shape Flakiness index Shape adjustment Va


(%) (L/m2/mm)
Very flaky > 35 Considered too flaky and not
recommended for sealing
Flaky 26 to 35 0 to - 0.01
Crushed or partly crushed
Angular 15 to 25 Nil
Cubic < 15 + 0.01
Rounded n.a. 0 to + 0.10
Not crushed Rounded n.a. + 0.01

Austroads 2006

— 76 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

(b) Adjustment for traffic effects (Vt)

Table 2.2 (rpt): Adjustment (Vt) to Basic Voids Factor for traffic effects

Adjustment to Basic Voids Factor (L/m2/mm)


Traffic Flat or downhill Slow moving – climbing lanes
Normal Channelised* Normal Channelised*
On overtaking lanes of multi-lane rural roads
+0.01 0.00 n.a. n.a.
where traffic is mainly cars with ≤10% of HV
Non-trafficked areas such as shoulders, medians,
+0.02 n.a. n.a. n.a.
parking areas
0 to 15% Equivalent Heavy Vehicles (EHV) Nil -0.01 -0.01 -0.02
16 to 25% Equivalent Heavy Vehicles (EHV) -0.01 -0.02 -0.02 -0.03
26 to 45% Equivalent Heavy Vehicles (EHV) - 0.02 - 0.03 - 0.03 - 0.04**
> 45% Equivalent Heavy Vehicles (EHV) - 0.03 - 0.04** - 0.04** - 0.05**
N/A Not applicable
EHV Equivalent Heavy Vehicles, includes both Heavy Vehicles and Large Heavy Vehicles × 3 (See Section 1.5.4).
* Channelisation - a system of controlling traffic by the introduction of an island or islands, or markings on a carriageway to direct traffic into predetermined
paths, usually at an intersection or junction. This also applies to approaches to bridges and narrow culverts.
** See ‘Key point’ below.

If adjustments for aggregate shape and traffic effects result in a reduction in Basic Voids Factor of
0.4 L/m2/mm or more, special consideration should be given to the suitability of the treatment and
possible selection of alternative treatments. Note that the recommended MINIMUM Design Voids
Factor is 0.10 L/m2/mm in all cases.

Design Voids Factor


VF = Vf+ Va + Vt

Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb)


Bb = VF x ALD (L/m²)

Allowances applied to Basic Binder Application Rate


(a) General
Allowances are determined to the nearest 0.1 L/m2, and are cumulative. They must be added to, or
subtracted from, the Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb (L/m²), to determine the Design Binder
Application Rate, Bd (L/m2).

Austroads 2006

— 77 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

(b) Texture allowance (AS)


Texture allowance for existing seals
Table 2.3 (rpt): Surface texture allowance for existing surfacing, As (L/m2)

Aggregate size of Measured texture Surface texture Aggregate size of Measured texture Surface texture allowance
proposed seal depth (mm) allowance (L/m2) proposed seal depth (mm) (L/m2)
Existing: 14, 16 or 20 mm seal Existing: 5 or 7 mm seal
0 to 0.3 Note 1 0 to 0.3 Note 1
0.4 to 0.6 Note 2 0.4 to 0.9 +0.1
0.7 to 0.9 +0.1 1.0 to 1.5 +0.2
5 or 7 mm
5 or 7 mm 1.0 to 1.3 +0.2 1.6 to 2.2 +0.3
1.4 to 1.9 +0.3 2.3 to 3.2 +0.4
2.0 to 2.9 +0.4 >3.2 +0.5
>2.9 +0.5 0 to 0.3 Note 1
0 to 0.3 -0.1 0.4 to 0.7 +0.1
0.4 to 0.5 0 10 mm 0.8 to 1.1 +0.2
0.6 to 0.7 +0.1 1.2 to 1.8 +0.3
10 mm 0.8 to 0.9 +0.2 >1.8 Note 3
1.0 to 1.3 +0.3 0 to 0.2 Note 1
1.4 to 1.8 +0.4 0.3 to 0.6 +0.1
>1.8 Note 3 0.7 to 0.9 +0.2
14 mm
0 to 0.3 -0.1 1.0 to 1.4 +0.3
0.4 to 0.5 0 1.5 to 2.0 +0.4
0.5 to 0.6 +0.1 >2.0 +0.5
0.6 to 0.7 +0.2 Existing: asphalt/slurry surfacing
14 mm
0.8 to 0.9 +0.3 0 to 0.1 0
1.0 to 1.3 +0.4 0.2 to 0.4 +0.1
1.4 to 1.8 +0.5 All 0.5 to 0.8 +0.2
>1.8 Note 3 0.9 to 1.4 +0.3
Existing: 10 mm seal >1.4 +0.4
0 to 0.3 Note 1
0.4 to 0.9 +0.1
1.0 to 1.4 +0.2
5 or 7 mm
1.5 to 2.0 +0.3
2.1 to 2.7 +0.4 Notes:
>2.7 +0.5
0 to 0.3 Note 1 1. Embedment considerations dominant.
0.4 to 0.7 +0.1 2. Specialised treatments necessary.
10 mm 0.8 to 1.1 +0.2 3. This treatment might not be advisable depending on the shape and interlock of
1.2 to 1.7 +0.3 aggregates so alternative treatments (surface enrichment, small size seal or
>1.7 Note 3 others) should be considered.
0 to 0.2 Note 1 4. For application of aggregate sizes greater than 14 mm, adopt allowances
0.3 to 0.6 +0.1 applicable to 14 mm aggregate.
0.7 to 0.9 +0.2
14 mm
1.0 to 1.2 +0.3
1.3 to 1.7 +0.4
>1.7 Note 3

Texture allowance for asphalt


Based on experience, the allowance should be between +0.0 to +0.3 L/m2.

Texture allowance for slurry surfacing


Similar to asphalt, a typical allowance is between +0.0 to +0.3 L/m2.

Austroads 2006

— 78 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Texture allowance for concrete surfaces


For primed surfaces, the allowance should be +0.2 to +0.4 L/m2. (NIL embedment). For broom
dragged or tyned surfaces allow up to +0.4 to +0.5 L/m2.

Texture allowance for timber surfaces


An allowance between +0.2 to +0.4 L/m2 may be appropriate.

Texture allowance for primes or primerseals


ƒ Primerseals - a texture allowance is determined similar to existing sealed surfaces.
ƒ Primes – texture allowance should be in the order of +0.0 to +0.2 L/m2.

In addition to texture allowance, the ball penetration test should be carried out to determine if an
allowance for embedment is also required, particularly on areas trafficked by heavy and large
heavy vehicles.

Texture allowance for regulation or patched areas


Variations in texture as well as curing of patching materials should be considered.

(c) Embedment allowance (Ae)


Initial treatments
Typical embedment allowances (in L/m2) for sprayed seals are shown in Figure 2.4.

See note
Ball penetration (mm)

2
-0.1 L/m2
1
Nil
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Traffic volume (vehicles/lane/day)

Figure 2.4 (rpt): Embedment allowance for seals

Reseals
Allow for:
ƒ free binder on the surface being resealed
ƒ application of a reseal over fresh asphalt or slurry surfacing
ƒ application of a reseal over fresh maintenance patching.

Austroads 2006

— 79 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

(d) Binder absorption by pavement (Aba)


Initial treatments
For unusually absorptive pavement the allowance will generally be between +0.1 to +0.2 L/m2.
Where more than 0.2 L/m2 is required, an alternative treatment should be used.

Reseals
Seldom required.

(e) Binder absorption by aggregate


In general, binder absorption into aggregate is not a common problem, but if an allowance is
required it does not usually exceed 0.1 L/m2.

Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) for Class 170 bitumen, Class 320 bitumen, multigrade
Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) = Basic Binder Rate (Bb) + Allowances (L/m2).

where:
Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) is in L/m2, rounded to nearest 0.1 L/m2
Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb) is in L/m2, rounded to nearest 0.01 L/m2 (refer 2.1.6)
Allowances are in L/m2, as determined in Table 2.3 and Figure 2.4 (refer 2.1.7)
Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) for Polymer Modified Binder (except SAMI)
Modified Bd = ([VF x ALD] x PF) + Allowances
Binder application rate: SAMI applications
Modified Design Binder Rate (SAMI) = (0.17 x ALD x PF) + Allowances (L/m²).

Where PF is the PMB Factor from Table 4.1.

Austroads 2006

— 80 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Table 4.1 (rpt): PMB factors (PF)

Class of PMB PMB factor Type of treatment


Aggregate retention (AR)
S10E 1.1 The factors for AR may be increased by 0.1 on low traffic applications, but reduced by 0.1 on high
to very high traffic applications and/or high temperature locations in order to minimise flushing.
S35E 1.1
Holding treatment (HT)
S10E 1.2 The factors for HT may be increased by 0.1 on low traffic applications, but reduced by 0.1 on high
S35E 1.2 to very high traffic applications and/or high temperature locations in order to minimise flushing.

S45R/S15RF 1.3
Weak pavements (WP)
S20E 1.3 The factors for WP may be increased by 0.1 on low traffic applications where maximum
S45R/S15RF 1.3 waterproofing is desired and the potential for flushing is low, but reduced by 0.1 on very high traffic
volume applications.
As a waterproofing seal under OGA (not a SAMI)
S10E, S35E 1.3 Being placed under open graded asphalt, there is little risk of bleeding and the factors should not
require further adjustment, although they may be increased, if required, by 0.1 to provide
S45R, S15RF 1.4
maximum waterproofing.
High Stress Seal (HSS)
S10E, S35E 1.0 Generally these factors should not be adjusted.
S20E, S45R, S15RF 1.1
Strain Alleviating Membrane (SAM)
S10E 1.2 The SAM factors are designed to provide the maximum practicable binder application rate to
S20E 1.3 optimise resistance to reflective cracking and to waterproof the pavement. They may be reduced,
if required, by 0.1 on very high traffic applications and/or hot to very hot locations to minimise
S35E 1.2 flushing or binder pick-up.
S45R, S15RF 1.4
Strain Alleviating Membrane Interlayer (SAMI)
S25E 1.6 The SAMI factors are designed to optimise the resistance to reflective cracking under Dense
S55R, S20RF 1.8 Graded Asphalt. The factors may be increased by as much as 0.5 when the SAMI is designed to
minimise reflective cracking under open graded asphalt.

Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) for Bitumen Emulsion Binders


Bd* = Bb x EF + Allowances
where:
Bd = Design Binder Application Rate (emulsion) rounded to the nearest 0.1 L/m2.
Bb = Basic Binder Application Rate.
EF = Emulsion Factor (from Table 5.1).

Allowances are in L/m2, as determined in Table 2.3 and Figure 2.4 (refer 2.1.7).
Note: * Binder application rates are litres of residual bitumen per square metre.

Table 5.1 (rpt): Emulsion factor

Product Emulsion factor (EF)


Conventional emulsion (60%) 1.0
High bitumen content emulsion (≥67 %) 1.1 to 1.2

Austroads 2006

— 81 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Aggregate Spread Rate


(a) Class 170 bitumen, class 320 bitumen, multigrade.

Table 2.4 (rpt): Design aggregate spread rates for single/single seals (Class 170 bitumen, Class 320 bitumen, multigrade)

Aggregate Spread Rate


Traffic conditions
(m2/m3)
Traffic > 200 v/l/d 900 / ALD
Very low traffic ≤ 200 v/l/d 850 / ALD

(b) Polymer modified binder

Table 4.2 (rpt): Design aggregate spread rates for single/single seals using PMB

Traffic Aggregate Spread Rate


(v/l/d) (m2/3)
< 300 750 / ALD
≥ 300 800 / ALD

(c) Bitumen emulsion binder


Table 5.2 (rpt): Aggregate spread rates for single/single seals using bitumen emulsion

Aggregate Spread Rate


Application (m2/m3)
Traffic < 200 v/l/d Traffic ≥ 200 v/l/d
Single layer of aggregate 750 / ALD 700 / ALD
Layer of large aggregate plus First layer 800 / ALD 750 / ALD
scatter coat of 7 mm/smaller Scatter coat 400 – 600 400 – 600

C.2 Single/single seals – size 7 mm and smaller aggregates


General
Figure 3.1 below illustrates the design method for 7 mm and smaller aggregate.

Austroads 2006

— 82 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

NO ALD ALD
Basic Binder Basic Voids
Traffic Volume Application Traffic Volume Factor, Vf
(v/l/d) Rate, Bb (v/l/d) 2
(L/m /mm)
2
(L/m )

Design Voids Factor, VF


2
(L/m /mm)
VF = Vf + Vt + Va

Basic Binder
Allowances Application Rate, Bb
2
(L/m ) 2
(L/m )

Design Binder Application


Rate, Bd
2
(L/m )
Bd = Bb + Allowances

Figure 3.1 (rpt) Design method for Size 7 mm and smaller aggregate

Basic binder application rate (Bb)

Table 3.1 (rpt): Basic Binder Application Rates for size 7 mm and smaller aggregates

Traffic Basic Binder Application Rate, Bb


(v/l/d) (L/m2)
< 100 1.0 to 0.8
100 – 600 0.9 to 0.7
601 – 1200 0.8 to 0.6
1201 – 2500 0.7 to 0.5
> 2500 0.5

Design binder application rate (Bd)


Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) = Basic Binder Rate (Bb) + Allowances (L/m2)
where:
Design Binder Application Rate (Bd) is in L/m2, rounded to nearest 0.1 L/m2.
Basic Binder Application Rate (Bb) is in L/m2, rounded to nearest 0.01 L/m2 (refer 3.2.1).
Allowances are in L/m2, as determined in Table 2.3 and Figure 2.4 (refer 2.1.7).

Austroads 2006

— 83 —
Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method

Aggregate Spread Rate


(a) Class 170, Class 320 bitumen or multigrade

Table 3.2 (rpt): Design aggregate spread rates for single/single seals with 7 mm aggregate

Seal aim Number of aggregate Rate


thicknesses (m2/m3)
Normal ALD based design, 1 900/ALD
small aggregate mosaic.
Correction seal (light binder and 1 260 – 290
aggregate application rates) to fill in
coarse texture only.
Normal, small aggregate mosaic, 1 to 2 200 – 250
no ALD.

(b) Polymer modified binder


In general, a heavier design Aggregate Spread Rate is required with polymer modified binders.
Similar to the larger aggregates, the Aggregate Spread Rate needs to be increased by 10% to 20%
in comparison to conventional binders and the typical aggregate spread rate for size 7 mm
aggregates is 160–200 m2/m3.

If an ALD is available, refer to Table 3.2 for calculation of aggregate spread rate but increase the
rate (heavier) by 10% to 20% depending on design binder application rate and design traffic.

(c) Bitumen emulsion binder


Table 6.1 (rpt): Aggregate spread rates for 7 mm single/single seals using bitumen emulsion

Number of aggregate Rate


Seal type
thicknesses (m2/m3)
Seal / reseal 1 260 – 290
>1 200 – 250
Scatter (rack-in) coat 1 400 – 600

Austroads 2006

— 84 —
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

Austroads (2006), Update of the Austroads Sprayed Seal Design Method,


Sydney, A4, 98pp, AP-T68/06

Keywords:

Sprayed seal, design, design traffic, average least dimension, embedment,


surface texture, geotextiles, polymer modified binders, emulsions, single/single
seal, double/double seal, chip seal.

Abstract:

The report is an update of earlier Austroads sprayed seal design procedures


based on the philosophy of filling voids in the aggregate matrix with binder to a
depth of about one half to two thirds the height of the aggregate when laying on
its least dimension. Adjustments and allowances are incorporated in the
procedures to cater for aggregate shape, traffic level, embedment, existing
surface texture, hardness of existing surfaces and absorption of binder by
either aggregates or existing substrate.

The design procedures cover single/single seals and double/double seals with
Class 170 bitumen, Class 320 bitumen, multigrade binder, polymer modified
binder and emulsions. Geotextile sprayed seals are also covered.

Brief sections on treatment selection and materials are provided as background


to the design processes.