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DEVELOPMENTAL WORK ON CEMENT

BONDED PARTICLE BOARD USING LANTANA,


BAMBOO AND THEIR COMBINATIONS

THESIS
SUBMITTED TO
FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE (DEEMED)
UNIVERSITY
DEHRADUN, UTTARAKHAND

FOR

THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF


DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN FORESTRY
(WOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY)

BY

MANISH RANJAN

COMPOSITE WOOD DISCIPLINE


FOREST PRODUCTS DIVISION
FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE
DEHRADUN (UTTARAKHAND), INDIA

2017
Acknowledgement
I would like to offer my prime heartfelt thanks and salutation on
the lotus feet of almighty God, for the zeal and patience bestowed upon
me for this work.
Success of a scientific endeavour cannot be attributed to an
individual effort, as it involves the support of several people and I take
this opportunity to express my gratitude to those who are behind this
venture, directly or indirectly.
I convey my heartfelt thanks to my supervisor Shri. D. P. Khali,
Scientist-F, Composite Wood Discipline, Forest Products Division, for
his expert guidance, unending zeal, sustained interest, constant moral
support and encouragement with constructive suggestions during my
research work. His research and teaching capabilities have been a source
of inspiration in my life. I shall remain indebted to his now and forever
for his personal affection and generosity bestowed upon me.
I am thankful to the Director, Forest Research Institute,
Dehradun, for providing me the facilities to carry out my research work
in this Institute.
I am sincerely thankful to Shri S. S. Rajput (Retd. Head), FPD,
Shri S.P.Badoni (Retd. Head), FPD, Dr. Kishan Kumar V.S, Head,
FPD Division, Dr. Sadhna Tripathi, Scientist-G, Wood Preservation
Discipline, Mrs. Ismita Nautiyal, Scientist- C, Composite Wood
Discipline, Mr. Ajmal Samani, Scientist-E, Wood Preservation
Discipline, Dr. N. K. Upreti, Scientist-G, Mr. Shailendra Kumar,
Scientist-B, Wood Seasoning Discipline, Dr. Y.M Dubey, Scientist-D,
Timber Mechanics Discipline, Dr. Sachin Gupta, R.O. Wood Working
and Finishing Discipline, Forest Products Division Forest Research
Institute, Dehradun for their kind cooperation and valuable suggestions.
I express a deep sense of gratitude to Dr. Rajiv Pandey, Scientist-
E, ICFRE, for their help and valuable suggestions during statistical
analysis of data.
Words will not be enough to thank Dr. Shweta Bhatt, Junior
Consultant, Forest Research Institute (Deemed University) for her
endless and undying support during my whole thesis writing work and
for that, I will always be in her debt. There was never been a day when I
came up with a problem with my thesis work and she denied helping me.
I salute her for that. Her experience, guidance, enthusiasm, and
encouragement made me believe that nothing is impossible and I wish her
all the happiness and prosperity in her life.
I am grateful to Mr. Ajay Gupta, General Manager, NCL
Industries Ltd, Paonta Sahib, Himachal Pradesh for allowing me to
work in his R&D unit laboratory. Without his support, I wouldn’t be
able to do my Ph.D allotted practical work. I would also like to thank all
the staff members for their help and support during my practical work.
I am grateful to Shri. J.P. Singh, Shri R.C. Sharma, Shri Vidhi
Chand, and the rest of the staff of Composite Wood Discipline for their
kind support and constant encouragement provided during the course of
my study. I am also thankful to my seniors Dr. Yasir Ullah Bhoru, Dr.
Chandrakant Tiwari, Mr. Chandra Pratap Singh, Mr. Ajeet, Mr. Salim,
Mr. Akhato Sumi, Dr. Pawan Poonia, Mr. Manoj Kr. Azad, Dr. A.
John, Mr. Saurav and Dr. Lutful Khan for helping me in my research
work with constant support. I duly acknowledge the cooperation in
various ways rendered by my fellow researchers and juniors Mr. Kapil
Sihag, Mr. Shikhar Shukla, Mr, Vishwajeet Sharma, Mrs. Hannah
Pameli, Mr. Sanjeet K. Home, Shuank Malik, Rupali and Aman.
It’s my personal touch of emotion that I take this opportunity to
express my deepest respect to my mother Smt. Ranjana Singh, and my
father Shri. Mahendra Singh, whose painstaking efforts, steered and
encouraged me to bring this work to completion. Their constant support,
encouragement, love and affection are really great and incomparable.
They are a source of inspiration, strength and moral support without
which I would never been able to complete my studies and reach this
stage. The love, care and affection rendered by my parents will also
remain with me as a source of guiding spirit, inspiration and strength.
Last but not the least; I extend my heartfelt thanks to all my
sisters Rashmi, Soni, and Moni and their husbands Rajesh Kumar, Vivek
Kumar and Sanjeev Kumar and friends Sumit, Vikram, Ujjwal, Deepak,
Rohan, Priyanka, Ritika, Shidarth and well-wishers who have helped me
on different occasions during the course of this study.

(Manish Ranjan)
CONTENTS

Sl. No. CHAPTERS PAGE No.


1. INTRODUCTION 1-9
2. REVIEW OF LITRETURE 10-29
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30-43
3.1 Materials 31
3.2 Methodology 31
3.2.1 Estimation of total soluble sugar content in lantana and 31-32
bamboo
3.2.2 Estimation of tannin content in lantana and bamboo 32-33
3.2.3 Cement Chemical Analysis 33-36
3.2.4 Manufacturing of cement bonded particle board 36-38
3.2.5 Preparation of test sample 39
3.2.6 Methods of testing of board 39-43
3.2.7 Statistical analysis 43
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 44-95
4.1 Soluble sugar and tannin content present in Lantana 44-45
camara and Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus)
4.2 Major chemical constituent of Pozzolana Portland 45-46
cement
4.3 Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded 46-52
particle board using Bamboo particles in different
cement/wood ratios (CBBB)
4.4 Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded 52-57
particle board using Lantana particles in different
cement/wood ratios (CLBB)
4.5 Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded 58-64
particle board using Bamboo and Lantana particles
mixture (75: 25 ratios) in different cement/wood ratios
(CBLB1)
4.6 Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded 64-69
particle board using Bamboo and Lantana particles
mixture (50: 50 ratios) in different cement/wood ratios
(CBLB2)

4.7 Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded 70-75


particle board using Bamboo and Lantana particle
mixture (25: 75 ratios) in different cement/wood ratios
(CBLB3)
4.8 Comparative study of all five types of cement bonded 76-95
wood particle boards with reference of different cement
wood ratio
5. SUMMARY 96-102
6. CONCLUSIONS 103-104
REFERENCES 105-121
PUBLICATIONS 122
List of Tables
Table Title Page
No. No.
1.1 Major compounds of cement 5
1.2 Pozzolana Portland Cement Types and their Uses 6
3.1 Tannic acid concentrations in different absorbance 33
3.2 Different sample size for physical and mechanical properties 39
testing
4.1 Average Soluble Sugar and Tannin Content Percentage in 45
Lantana and Bamboo
4.2 Major component present in Pozzolana Portland cement (Type 46
IV)
4.3.1.1 Mean Observations of Physical Properties of Cement Bamboo 46
Bonded Boards (CBBB)
4.3.1.2 ANOVA for Density of Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards 46
(CBBB)
4.3.1.3 Duncan’s subsets for Density of Cement Bamboo Bonded 47
Boards (CBBB)
4.3.1.4 ANOVA for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling (2hrs) 47
of Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
4.3.1.5 Duncan’s subsets for Moisture Content and Thickness 47
Swelling (2hrs) of Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
4.3.1.6 ANOVA for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement 49
Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
4.3.1.7 Duncan’s subsets for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of 49
Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
4.3.2.1 Mean Observations of Mechanical Properties of Cement 49
Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
4.3.2.2 ANOVA for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement 50
Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
4.3.2.3 Duncan’s subsets for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of 50
Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
4.3.2.4 ANOVA for MOR and MOE of Cement Bamboo Bonded 50
Boards (CBBB)
4.3.2.5 Duncan’s subsets for MOR and MOE of Cement Bamboo 51
Bonded Boards (CBBB)
4.3.2.6 ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of Cement 51
Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
4.3.2.7 Duncan’s subsets for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of 52
Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
4.4.1.1 Mean Observations of Physical Properties of Cement Lantana 52
Bonded Boards (CLBB)
4.4.1.2 ANOVA for Density of Cement Lantana Bonded Boards 53
(CLBB)
4.4.1.3 Duncan’s subset for Density of Cement Lantana Bonded 53
Boards (CLBB)
4.4.1.4 ANOVA for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling (2hrs) 54
of Cement Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
4.4.1.5 Duncan’s subsets for Moisture Content and Thickness 54
Swelling (2hrs) of Cement Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
4.4.1.6 ANOVA for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement 55
Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
4.4.1.7 Duncan’s subsets for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of 55
Cement Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
4.4.2.1 Mean Observations of Mechanical Properties of Cement 55
Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
4.4.2.2 ANOVA for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement 56
Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
4.4.2.3 Duncan’s subset for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of 56
Cement Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
4.4.2.4 ANOVA for MOR and MOE of Cement Lantana Bonded 56
Boards (CLBB)
4.4.2.5 Duncan’s subsets for MOR and MOE of Cement Lantana 57
Bonded Boards (CLBB)
4.4.2.6 ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of Cement 57
Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
4.4.2.7 Duncan’s subsets for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of 57
Cement Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
4.5.1.1 Mean Observations of Physical Properties of Cement Bonded 58
Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
4.5.1.2 ANOVA for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana 58
(75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
4.5.1.3 Duncan’s subsets for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: 59
Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
4.5.1.4 ANOVA for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling (2hrs) 59
of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards
(CBLB1)
4.5.1.5 Duncan’s subsets for Moisture Content and Thickness 59
Swelling (2hrs) of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25)
Particle Boards (CBLB1)
4.5.1.6 ANOVA for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement 60
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
4.5.1.7 Duncan’s subsets for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of 60
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards
(CBLB1)
4.5.2.1 Mean Observations of Mechanical Properties of Cement 61
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
4.5.2.2 ANOVA for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement 61
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
4.5.2.3 Duncan’s subset for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of 61
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards
(CBLB1)
4.5.2.4 ANOVA for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded Bamboo: 62
Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
4.5.2.5 Duncan’s subsets for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded 62
Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
4.5.2.6 ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of Cement 63
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
4.5.2.7 Duncan’s subsets for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of 63
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards
(CBLB1)
4.6.1.1 Mean Observations of Physical Properties of Cement Bonded 64
Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
4.6.1.2 ANOVA for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana 65
(50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
4.6.1.3 Duncan’s subset for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: 65
Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
4.6.1.4 ANOVA for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling (2hrs) 65
of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards
(CBLB2)
4.6.1.5 Duncan’s subsets for Moisture Content and Thickness 66
Swelling (2hrs) of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50)
Particle Boards (CBLB2)
4.6.1.6 ANOVA for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement 66
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
4.6.1.7 Duncan’s subsets for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of 67
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards
(CBLB2)
4.6.2.1 Mean Observations of Mechanical Properties of Cement 67
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
4.6.2.2 ANOVA for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement 68
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
4.6.2.3 Duncan’s subset for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of 68
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards
(CBLB2)
4.6.2.4 ANOVA for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded Bamboo: 68
Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
4.6.2.5 Duncan’s subsets for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded 69
Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
4.6.2.6 ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of Cement 69
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
4.6.2.7 Duncan’s subsets for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of 69
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards
(CBLB2)
4.7.1.1 Mean Observations of Physical Properties of Cement Bonded 70
Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
4.7.1.2 ANOVA for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana 71
(25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
4.7.1.3 Duncan’s subset for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: 71
Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
4.7.1.4 ANOVA for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling (2hrs) 71
of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards
(CBLB3)
4.7.1.5 Duncan’s subsets for Moisture Content and Thickness 72
Swelling (2hrs) of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75)
Particle Boards (CBLB3)
4.7.1.6 ANOVA for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement 72
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
4.7.1.7 Duncan’s subsets for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of 72
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards
(CBLB3)
4.7.2.1 Mean Observations of Mechanical Properties of Cement 73
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
4.7.2.2 ANOVA for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement 73
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
4.7.2.3 Duncan’s subset for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of 73
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards
(CBLB3)
4.7.2.4 ANOVA for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded Bamboo: 74
Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
4.7.2.5 Duncan’s subsets for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded 74
Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
4.7.2.6 ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge)of Cement 75
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
4.7.2.7 Duncan’s subsets for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of 75
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards
(CBLB3)
4.8.1.1 Mean Moisture Content (%) of Cement Bonded Particle 77
Board using different combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
4.8.1.2 ANOVA for moisture content of all cement particle boards 77
4.8.1.3 Duncan’s subset for moisture content of all cement particle 77
boards at 2.0: 1.0 (R1)
4.8.1.4 Duncan’s subset for moisture content of all cement particle 77
boards at 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
4.8.1.5 Duncan’s subset for moisture content of all cement particle 78
boards at 3.0: 1.0 (R3)
4.8.2.1 Mean Water Absorption 2hrs (%) of Cement Bonded Particle 79
Board using different combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
4.8.2.2 ANOVA for water absorption 2hrs of all cement particle 79
boards
4.8.2.3 Duncan’s subset for water absorption 2hrs of all cement 79
particle boards at 2.0: 1.0 (R1)
4.8.2.4 Duncan’s subset for water absorption 2hrs of all cement 79
particle boards at 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
4.8.2.5 Duncan’s subset for water absorption 2hrs of all cement 80
particle boards at3.0: 1.0 (R3)
4.8.3.1 Mean Water Absorption 24hrs (%) of Cement Bonded Particle 81
Board using different combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
4.8.3.2 ANOVA for water absorption 24hrs of all cement particle 81
boards
4.8.3.3 Duncan’s subset for water absorption 24hrs of all cement 81
particle boards at 2.0: 1.0 (R1)
4.8.3.4 Duncan’s subset for water absorption 24hrs of all cement 81
particle boards at 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
4.8.3.5 Duncan’s subset for water absorption 24hrs of all cement 82
particle boards at 3.0: 1.0 (R3)
4.8.4.1 Mean Density (g/cm3) of Cement Bonded Particle Board 82
using different combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
4.8.4.2 ANOVA for density of all cement particle boards 83
4.8.4.3 Duncan’s subset for density of all cement particle boards at 83
2.0: 1.0 (R1)
4.8.4.4 Duncan’s subset for density of all cement particle boards at 83
2.5: 1.0 (R2)
4.8.4.5 Duncan’s subset for density of all cement particle boards at 83
3.0: 1.0 (R3)
4.8.5.1 Mean Thickness swelling (%) of Cement Bonded Particle 84
Board using different combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
4.8.5.2 ANOVA for thickness swelling 2hrs of all cement particle 85
boards
4.8.5.3 Duncan’s subset for thickness swelling 2hrs of all cement 85
particle boards in three different cement/particle ratios
4.8.6.1 Mean Tensile strength (N/mm2) of Cement Bonded Particle 86
Board using different combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
4.8.6.2 ANOVA for tensile strength of all cement particle boards 86
4.8.6.3 Duncan’s subset for tensile strength of all cement particle 86
boards at 2.0: 1.0 (R1)
4.8.6. Duncan’s subset for tensile strength of all cement particle 87
boards at 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
4.8.6.5 Duncan’s subset for tensile strength of all cement particle 87
boards at 3.0: 1.0 (R3)
4.8.7.1 Mean Screw Withdrawal Face (N) of Cement Bonded Particle 88
Board using different combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
4.8.7.2 ANOVA for screw withdrawal (face) of all cement particle 88
boards
4.8.7.3 Duncan’s subset for screw withdrawal (face) of all cement 88
particle boards at 2.0: 1.0 (R1)
4.8.7.4 Duncan’s subset for screw withdrawal (face) of all cement 88
particle boards at 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
4.8.7.5 Duncan’s subset for screw withdrawal (face) of all cement 89
particle boards at 3.0: 1.0 (R3)
4.8.8.1 Screw Withdrawal Edge (N) of Cement Bonded Particle 90
Board using different combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
4.8.8.2 ANOVA for screw withdrawal (edge) of all cement particle 90
boards
4.8.8.3 Duncan’s subset for screw withdrawal (edge) of all cement 90
particle boards at 2.0: 1.0 (R1) and 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
4.8.8.4 Duncan’s subset for screw withdrawal (edge) of all cement 90
particle boards at 3.0: 1.0 (R3)
4.8.9.1 Mean MOR (N/mm2) of Cement Bonded Particle Board using 92
different combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
4.8.9.2 ANOVA for MOR of all cement particle boards 92
4.8.9.3 Duncan’s subset for MOR of all cement particle boards at 2.0: 92
1.0 (R1)
4.8.9.4 Duncan’s subset for MOR of all cement particle boards at 2.5: 92
1.0 (R2)
4.8.9.5 Duncan’s subset for MOR of all cement particle boards at 3.0: 93
1.0 (R3)
4.8.10.1 Mean MOE (N/mm2) of Cement Bonded Particle Board using 94
different combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
4.8.10.2 ANOVA for MOE of all cement particle boards 94
4.8.10.3 Duncan’s subset for MOE of all cement particle boards at 2.0: 94
1.0 (R1)
4.8.10.4 Duncan’s subset for MOE of all cement particle boards at 2.5: 94
1.0 (R2)
4.8.10.5 Duncan’s subset for MOE of all cement particle boards at 3.0: 95
1.0 (R3)
List of Figures
Figure No. Title Page No.
Figure 1 Schematic structure of course of experiments and 30
methods applied
Figure 2 Line graph for absorbance in different concentration 33
tannin content
List of Plates
Plate No. Titles
Plate 1 Chipping of particles
Plate 2 Particle preparation in Condux mill
Plate 3 Description of coarse & fine particles
Plate 4 Mixing of cement with wood particles
Plate 5 Mat formation of cement bonded bamboo board
Plate 6 Mat formation of cement bonded lantana board
Analysis of moisture content of prepared mat of cement bonded
Plate 7
particle board before pressing
Water soaking of cement bonded particle board for testing of water
Plate 8
absorption & thickness swelling
Testing of thickness swelling of cement bonded particle board by
Plate 9
screw gauge
MOR & MOE testing of cement bonded particle board at universal
Plate 10
testing machine
Testing of tensile strength of cement bonded particle board at
Plate 11
universal testing machine
Sample preparation for Testing of screw withdrawal strength of
Plate 12
cement bonded particle board
Testing of screw withdrawal strength of cement bonded particle
Plate 13
board at face surface
Testing of screw withdrawal strength of cement bonded particle
Plate 14
board at edge surface
Abbreviations
% Percentage
Al2O3 Aluminum Oxide
ANOVA Analysis of variance
AR Analytical Reagents
CaO Calcium Oxide
CBBB Cement Bamboo Bonded Board
CBC Cement Bonded Composite
CBLB1 Cement Bamboo Lantana Board (75:25)
CBLB2 Cement Bamboo Lantana Board (50:50)
CBLB3 Cement Bamboo Lantana Board (25:75)
CBPB Cement Bonded Particle Board
CBWWB Cement Bonded Wood Wool Board
CLBB Cement Lantana Bonded Board
cm Centimeter
D. strictus Dendrocalamus strictus
df Degree of freedom
EDTA Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetate
Fe2O3 Ferric Oxide
FSI Forest Survey of India
FSP Fiber Saturation Point
g Gram (s)
g/cm3 Gram Per Cubic Centimeter
HCl Hydrochloric acid
Hr Hour
Hrs Hours
IR Insoluble Residue
IS Indian Standard
Kg Kilogram (s)
lbs Pound
LCC Lantana camara Craft
LOI Loss of Ignition
Ltd Limited
m2 Square Meter
max Maximum
mg Milligram
min Minimum
mins Minutes
ml Milliliter
mm Millimeter
mm3 Million Cubic Meter
MOE Modulus of Elasticity
MOR Modulus of Rupture
MSS Mean Sum of Square
N Newton
N/mm2 Newton Per Square Millimeter
NFP National Forest Policy
nm Nanometer
o
C Degree Centigrade
o
F Degree Fahrenheit
OPC Ordinary Portland Cement
OSB Oriented Strand Board
PPC Pozzolana Portland Cement
PSC Portland Slag Cement
PVA Polyvinyl Acetate
R1 Cement/Wood Ratio (2.0: 1.0)
R2 Cement/Wood Ratio (2.5: 1.0)
R3 Cement/Wood Ratio (3.0: 1.0)
RH Relative Humidity
rpm Revolutions Per Minute
Sig. Significance
SiO2 Silicon Dioxide
SPSS Statistical Package for The Social Sciences
WSCB Wood Strand Cement Board
INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Wood from time immemorial has been used by every human being in diverse
areas like construction, furniture, joinery and much more. Forests play a key role in
this regard and due to its extensive use in increasing demands of wood and wood
based material, it has a higher role in environmental and ecological balance as
realized in recent past (NFP 1988). Olam (2012) reported that the demand of wood
products will be reached up to 153 million cubic meters by 2020 and supply that can
be done is only 100.7 million cubic meters. Then wood based industries have to shift
their focus towards the some alternatives like plantation timber or import sectors. It is
reported that 15 % of supply can be done from natural forests, 70-75 % from
plantations and 8-12 % from import sectors. But at the same time both has their own
limitation. Out of total recorded production of wood in the country 42.77 million
cubic meters comes from tree outside forest i.e. plantation forest against 3.17 million
cubic meters from forest (FSI 2011). Plantation wood is now mostly being used by
the panel product industries. Continuous efforts in this direction enables development
of glue based panels using lignocellulosic materials of forests, agricultural crops,
grasses, shrubs particle boards and MDF etc. In India there are mainly three types of
wood based panels i.e. ply board, medium density fiber boards and particle boards.
Among these particle board attracted industries more, since it has the capacity of best
utilization of small diameter logs, rots, twigs, lops and tops and waste obtained during
manufacturing of products (Vidrine, 2008). According to Irle and Barbu (2010), 35 %
of log is wasted during conversion by the most efficient saw miller. These residues
can be used to manufacture particleboards and fibreboards.
Composite products basically refers to the engineered panels prepared from
wood components and adhesive with the help of heat and pressure. It includes wood
plastic composites, cement-particle board, particle board, plywood, medium density
fiber board and other hardboards, which has recently increased dramatically
throughout the world, especially for housing construction and furniture manufacturing
(Youngquist, 1999; Sellers, 2000). These composite panels has lot of variety, which
opens world of endless possibilities and options, either to set out a design for a home,
and an office or any other use. These materials are found better then original
substrates due to large dimensions, homogeneity, durability, price or aesthetic values

1
INTRODUCTION

and good mechanical properties (Vidrine, 2008). A wide range of engineering


properties are used to characterize the performance of wood based composites. It has
been proved an effective way of using low grade hardwood and residue materials.

Furthermore, utilization of recycled wood also attracted research communities


to overcome the problem of shortage of resources in general (Wei et al. 2003). Solid
wood is disintegrated by sliding, crushing, steam explosion and bonded to form wood
products to reduce uniformity. Although, small particle size consumes more energy
and also increases the adhesive consumption, due to increased surface area
(Teischinger, 2006). Phenolic and urea-formaldehyde are basically petroleum based
synthetic binders, which are very costly for wood panel products. The technologies in
this direction are continuously evolving and are glue based. The anisotropic
behaviour of solid wood, growth stress behaviour of plantation woods in this being
overcome to some degree, if not fully and specification based panel products are
emerging. In contrast to conventional urea and phenol-formaldehyde resin-bonded
wood composite panels, cement bonded wood composites possess much higher fire,
insect, and fungal resistance and acoustic absorption. Synthetic resins are also so
costly, which favour mineral-bonded composites (Ahn and Moslemi, 1980;
Simatupang and Geimer, 1990; Simatupang et al. 1991; Oyagade, 1994; Badejo,
1999; Ajayi, 2000). In contrast cement gives desired bond strength and is capable of
producing weather friendly components for prefab type housings.
Now a day, customer is so concerned about environmental health and
economy which demand a value added product from the waste material. Many studies
were done to achieve these objectives (Erakhrumen et al. 2008). These boards possess
the advantage of inorganic and organic materials. Other desirable characteristics
include fire resistance and durability in warm, humid climate where decay and
termites are a major concern (DeSouza et al. 1997; Jorge et al. 2004). The concept of
replacing glue bond by cement bond is another area of great interest owing to added
dimensions of fire retardant, stiffness to structural housing material, carbon locking,
and greater performance life and is expected to be a real composite product of future
as demand is increasing of solid wood and panel products continuously. Mineral
binder can be one of the alternatives of synthetic binders (Lee, 1984). Different
mineral binders such as Portland cement, magnesia and gypsum were used to
fabricate boards with different properties (Simatupang and Geimer, 1990). Mineral

2
INTRODUCTION

bonded wood composites have unique feature due to their acceptable manufacturing
in terms of cost and technology. There are number of manufacturing plants with
different automation levels from fully automation to manual or hand operated.
Portland cement-bonded composites are one of them, which do not need heat to cure
and bind the cement. Manufacturing versatility is also a feature of these composites
with a small investment. The products can be manufactured on a small scale by using
simple tools, and automated equipment according to market requirement (Wolfe and
Gjinolli, 1996), which is the demand of the manufactures, who are not friendly with
modern technologies and tools. However, the production and use of CBCs in these
countries is not significant due to lack of technical knowledge and the limited sales
market and potential (Ramirez et al. 1998). The low cost and easy availability of raw
materials required for CBC, enhances the interest of manufacturer.
Among these, Portland cement is most economic binder, concerning strength,
durability and acoustic insulation properties. Cement bonded wood has been
investigated for more than one hundred years whereas, the industrial utilization of
cement bonded particleboard has been started from the 1930s. However, the research
in this field has taken its height in the last 40 years (Elten, 2000). Moslemi (1999),
also studied the scope of asbestos in wood bonded boards. In the starting years
cement bonded composites (CBCs), particularly low density boards, were mainly
used for insulating purposes. In 1973, a Swiss company called Durisol first produced
building panel by small wood particles bonded in a cement matrix (Wolfe and
Gjinolli, 1996). After that number of composites had evolved such as cement-bonded
wood wool boards (CBWW), cement-bonded particleboards (CBPB), and fibre-
reinforced cement boards. These CBCs prepared by strands, flakes, chips, fibres were
used for thermal as well as acoustic insulation applications. The term particle is used
for all kind of particles varying sizes and shapes from fibres to strands. In recent years
cement bonded boards have been developed for structural use, e.g. cement bonded
Oriented Strand Board (OSB) (Ntalos and Papadopoulos, 2006; Papadopoulos et al.
2006), cement strand slab (Miyatake et al. 2000), or cement bonded composite beams
(Bejo et al. 2005; Datye and Gore, 1998). These cement bonded boards have better
fire, termite and water resistant than solid and other wood based products (BISON,
1978). At the same time they are also competitive with reinforced concrete due to
their relatively low density (Bejo et al. 2005). It showed a high potential as a building

3
INTRODUCTION

material in both warm and humid climates, where the chance of termites and fungal
attack is often in constructive materials (Eusebio, 2003; Wolfe and Gjinolli, 1996).
Wood-cement boards, fibre-cement boards, gypsum fibreboards, and gypsum
particleboards are now manufactured in various parts of the world. Industries have an
opportunity to use chief raw material, which is locally available for strong and
durable building products. Several lignocellulosic materials have been tested and
found suitable for use in manufacturing cement bonded particle board over the years.
These includes saw dust generated from different species of soft wood to hardwoods,
building construction waste, peeler cores from veneers and match factories, small size
timber, logging wastes, slab wastes from saw mills, recycled and treated wood and
paper, maize and cotton stalks, and bagasse etc, (Olorunnisola and Adefisan, 2002).
Common uses of CBPB are facades, electrically-heated and raised floors, permanent
shuttering of concrete floors and walls, fire and moisture-resistant furniture. The
applications of CBPB have been limited by its high density, reduced flexibility and
strength, relatively high expansion and shrinkage when exposed to moisture and the
need to pre-drill holes during screwing. Therefore, manufacturers, builders, and
architects are interested in developing a new product that could better meet structural
requirements and overcome these problems. It was done with the development of the
new wood strand cement board (WSCB), which accepts screws without pre-drilling,
and exhibits lighter weight, greater bending strength, more flexibility, and less
expansion and shrinkage than CBPB.
Cement bonded particle board are versatile in nature and have large
application in low cost housing, shuttering, sandwich type boards for insulation,
ceilings etc. They are superior in physical properties such as thermal conductivity,
sound absorption and possess adequate strength and excellent working qualities.
Cement bonded particle boards are classified as class-I fire resistant materials based
on surface spread on flame test. All these factors have contributed significantly to the
adoption of this material in low cost housing and construction of industrial and
commercial complexes. Cement bonded wood particle board is basically composition
of cement and wood particles in different ratios to achieve optimum strength.

4
INTRODUCTION

Cement is a hydraulic binder, i.e., an inorganic, non-metallic, fine ground


substance which, after mixing with water, sets and hardens independently as a result
of chemical reactions with water. After hardening, it continuous its strength and
stability even under water. The most important area of application is the production of
mortar and concrete, i.e., the bonding of natural or artificial aggregates to form a
strong building material which is durable in normal condition. Portland cement is
achieved by intimately mixing together calcareous and argillaceous, or other silica,
alumina, and iron oxide bearing materials, burning them at a clinkering temperature,
and grinding the resulting clinker (Anonymous, 2016). In all the Portland Cements,
there are four major compounds. The variation in percentage composition of
compounds influences the properties of cement. These compounds are given in table
below:
Table 1.1: Major compounds of cement
Sl. Name of Oxide Abbrev Approx
Function
No. Compounds Composition iation Percentage

1 Tricalcium 3CaO.SiO2 C3 S 45-55 % Mainly responsible


Silicate for early & later
strength.

2 Dicalcium 2CaO.SiO2 C2 S 20-30 % Mainly responsible


Silicate for later strength (7
days and beyond)
C3A increases rate
3 Tricalcium 3CaO.Al2O3 C3 A 6-10 % of hydration of
Aluminate C3S. C3A gives
flash set in absence
of gypsum.
It hydrates rapidly
4 Tetracalcium 4CaO.Al2O3 C4AF 15-20 % but its contribution
Aluminoferrite Fe2O3 to strength is
uncertain and
generally very low.
Source: Anonymous, (2015b)

5
INTRODUCTION

There are three types of cement produced in India.


Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC): This is by far the most common cement used in
general concrete construction when there is no exposure to sulphates in the soil or in
ground water. Ordinary Portland cement is the cement most widely used
(Anonymous, 2016).
Pozzolana Portland Cement (PPC): It contains up to 35 % fly ash. The fly ash is
pozzolanic, so that ultimate strength is maintained. Because fly ash addition allows
lower concrete water content, early strength can also be maintained. As a rule,
Pozzolana Portland cement gain strength slowly and therefore require curing over a
comparatively long period (Anonymous, 2016).
Portland Slag Cement (PSC): Portland Slag Cement contains up to 70 % ground
granulated blast furnace slag, with the rest Portland clinker and a little gypsum. All
compositions produce high ultimate strength, but as slag content is increased, early
strength are reduced.
The hydration of slag is initiated when lime liberated in the hydration of
Portland cement provides the correct alkalinity; subsequent hydration does not
depend on lime. Typical uses are in mass concrete because of lower heat of hydration
and in sea-water construction because of a better sulphate resistance (due to a lower
C3A content) than with ordinary Portland cement. Slag with low alkali content can
also be used with an aggregate.
Table 1.2: Pozzolana Portland cement types and their uses
Types Uses
General purpose Portland cement used where there is no special
I
requirement.
Moderate sulfate resistant and moderate heat of hydration Portland
II cement.
High early strength Portland cement, used in precast elements and
III where high early strength is required, such as in cold weather.
Low heat of hydration Portland cement used in massive civil
IV engineering structures.
Sulfate resistant Portland cement, used where high sulfate resistance
V is required.
Source: Anonymous, (2015a)

6
INTRODUCTION

During the manufacture of cement bonded particle board the compatibility of


species with cement play an important role. Basically wood contains extractives and
other chemical constituent, which may interfere with cement setting and bonding
(Fischer et al. 1974). Low effect of Pinus contorta, Pinus monticola, and Abies
grandis was noted on cement hydration, whereas Picea engelmanni, Thuja plicata,
and Pinus ponderosa exhibited a moderate effect on cement setting. Pseudotsuga
menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla, Larix occidentalis were found incompatible with
cement. The compatibility of some hardwood species with cement was also studied
by Moslemi and Lim, (1984). Among these hardwood species, chestnut oak (Quercus
prinus) was observed to be least inhibiting; whereas red maple (Acer rubrum)
affected compatibility most. Chen et al. (1998) also worked on the compatibility of
five native species of Taiwan and found only teak (Tectona grandis) less inhibiting.
Dendrocalamus strictus (D. Strictus) is commonly known as Calcutta bamboo,
(Farrelly, 1984), male bamboo, (Tewari, 1992) and solid bamboo (Anon, 1992). It is
the most widely used bamboo in India (Kumar and Dobriyal, 1992) especially for the
paper industries (Farrelly, 1984). As per Limaye (1952), it is the most common
species of bamboo cited in the Indian forest and available in every state in India.
Apart from India, it is also found in Burma, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri
Lanka, (Anon, 1972 and 1992). Generally, Calcutta bamboo thrives in the inland with
low relative humidity. It flourishes in places with an annual rainfall between 30 to
200 inches, and in shade temperature from -5oC to 47oC. It is compatible to grow in
all types of soils, with good drainage characteristics, except water-logged soil. D.
strictus has the typical anatomical characteristics consisting vascular bundles and
parenchyma. Limaye (1952) reported the relative density of D. strictus to be 0.661 in
green condition and 0.757 at dry. The relative density of D. strictus is more than other
bamboo species in the green condition, but a moderate value at dry. It is used in house
construction, basket making, mats, furniture, agriculture implements, handicrafts and
tool handles. Bamboo was also used to manufacture cement bonded board by Alhedy
et al. (2006). The work showed good possibilities and scope of bamboo in a new
value added product in form of cement bonded particle board.
The word Lantana camara derives from Latin ‘lento’, which means to bend
(Ghisalberti, 2000). The species was first described and given its binomial name by
Linnaeus in 1753 (Munir, 1993; Kumarasamyraja et al. 2012). It is the genus of
verbenaceae family with 600 varieties existing worldwide. Lantana camara, a native

7
INTRODUCTION

species of south Central America and the Caribbean islands (Baars, 2001). The
species is spread over worldwide and known as a weed. In India it was introduced in
1809 as an ornamental plant by the British in Calcutta Botanical Garden (Aravind et
al. 2006) and now spread all over India (Kannan et al. 2008; Kimothi and Dasari,
2010; Dobhal et al. 2011). Lantana camara is still expanding in many regions of
India, but the density of infestations within its range is increasing and has been
recognized as a future threat to ecosystems (Roy et al. 2002; Day et al. 2003; Sharma
et al. 2005; Kohli et al. 2006; Dogra et al. 2009). Lantana camara is also used
furniture industries which was cheaper than cane and have equal strength. The
furniture made by lantana was found termite resistant. Soligas, the tribal artisans of
South India are ingeniously utilizing the invasive weed Lantana camara, as a
substitute for rattan and converting it into value added products such as furniture, toys
and articles of household utility (Kannan et al. 2008). Currently, nearly 50 replicas of
cane furniture and 25 designs of toys produced by these artisans from Lantana
camara. Studies were done to explore the chemical constituent present in different
part of lantana. Begum et al. (2004) has reported that its leaves contract can be used
as antimicrobial, fungicidal, insecticidal and nematicidal problems. It is a noxious
weed and has several minor uses, mainly in herbal medicine. But its area is expanding
in huge way and difficult to control. It is a need of hour to use this in some value
added products. Lantana, a woody shrub can be converted into particle size in easy
way and used to manufacture particle board. If this weed can be used in particle
board, this will be an achievement for scientific community. An approach was done in
the present study to use lantana and bamboo as a raw material in cement bonded
particle board, which is easily available. Compatibility of wood particles with cement
is a big issue in line to develop cement bonded board of optimum strength. Therefore,
present work was carried out to examine the compatibility of lignocellulosic Lantana
weed and fast growing Bamboo fiber for bonding with cements of varying
composition. Their properties will also be tested in order to assess the suitability of
formed boards for structural purposes. It is not possible to make a panel of nominal
thickness (25 mm) using cement-sand mortar mixture without a mid-iron wire rod
mesh grid. The panel will break even during handling or transport if done so. When
lignocellulosic material-cement ratios are allowed to setting through a process of
lignocellulosic fibers, it shows compatibility and are expected to provide “sites” in the
process of setting of cement regardless of “crystal theory” or “gel theory” as

8
INTRODUCTION

lignocellulosic maters are essentially gels of cellulose chains. Hydrated water is


playing compatible role in setting of both, producing a better tough material having
better functional properties.
Specific objectives:
1. To investigate different proportion of cement and lignocellulosic material
(Lantana and Bamboo) for cement bonded particle boards.
2. To evaluate physical properties such as moisture content, water absorption,
and thickness swelling of cement bonded particle boards (IS: 14276).
3. To evaluate the mechanical properties such as density, modulus of rupture,
modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and screw withdrawal of cement bonded
particle boards (IS: 14276).

9
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

CHAPTER 2
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1. History
The first mineral bonded wood composite panels were developed in Austria in
the early 1900s by using magnesite binder. These products were firstly used for
acoustic purpose in large auditoriums in the eastern United States (Shukla and Singh
1994; Jain and Khali 2005). Today these products manufactured in Europe and the
U.S only and used for interior applications insulation boards due to their excellent
thermal and acoustic properties. In continuity wood-wool cement board (WWCB)
was also developed for internal applications, decorative ceiling sand roof decks.
Cement bonded board are basically fully moisture-resistant, so it can be used for
permanent shuttering of concrete floors and walls. These boards are recently used for
thick and large wall elements in Scandinavia and Russia. The worldwide demand for
these cement boards is expected to increase because of their suitability against
excessive heating and cooling. Also the automated machineries are now available to
produce several types of WWCB, Wood Strand Cement Board (WSCB) and large
wall elements.
The idea of using cement as a binder for composite panels is not new. First
cement bonded particle board was produced around 1970 by company Durisol in
Switzerland (Van Elten, 2006). According to Elten (2000), it was started in the
beginning of the 20th century, in Austria. After that, production plants have been
established all around the world, even in developing countries. Lot of studies was
done on feasibility of producing CBPB using local wood species, agricultural wastes
and industrial residues (Eusebio, 2003; Fernandez and Taza-on, 2000; Warden et al.
2000). In Forest Research Institute Dehradun, the CBPB was prepared by using
softwood (pine needles), hardwoods (lantana), two forest waste materials and four
agriculture residues (Bagasse, rice straw, rice husk, wheat straw) due to their
commercial availability at very low cost as a waste material (Shukla et al. 1982,
1984; Kumar, 1980). Feasibility of poplar was also studied and satisfactory
performance was recorded with cement as well as magnesite exception in spite of
possessing low heat of hydration (Shukla et al. 1981). Wood fibers obtained from
defibrator of boiled wood chips also showed promising results for developing cement
particle boards similar to asbestos sheets (Kumar, 1980).

10
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.2. Type and uses of cement bonded products


There are different types of mineral- bonded products such as wood-wool, building
blocks, cements bonded flakes or particleboards and cement fibreboards.
2.2.1. Wood-wool cement board (WWCB)
Wood wool cement board is a universal material, which can be produced in
high technology plants as well as in smaller local plants. The first wood wool cement
board were produced in 1928 in Germany. Before the World War II, mixture of
cement, magnesite and gypsum with ratio of 39 %, 35 % and 26 % was used as the
binding agent respectively. After that, cement attracted the industries and became the
leading binder in Europe. The process techniques and properties were developed and
standardized. The wood wool board is manufactured by particles with specific and
defined dimensions i.e. 25-500 mm length, 0.5-5 mm width and 0.03-0.64 mm
thickness (Maloney, 1989). The shredded wood is then treated with CaCl2 (Calcium
chloride) and mixed with Portland cement/wood ratio at 2:1 ratio based on oven dry
weight of wood material. The mixture needs to be spread onto plywood or metal
mould solid conveyors or belts and stacked followed by pressing at room temperature
at 10 lbs/sq. inch pressure. Then the stack is clamped under pressure about 24 hours
and removed and cured in water for 2 to 4 weeks. The boards are then trimmed and
finished (Anonymous, 2001).
2.2.2. Wood- fiber reinforced cement board
Wood- fiber reinforced cement board is manufactured from wood fiber, sand,
cement, and aluminium trihydrate in different ratio. Wood fibers usually obtained
from chemical pulping act as a reinforcing agent in these boards such as asbestos. The
cement, fibers, sand and additives are combined in the different proportions and
diluted to form slurry with a solids content of 10 % (Evans, 2000). Here the selection
of the flocculent in fiber-cement manufacture play essential role due to its effect on
mineral fines retention, dewatering, and formation.
2.2.3. Building Block
Building blocks are very popular in Scandinavia, where cement is used as a
binder for wood particles. In the United States, this kind of products is mainly used
for buildings construction. The normal size of the boards is kept about 203 mm thick,
305 mm high. Larger blocks with desirable height and thickness can also are
produced by machines. The large size blocks weigh approximately 45.5 Kg and
comparable to the weight of a similar pieces of wood of about a same size. The

11
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

blocks have excellent insulation properties and working properties such as nailing,
sawing, drilling and siding (Mallony, 1989).
2.2.4. Cement bonded Particle board (CBPB)
Elmendrof Research Inc., in America started to manufacture heavy weight
wood cement boards (Stillinger and Wentworth, 1977). In continuation, high density
boards were developed by using chips with slight modifications in Switzerland. After
successful laboratory results an automated wood-cement particleboard plant was
constructed by Bison-Werke, a German supplier of particleboard plants both in
Switzerland and in Federal Republic of Germany. By mid-1970s cement bonded
particleboard was well established itself in Switzerland and central Europe
(Dinwoodie, 1991).
It is different from the wood wool cement board, because wood is particles
and wool is strands. The finished boards are usually much wider and pressed to a
higher density of about 1250 Kg/m3. Such boards need to comply with strict
international standards of bending strength properties and thickness tolerances, for
which they require high technology and equipment (Anonymous, 2001). Cement
bonded board has gained favor throughout the industries due to its extended
applications compared to plywood, resin-bonded particleboard and other allied
products. Cement bonded board has been found to be a good substitute for concrete
hollow blocks, plywood, particleboard and other resin bonded boards. It is a very
versatile material that can be used as ceiling, partition wall, exterior wall, flooring,
eaves, cladding and even roofing provided that proper coating is applied. However,
the most common application of cement bonded boards is for wall and ceiling
construction (Eusebio, 2003). Since the strength properties of cement bonded boards,
particularly wood-wool cement boards, are not suitable for load-bearing elements, it
is often used with framing materials like wood and steel section.
Lot of studies have been done on feasibility of different raw material such as
local wood species, some agricultural wastes and even industrial residues to produce
cement bonded board (Eusebio, 2003; Fernandez and Taja, 2000; Warden et al.
2000). At present, wood waste feedstock is hardly used by cement-bonded
particleboard manufacturers, but industries are expressing interest in near future after
the successful lab results. Slab and block products also have potential for integrating
wood waste feedstock. The main concern of industries is satisfaction with cement

12
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

composite’s specifications and to meet product quality expectations to sustain in


wood market (Eusebio, 2003).
However, fiber cements materials became very popular among builder and
contractors in the North American market for both interior and exterior purposes
(Booz, 2002). It is also providing the alternate construction material to people who
are facing acute housing shortage in Central America. Cement based board’s meet the
health and safety needs, and provides decay resistance to fungi, and provide fire
retardancy (Ramirez et al. 1998). In same way production of wood-cement panels is
likely to increase in near future due to easy availability of wood waste and cement.
During the last two to three decades, wood particles-cement composites were
primarily used in architectural, fire-resistant, and acoustic panels, while wood fiber-
reinforced cement products have been used as substitute for asbestos-cement
composites (Wolfe and Gjinolli, 1997).
2.3. Mechanism of cement setting
Cement consists of numerous inorganic compounds, which set and harden in
the presence of water. Portland cement type I have tricalcium silicate (3CaO.SiO2) as
the most prevailing compound. As soon as this compound comes in contact with
water, its hydration starts quickly. As a result of the reaction calcium hydroxide is
produced. During the reaction hydration of dicalcium silicate (2Ca2O.SiO2) is taken
place very slowly with some lime liberation. Whereas, tricalcium aluminates
(3CaO.Al2 O3) hydrates more rapidly and produced needle like crystals which
continue to increase in size and renders the cement almost dry. Tetra calcium
alumina-ferrite (4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3) hydrates with water, but not as the tricalcium
aluminates, it shows good crystals formation in a day. The above mentioned factors
contribute the bonding within Portland cement through crystallization process with
masses of interfaced crystal. These intergrowth interlocked crystals plays major role
in hardening of cement (Moslemi, 1974).
2.4. Wood cement compatibility and problems during setting
The components of Portland cement are usually present in the form of oxides
of iron and aluminium (Moslemi, 1974). The compatibility is basically the ability of
wood to combine with cement, which is very important to ensure a quality product.
Although it is not so easy to use Portland cement as binder with wood. It is well
known that wood as a natural material contains number of substances which are
organic in nature and may interfere on wood-cement bonding. Various compounds

13
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

are thought to be responsible for the inhibitory effect of wood on cement setting
including soluble sugars, arabinogalactans, phenolic and other extractives.
Geographical location, felling season and storage period also influence cement curing
due to different nature of extractive content of wood (Yoshiro et al. 1992). In some
cases, the poor interaction prevents cement setting in boards. Ibrahim, (1995) studied
these substances and found that these substances are more abundant in hardwoods
than in softwoods. Studies were done to find the compatibility of different wood
species with cement (Savastano et al. 2000, Eusebio et al. 2000a). There are many
other factors, which may affect the compatibility of wood with cement, such as
calorimeter, the hydration condition and wood: cement: water mass ratio (Hachemi et
al. 1990).
Acicular hydrates surround the hydrated cement grains and inhibit the setting
of cement in the presence of sugar acids, sugars, and lignosulfonates (Fischer et al.
1974; Sandermann and Kohler, 1964; Sandermann et al. 1960; and Sauvat et al.
1999). The formation of impermeable flaky calcium silicate hydrate was reported by
Milestone (1979). The extractives present in wood also increase the proportion of
unhydrated cement clinker and reduce the strength of cement wood composite (Wei
et al. 2003). Besides of these, the composition of cement also affects the
compatibility of wood with cement and lead board of poor mechanical strength
(Schubert et al. 1990; Schwarz and Simatupang, 1983).
Ahn and Moslemi (1980), reported that crystal formation or crystal bonding is
main factors, which affect the cohesive bond of cement. The maximal hydration
temperature of wood and cement is reduced by adding wood extractives to cement
water slurry. The presence of such extractives also delayed maximal hydration
temperature of cement as compared to pure cement water slurry. Therefore, the
maximal hydration temperature is assumed an important parameter for indicating
compatibility of wood and cement. Weatherwax and Tarkow (1964), also reported
hydration problems in cement bonded wood board due to inhibitory substances, like
hemicelluloses, starches, sugars, phenols, and hydroxylated carboxylic acids. This
problem is caused by the wooden components, which are attacked by the alkaline
environment and diffuse into the cement paste. They act as more or less effective
retarders (Milestone 1979; Sauvat et al. 1999). During cement hydration, calcium
hydroxide is produced, due to which alkaline environment arises. Hemicelluloses
being non crystalline and alkaline soluble dissolved in the cement paste and affect

14
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

cement crystallization (Miller and Moslemi, 1991a). Besides this, aldehyde groups of
wood also responsible for poisoning cement (Sandermann and Brendel, 1956).
However, the authors also mentioned sugars themselves or their degradation products
are also be responsible for the disturbance of hydration. Sugars, such as fructose
caused no significant effects on cement hydration at high concentrations, whereas,
other sugars affected the cement hydration at lower concentrations. Sugars, such as
raffinose improved the properties of cement (Peschard et al. 2004, 2006; Semple and
Evans 2000a). In this continuation, Dewitz et al. (1984) reported hydration hindrance
by both the extractives and their products of degradation.
Besides the wood extractives, pre-treatment of wood including wood drying,
raw material processing affected the hydration behaviour (Mohr et al. 2004).
Chapman et al. (1963), reported that the time of harvesting of tree also caused
problems to hydration. Basically sugar and starch content of wood depends on the
season or atmospheric conditions. Drying method also influences the characteristics
of wood. Hinterstoisser et al. (1992), noted that wood dried at a high-temperature kiln
showed a higher sugar content as compared to wood dried by conventional drying
methods or open air drying. Simple wood sugars may migrate to the surface during
drying. Since these sugars contain hydroxyl and carboxylic acid functional groups,
they may react with calcium, aluminium, and iron cations in the cement retarding its
setting (Young, 1970) and perhaps disrupt the crystallization reaction (Mariampolskii
et al. 1974). Later the pH increases of the wood cement mixture to approximately
12.5, which facilitates dissolution of wood constituents, particularly low molecular
weight carbohydrates, and heartwood extractives.
During the drying, high temperature and pressure produced some unwanted
chemicals, which may direct affect the wood compatibility with cement (Wei et al.
2003), Wood has three major components i.e. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin,
which have tendency to degrade to lower molecular water soluble polysaccharides
(Avellar and Glasser 1998; Garcia-Jaldon et al. 1998). Due to the heat and pressure,
hemicelluloses are hydrolysed, and their water solubility increases (Hsu et al. 1988;
Kim et al. 2005; Lawther et al. 1996; and Widyorini et al. 2005). As Kuhne and
Meier (1990), reported hemicelluloses act as main inhibiting factor of cement setting.
In addition, the hemicelluloses may undergo peeling reactions (Whistler and Miller,
1958). In alkaline cement inhibitory sugar acid are formed (Fisher et al. 1974). The
acetyl groups present in the hemicelluloses are probably cleaved by the alkali to form

15
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

potentially inhibitory metal acetate compound (Browning, 1967; Goldstein, 1984).


Non-polar extractives such as terpenes, resins, and fats also migrate to the wood
surfaces during the drying. The hydrophobic surface layer may reduce hydrogen
bonding between wood and cement and weaken interfacial bond strength. Phenolic
compounds such as tannins also have capacity to complex with metal ions in cement
and potentially inhibit normal hydration reactions (Bash and Rakhimbaev 1973).
2.5. Measurement of wood-cement compatibility
The wood-cement compatibility is evaluated by measuring the mechanical
properties of the panel produced (Lee and Hong, 1986). However, the major
compatibility test used for this is the comparison of kinetics of hydration of the wood-
cement mixtures with pure cement. This is done by measuring the temperature or the
heat of hydration (Sandermann et al. 1960; Sandermann and Kohler 1964;
Weatherwax and Tarkow 1964, 1967; Hofstrand et al. 1984; Hachmi et al. 1990;
Miller and Moslemi 1991a, 1991b; Semple and Evans 1998, 2000b; Sauvat et al.1999;
and Alberto et al. 2000). The various wood species are ranked according to their
degree of inhibition of cement setting base on hydration temperature. This is very
interesting method since maximum temperature of hydration and time to reach this
temperature depend on the species used. Sandermann and Kohler (1964), classified
ninety nine wood species based on this methodology and mentioned that
compatibility of wood with cement was achieved at temperature more than 60°C and
incompatible at temperature less than 50°C.
Weatherwax and Tarkow (1964), developed inhibitory index by comparison
of time of setting of the wood-cement mixture with pure cement. Hofstrand et al.
(1984) and Moslemi and Lim (1984), developed another inhibitory index for some
North American softwoods and hardwoods species. Species with a small inhibitory
index was reported the most compatible, example pine and with a high inhibitory
index as incompatible e.g. western larch and red maple.
In continuation, Hachmi et al. (1990) reported that the inhibitory index
developed by Hofstrand et al. (1984) and was not consistence in classification of the
species, since of varying experimental conditions from laboratory to laboratory.
Therefore, they proposed a new compatibility factor (Ca). It is the ratio of the surface
integral defined by the curve of heat of hydration versus time of the wood-cement
mixture to that of pure cement. Hachmi and Moslemi (1989), also used this factor to
establish the relationship between the extractive and their compatibility. After the

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

study was conduct by Semple and Evans (1998 and 2000a) to classify species in a
scale from 1 to 100 percent.
2.6. Factors affecting the compatibility of wood with cement
After reviewing previous work, it was felt that it is not easy to get
compatibility of wood with cement due to variation in nature. Wood consist number
of organic and inorganic material which delays and sometimes completely inhibits
cement setting. Many factors were found responsible for the delaying and poor
compatibility of wood with cement, which are described as below:
2.6.1. Effect of the species
The effect of species on compatibility with cement is mostly regulated by
extractives present. Hofstrand et al. (1984), studied the compatibility of nine
softwood species of the northern Rocky Mountains with Portland cement and
classified them according to their level of inhibition. It was found that that wood
species are not equally compatible with cement. Low effect of Lodge pole pine
(Pinus contorta), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and grand fir (Abies grandis)
was noted on cement hydration, whereas Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni),
western red cedar (Thuja plicata), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) resulted a
moderate effect on cement setting. Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western
hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), western larch (Larix occidentalis) were found
incompatible with cement. The compatibility of some hardwood species with cement
was also studied by Moslemi and Lim (1984). Among these hardwood species,
chestnut oak (Quercus prinus) was observed to be least inhibiting, whereas red maple
(Acer rubrum) affected compatibility most. Chen et al. (1998), also worked on the
compatibility of five native species of Taiwan and found only teak (Tectona grandis)
less inhibiting. Manufacturing conditions of cement bonded wood boards of Larix
leptolpis, Patula japonica, and Petercarya rhoifolia was done by Yashuda, et al.
(1992), and concluded that the hydration temperature of wood cement mixture
attained, varied with the species.
Kammall and Suwandi (1974), found that Dipterocarpus graeilis, Shorea
javanica and, Shorea leprosula were good and Anthocephalus cadamba (sapwood)
was fair, while the heartwood of Anisoptera marginata, Hopea mengarawan, and
Vatcea spp. were poor with regard to their suitability for wood wool cement boards.
Pariborto et al. (1977), investigated the suitability of five Indonesian wood species for
wood wool cement boards and cement bonded particleboard based on maximum

17
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

hydration temperature, they found that Cananga odorata, Manglietia glance and
Sloanea signum were good, while Gossampinus malabarica was fair. Jain et al.
(1989), conducted on some softwood, hardwoods and other lignocellulosic materials
including agro wastes, concluded that among the softwoods beside others, Pinus
wallichiana and Picea smithiana were suitable; some of the hardwood such as
Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Terminalia paniculata were compatible with cement.
Among the agricultural residues studied, rice husk-cement mixtures developed
adequate strength.
Young and Moslemi, (1984) investigated the effect of hot water extraction
treatment and addition of accelerators on the inhibitory index of eight Korean
lignocellulosic materials. They found that the inhibitory index of Pinus densiflora and
Pinus rigida were suitable under limited conditions for composites without any
treatment. They also found that six to eight lignocellulosic materials reached a
maximum hydration temperature of less than 50°C. These species were suitable under
limited conditions. They concluded that none of the species studied could be
classified as highly suitable.
Manzanares et al. (1989), investigated the suitability of three species namely,
Casuarina equistifolia, Pinus tropicalis and Bursera simaruba, by measuring the
hydration temperature. They found that Casurina equistifolia was very suitable
followed by Pinus tropicalis and Bursera simaruba was found unsuitable. Yasin and
Quershi (1989) studied eight hardwood species and indicated that poplar wood
(Populus spp.) provides a better raw material for wood cement board than Acacia
nilotica, followed by Dalbergia sisso, and Tamarix aphyla. Among the poplar spp.,
Populus alba was better than P. deltoids, P. cilicata and P. euphratica.
Lee and Hong (1986), stated that the compressive strength of wood and
cement mixture depends primarily on the wood species used. They presented a simple
compression test of cylindrical samples as indicator of wood cement compatibility.
They indicated that compressive strength was linearly proportional to maximum
hydration temperature, but independent of hydration time. They found that maximum
hydration temperature ranged from 30°C to 33°C for green wood and 32°C to 51°C
for air dried wood. The highly significant difference in hydration temperature was
attributed to the differences between species.
Hachmi and Moslemi (1989), studied sixteen Moroccan wood species and
concluded that species may have the same extractive content but different

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

compatibility with cement. These indicate that the chemical composition of the
extractives also has an impact on compatibility. A number of researchers have shown
that differences in behaviour of species when mixed with cement are due to
differences in cell wall substances (Biblis and Lo 1968; Moslemi et al. 1983;
Hofstrand et al. 1984; Lee et al. 1987; Kumar, 1980; Jain et al. 1989; and Hachmi et
al. 1990).
Oyagade (1994), examined the compatibility of some Nigerian species with
ordinary Portland cement and observed considerable differences between the species.
Gmelina arborea was the most inhibitory to cement setting among the species
examined. Ibrahim (1995), studied five species grown in Sudan and observed that the
species effect was significant. The inhibitoriest species was Acacia nilotica and the
least was Eucalyptus camaldulensis.
Nasser (1996), studied the compatibility of wood cement mixture of four
wood species using hydration and compressive strength test. He reported that poplar
(Populus spp.) and European red wood (Pinus sylvestris) showed the highest value,
while the lowest were obtained by Casuarina gluca and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. It
was concluded that poplar and European red wood can be used for cement panels
without any treatment and chemical additives and are suitable under limited
conditions, while Casuarina and Eucalyptus need some treatments. Moursi (2002),
stated that hydration characteristics and compressive strength test revealed that cotton
stalks had low level of compatibility under untreated conditions.
2.6.2. Effect of wood Extractives
Farmer (1967) and Hofstrand et al. (1984) indicated that, the inhibitory effect
of wood was attributed to the presence of different type of the extraneous materials
present in the wood. The effect of monosaccharide on cement setting by using the
inhibitory index of some wood species such as Pinus koraiensis, Pinus rigida, Pinus
densiflora and agricultural waste of rice husks and rice straw. They stated that the
inhibitory index increased with increasing the ratio of the hexose’s to pentose.
Liu and Moslemi (1986), concluded that water soluble wood extractives play
a dramatic role in cement setting. Even small amount of extractives can be
detrimental to cement hardening and subsequent development of strength properties
of cement bonded composite boards. The author showed that remarkable loss in
strength of the cement was rotted when simple sugar and carbohydrate added in
amount as low as 0.25 % by weight of cement. Tannins produced a similar effect on

19
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

strength (Miller, 1987). Hachemi and Moslemi (1989), studied the correlation
between wood cement compatibility and wood extractives using nine hardwood and
softwood species. They reported that different woods had different nature in
compatibility with cement inspite of having same extractive content.
Miller and Moslemi, (1991b), studied the effect of model compound on
hydration characteristics and tensile strength; they stated that model compounds
representing cellulose, lignin, fatty acids and terpenes at 1.0 % or less did not
significantly affect tensile strength. Glucose caused the greatest reduction in tensile
strength. All hydration characteristics were substantially affected by sugars, tannins
and hemicelluloses having the greatest effect.
Vaickelionis and Vaickelioniene (2003), reported inhibitory impact of water
soluble extractives in wood sawdust on Portland cement setting. It was determined
that Pozzolanic mineral additives (e.g. opoca) eliminate this harmful influence of
extractives. Moslemi and Pfister (1987), studied two wood extractive grouping in
relation to their effect on hydration characteristics.
Nazerian et al. (2011), wood extractives, chamotte and CaCl2 on hydration
and hardening of cement paste. The water-soluble wood extractive increases the
hydration time of cement. It was observed that different amounts of chamotte and
CaCl2 in pure cement can significantly affect the setting and hardening time.
Replacement of cement with 10 % of CaCl2 and 10 % chamotte in boards increased
the MOR and Internal Bond (IB). It also decreased water absorption and thickness
swelling but most importantly eliminated the inhibitory effect of wood on cement
setting and hardening.
2.6.3. Effect of wood treatment and additives
Wood and other lignocellulosic materials have been in use for ages in cement
matrices for manufacturing construction products (Bentur and Mindess, 1990). These
materials are added either in form of fibres or particles. Natural fibres exists in
abundance and is readily available at low cost being derivable from various parts of
tree material such as leaves, stems, fruit surface or wood. These fibres are usually
incorporated into the cement matrix in discrete, discontinuous form. They play an
important role to control tensile cracking of the matrix, reduced stress and impart
post-cracking and post yield behaviours (Swamy, 1990).
Wood particle-cement composites have been produced from a number of
materials including sawdust, construction waste, bagasse, coffee husk, maize husk,

20
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

and rattan furniture waste among others (Kasai et al. 1998; Olorunnisola and
Adefisan, 2002). However, when particles from many woody materials come in
contact with cement slurry, their organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, tannins,
and flavonoids tend to interfere cement hydration and bond formation between the
cement and wood particles. This phenomena affect the strength development and
further demoulding of products (Biblis and Lo, 1968; Zhengtian and Moslemi 1986;
Hachemi et al. 1990; Swamy 1990; Miller and Moslemi 1991 b; and Alberto et al.
2000). While the precise mechanism of cement setting due to wood particle is yet to
be fully understood, several means of minimizing the effect has been devised,
including prolonged storage of the wood material, hot or cold water extraction of
soluble sugars, and the use of chemical accelerators, namely dilute Sodium hydroxide
(NaOH), Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and Aluminum
sulphate [Al2 (SO4)3] among others (Hong and Lee 1986; Badejo, 1989).
The use of CaCl2, has been reported by many researchers, some of whom
reported that a dosage of less than 4 % (by weight of cement), tends to accelerate the
hydration of wood-cement mixtures thereby enhancing the wood-cement bond and
the mechanical properties of the composites (Biblis and Lo, 1968; Moslemi, 1974;
Zhentian and Moslemi, 1985; Moslemi and Pfister, 1987; Badejo, 1988; Olorunnisola
and Adefisan, 2002). A series of tests were performed to enhance the compatibility of
wood and cement by using various treatments such as extraction or soaking of wood
particles using of Sodium hydroxide and Calcium chloride before its mixing with
cement. Different methods were tried by researchers to treat wood in order to enhance
its compatibility with cement. The logs are usually stored for at least three months to
neutralize the sugars (Dinwoodie and Paxon, 1983; Anonymous, 2001).
Gnanaharan and Dhamodaran (1985), examined the effect of water extraction
on the solubility of 13 tropical hardwoods for wood wool cement board. They found
that extraction with cold water was sufficient to remove the inhibitory extractives
from most of the tested species. Abdelgadir and Ibrahim (2002), indicated that
treatment of wood with cold water improved wood compatibility with cement for all
the species studied, except Eucalyptus microtheca. The addition of calcium chloride
was associated with the highest compressive strength except for Calotropis procera
at low ratios. Hassan (1999), studied the effect of different levels of CaCl2 on the
properties of Acacia nilotica wood-cement mixture. She found that when wood was
extracted, increasing the level of calcium chloride was associated with increase in

21
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

strength properties. Nasser, (1996) stated that substantial improvement in cement


setting can be achieved by using hot water and 1 % NaOH solution extraction for
Eucalyptus and Casurina. The addition of CaCl2 (3 % cement weight basis) for the
four species studied, improved their compatibility with cement and species can
be classified as highly suitable.
2.6.4. Effect of particle size/geometry and their orientation
Wood geometry (shape and size) has a great effect on board properties such as water
absorption, thickness swelling, linear stability, strength and surface smoothness. It
also controls the behaviours of board to machining i.e. sawing, shaping, planning and
sanding (Moslemi, 1974).
For most forest products, density is an important physical attribute because it
is correlated to most mechanical properties. Taking this into account and strategies
need to be develop such as altering the type and geometry of the particles and the
type of mat forming to increase the mechanical properties of the boards. Some
authors present satisfactory results with low-density panels produced with flake-type
particles as well as with excelsior-type particles (Miller, 1987). Excelsior seems to be
ideal for the production of low density wood composite boards (WCB), because it is a
long and thin type of particle, which is ideal for the production of stronger and stiffer
boards, as argued by Badejo, (1988). Earlier work claimed that the effect of particle
size and geometry on mechanical properties is the same for resin- and cement-bonded
particleboards. Results of new studies suggest otherwise; cement-bonded boards
require a much larger particle size than resin-bonded panels (Semple and Evans
2004), as there is no chemical bonding between cement and wood (Bejo et al. 2005).
The study of Badejo (1988), shows that flake geometry is highly correlated
with board key properties, including modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of
elasticity (MOE), internal bonding strength (IBS) and thickness swelling (TS). They
reported that the longer and thinner the strands or particles, the stronger, stiffer, and
more dimensionally stable the boards. The extensive study of Semple and Evans
(2004), confirms this study that, long particles rather than small particleboard flakes
should be used when the aim is to produce boards of high strength. By using small
particles more compact mat structure can be produced, which results in reduced void
space and irregularities. However, the better compaction is offset by negative effects
of cement setting caused by much larger surface area to volume ratio of the wood. As

22
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

there is a relationship between surface and volume ratio of particles, a greater surface
area needs more adhesive for equivalent internal bonding development.
The orientation of strands is, as well as in common wood composites, an
important factor that directly influences mechanical properties of the board
(Cabangon et al. 2002; Klar and Van Kov 1975; and Meneeis et al. 2007). The MOR
values in the oriented direction of oriented cement-bonded strand boards, which were
examined by Ma et al. (2000), were 2.5 times greater than in boards with randomly
oriented strands. For the same boards the MOE has increased about two times.
Orienting even only 25 % of the strands, in the surface, results in significant increases
in MOR and MOE. Stahl et al. (1997), developed a finite element model for CBWW
to predict elastic and strength properties. With the aid of this model they could show
that a relatively modest alignment of the particles led to an approximately 25 %
increase in composite strength and a 33 % increase in stiffness of the preferred
direction of the board. By adapting this model for other materials, this model could be
used as a tool to aid in the development and optimization of composite materials.
2.6.5. Effect of cement/ wood ratio
Moslemi and Pfister (1987), studied the effect of cement/wood ratio and
cement type on bending strength and dimensional stability of wood-cement
composites. He found that decreasing cement to wood ratio from 3:1 to 1.5:1
increased modulus of rupture (MOR) from 15.1 MPa (155 Kg/cm2) to 16.3 MPa (166
Kg/cm2) for type I (Ordinary Portland Cement), and from 14.8 MPa (150.9 Kg/cm2)
to 16.4 MPa (167.2 Kg/cm2) for type II (highly developed early strength Portland
cement). However modulus of elasticity decreased from 5.35 MPa (54.5 Kg/cm2) to
3.6 MPa (36.7 Kg/cm2) for type I and from 5.34 MPa (54.4 Kg/cm2) to 3.47 MPa
(35.3 Kg/cm2) for type II when using the same cement/wood ratio.
Abdelgadir and Ibrahim (2003), concluded that compressive strength of
wood-cement mixture is considerably reduced as cement/wood ratios were decreased
for the five Sudanese species studied. Lee (1984), stated that if a lower cement/wood
ratio is used, wood excelsior will not receive adequate cement coating, which results
in poor bonding. If a higher cement/wood ratio is used, the compaction ratio will be
reduced, resulting in lower bending strength. Lee and Hog (1986), reported that lower
cement to wood ratio can be used when identifying suitable species under the
influence of calcium chloride as an accelerator.

23
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Blankehorn et al. (1994), investigated the effect of hydration time, mild


chemical modification, and cement to wood to mild ratio (from 13.3: 0 to 13.3: 5.5 by
weight) on compressive strength of hardwood-cement composites. The authors found
that as hydration time increased, the compressive strength increased. Oyagade et al.
(1995), reported that veneer laminated cement-bonded particleboard was stronger and
stiffer with increased cement/wood ratio and density.
Mohamed et al. (2011), the effects of nine different mixtures of three
lignocellulosic materials and four ratios of cement to lignocellulosic materials
(Acacia nilotica) (2.5:1, 3:1, 3.5:1 and 4:1). Reasonable panel properties were
obtained from the three lignocellulosic materials either pure or mixed using different
cement/lignocellulosic materials (C/LCM) ratios (3:1, 3.5:1 and 4:1). The mean
values of water absorption percent (WA %) and the thickness swelling percent (TS
%) for both the 2hrs and 24hrs soaking tests, conform favorably to figures reported in
previous studies. The highest bending strength (MOR) and modulus of elasticity
(MOE) were attained by 100 % shunt particles with all cement/lignocellulosic
materials ratios. Papadopoulos (2008), increase of cement-wood ratio resulted to an
increase in all, but MOR values. All properties of the board made from 1:4 woods:
cement ratio, surpassed the minimum requirements set forth by the building type HZ
code. Boards were exposed to brown and white rot fungi. Overall both fungi failed to
attack the cement bonded boards.
2.6.6. Effect of the amount of water used in wood cement mixture
It is very important to optimize the quantity of water and cement mixture
should not exceeds the cement saturation point. This usually happen when using
improper amount of water. This is the main reason that drives many researchers
around the world to investigate the proper amount of water to be added to a cement
wood mixture. Weatherwax and Tarkow (1964, 1967), suggested that 2.7 ml of water
for each gram of wood (oven-dry wood) and 0.25 ml of water for each gram of
cement is suitable. Oyagade (1990), reported the amount of water for blending at 25
% of the mass of cement. He indicated that theoretically dry cement requires amount
of water equivalent to 23 % of its own weight for hydration process. Basher (2005),
found that the quantity of water added was calculated using a relationship developed
by Simatupang (1979). The water required was determined as follows:

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Amount of water (litre) = 0.35 + (0.3C - MC)*W0


Where:
C= Cement weight (Kg)
MC = Moisture content of wood (Oven-dry basis) and
W0 = Oven dry weight of wood (Kg).

27. Mechanical and Physical Performance


From a structural point of view, toughness is defined as the area under the
load deformation curve, appears to be the primary advantage of cement-bonded wood
composites compared to conventional bonded wood composites. Strength limitations
can be accommodated to some extent by the use of increased section properties of
reinforcement. In cases where it is not feasible for the design to resist maximum
possible load, a material that dissipates a lot of energy as it fails can save lives (Wolfe
and Gjinolli, 1996). This is important because these composites are used for housing
constructions, particularly in less developed countries. As quoted above, fracture
toughness can be significantly enhanced by the use of reinforcing material. For
example a fibre inclusion of 12 %, even by using waste fibres, enhances fracture
toughness 25 times, compared to neat cement (Savastano et al. 2000).
Besides the amount of reinforcement in CBCs, the mechanical properties are
also significantly influenced by the format and arrangement of the reinforcement
(Badejo 1988; Pablo et al. 1994). Ma et al. (2000), observed higher values for MOE
in thinner strands used board production compared to boards made out of thicker
strands.
The geometry and size of the particles as well as density depend on the future
purpose of the CBC. Little fibre compression occurs on low density boards, like
CBWW, which are considerably different from the structure of a high density board,
where isolated wood fibres are encased in a continuous cement matrix. Bending and
stiffness properties primarily depend on the number of fibre intersections and the
distance between them as the structure of low density boards resembles that of a mesh
consisting of stiffened interwoven strands (Pablo et al. 1994).
Stiffness characteristics are a function of cement-wood ratio. This relationship
is based on the fact that cement is inherently a more rigid material than wood.
Therefore greater cement-wood ratios result in higher MOE values (Moslemi and
Pfister 1987), as MOE is dependent on the total amount of the stiff and

25
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

incompressible cement matrix. The authors also found a linear correlation between
MOE and cement-wood ratio. The relationship between cement-wood ratio and MOR
is considerably different from that of MOE. MOR values are inversely related to
cement wood ratio from levels 3.0 to 2.0. An optimum ultimate bending strength is
attained at a cement-wood ratio at or near 2.0. Although elasticity decreases as the
wood aggregate content raises the zone of plasticity increases. Therefore, material
with a high wood aggregate content is weaker but less brittle, which means its
capacity in terms of deformation increases. The increase in deformability with rising
wood content can be explained by the fibrous nature of wood, which allows it to
accommodate the deformations and provide good adherence to the matrix.
Compressive strength correlates with density and decreases regularly in
correspondence with the wood aggregate content (Al Rim et al. 1999).
Bejo et al. (2005), claim that there is a direct correlation between density and
mechanical properties, which they explain as being due to enhanced wood
densification, elimination of gaps, and improved connection between matrix and
fibre. Density, water absorption, and porosity are all interrelated physical properties.
When particle content is increased, water absorption increases, whereas density
decreases (Savastano et al. 2000). The thermal conductivity again is reduced as the
percentage of wood particles rises, whereas, as expected, density decreases. This
decrease in conductivity is linked to the increase in porosity imparted by the wood
(Al Rim et al. 1999). Depending on the desired properties of the CBC, the cement-
wood ratio will be adjusted correspondingly. CBCs for thermal insulating purposes
exhibit high porosity, which is achieved by low cement-wood ratios. On the other
hand, high cement-wood ratios lead to high density, which leads to increased sound
insulating properties.
The positive effect of pre-treatment, like soaking and extracting of,
respectively, wood in water is sufficiently investigated and known to enhance
compatibility and therefore mechanical properties (Eusebio et al. 2000b). For the
economic production of CBCs it is unavoidable to use accelerators. The positive side
effect of using these additives is the fact that the possibility to wash out aggressive
extractives from the wooden particles is minimized, and therefore mechanical
properties are increased as well.
The use of chemical admixture or treatment with CO2 accelerates cement
hydration but additionally enhances physical properties. For example, the bending

26
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

strength of CBPB in the study of Ahn and Moslemi (1980), was nearly quadrupled
compared to controls when 3 % CaCl2 was added. Another strong fact is that CBCs
that were treated with CO2 perform much better in ageing tests than boards not
submitted to fast carbonation (Qi and Cooper, 2007).
Thickness swelling (TS) is another important parameter concerning
dimensional stability. It is highly correlated with the cement-wood ratio. In general a
higher cement content of a board lowers TS. It seems that the embedding of wood
inside CBCs restricts expansion (Moslemi and Pfister, 1987). In order to minimize
TS, with the negative side effect of decreased MOR, reducing cement-wood ratio is a
possibility whereby water absorption is also decreased (Meneeis et al. 2007).
Increasing cement coating on the particles may have a positive effect on TS (Eusebio
et al. 2000b). But also pre-treatment of the wood has an effect on TS. Eusebio et al.
(2000a), could prove that untreated, in this case unsoaked particles exhibit higher
values of TS. Also chemical additives can decrease TS. By using CaCl2 as an
accelerator, TS could be reduced. This improvement is explained by better fibre to
fibre contact as a result of improved bonding ability with cement. Besides CaCl2 also
hot water soaking or MgCl2 treatment are effective methods to reduce TS (Semple
and Evans, 2004).
As the particle geometry influences almost all properties of CBCs, also TS is
highly dependent on particle geometry. TS increases with increasing particle
thickness and decreasing particle length. The use of thicker particles results in greater
heterogeneity and a more irregular open board surface, which is more easily
penetrated by water. They argue that the rough surface and greater internal-void space
caused by the use of thicker particles are responsible for higher TS (Semple and
Evans, 2004). On the other hand Lee (1984), uses the same argument, namely to
explain the low TS of CBWW, in which many voids in the board allow internal
swelling. But he also mentions coating of particles with cement, which restrains
swelling of the wood, as a reason for reduced TS. By using low cement-wood ratios
the wood particles are not encapsulated by cement, which results in low bonding and
therefore in low internal bond (IB) values and increased TS (Meneeis et al. 2007).
Meneeis et al. (2007), also found negative correlation for MOR and parallel
compression concerning TS. This means that higher MOR or compression values are
associated with lower TS. Also internal bond (IB) is correlated with TS. Panels with
high IB can resist the stress due to wood expansion, which results in lower values for

27
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

TS. The study by Semple and Evans (2004), in which small diameter stems of
eucalyptus where used to produce CBPBs, could demonstrate that the presence of
bark, with the exception of Eucalyptus loxophleba spp., did not affect strength
properties significantly but resulted in unacceptably high water absorption and
swelling.
Dimensional stability of CBCs at different levels of relative humidity was
studied by Fan et al. (2004a; 1999a; 1999b; 1999c; 2002; 2004b; 2004c; 2004d). Creep
behaviour of CBPB was studied by Kondrup (1990). CBPBs require an especially
high cement-wood ratio, which makes them difficult to handle, cut, nail, and transport
(Zhou and Kamdem, 2002) while suitable values of MOR are missing because of the
short particles. By using low cement-wood ratios, at about 1.0, it is possible to
decrease density to about 800 kg/m³ with adequate mechanical properties when
particles of appropriate dimensions and orientation are used. However, as mentioned
before, because of lack of cement, values of IB and therefore also of TS are not
satisfactory (Meneeis et al. 2007). Another advantage of decreasing the cement-wood
ratio, considering the economic viewpoint, is the fact that wood is less expensive than
cement (Zhou and Kamdem, 2002).
2.8. Portland cement particle size on heat of hydration
Temperature rise in concrete elements is primarily driven by the heat
generated by the hydration of Portland cement. Heat of hydration of cement is
affected by several parameters; such as, cement composition, fineness, temperature,
and wood/cement ratio (Mehta and Monteiro 1993). All cement phases generate heat
on reacting with water; since the hydration process is exothermic in nature. The heat
of hydration of Portland cement is mainly attributed to the contribution of the
tricalcium silicate and aluminate phases. Blended cements were also considered in the
same study. In the case of blended cements, the analyses included a wider range of
Blaine fineness (336-534 kg/m2). It was concluded that Blaine fineness did not appear
to correlate well with the 7 days heat of hydration. However, the 7 days strength
showed some correlation with the 7 days heat of hydration but the correlation had a
low R2 (regression) value. This was explained by the possible variable contribution of
different fly ashes to strength development or heat of hydration. The study concluded
that for Portland cements a combination of cement composition and fineness might be
useful in predicting heat of hydration.

28
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A recent study (Azari, 2010) focused on establishing a heat of hydration


relationship in terms of cement composition, fineness, and cement mineralogy
(determined by quantitative x-ray diffraction techniques) using statistical methods.
The study also explored predictive models for 7 days heat of hydration of Portland
cements. No single strong model emerged from this study; however, it was reported
that mineralogical cement composition and fineness appear to be of significance on
heat of hydration.
Several studies were done to investigate the effect of cement fineness on
early-age properties of concrete and cement-based materials and it was found
significant (Bentz et al. 2008; Brewer and Burrows 1951; and Burrows, 1988). The
properties studied by Bentz et al. (2008), included heat release, temperature rise and
shrinkage. It was indicated that the current emphasis on high early strength may result
in susceptibility to early-age cracking. Fineness of Portland cement has received
much attention due to its successive increase over the past 50 years (Tennis and
Bhatty, 2005). The common conclusion among those studies was to advocate the use
of coarser cements for better durability (Bentz et al. 2008; Brewer and Burrows 1951;
Burrows 1988; Bentz and Haecker, 1999). While cement fineness has a significant
impact on its heat of hydration and, therefore, temperature rise in concrete elements,
another issue of significance is the shrinkage associated with finer Portland cements.
It was found that coarser cements are at a lower risk of experiencing early age
cracking than finer cements (Bentz and Haecker, 1999).

29
MATERIALS AND METHODS

CHAPTER 3
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
In order to achieve the objectives described in Chapter 1, the following
experiments were carried out in Composite Wood Discipline, Forest Products
Division, Chemistry Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun and NCL
Industries Ltd. Paonta Sahib, Himachal Pradesh. The work plan is given below:

Chemical analysis of cement as per Collection of raw material of lantana and bamboo
IS: 4032 (1985)

Loss of Ignition (LOI) Chemical analysis (soluble sugar and tannin)

Silicon Dioxide (SiO2)


Cement bonded particle board preparation
Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3)

Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3)


CBLB1 CBLB2 CBLB3 CBBB CLBB

Calcium Oxide (CaO)

Insoluble Residue (IR)

2.0:1.0 cement 2.5:1.0 cement 3.0:1.0 cement


wood ratio (R1) wood ratio (R2) wood ratio (R3)

Physical properties as per IS: 14276 (2009) Mechanical properties as per IS: 14276 (2009)

Density Tensile strength

Moisture content Modulus of rupture

Thickness swelling Modulus of elasticity

Water absorption (2hrs) Screw withdrawal (Face)

Water absorption (24hrs) Screw withdrawal (Edge)

Whereas,
CBLB1 = Cement bamboo lantana board (bamboo: lantana- 75:25)
CBLB2 = Cement bamboo lantana board (bamboo: lantana- 50:50)
CBLB3 = Cement bamboo lantana board (bamboo: lantana- 25:75)
CBBB = Cement bamboo bonded board
CLBB = Cement lantana bonded board
Figure 1: Schematic structure of course of experiments and methods applied

30
MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1. Materials
1. Wood particles of Lantana (Lantana camara) and Bamboo (Dendrocalamus
strictus)
2. Cement (Pozzolana Portland cement)
3. Salt Solution or Additives [Sodium Silicate (Na2SiO3) and Aluminium Sulphate
(Al2 (SO4)3)]
4. All analytical reagents of AR grade were used for analysis:
 Potassium ferricyanide solution: 8.25 g potassium ferricyanide and 10.6 g
anhydrous sodium carbonate in 1 L of distilled water
 Iodine solution: 12.6 g KI (Potassium iodide), 25 g ZnSo4 (Zinc sulfate) and
125 g NaCl (Sodium chloride) in 500 ml distill water, filtered and stored in
colored bottle
 0.01 N Sodium thiosulphate solution: 2.5069 g Na2S2O3(Sodium thiosulphate)
in 1 L of distilled water
 Starch indicator: 1 g soluble starch in 20 ml distilled water and 60 ml of
boiling water followed by 20 g NaCl (Sodium chloride) and make up to 100
ml
 5 % Glacial acetic acid

3.2. Methodology
3.2.1. Estimation of total soluble sugar content in lantana and bamboo:
Total soluble sugar present in lantana and bamboo was estimated by
ferricyanide method (volumetric method) as per Sharma and Varshney (2012). This
method is based on reduction of the residual potassium ferricyanide by KI (potassium
iodide).
1g finely powdered dust of Lantana camara and Dendrocalamus strictus in
40 ml was suspended in distilled water and heated in water bath for 30 min at 100ºC.
The samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min and after that supernatant were
collected. The pellets were again suspended in 20 ml of water and extracted 6-8 times
till the supernatant is free of sugars. All supernatants were combined. 5 ml of the
sample extracted was taken in a test tube with 5 ml of potassium ferricyanide and
heated for 15 min in water bath and then cooled down. After that 5 ml of iodine
solution was added followed by 3 ml of 5 % glacial acetic acid. The excess iodine

31
MATERIALS AND METHODS

was titrated against 0.01 N Na2S2O3 (Sodium thiosulphate) till the colour of the
solution turns pale yellow. Then starch indicator solution was added by which the
colour changed into blue. Again solution was titrated till disappearance of blue
colour.
The amount of total soluble sugar present in lantana and bamboo was
calculated by the following formula:
Total sugar in 5 ml of sample extract (mg) = µ (X + 0.05)
Where,
µ = 0.0338
X = Volume of Na2S2O3 (Sodium thiosulphate) used in blank – Volume used
in sample
3.2.2. Estimation of tannin content in lantana and bamboo: Tannin contents of
flour of lantana and bamboo were measured by Folin-Denis method (Schanderi,
1970)
3.2.2.1. Preparation of Folin Denis reagent
Sodium tungstate (100 g) and phosphomolybdic acid (20 g) were dissolved in 750 ml
distilled water and later 50 ml phosphoric acid was added into the solution. Mixture
was refluxed for 2hrs and volume was made to one litre with distilled water.
3.2.2.2. Preparation of carbonate solution: Sodium carbonate (350 g) was
dissolved in one litre water at 70ºC. Solution was allowed to stand overnight and then
it was filtered through glass-wool.
3.2.2.3. Preparation of standard tannic acid solution: Tannic acid (100 g) was
dissolved in 100 ml distilled water.
3.2.2.4. Preparation of working solution: 5 ml stock solution was distilled to 100
ml with distilled water. Each ml contained 50 µg of tannic acid.
3.2.2.5. Procedure: Dust (0.5 g) of Lantana camara and Bamboo (Dendrocalamus
strictus) was taken in a 250 ml conical flask and 75 ml distilled water was added to it.
It was heated and boiled for 20 min. The supernatant was collected in 100 ml
volumetric flask and volume was made up to the mark. In a 100 ml flask containing
75 ml water, 1 ml sample extract, 5 ml Folin-Denis reagent and 10 ml sodium
carbonate solution were added and volume was made up. Contents of the flask were
shaken well and then absorbance was measured at 700 nm after staying for 30 min. A
blank was prepared with water instead of sample and standard graph was produced by

32
MATERIALS AND METHODS

using 0-100 µg tannic acid. Based on absorbance in different concentrations line


graph was plotted and formula was generated.

Table 3.1: Tannic acid concentrations in different absorbance


Concentrati
on 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
(µg)
Absorbance
0.085 0.124 0.166 0.201 0.267 0.308 0.371 0.398 0.447 0.496
(µg/ml)

0.6
Tannin content (%) y = 0.0046x + 0.0304
R² = 0.9967
0.5
0.4
Absorbance

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Concentration (µg/ml)

Figure 2: Line graph for absorbance in different concentration tannin content


Where,
y = sample absorbance
x = tannin content (%)
Sample absorbance Lantana camara Sample absorbance Dendrocalamus strictus
S1 = 0.059 S1 = 0.068
S2 = 0.069 S2 = 0.071
S3 = 0.074 S3 = 0.061
Based on this sample absorbance the tannin content was calculated by the formula
which is plotted through line graph and tannin content calculated in percent.
3.2.3. Cement Chemical Analysis as per IS: 4032, (1985)
3.2.3.1. Preparation of Standard 0.01 M EDTA Solution: 3.7224 g of Disodium
Ethylene diamine tetra acetate dehydrate (EDTA) was dissolved in 400 ml hot water
and volume was made up in one litre flask.
3.2.3.2. Loss of Ignition (LOI): One gram of cement sample was weighed in a
crucible (porcelain) and kept in to a muffle furnace at pre adjusted temperature
900ºC. After one hour crucible was removed and kept for cooling and then collected
33
MATERIALS AND METHODS

in desiccators. After that weight of crucible with sample (W1) and empty i.e. without
sample (W2) was recorded. Loss of ignition in cement sample was calculated as
below:
W1 – W2
LOI (%) = x 100
W1

3.2.3.3. Estimation of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2): Cement sample of 0.5 g with 40 ml


HCl: H2O (1:1) was taken in a beaker and boiled over hot plate with gentle heat. The
sample was agitated with the help of glass rod. The solution was evaporated to
dryness without heating the residue. The sample was again heated for 10 min on hot
plate. After that it was diluted with an equal volume of hot water. The solution was
filtered while hot through ash less filter paper (40 Whatman). The residue was
washed thoroughly with hot water and dried in an oven for 1hr at 110ºC. Then the
residue was treated with 20 ml HCl: H2O (1:1) and heated on a hot plate. After that, it
was diluted with equal volume of hot water and filtered through ash less filter paper.
The filtrate obtained in this step was used for determination of alumina and ferric
oxide combined.
The filter paper containing residue was transferred to a weight platinum
crucible, dried and ignited first at low heat until the filter paper is completely
consumed without inflaming and finally ignited at 1200ºC until the weight remain
constant. The ignited residue was treated with 1 or 2 ml distilled water, 10 ml HF
(hydrofluoric acid) and 2 drop of sulphuric acid and evaporated to dryness. Finally
small residue was heated in 1100ºC in a furnace for 5 min and cool down and
weighed. After that silicon di oxide was calculated as this formula:
SiO2 (%) = 200 (W1 − W2 )
Where,
W1 = weight of silica + (insoluble impurities - residue)
W2 = weight of impurities.

3.2.3.4. Estimation of Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3): 25 ml of previous solution was taken


with dilute ammonium hydroxide (1:6). The turbidity was cleared with little addition
of dilute HCl and pH was adjusted approx. to 1 or 1.5. The solution was shaking
added by 100 mg of Sulphosalicylic acid. Then the resultant solution was titrated with

34
MATERIALS AND METHODS

0.01 M EDTA solution carefully to a colourless or pale yellow solution. Ferric Oxide
was calculated as below:

0.7985 x V
Fe2 O3 (%) =
W

Where,
V = Volume of EDTA used in ml, and
W = Weight of the sample in g.
1 ml of 0.01 M EDTA = 0.7985 mg of Fe2O3

3.2.3.5. Estimation of Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3): 15 ml of additional standard


EDTA solution was added to the titrated solution which was obtained in previous step
(Section 3.2.4.4). Then 1 ml of phosphoric acid (1:3) and 1 drop of thymol blue was
added into the titration flask. Ammonium acetate was added to solution with
continuous stirring until the colour changes from red to yellow. After that the pH was
adjusted up to 6 by adding 25 ml of ammonium acetate in excess. The solution was
heated to boiling for a minute and then cooled. Then solid xylenol orange of 50 mg
was added as indicator followed by bismuth nitrate solution with stirring until the
colour of solution become red. Little excess of bismuth nitrate solution was added
and titrated against 0.01 M EDTA solution.
V = V1 − V2 − (V3 x E)

Where,
V = Volume of EDTA for alumina in ml.
V1 = Total volume of EDTA used in the titration in ml.
V2 = Volume of EDTA used for Fe2O3.
V3 = Total volume of bismuth nitrate solution used in titration in ml, and
E = Equivalence of 1ml of bismuth nitrate solution.
1 ml of 0.01 M EDTA = 0.5098 mg of Al2O3

0.5098 x V
Al2 O3 (%) =
W

35
MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.2.3.6. Estimation of Calcium Oxide (CaO): 10 ml of previous solution which was


taken in SiO2 filtrate was taken in 250 ml of conical flask followed by adding 5 ml of
glycerol and 5 ml of diethylamine (1:1) with continuous stirring. Then 10 ml of 4 N
sodium hydroxide solutions was added and shake well to adjust pH to highly alkaline
range of 12 or slightly more. Approximately 50 ml of distilled water and 50 mg of
solid Patton-Reeder’s indicator was added and titrated against 0.01 M EDTA solution
to a change in colour from wine red to clear blue.
1 ml of 0.01 M EDTA = 0.5098 mg of CaO.

0.5098 x 25 x V
CaO (%) =
W
Where,
V = Volume of EDTA for alumina in ml, and
W = Weight of the sample in g.

3.2.3.7. Estimation of Insoluble Residue (IR): 1 g of sample was taken in a beaker


followed by adding 20 ml of HCl: H2O (1:1). The solution was heated below boiling
for 5 min on water bath, cooled down and filtered. The residual again digested with a
mixture of 30 ml of water and 30 ml 2 N sodium carbonate on water bath and then
cooled down and filtered by 640 MD filter paper. The residue was washed with
distilled water, dried in oven and weighted accurately. The following formula was
used to estimate the insoluble residue.

weight of residue
IR (%) = x 100
initial weight

3.2.4. Manufacturing of cement bonded particle board:


3.2.4.1. Preparation of Raw Materials: The properties of the final product primarily
depend on the type of particle used, thus the preparation of the particle themselves is
one of the most important factor in the CBPB manufacture. Steps in preparation
includes types of particle employed and quantity of cement are the major factor that
are closely related to handling, drying, screening, mixing and mat formation. Particle
geometry (shape and size) has a considerable affect both the board’s properties and its
manufacturing process.

36
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Woody shrub Lantana camara and Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) obtained


from Forest Research Institute Campus, Dehradun. Following steps involved in the
particle preparation:
a) Chipping: Lantana and Bamboo cut into small pieces and chipped out
manually (Plate 1).
b) Drying of chips: Chips were dried up to below fibre saturation point (FSP)
to get better quality of particles.
c) Grinding: These chips converted into cutter type particle in condux mill
(Plate 2).
d) Screening of Particles: The Particles were sieved through 20 and 40 mesh
screen to get uniform size of coarse and fine particles (Plate 3). The coarse
and fine particles are separated in 2.0:1.0 ratios for board preparation.
3.2.4.2. Quantity of water: The quantity of water depends on the quantity of cement
used for cement bonded particle board. The quantity of water added was
calculated using a relationship developed by Simatupang (1979). The water
required was determined as follows:

Amount of water (litre) = 0.35 + (0.3C - MC) x W0


Where,
C = Cement weight (Kg)
MC = Moisture content of wood (Oven-dry basis)
W0 = Oven dry weight of wood (Kg).

3.2.4.3. Soaking of particle in water: The dried coarse and fine particles were
soaked in water for 48hrs before mixing with cement. This was mainly done to reduce
soluble sugar content in wood and also to prevent heat of hydration after mixing
cement (Mohamed et al. 2011).
3.2.4.4. Additive application: After soaking of particles for 48hrs salt solutions
added and mix with particles. 2 % sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) was added with cement
to reduce heat of hydration and 2 % aluminium sulphate [Al2 (So4)3] were added on
the basis of cement weight used for board preparation to accelerate cement setting
(Hong and Lee, 1988; Badejo, 1989).

37
MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.2.4.5. Cement mix proportion: Pozzolana Portland cement Type IV was used for
board preparation. Three different proportion of cement/particles were used 2.0:1.0
(2.34 kg cement and 1.17 kg particles), 2.5:1.0 (2.51 kg cement and 1 kg particles)
and 3.0:1.0 (2.61 kg cement and 0.90 kg particles) respectively (Plate 4).
3.2.4.6. Mat formation: Mat formation 21 x 21 sq. inch iron frame was used. After
mixing of coarse and fine particles with water, additives and cement, three layered
mat formation was made. The fine particle mixture was on the top and bottom layer
and the coarse particle mixture was on the middle layer. It was mainly done to get
smooth surface of the cement particle board (Plate 5 & 6). The moisture of the mat
before cold press should not exceed more than 48 % (Plate 7). The thickness of the
mat before cold press was 20 mm.

3.2.4.7. Cold press: After mat formation the entire iron frame was kept in cold press
for pressing of board. The specific pressure was kept in cold press 400 lbs/sq. inch
(28 kg/cm2) for 6hrs.
Area of piston = 154 sq. inches
Specific pressure = 400 lbs/sq. inch (28 kg/cm2)
Area of CBPB = 21 inch x 21 inch

Specific Pressure x Area of board


Gauge Pressure =
Area of Piston x No.of Piston

400 x 21 x 21
= = 1145 lbs/sq. inch
154 x 1

3.2.4.8. Maturing and Conditioning: The pressed board was kept under maturing
chamber for 6hrs and the temperature of maturing chamber was adjusted to 50ºC.
After 6hrs, the boards were removed from iron frame and covered with cellophane
sheet. The boards were then kept on room temperature for 7 days for conditioning.
After 7 days, the boards were removed from cellophane sheet and kept under dryer to
reduce moisture content up to 9 %. After conditioning the boards were trimmed and
sized for testing.

38
MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.2.5. Preparation of test sample from each board


The number and size of the test samples from each prepared cement bonded
particle board for various tests are described in the table given below as per IS: 2380
(1998).
Table 3.2: Different sample size for physical and mechanical properties testing
Physical and Mechanical No. of Test
Sl. No. Size of Test Sample
properties Sample
1 Density 10 150 mm x 75 mm
2 Moisture Content 10 150 mm x 75 mm
3 Water Absorption 10 300 mm x 300 mm
4 Thickness Swelling 10 125 mm x 100 mm
5 Modulus of Rupture 10 24 X t* + 50 mm
6 Modulus of Elasticity 10 24 X t* + 50 mm
7 Tensile Strength 10 50 mm x 50 mm
Screw Withdrawal (Face and
8 10 150 mm x 75 mm
Edge)
*t = Thickness of the board.

3.2.6. Methods of testing of board: All the physical and mechanical testing was
done as per IS: 2380 (1998). The methodology in detail is described as below:
3.2.6.1. Moisture content: Each sample was weighed (W1) to an accuracy of not less
than ± 0.2 per cent. The samples were dried in oven at a temperature of 103 ± 2°C
until the weight is constant between two successive weighing made at an interval of
not less than 1 hour. The final oven dry weight of sample was recorded and moisture
content was calculated as below:
W1 − W2
Moisture Content (%) = x 100
W2

Where,
W1 = Initial weight
W2 = Oven dry weight

39
MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.2.6.2. Density: The width, length and thickness of each board were measured. The
mass is determined to an accuracy of ± 0·2 per cent. The mass of the test sample
calculated by weighing balance in gram, and the volume measured in cm3.
Calculation:
Volume = Length (cm) x Width (cm) x Thickness (cm)
Mass
Density (g /cm3 ) =
Volume

3.2.6.3. Water Absorption after 2 and 24hrs: After conditioning, samples were
weighed to accuracy (W1) and the width, length and thickness was measured. The
volume of the samples was estimated. The samples were submerged horizontally
under fresh clean water maintained at a temperature of 27 ± 2°C separated by at least
15 mm from each other and from the bottom and sides of the container (Plate 8).
After 2hrs submersion, the samples were removed and wet surface wiped with a
damp cloth and then weight of samples (W2) was recorded immediately. The samples
were again submerged for an additional period of 22hrs and the above procedure was
repeated. After removal, samples were conditioned and then weight of samples (W3)
was noted. The amount of water absorbed was calculated from the increase in weight
of the samples during the submersion, and the water absorption is expressed in
percentage.

W2 − W1
Water Absorption (%) after 2 hrs = x 100
W1

W3 − W1
Water Absorption (%) after 24 hrs = x 100
W1

3.2.6.4. Thickness Swelling: The thickness of each test sample was measured at the
centre of each side at four places approximately 20 mm from the edge (Plate 9). The
average of the four readings was recorded. The edges of each test sample were sealed
by quickly dipping them in to a depth of 5 mm shallow bath of molten paraffin wax
having a melting point of about 55°C. Each test sample was then immersed in fresh
clean water having a temperature of 27 ± 2°C. At the end of 2hrs, each test sample
was withdrawn from water and the wet surface wiped with a damp cloth. The

40
MATERIALS AND METHODS

thickness of each test sample measured at the same points as before and the thickness
increased was estimated as per formula given below:
T2 − T1
Thickness Swelling (%) x 100
T1
Where,
T1 = Initial thickness of sample (mm)
T2 = Final thickness of sample after two hours dipping in water (mm)

3.2.6.5. Modulus of rupture (MOR): The nominal thickness of prepared board was
10 mm, therefore the width of each test sample was kept 75 mm. The length of each
sample was 290 mm as per IS: 2380 (1998). The width, length and thickness of all
samples were measured to an accuracy of ± 0. 3 per cent.
The samples were loaded at the centre of the span with the load applied to the
finished face at a uniform rate through a loading block with rounded base. The
bearing blocks were 75 mm in width and had a thickness (in a direction parallel to the
span) equal to twice the radius of curvature of the rounded portion of the loading
block. The radius of the rounded portion was approximately equal to 1.5 times the
thickness of the sample (Plate 10). The load was applied continuously at a uniform
rate of motion of the movable crosshead of the testing machine as calculated by the
formula. The formula for its evaluation is given below:
Z x L2
N=
6t
Where,
N = rate of motion of moving head in cm/min,
Z = unit rate of fibre strain of outer fibre length per minute
= 0·005,
L = span in cm, and
t = thickness of sample in cm.
For all the samples of the above stated dimensions, rate of loading was evaluated to
be 5 mm/min and load was applied at this rate. Load was applied and the modulus of
rupture (bending strength) of the boards was calculated in N/mm2 for each sample by
the following formula.

41
MATERIALS AND METHODS

3xPxL
MOR =
2 x b x d2
Where,
P = maximum load in kg,
L = length of span in cm,
b = width of the sample in cm, and
d = thickness of the sample in cm.
3.2.6.6. Modulus of Elasticity: The test sample for MOE were prepared as discussed
in section 3.2.6.5. The modulus of elasticity (stiffness) of the boards was calculated in
N/mm2 for each sample by the following formula:
P′x L3
MOE =
4 x b x d3 x y1
Where,
P’ = load at proportional limit in kg,
L = length of span in cm,
b = width of the sample in cm,
d = depth of the sample in cm, and
y1 = central defection at limit of proportionality load in cm.

3.2.6.7. Tensile strength: The test samples of 50 mm2 surface area and 10 mm
thickness were prepared. Loading blocks of aluminium alloy 50 mm2 and 25 mm in
thickness were bonded with polyvinyl acetate (PVA) adhesive to the sample face for
50 min. The adhesive was applied such that failure does not occur at or near the glue
line. Cross-sectional dimensions of the sample was measured to an accuracy of not
less than ± 0·3 per cent. Loading fixtures attached to the heads of the testing machine
was then clamped to the aluminium blocks. The machine then pulls apart the blocks
until failure of the sample occurs. The direction of loading was nearly perpendicular
to the faces of the board and the centre of load was passed through the centre of the
sample (Plate 11). Rate of loading depends on the thickness of the sample loaded.
Therefore it was kept 0.08 cm /min for 10 mm thickness of the board. The load is
applied continuously throughout the test at a uniform rate of motion of the movable
crosshead of the testing machine.
Maximum loads were determined from which the stress at failure was
calculated for each sample. Strength values were calculated in N/mm2 for which the

42
MATERIALS AND METHODS

measured dimensions of the sample were used. The location of the line of failure, the
individual and the average strength values was calculated.
3.2.6.8. Screw withdrawal: The sample of size 150 mm x 75 mm was taken for the
testing of screw withdrawal strength of prepared board. As per IS: 2380 (1998), the
thickness of the boards for this test shall not be less than 30 mm. If the thickness of
the board is less than 30 mm, two or more boards may be bonded together with PVA
adhesive and clamped. Therefore, three boards of thickness 10 mm were bonded
together with the help of PVA adhesive. Two wood screws of No.8 and 50 mm length
were threaded into the sample at right angle to the face up to half of their length in a
prebore of 25 mm (Plate 12). The holes were made preferably at mid-width at about 5
cm from the ends of the sample. Care was taken that sample do not split during
driving of the screws in the sample.
The sample holding fixture was attached to the lower platen of the testing
machine. The sample was inserted in the fixture with the head of the screw or nail up.
The load applying fixture which was equipped with a slot for easy engagement of the
head of the screw was attached to the upper platen of the testing machine. It was done
on face as well as edge of the boards (Plate 13 & 14). Load was applied to the sample
throughout the test by a uniform motion of the movable head of the testing machine
at a rate of 1.5 mm per minute. The maximum load required to withdraw the screw
was noted in N.
3.2.7. Statistical analysis: The data recorded was analysed statistically at 5 %
significance level to find out the variation between the type of boards and different
cement: wood ratios and the relationship between the observed physical and
mechanical parameters. The data was analysed using “SPSS” package (16.0).
Different parameters taken into account during the course of study were subjected to
ANOVA. Duncan test was also performed to compare different sets by SPSS for each
parameter. The p value shown by SPSS as 0.000 has been reported as <0.001 in the
present study.

43
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 4
4. Results and Discussion
In order to develop alternate species for cement bonded particle board, it is
essential to study soluble sugar and tannin content of wood, chemical analysis of
cement used, and physical and mechanical properties of the board. The boards of
10 mm thickness were prepared using pressure at 28 kg/cm2 (400 lbs/sq. inch) for
6hrs in cold press as per IS: 14276 (2009). The prepared board was tested for
different physical and mechanical properties and the results are presented in
different subheads as given below:
1. Soluble sugar and tannin content present in Lantana camara and Bamboo
(Dendrocalamus strictus).
2. Major chemical constituent of Pozzolana Portland cement
3. Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board using
Bamboo particles in different cement/wood ratios (CBBB)
4. Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board using
Lantana particles in different cement/wood ratios (CLBB)
5. Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board using
Bamboo and Lantana particles mixture (75: 25 ratios) in different cement/wood
ratios (CBLB1)
6. Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board using
Bamboo and Lantana particles mixture (50: 50 ratios) in different cement/wood
ratios (CBLB2)
7. Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board using
Bamboo and Lantana particle mixture (25: 75 ratios) in different cement/wood
ratios (CBLB3)
8. Comparative study of all five types of cement bonded wood particle boards with
reference of different cement wood ratio

4.1. Soluble sugar and tannin content present in Lantana camara and Bamboo
(Dendrocalamus strictus)
One of the major problems of wood that inhibit the development of wood
cement bonding is the presence of wood extractives that contain poisonous
substances, which delay cement stiffness, hardening and curing (Wei et al. 2003;

44
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Schubert et al. 1990). Therefore, it is essential to estimate the soluble sugar and
tannin present in lantana and bamboo before preparing cement bonded particle
boards. Tannin contents of lantana flour and bamboo were measured by Folin-
Denis method (Schanderi, 1970). Different tannic acid concentrations in different
absorbance were prepared and shown in Table 3.1 and line graph plotted to get
tannin content percent (Figure 2). Based on line graph equation tannin content
calculated and results are shown in Table 4.1. Results revealed 0.147 and 0.703 %
soluble sugar present in lantana and bamboo respectively, whereas 0.028 and
0.026 % of tannin was recorded in lantana and bamboo respectively. Both the test
species showed approximately similar tannin content. Therefore, it may be
assumed that soluble sugar content may play an important role to decide
compatibility of wood with cement in boards. In the previous study, Chew et al.
(1992) also reported that bamboo contained more than 0.6 % total sugar and
produced cement bonded particle board of low mechanical properties.
Table 4.1: Average Soluble Sugar and Tannin Content Percentage in Lantana and
Bamboo
Species Total Soluble Sugar (%) Tannin (%)
Lantana camara 0.147 0.028
Dendrocalamusstrictus 0.703 0.026

4.2. Major chemical constituent of Pozzolana Portland cement


Pozzolana Portland commercial cement (Type IV) was used for
manufacturing of cement bonded particle boards (CBPB). Major components of
cement were estimated and compared with IS: 1489 (1991). The results are shown
in Table 4.2. LOI of cement was found 2.01 % only, which is below 5 %
suggested as per IS: 1489 (1991). Test cement contained 13.95 % SiO2, 5.63 %
Al2O3, 2.62 % Fe2O3 and 41.90 % CaO, whereas the insoluble residue was
obtained 28.41 %. It was noted that values recorded are as close to specified
values in IS: 1489 (1991) for different components of cement except CaO and
insoluble residue. The probable reason of low CaO may be the use of Type IV
cement in boards, which produced low heat of hydration, resulting low calcium
oxide.

45
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.2: Major Component Present in Pozzolana Portland cement


Specifications as per IS:
Major Component (%) Results (%)
1489 (1991) (%)
Loss of Ignition (LOI) 5.0 (max) 2.01
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) 20.0 (max) 13.95
Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) 7.0 (max) 5.63
Ferric oxide (Fe2O3) 4.5 (max) 2.62
Calcium oxide (CaO) 47.0 (min) 41.90
Insoluble residue 25.0 (max) 28.41

4.3. Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board


using Bamboo particle in different cement/wood ratios (CBBB)
4.3.1. Physical Properties
The prepared CBBB was tested for physical properties such as density,
moisture content, water absorption after 2hrs and 24hrs and thickness swelling.
Table 4.3.1.1 presents mean observations of physical properties of CBBB and its
comparison with IS: 14276 (2009).
Table 4.3.1.1: Mean Observations of Physical Properties of Cement Bamboo
Bonded Boards (CBBB)
Water Absorption Thickness
Swelling
Cement : Moisture
Density After 2hrs After 24hrs after 2hrs
Wood Content
(g/cm3) Water Water Water
Ratios (%)
Soaking (%) Soaking (%) Soaking
(%)
2.0:1.0 (R1) 1.16 12.45 13.79 25.83 4.2
2.5:1.0 (R2) 1.19 11.59 13.24 24.38 3.1
3.0:1.0 (R3) 1.20 10.61 12.38 22.86 2.2
IS: 14276 1.25
6.00-12.00 13.00 (max) 25.00 (max) 2.0 (max)
(2009) (min)

Mean density of CBBB was found 1.16, 1.19 and 1.20 g/cm3 at R1, R2 and
R3 respectively. It was noted that density of the board significantly increased with
increasing cement wood ratio in boards (p<0.05). Although it is not fulfilling the
criteria of IS: 14276 (2009) at any ratio, which suggest that a higher ratio of
cement may be opted for board for desired density. Table 4.3.1.2 and 4.3.1.3
present the ANOVA and Duncan’s homogenous subset for density.
Table 4.3.1.2: ANOVA for Density of Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
3
Density (g/cm ) 2 0.004 25.504 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.001

46
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.3.1.3: Duncan’s subsets for Density of Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards
(CBBB)
Cement : Density (g/cm3)
N
Wood Ratios 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 1.16
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 1.19
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 1.20
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000
Results are supported by previous studies (Oyagade, et al. 1995, Zhou and
Kamdem, 2002). It is because of high specimen weight of cement particles as
compared with wood particles or high density of cement than wood. Therefore, the
high ratio of cement in boards increased the aggregate air dry density.
The mean moisture content of 12.45, 11.59 and 10.61 % was recorded in
CBBB at 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 ratio, respectively and met the minimum requirement
of board as per IS: 14276 (2009). CBBB revealed 4.2, 3.1 and 2.2 % thickness
swelling at R1, R2 and R3 respectively, which is higher than 2.0 % suggested as IS:
14276 (2009). The mean moisture content and thickness swelling decreased with
increasing cement wood ratios significantly (p<0.05). Table 4.3.1.4 and Table
4.3.1.5 show ANOVA and Duncan’s subset for moisture content and thickness
swelling of the board.
Table 4.3.1.4: ANOVA for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling (2hrs) of
Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Moisture Content (%) 2 8.534 239.651 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.036
Thickness Swelling after
2 10.033 13.478 ˂ 0.001
2hrs Water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.744

Table 4.3.1.5: Duncan’s subsets for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling
(2hrs) of Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
Thickness Swelling
Cement : Moisture Content (%) after 2hrs Water
N
Wood Ratios Soaking (%)
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 12.45 4.2
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 11.59 3.1
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 10.61 2.2
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

47
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Similarly water absorption by CBBB at R1, R2 and R3 was found 13.79,


13.24 and 12.38 % after 2hrs and 25.83, 24.38 and 22.86 % after 24hrs soaking in
water respectively (Table 4.3.1.1). Results revealed approximately double water
absorption after 24hrs as compared with 2 hrs. As per IS: 14276 (2009), board
should have maximum 13 and 25 % water absorption after 2hrs and 24hrs
respectively. So only R3 after 2hrs and R2 and R3 after 24hrs satisfied the criteria as
per IS: 14276 (2009). Table 4.3.1.6 and 4.3.1.7 exhibited the ANOVA and
Duncan’s subset for water absorption of cement bamboo particle board. It was
noted that all the values recorded at different cement/bamboo ratios are
significantly different (p<0.05).
It was observed that moisture content, water absorption and thickness
swelling decreased with increasing amount of cement in wood, which is
statistically significant (p<0.05). Results are inconformity with the finding
reported by Savastano et al. (2000) and Eusebio et al. (1998). It is well known that
wood is hygroscopic in nature, so high content of wood particle in CBBB tends to
absorb more water as compared to cement particles (Wei et al. 2003). Cement
particles also provide coating to wood particles, which prevents them from
absorbing water. Therefore, from the results it can be concluded that higher
quantity of cement particle in CBBB will help to prevent moisture/water
absorption in boards, which directly control the thickness swelling in boards.
However, it is difficult to optimize the cement ratio in wood, since high cement in
board will affect its elasticity and stiffness.
If results were compared with IS: 14276 (2009), it was found that cement
bonded bamboo board passed the criteria of only moisture and water absorption at
R3 only, whereas other physical parameters could not be satisfied. It was assumed
that bamboo has high sugar content, which may interfere and resulted poor
properties as reported by many authors (Wei et al. 2003; Schubert et al. 1990;
Chew et al.1992)

48
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.3.1.6: ANOVA for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement
Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Water absorption after 2hrs
2 5.07 302.946 ˂ 0.001
water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.017
Water absorption after
2 21.998 195.521 ˂ 0.001
24hrs water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.113

Table 4.3.1.7: Duncan’s subsets for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement
Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
Water Absorption after Water Absorption after
Cement :
N 2hrs Water Soaking (%) 24hrs Water Soaking (%)
Wood Ratios
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 13.79 25.83
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 13.24 24.38
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 12.38 22.86
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

4.3.2. Mechanical Properties


The mean values of mechanical properties of the boards such as tensile
strength, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and screw
withdrawal in both face and edge was determined and presented in Table 4.3.2.1.
Table 4.3.2.1: Mean Observations of Mechanical Properties of Cement Bamboo
Bonded Boards (CBBB)
Cement : Tensile Modulus Modulus of Screw Screw
Wood Strength of Rupture Elasticity Withdrawal Withdrawal
Ratios (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (N/mm2) Face (N) Edge (N)
2.0:1.0
0.28 5.97 2494 1229 771
(R1)
2.5:1.0
0.34 8.18 3637 1281 834
(R2)
3.0:1.0
0.40 9.68 4024 1329 876
(R3)
IS:14276 0.40
9.00 (min) 3000 (min) 1250 (min) 850 (min)
(2009) (min)

Mean tensile strength of CBBB was determined 0.28, 0.34 and 0.40 N/mm2
at different cement/wood ratios i.e. R1, R2 and R3 respectively. It was observed that
cement particles in board developed strong internal bonding and further improved
the tensile strength of board. The effect of cement: wood ratio on tensile strength

49
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

was found significant at 5 % significance level. ANOVA and Duncan’s


homogenous subset are presented in Table 4.3.2.2 and Table 4.3.2.3 respectively.
Although CBBB at only R3 performed satisfactory results as per IS: 14276 (2009).
Table 4.3.2.2: ANOVA for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement
Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Tensile Strength (N/mm2) 2 0.035 114.899 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.001

Table 4.3.2.3: Duncan’s subsets for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of


Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
Cement : Wood Tensile Strength (N/mm2)
N
Ratios 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 0.28
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 0.34
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 0.40
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000

Lee (1984) also reported that the mechanical strength of cement wood
particle board is directly proportional to the cement/wood ratio. Similar kind of
results in this study was noted in case of MOE, MOR and screw withdrawal test.
CBBB at R1, R2 and R3 ratio exhibited 5.97, 8.18 and 9.68 N/mm2 mean MOR,
respectively. Only higher cement ratio in board met the minimum criteria of IS:
14276 (2009) (Table 4.3.2.1). Mean MOE of 2494, 3637 and 4024 N/mm2 was
recorded at test ratio i.e. R1, R2 and R3 respectively. As per IS: 14276 (2009),
cement bonded particle board should have minimum 3000 N/mm2 MOE, where
board prepared at R1 could not meet the requirement. It was observed that MOE
and MOR of the boards significantly increased with increasing cement ratio in
CBBB analysed at 5 % significance level (Table 4.3.2.5). Table 4.3.2.4 shows the
ANOVA for both MOR and MOE.
Table 4.3.2.4: ANOVA for MOR and MOE of Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards
(CBBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Modulus of Rupture
2 34.893 199.654 ˂ 0.001
(N/mm2)
Errors 27 0.175
Modulus of Elasticity
2 6324327.7 235.08 ˂ 0.001
(N/mm2)
Errors 27 26902.863

50
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.3.2.5: Duncan’s subsets for MOR and MOE of Cement Bamboo Bonded
Boards (CBBB)
Modulus of Rupture Modulus of Elasticity
Cement : 2
N (N/mm ) (N/mm2)
Wood Ratios
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 5.97 2494
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 8.18 3637
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 9.68 4024
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

The mean value of screw withdrawal in face and edge surface of CBBB is
given in Table 4.3.2.1 and compared with IS: 14276 (2009). Mean screw
withdrawal in face and edge of board was recorded 1229, 771 N at R1, respectively
and 1281, 834 N at R2, respectively. Whereas board prepared at R3 revealed 1329
and 876 N mean screw withdrawal in face and edge respectively. The values
recorded at face were found higher than the edge (Table 4.3.2.1). It shows that
alignment of particles in board is important in case of screw withdrawal strength,
since it is hard to withdraw screw across the grain than along the grain. However
board manufactured at R1 tested at face and R1 and R2 tested at edge side adversely
affect the screw withdrawal strength as per IS: 14276 (2009). It indicates that high
mechanical strength is obtained at high cement/wood particles ratio in board,
which is significantly different from the lower ratios (p<0.05). Similar results were
reported by Alhedy et al. (2006), where all the strength values increased as
cement/bamboo ratio increased. In previous studies Zhou and Kamdem (2002)
reported that board with higher cement wood ratio is difficult to nail.Table 4.3.2.6
and Table 4.3.2.7 represented the ANOVA and Duncan’s subset for screw
withdrawal in both sides respectively.
Table 4.3.2.6: ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of Cement
Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Screw Withdrawal in Face
2 25410.133 156.043 ˂ 0.001
Surface (N)
Errors 27 162.841
Screw Withdrawal in Edge
2 28000.233 95.953 ˂ 0.001
Surface (N)
Errors 27 291.811

51
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.3.2.7: Duncan’s subsets for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of
Cement Bamboo Bonded Boards (CBBB)
Screw Withdrawal in Screw Withdrawal in
Cement : Wood
N Face Surface (N) Edge Surface (N)
Ratios
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 1229 771
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 1281 834
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 1329 876
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

Papadopoulos, (2008) stated that all mechanical properties increased with


increasing cement wood ratios up to a certain limit. The other reasons for
improved mechanical properties may be thickness swelling and or chemical
present in wood. Meneeis et al. (2007) reported that internal bonding is associated
with lower thickness swelling which is responsible for higher MOR or
compressive strength. In another study reported by Chew et al. (1992), it is
observed that when the soluble sugar and tannin content is more in wood, it can
directly affect the mechanical properties of the wood. Abdelgadir and Ibrahim
(2003) stated that compressive strength of wood cement mixture increased as
cement wood ratios increased.
4.4. Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board
using Lantana particle in different cement/wood ratios (CLBB)
4.4.1. Physical Properties
Physical properties such as density, moisture content, water absorption
after 2 and 24hrs and thickness swelling was tested for prepared lantana cement
board (CLBB) and presented in Table 4.4.1.1. The values obtained were compared
with IS: 14276 (2009).
Table 4.4.1.1: Mean Observations of Physical Properties of Cement Lantana
Bonded Boards (CLBB)
Water Absorption
Thickness
Cement : Moisture After
Density After Swelling after
Wood Content 2hrsWater
(g/cm3) 24hrsWater 2hrs Water
Ratios (%) Soaking
Soaking (%) Soaking (%)
(%)
2.0:1.0
1.18 11.62 12.27 22.55 2.1
(R1)
2.5:1.0
1.25 10.16 11.06 20.20 1.8
(R2)
3.0:1.0
1.28 9.89 10.49 19.75 1.6
(R3)
IS: 14276 1.25 13.00
6.00-12.00 25.00 (max) 2.0 (max)
(2009) (min) (max)

52
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Board prepared with lantana revealed mean density of 1.18, 1.25 and 1.28
g/cm3 at R1, R2 and R3 respectively. It can be noticed that lowest cement/wood ratio
could not exhibited minimum required density as per IS: 14276 (2009). It was
observed that density of the board significantly increased with increasing cement:
lantana ratio in boards (p<0.05). Duncan’s table presented in Table 4.4.1.3 shows
that density at all test ratio is significantly different at 5 % significance level.
These findings are supported by previous results reported by Oyagade et al.
(1995), Zhou and Kamdem (2002). Papadopoulos (2008) reported the density of
Hornbeam cement bonded particle board 1.27 g/cm3 in 3.0: 1.0 cement /wood ratio
and 1.28 g/cm3 in 4.0: 1.0 cement/wood ratios. Table 4.4.1.2 presents the ANOVA
for density.
Table 4.4.1.2: ANOVA for Density of Cement Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Density (g/cm3) 2 0.025 44.576 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.002

Table 4.4.1.3: Duncan’s subset for Density of Cement Lantana Bonded Boards
(CLBB)
Cement : Density (g/cm3)
N
Wood Ratios 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 1.18
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 1.25
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 1.28
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000

CLBB showed mean moisture content of 11.62, 10.16 and 9.89 % at R1, R2
and R3 respectively in Table 4.4.1.1. Board prepared at all test ratio met the
moisture range as per IS: 14276 (2009). In case of thickness swelling CLBB
revealed 2.1, 1.8 and 1.6 % at R1, R2 and R3 respectively. As per IS: 14276 (2009),
after 2hrs water soaking thickness swelling of board should be maximum 2 %,
whereas R1 manifested higher thickness swelling, which is not acceptable. On the
basis of statistical analysis, R2 and R3 were found non-significant at 5 %
significance level (Table 4.4.1.5). The detail of ANOVA for moisture content and
thickness swelling of CLBB is presented in Table 4.4.1.4.

53
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.4.1.4: ANOVA for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling (2hrs) of
Cement Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Moisture Content (%) 2 8.672 286.879 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.030
Thickness Swelling after
2 3.433 6.574 0.005
2hrs Water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.522

Table 4.4.1.5: Duncan’s subsets for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling
(2hrs) of Cement Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
Thickness Swelling
Cement : Moisture Content (%) after 2hrs Water
N
Wood Ratios Soaking (%)
1 2 3 1 2
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 11.62 2.1
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 10.16 1.8
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 9.89 1.6
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.541

R1, R2 and R3 manifested 12.27, 11.06 and 10.49 % water absorption after
2hrs and 22.55, 20.20 and 19.75 % water absorption after 24hrs respectively. It is
important to note that board at all test ratio fulfilled the standard mentioned in IS:
14276 (2009). Water absorption after 24hrs was recorded approximately two times
of water absorption after 2hrs. Results showed that moisture content and water
absorption noted after 2hrs decreased with increasing cement ratio in lantana board
(p<0.05). Water absorption recorded after 24hrs also decreased with increasing
cement ratio but it was not found significant when R2 and R3 compared (p<0.05) in
Table 4.4.1.7.
These results are supported by Savastano et al. (2000), Eusebio et al.
(1998), Badejo (1990) and Wei et al. (2003). High wood particle in CBPB tends
to absorb more water as compared to cement particles due to hygroscopicity of
wood (Wei et al. 2003). Cement particles also act as coating to wood particles and
help to avoid moisture. Results indicating that cement particle in CLBB help to
prevent moisture/water absorption in boards, which directly associated with the
thickness swelling of boards. ANOVA for water absorption after 2hrs and 24hrs is
shown in Table 4.4.1.6.

54
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.4.1.6: ANOVA for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement Lantana
Bonded Boards (CLBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Water absorption after 2hrs
2 8.230 111.688 ˂ 0.001
water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.074
Water absorption after
2 22.729 84.688 ˂ 0.001
24hrs water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.268

Table 4.4.1.7: Duncan’s subsets for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement
Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
Water Absorption
Water Absorption after
Cement : after 24hrs Water
N 2hrs Water Soaking (%)
Wood Ratios Soaking (%)
1 2 3 1 2
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 12.27 22.55
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 11.06 20.20
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 10.49 19.75
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.063

4.4.2. Mechanical Properties

The mean mechanical properties of the cement bonded Lantana particle


boards such as tensile strength, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity
(MOE) and screw withdrawal in both face and edge was determined and presented
in Table 4.4.2.1. Cement particle board prepared with lantana exhibited very
interesting and positive results and met the minimum mechanical strength
recommended by IS: 14276 (2009) at all test ratios, except screw withdrawal
strength in edge by R1.
Table 4.4.2.1: Mean Observations of Mechanical Properties of Cement Lantana
Bonded Boards (CLBB)
Cement Tensile Modulus of Modulus of Screw Screw
: Wood Strength Rupture Elasticity Withdrawal Withdrawal
Ratios (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (N/mm2) Face (N) Edge (N)
2.0:1.0
0.43 10.02 4081 1324 798
(R1)
2.5:1.0
0.55 12.30 4968 1488 930
(R2)
3.0:1.0
0.58 12.46 4899 1557 998
(R3)
IS:14276 0.40
9.0 (min) 3000 (min) 1250 (min) 850 (min)
(2009) (min)

55
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Mean tensile strength of CLBB was found 0.43, 0.55 and 0.58 N/mm2 at
R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Results indicated direct relationship between tensile
strength and cement amount in particle board, since tensile strength increased with
increasing the cement ratio. Although the increment was found significant only up
to 2.5:1.0 ratio, no significance was noted between R2 and R3 (p ≤0.05) shown in
Table 4.4.2.3. Many authors reported similar results previously (Lee, 1984; Badejo
et al. 2011). ANOVA for the tensile strength is shown in Table 4.4.2.2.
Table 4.4.2.2: ANOVA for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement
Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Tensile Strength (N/mm2) 2 0.068 54.598 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.003

Table 4.4.2.3: Duncan’s subset for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement
Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
Cement : Wood Tensile Strength (N/mm2)
N
Ratios 1 2
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 0.43
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 0.55
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 0.58
Sig. 1.000 0.077
Mean MOR of 10.03, 12.30 and 12.46 N/mm2 was observed at test ratio i.e.
R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Whereas, CLBB at R1, R2 and R3 ratio showed 4081,
4968, and 4899 N/mm2 mean MOE respectively (Table 4.4.2.1). ANOVA and
Duncan’s homogenous subset is demonstrated in Table 4.4.2.4 and Table 4.4.2.5
respectively. MOR increased with increasing cement part in board, but it was not
found statistically significant after 2.5:1.0 ratio tested at 5 % significance level
(Table 4.4.2.5). It is interesting to note down that MOE first increased with
increasing cement ratio and then decreased, which is non-significant (Table
4.4.2.5). It is assumed that cement being a concrete reduces the elasticity, whereas
wood being a fibre supports the elasticity in material.
Table 4.4.2.4: ANOVA for MOR and MOEof Cement Lantana Bonded Boards
(CLBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Modulus of Rupture (N/mm ) 2
2 18.505 364.453 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.051
2
Modulus of Elasticity (N/mm ) 2 2435060.800 27.211 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 89487.452

56
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.4.2.5: Duncan’s subsets for MOR and MOE of Cement Lantana Bonded
Boards (CLBB)
Modulus of Rupture Modulus of Elasticity
Cement : Wood 2
N (N/mm ) (N/mm2)
Ratios
1 2 1 2
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 10.02 4081
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 12.30 4968
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 12.46 4899
Sig. 1.000 0.120 1.000 0.609
The mean value of screw withdrawal was recorded in face as well as edge
surface of CLBB and presented in Table 4.4.2.1. Results showed 1324, 1488 and
1557 N means screw withdrawal in face surface at R1, R2 and R3 respectively.
While, board prepared at R1, R2 and R3 ratio showed 798, 930 and 998 N mean
screw withdrawal at edge surface respectively. It can be noted that screw
withdrawal strength of board are significantly increasing with increasing cement in
board (p ≤0.05) (Table 4.4.2.7). Results are in conformity with findings reported
by Papadopoulos (2008). Zhou and Kamdem (2002) also reported the higher screw
withdrawal value at higher cement wood ratio. Present study showed that
thickness swelling decreased with higher cement amount in wood, which may be
probable reason for increasing mechanical strength (Meneeis et al. 2007). The role
of cement particle for higher strength in wood particle board is also reported by
Prestemom (1976); Oyagade (1990).
Table 4.4.2.6: ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of Cement
Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Screw Withdrawal in Face
2 143640.633 174.310 ˂ 0.001
Surface (N)
Errors 27 824.052
Screw Withdrawal in Edge
2 103078.033 106.733 ˂ 0.001
Surface (N)
Errors 27 965.756

Table 4.4.2.7: Duncan’s subsets for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of
Cement Lantana Bonded Boards (CLBB)
Screw Withdrawal in Screw Withdrawal in
Cement :
N Face Surface (N) Edge Surface (N)
Wood Ratios
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 1324 798
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 1488 930
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 1557 998
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

57
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.5. Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board


using Bamboo and Lantana particle mixture (75: 25 ratios) in different
cement/wood ratios (CBLB1)
4.5.1. Physical Properties
The cement bonded particle board was prepared with bamboo and lantana
particles in 75:25 ratios and tested for physical properties such as density, moisture
content, thickness swelling, and water absorption. Mean value of these physical
parameters is shown in Table 4.5.1.1.
Table 4.5.1.1: Mean Observations of Physical Properties of Cement Bonded
Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
Water Absorption Thickness
Swelling
Cement : Moisture After 2hrs After 24hrs
Density after 2hrs
Wood Content Water Water
(g/cm3) Water
Ratios (%) Soaking Soaking
Soaking
(%) (%)
(%)
2.0:1.0 (R1) 1.17 12.40 13.49 24.50 2.4
2.5:1.0 (R2) 1.21 11.88 13.07 23.68 1.8
3.0:1.0 (R3) 1.23 11.17 12.18 22.48 1.4
IS: 14276 1.25
6.00-12.00 13.00 (max) 25.00 (max) 2.0 (max)
(2009) (min)

Result showed that CBLB1 could not meet the required density as per IS:
14276 (2009). Since mean density of CBLB1 was observed 1.17, 1.21 and 1.23
g/cm3 at R1, R2 and R3 respectively. However, density of the board significantly
increased with increasing cement wood ratio in boards (p<0.05). Results are
supported the previous studies (Oyagade et al. 1995; Zhou and Kamdem, 2002). It
is mainly due to high density of cement as compared to wood, which increased
aggregate air dry density. Table 4.5.1.2 and Table 4.5.1.3 exhibit the ANOVA and
Duncan’s Table for density of CBLB1 respectively.
Table 4.5.1.2: ANOVA for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25)
Particle Boards (CBLB1)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Density (g/cm )3
2 0.008 29.130 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.001

58
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.5.1.3: Duncan’s subsets for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana
(75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
Cement : Wood Density (g/cm3)
N
Ratios 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 1.17
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 1.21
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 1.23
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000

Table 4.5.1.1 exhibited satisfactory mean moisture content by CBLB1 i.e.


12.40, 11.88 and 11.17 % at R1, R2 and R3 ratio respectively. Results revealed 2.4,
1.8 and 1.4 % mean thickness swelling at R1, R2 and R3 respectively. It was
observed that CBLB1 at R2 and R3 only satisfied the standards of IS: 14276 (2009).
Statistical analysis showed that moisture content decreased with increasing cement
in wood (p<0.05). However, thickness swelling also decreased with amount of
cement in board, but it was not significantly different between R2 and R3 (p<0.05).
ANOVA and Duncan’s subset for moisture content and thickness swelling (2hrs)
is shown in Table 4.5.1.4 and Table 4.5.1.5 respectively.
Table 4.5.1.4: ANOVA for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling (2hrs) of
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards
(CBLB1)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Moisture Content (%) 2 3.769 81.637 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.046
Thickness Swelling after
2 2.533 5.516 0.010
2hrs Water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.459

Table 4.5.1.5: Duncan’s subsets for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling
(2hrs) of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle
Boards (CBLB1)
Thickness Swelling
Cement : Moisture Content (%) after 2hrs Water
N
Wood Ratios Soaking (%)
1 2 3 1 2
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 12.40 2.4
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 11.88 1.8 1.8
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 11.17 1.4
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.058 0.198

Table 4.5.1.1 shows the water absorption was observed 13.49 % and 24.50
% after 2hrs and 24hrs respectively at R1, whereas R2 showed13.07 % and 23.68 %
after 2hrs and 24hrs respectively. CBLB1 at R3 manifested 12.18 % water

59
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

absorption after 2hrs and 22.48 % after 24hrs soaking in water. The effect of
different cement: wood ratio was found statistically significant (p<0.05) (Table
4.5.1.7). CBLB1 satisfied water absorption criteria after 2hrs at R3 only, whereas
board performed well after 24hrs soaking at all these three cement/wood ratios as
per IS: 14276 (2009). Prestemon (1976) reported mean water absorption ranges
values of 28.1 % to 65.8 % for 25 mm thick cement bonded particle boards
following 24hrs soaking in cold water. Table 4.5.1.6 gives the ANOVA of water
absorption of CBLB1.

Table 4.5.1.6: ANOVA for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement Bonded
Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
Mean
Source of Variation df F Sig.
Square
Water absorption after 2hrs
2 4.412 124.294 ˂ 0.001
water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.035
Water absorption after 24hrs
2 10.230 58.894 ˂ 0.001
water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.174

Table 4.5.1.7: Duncan’s subsets for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
Water Absorption after
Water Absorption after
Cement : 24hrs Water Soaking
N 2hrs Water Soaking (%)
Wood Ratios (%)
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 13.49 24.50
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 13.07 23.68
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 12.18 22.48
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

4.5.2. Mechanical Properties


. The mean values of mechanical properties such as tensile strength,
modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, screw withdrawal are presented in Table
4.5.2.1 and compared with IS: 14276 (2009).

60
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.5.2.1: Mean Observations of Mechanical Properties of Cement Bonded


Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
Modulus Modulus
Cement : Tensile Screw Screw
of of
Wood Strength Withdrawal Withdrawal
Rupture Elasticity
Ratios (N/mm2) Face (N) Edge (N)
(N/mm2) (N/mm2)
2.0:1.0
0.29 6.78 2905 1247 768
(R1)
2.5:1.0
0.34 7.95 3511 1308 817
(R2)
3.0:1.0
0.38 8.85 3938 1379 896
(R3)
IS:14276 0.40
9.0 (min) 3000 (min) 1250 (min) 850 (min)
(2009) (min)

Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) board exhibited poor tensile


strength, since all values were found less than 0.40 N/mm2 as suggested in
IS:14276 (2009) (Table 4.5.2.1). It showed that tensile strength of board improved
significantly by using high content of cement particles tested at 5 % significance
level (Table 4.5.2.3). Olufemi et al. (2012) reported 0.33 N/mm2 internal bonding
in 2.0: 1.0 cement/sawdust cement bonded particle board and 0.45 N/mm2 in 3.0:
1.0 cement/sawdust cement bonded particle boards. Table 4.5.2.2 gives the
ANOVA of tensile strength of boards CBLB1.
Table 4.5.2.2: ANOVA for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
2
Tensile Strength (N/mm ) 2 0.021 98.566 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.001

Table 4.5.2.3: Duncan’s subset for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
Cement : Wood Tensile Strength (N/mm2)
N
Ratios 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 0.29
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 0.34
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 0.38
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000

The results showed that CBLB1 did not pass the minimum criteria of MOR
of cement bonded particle boards as standard IS: 14276 (2009).CBLB1 exhibited
6.78, 7.95, and 8.85 N/mm2 mean MOR at R1, R2 and R3 ratio respectively, which
should be minimum 9.0 N/mm2.Whereas, mean MOE of 2905, 3511 and 3938

61
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

N/mm2 was recorded at test ratio R1, R2 and R3 respectively in Table 4.5.2.1. MOE
and MOR values were also significantly increased with increasing cement in board
(p<0.05) (Table 4.5.1.5). Lee (1984) also reported that elasticity of the boards
increased with increasing cement ratio in board. ANOVA for MOR and MOE of
CBLB1 is demonstrated in Table 4.5.2.4.
Table 4.5.2.4: ANOVA for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana
(75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Modulus of Rupture
2 10.798 267.496 ˂ 0.001
(N/mm2)
Errors 27 0.040
Modulus of Elasticity
2 2693996.433 66.404 ˂ 0.001
(N/mm2)
Errors 27 40569.948

Table 4.5.2.5: Duncan’s subsets for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded Bamboo:
Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
Modulus of Rupture Modulus of Elasticity
Cement : 2
N (N/mm ) (N/mm2)
Wood Ratios
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 6.78 2905
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 7.95 3511
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 8.85 3938
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

The mean value of screw withdrawal in face and edge surface of CBLB1 is
given in Table 4.5.2.1. Mean screw withdrawal in face and edge of board was
recorded 1247, 768 N at R1 respectively and 1308, 817 N at R2 respectively.
Whereas board prepared at R3 revealed 1379 and 896 N mean screw withdrawal
in face and edge respectively. As per IS: 14276 (2009), cement wood particle
board needs minimum 1250 N and 850 N screw withdrawal strength in face and
edge respectively. However CBLB1 prepared at R1 tested at face side and R1 and
R2 tested at edge side could not meet the required strength as per standard. It is
interesting that screw withdrawal strength significantly increased as amount of
cement particles increased in board tested at 5 % significance level (Table 4.5.2.7).
Therefore, the higher cement amount can be suggested for particle board
manufacturing where the strength is prime concern. ANOVA for Screw
withdrawal strength in face and edge is displayed in Table 4.5.2.6.

62
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.5.2.6: ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of Cement
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards (CBLB1)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Screw Withdrawal in Face
2 43653.633 193.535 ˂ 0.001
Surface (N)
Errors 27 225.559
Screw Withdrawal in Edge
2 41749.233 121.955 ˂ 0.001
Surface (N)
Errors 27 342.333

Table 4.5.2.7: Duncan’s subsets for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (75:25) Particle Boards
(CBLB1)
Screw Withdrawal in Screw Withdrawal in
Cement : Wood
N Face Surface (N) Edge Surface (N)
Ratios
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 1247 768
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 1308 817
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 1379 896
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

In previous studies Zhou and Kamdem (2002) reported that board with
higher cement wood ratio is difficult to nail. Papadopoulos (2008) stated that all
mechanical properties increased with increasing cement wood ratios up to a certain
limit. Meneeis et al. (2007) reported that internal bonding is associated with lower
thickness swelling, which is responsible for higher MOR or compressive strength.
In another study reported by Chew et al. (1992), it is observed that when the
soluble sugar and tannin content is more in wood, it can directly affect the
mechanical properties of the wood. Abdelgadir and Ibrahim (2003) stated that
compressive strength of wood cement mixture increased as cement wood ratios
increased. Oyagade et al. (1995) reported that veneer laminated cement-bonded
particleboard were stronger and stiffer with increased cement/wood ratio due to
increased density. Also Lee (1984) stated that if a lower cement/wood ratio is
used, wood excelsior will not receive adequate cement coating, which results in
poor bonding.
Similar kind of results was reported by Savastano et al. (2000); Eusebio et
al. (1998), Badejo (1990). Wood is hygroscopic in nature and tends to absorb more
water as compared to cement particles (Wei et al. 2003). Therefore, cement
particles prevent moisture absorption and improved physical and mechanical
properties of boards. It is inferred that the properties of cement particle board may

63
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

be enhanced by using optimum cement particle in wood, which to prevent


moisture/water absorption in boards and controls the mechanical properties in
boards.

4.6. Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board


using Bamboo and Lantana particle mixture (50: 50 ratios) in different
cement/wood ratios (CBLB2)
4.6.1. Physical Properties
The prepared CBLB2 was tested for physical properties such as density,
moisture content, water absorption and thickness swelling and presented in Table
4.6.1.1 and recorded mean values were compared with IS: 14276 (2009).
Table 4.6.1.1: Mean Observations of Physical Properties of Cement Bonded
Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
Water Absorption Thickness
Swelling
Cement : Moisture
Density After After after 2hrs
Wood 3 Content
(g/cm ) 2hrsWater 24hrsWater Water
Ratios (%)
Soaking (%) Soaking (%) Soaking
(%)
2.0:1.0
1.18 12.29 13.27 24.36 2.1
(R1)
2.5:1.0
1.21 11.46 12.95 23.11 1.7
(R2)
3.0:1.0
1.23 10.74 11.95 21.54 1.5
(R3)
IS: 14276 1.25
6.00-12.00 13.00 (max) 25.00 (max) 2.0 (max)
(2009) (min)

Result revealed thatcement bonded bamboo: lantana (50:50) particle Board


could not pass the density criteria as per IS: 14276 (2009). Since CBLB2 prepared
at R1, R2 and R3 showed mean density of 1.18, 1.21 and 1.23 g/cm3 respectively.
However density of board increased as cement particles increased in board and the
increment was found significant at 5 % significance level (Table 4.6.1.3).
Statistical analysis based on ANOVA is shown in Table 4.6.1.2. Cement particles
are denser than wood particles, which directly increased the density with
increasing cement contribution in board. Papadopouos (2008) also reported the
similar kind of results.

64
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.6.1.2: ANOVA for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50)
Particle Boards (CBLB2)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Density (g/cm )3
2 0.005 18.112 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.001

Table 4.6.1.3: Duncan’s subset for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana
(50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
Cement : Wood Density (g/cm3)
N
Ratios 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 1.18
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 1.21
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 1.23
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000

The mean moisture content of 12.29, 11.46 and 10.74 % was recorded in
CBLB2 at R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Thickness swelling of 2.1, 1.7 and 1.5 % was
recorded by CBLB2 at R1, R2 and R3 respectively and fulfilled the requirement as
per IS: 14276 (2009) at all test ratios of cement and wood. At the same time it was
observed that different cement and wood ratio could not statistically decreased the
thickness swelling (p<0.05) (Table 4.6.1.5). Although, it was contradictory with
the results reported by Papadopoulos (2008). In this study, thickness swelling was
recorded 1.75 % at 3:1 ratio of cement and wood in board and significantly
decreased up to 0.67 % on increasing the cement ratio. Table 4.6.1.4 shows the
ANOVA for moisture content and thickness swelling after 2hrs water soaking at 5
% significance level.
Table 4.6.1.4: ANOVA for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling (2hrs) of
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards
(CBLB2)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Moisture Content (%) 2 5.978 85.206 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.070
Thickness Swelling after
2 0.400 0.939 0.403
2hrs Water Soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.426

65
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.6.1.5: Duncan’s subsets for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling
(2hrs) of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle
Boards (CBLB2)
Thickness Swelling
Cement : Moisture Content (%) after 2hrs Water
N
Wood Ratios Soaking (%)
1 2 3 1
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 12.29 2.1
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 11.46 1.7
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 10.74 1.5
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.206

CBLB2 at R1, R2 and R3 exhibited 13.27, 12.95 and 11.95 % mean water
absorption after 2hrs and 24.36, 23.11 and 21.54 % after 24hrs soaking in water
respectively in Table 4.6.1.1. It was noted that R1 after 2hrs did not reveal
satisfactory results as per IS: 14276 (2009). Cement may probably play its crucial
role to control water absorption by board, as water absorption significantly
reduced with increasing cement part in particle board (p<0.05) (Table 4.6.1.6).
Water absorption was also increased by 43-45 % after 24 hours as compared to 2
hours soaking. To understand the individual behaviour of water absorption in
different cement/wood ratios, Duncan’s subset were formed and given in Table
4.6.1.7.
Table 4.6.1.6: ANOVA for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement Bonded
Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
Mean
Source of Variation df F Sig.
Square
Water absorption after
2 4.730 94.775 ˂ 0.001
2hrs water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.050
Water absorption after
24hrs water soaking 2 19.921 287.247 ˂ 0.001
(%)
Errors 27 0.069

66
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.6.1.7: Duncan’s subsets for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
Water Absorption after
Water Absorption after
Cement : 24hrs Water Soaking
N 2hrs Water Soaking (%)
Wood Ratios (%)
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 13.27 24.36
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 12.95 23.11
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 11.95 21.54
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

4.6.2. Mechanical Properties


Table 4.6.2.1 present the mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength,
modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and screw withdrawal of the boards.
These average mechanical properties are compared with IS: 14276 (2009).
Table 4.6.2.1: Mean Observations of Mechanical Properties of Cement Bonded
Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
Cement Tensile Modulus of Modulus of Screw Screw
: Wood Strength Rupture Elasticity Withdrawal Withdrawal
Ratios (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (N/mm2) Face (N) Edge (N)
2.0:1.0
0.32 6.87 2974 1263 762
(R1)
2.5:1.0
0.37 7.92 3460 1358 818
(R2)
3.0:1.0
0.42 9.35 4128 1422 882
(R3)
IS:14276
0.40 (min) 9.0 (min) 3000 (min) 1250 (min) 850 (min)
(2009)

Mean tensile strength of CBLB2 was found in range of 0.32-0.42 N/mm2,


which significantly increased with participation of cement particles in board
(p<0.05) (Table 4.6.2.2). Result revealed that only CBLB2 at R3 performed as per
IS: 14276 (2009). Basically cement particles contribute to develop strong internal
bonding and further improved the tensile strength. The results are inconformity
with Olufemi et al. (2012). Tensile strength of cement/flake cement bonded
particle board was found 0.19 N/mm2 in 2.0: 1.0 cement/wood ratios and 0.42
N/mm2 in 3.0: 1.0 cement/wood ratios of CBPB. Duncan’s subset were formed for
tensile strength values and given in Table 4.6.2.3.

67
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.6.2.2: ANOVA for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement


Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Tensile Strength (N/mm2) 2 0.025 61.801 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.002

Table 4.6.2.3: Duncan’s subset for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
Cement : Wood Tensile Strength (N/mm2)
N
Ratios 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 0.32
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 0.37
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 0.42
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000

CBLB2 exhibited mean MOE of 2974, 3460 and 4128 N/mm2 at R1, R2 and
R3 respectively. It was noticed that CBLB2 at R1 failed to meet the required MOE
as mentioned by IS: 14276 (2009). Board at R1, R2 did not show satisfactory result
of MOR and did not fulfilled standard laid in IS: 14276 (2009). CBLB2 at R1, R2
and R3 ratio revealed 6.87, 7.92 and 9.35 N/mm2 mean MOR respectively. It was
noticed that MOE and MOR both significantly increased with cement part in board
(p<0.05) (Table 4.6.2.5). Similar kind of results was reported by many authors,
where significant increment was noted in strength properties (Abdalla, 1998,
Alhedy et al. 2006). Basically cement particles contribute to aggregate density of
board which is directly proportional to the strength parameters of board (Bejo et
al. 2005).
Table 4.6.2.4: ANOVA for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana
(50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Modulus of Rupture
2 15.472 149.980 ˂ 0.001
(N/mm2)
Errors 27 0.103
Modulus of Elasticity
2 3358534.900 69.732 ˂ 0.001
(N/mm2)
Errors 27 48163.811

68
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.6.2.5: Duncan’s subsets for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded Bamboo:
Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
Modulus of Rupture Modulus of Elasticity
Cement : Wood
N (N/mm2) (N/mm2)
Ratios
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 6.87 2974
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 7.92 3460
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 9.35 4128
1.00 1.00
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
0 0
Table 4.6.2.1 presented the mean screw withdrawal value in face and edge
surface of CBLB2. CBLB2 showed mean screw withdrawal of 1263, 762 N at R1
respectively and 1358, 818 N at R2 in face and edge respectively. While board
prepared at R3 revealed 1422 and 882 N mean screw withdrawal in face and edge
respectively. It was observed that screw withdrawal strength of board is higher in
face than edge and all met the standard IS: 14276 (2009) at all test ratio in face
surface (Table 4.6.2.1). Cement particles imparted significant role in enhancing
the screw withdrawal strength of board at 5 % significance level. Zhou and
Kamdem (2002) also reported higher screw withdrawal value at higher cement
wood ratio, which may be because of high cement density. ANOVA and Duncan’s
subset for screw withdrawal strength of CBLB2 is shown in Table 4.6.2.6 and
Table 4.6.2.7 respectively.
Table 4.6.2.6: ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of Cement
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards (CBLB2)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Screw Withdrawal in Face
2 63601.300 186.652 ˂ 0.001
Surface (N)
Errors 27 340.748
Screw Withdrawal in Edge
2 35936.133 38.916 ˂ 0.001
Surface (N)
Errors 27 923.433

Table 4.6.2.7: Duncan’s subsets for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (50:50) Particle Boards
(CBLB2)
Screw Withdrawal in Face Screw Withdrawal in
Cement : Wood
N Surface (N) Edge Surface (N)
Ratios
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 1263 762
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 1358 818
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 1422 882
1.00
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
0

69
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.7. Physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board


using Bamboo and Lantana particle mixture (25: 75 ratios) in different
cement/wood ratios (CBLB3)
4.7.1. Physical Properties
Physical properties such as density, moisture content, water absorption
after 2hrs and 24hrs and thickness swelling of CBLB3 is shown in Table 4.7.1.1.
The observed mean values of average physical properties of cement bonded
particle board (CBLB3) were compared with IS: 14276 (2009).

Table 4.7.1.1: Mean Observations of Physical Properties of Cement Bonded


Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
Water Absorption Thickness
Cement : Moisture After Swelling
Density After
Wood Content 2hrsWater after 2hrs
(g/cm3) 24hrsWater
Ratios (%) Soaking Water
Soaking (%)
(%) Soaking (%)
2.0:1.0
1.18 12.06 13.23 24.16 2.1
(R1)
2.5:1.0
1.21 11.52 12.98 23.01 1.7
(R2)
3.0:1.0
1.22 10.41 11.80 20.97 1.3
(R3)
IS: 14276 1.25
6.00-12.00 13.00 (max) 25.00 (max) 2.0 (max)
(2009) (min)

Results revealed very low density obtained by CBLB3, which is not


sufficient for cement particle board as per IS: 14276 (2009). Mean density of
CBLB3 was found ranged between 1.18-1.22 g/cm3. It is inconformity with
Malony (1989), who reported that density of wood cement composites lies
between 0.9 to 1.4 g/cm3. Sotannde et al. (2010) also reported density of cement
wood particle board 1.17 to 1.22 g/cm3. It was noted that density increased with
cement wood ratio, but it was not found significant between R2 and R3 (p<0.05).
Table 4.7.1.2 shows the ANOVA for density of Cement Bonded bamboo: lantana
(25:75) Particle Boards tested at 5 % significance level and Duncan’s subset is
given in Table 4.7.1.3 to see the individual behaviour of density in different
cement/wood ratios.

70
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.7.1.2: ANOVA for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75)
Particle Boards (CBLB3)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
3
Density (g/cm ) 2 0.004 7.565 0.002
Errors 27 0.002

Table 4.7.1.3: Duncan’s subset for Density of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana
(25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
Cement : Wood Density (g/cm3)
N
Ratios 1 2
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 1.18
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 1.21
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 1.22
Sig. 1.000 0.226

CBLB3 revealed mean moisture content of 12.06, 11.52 and 10.41 % at


2.0:1.0, 2.5:1.0 and 3.0:1.0 ratios respectively. Mohamed et al. (2011) also
reported moisture content ranged from 11.04 to 12.61 % in cement wood board.
Mean thickness swelling of CBLB3 was observed 1.3 to 2.1 % in Table 4.7.1.1. It
decreased with cement ratio in board as similar reported by Badejo et al. (2011). It
was observed that moisture content of CBLB3 decreased significantly with
increasing amount of cement in wood (p<0.05). Whereas, statistically no
significant difference was noted in thickness swelling of CBLB3 (p<0.05) (Table
4.7.1.5). ANOVA for moisture content and thickness swelling after 2hrs soaking
in water are given in Table 4.7.1.5.

Table 4.7.1.4: ANOVA for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling (2hrs) of
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards
(CBLB3)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Moisture Content (%) 2 7.162 220.527 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.032
Thickness Swelling after
2 1.600 3.892 0.033
2hrs Water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.411

71
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.7.1.5: Duncan’s subsets for Moisture Content and Thickness Swelling
(2hrs) of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle
Boards (CBLB3)
Thickness Swelling
Cement : Moisture Content (%) after 2hrs Water
N
Wood Ratios Soaking (%)
1 2 3 1 2
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 12.06 2.1
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 11.52 1.7 1.7
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 10.41 1.3
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.174 0.174

Water absorption at R1, R2 and R3 was found 13.23, 12.98 and 11.80 %
after 2hrs and 24.16, 23.01 and 20.97 % after 24hrs respectively in Table 4.7.1.1.
CBLB3 satisfied the minimum water absorption criteria as per IS: 14276 (2009) at
all test ratios. It can be noticed a huge increment in water absorption by CBLB3
after 24hrs as compared to 2hrs. Similarkinds of results were found in the study
done by Mohamed et al. (2011). Table 4.7.1.6 and 4.7.1.7 represent the ANOVA
and Duncan’s subset for water absorption of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana
(25:75) Particle Boards respectively.
Table 4.7.1.6: ANOVA for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement Bonded
Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Water absorption after 2hrs
2 5.845 232.053 ˂ 0.001
water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.025
Water absorption after 24hrs
2 26.077 444.377 ˂ 0.001
water soaking (%)
Errors 27 0.059

Table 4.7.1.7: Duncan’s subsets for Water Absorption (2hrs and 24hrs) of Cement
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
Water Absorption after
Water Absorption after
Cement : 24hrs Water Soaking
N 2hrs Water Soaking (%)
Wood Ratios (%)
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 13.23 24.16
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 12.98 23.01
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 11.80 20.97
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

72
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.7.2. Mechanical Properties


The mean mechanical properties of CBLB3 are exhibited in Table 4.7.2.1
and compared with standards laid in IS: 14276 (2009).
Table 4.7.2.1: Mean Observations of Mechanical Properties of Cement Bonded
Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
Cement Tensile Modulus of Modulus of Screw Screw
: Wood Strength Rupture Elasticity Withdrawal Withdrawal
Ratios (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (N/mm2) Face (N) Edge (N)
2.0:1.0
0.34 7.34 3328 1257 765
(R1)
2.5:1.0
0.39 8.94 4124 1384 817
(R2)
3.0:1.0
0.47 9.67 4428 1443 930
(R3)
IS:14276
0.40 (min) 9.0 (min) 3000 (min) 1250 (min) 850 (min)
(2009)

Mean tensile strength of CBLB3 was found in between 0.34 - 0.47 N/mm2.
The results are in agreement with Eusebio et al. (1998); Wang and Sun (2002). But
the CBLB3 failed to secure minimum tensile strength of cement bonded particle
board as per IS: 14276 (2009) at R1 and R2 (Table 4.7.2.1). CBLB3 needed to be
prepared by additional cement quantity, since tensile strength of board
significantly increased with increasing cement wood ratio at 5 % level of
significance (Table 4.7.2.3). Table 4.7.2.2 gives the ANOVA for tensile strength
of different cement/wood ratios.
Table 4.7.2.2: ANOVA for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Tensile Strength (N/mm2) 2 0.039 69.265 ˂ 0.001
Errors 27 0.002

Table 4.7.2.3: Duncan’s subset for Tensile Strength (Internal Bonding) of Cement
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
Cement : Wood Tensile Strength (N/mm2)
N
Ratios 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 0.34
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 0.39
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 0.47
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000

73
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Mean MOE of 3328, 4124 and 4428 N/mm2 was observed at test ratio i.e.
R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Whereas CBLB3 at R1, R2 and R3 ratio exhibited 7.34,
8.94 and 9.67 N/mm2 mean MOR respectively. CBLB3 satisfied minimum MOE at
all test ratios, whereas failed to meet the MOR criteria as per IS: 14276 (2009)
(Table 4.7.2.1). MOE and MOR of the CBLB3 board significantly increased with
increasing cement ratio in CBLB3 at 5 % significance level (Table 4.7.2.4).
Moslemi (1987) also noted the similar trend in mechanical properties of cement
wood board. To understand the individual behaviour of different cement/wood
ratios, Duncan’s subset was formed for MOR and MOE values and presented in
Table 4.7.2.5.
Table 4.7.2.4: ANOVA for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana
(25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Modulus of Rupture
2 14.202 229.996 ˂ 0.001
(N/mm2)
Errors 27 0.062
Modulus of Elasticity
2 3228428.700 162.319 ˂ 0.001
(N/mm2)
Errors 27 19889.456

Table 4.7.2.5: Duncan’s subsets for MOR and MOE of Cement Bonded Bamboo:
Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
Modulus of Rupture Modulus of Elasticity
Cement :
N (N/mm2) (N/mm2)
Wood Ratios
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 7.34 3328
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 8.94 4124
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 9.67 4428
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

Table 4.7.2.1 exhibited mean screw withdrawal of 1257, 765 N in face and
edge at R1 respectively and 1384, 817 N at R2 in face and edge respectively.
CBLB3 at R3 revealed 1443 and 930 N mean screw withdrawal strength in face
and edge respectively. As per IS: 14276 (2009), cement particle board should
consist minimum 1250 and 850 N screw withdrawal strength in face and edge side
respectively. Therefore board gave satisfactory performance when tested in face
surface only (Table 4.7.2.1). However, it can be noticed that cement particles
significantly contribute to higher screw withdrawal strength of board (Table
4.7.2.7). Oyagade et al. (1995) reported that veneer laminated cement-bonded
particleboard were stronger and stiffer with increased cement/wood ratio due to

74
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

increased density. Also Lee (1984) stated that if a lower cement/wood ratio is
used, wood excelsior will not receive adequate cement coating, which results in
poor bonding. Table 4.7.2.6 show the ANOVA for screw withdrawal in face as
well as edge surfaces.
Table 4.7.2.6: ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of Cement
Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards (CBLB3)
Source of Variation df Mean Square F Sig.
Screw Withdrawal in Face
2 90180.133 294.639 ˂ 0.001
Surface (N)
Errors 27 306.070
Screw Withdrawal in Edge
2 71287.900 74.265 ˂ 0.001
Surface (N)
Errors 27 959.915

Table 4.7.2.7: Duncan’s subsets for Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) of
Cement Bonded Bamboo: Lantana (25:75) Particle Boards
(CBLB3)
Screw Withdrawal in Screw Withdrawal in
Cement :
N Face Surface (N) Edge Surface (N)
Wood Ratios
1 2 3 1 2 3
2.0:1.0 (R1) 10 1257 765
2.5:1.0 (R2) 10 1384 817
3.0:1.0 (R3) 10 1443 930
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

75
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.8. Comparative study of all five types of cement bonded wood particle boards
with reference of different cement wood ratio
Five types of cement wood particle boards i.e. CBBB, CLBB, CBLB1, CBLB2
and CBLB3 were prepared as described in section 3.2.4 and tested for physical as well
as mechanical properties as per IS: 14276 (2009). The results of all boards are
compared with each other and given as below.
4.8.1 Comparative study of moisture content
Mean moisture content of different boards at different cement wood ratios is
presented in Table 4.8.1. It was found that CBBB and CLBB showed maximum and
minimum moisture content i.e. 12.45 % and 11.62 % at R1 respectively. It is also
important to note that moisture content of board decreased as lantana particle was
added to bamboo at R1 (Table 4.8.1.1). Statistically CBBB, CBLB1 and CBLB2
showed similar results in terms of moisture content at R1 (p<0.05) (Table 4.8.1.3).
Whereas, in R2 maximum and minimum moisture content was revealed by CBLB1
and CLBB respectively (Table 4.8.1.1). On the basis of statistical analysis no
significant difference was found among CBBB, CBLB2 and CBLB3 at 5 %
significance level (Table 4.8.1.4). At R3, CBLB1 and lantana board exhibited
maximum and minimum moisture content i.e. 11.17 % and 9.89 % respectively.
Whereas, analysis revealed similar moisture content by CBBB and CBLB2 at R3
tested at 5 % significance level (Table 4.8.1.4). Overall bamboo/lantana particle
mixed at 75:25 (CBLB1) demonstrated highest moisture content i.e. 11.81 %, whereas
lantana board showed lowest value of moisture content i.e. 10.55 %. It can be
assumed that the variation in moisture content can be the result of different particle
shape and size. It was found that coarse and fine particle obtained from bamboo
during the experiment was not in proper size as compared to lantana. Basically
bamboo particle obtained seemed to be flosses type rather than particles. Apart from
this, the moisture content of board decreased with increasing cement particle ratios
(Table 4.8.1). It is due to hygroscopic nature of wood particles, which attract water
more to bind as compared to cement.

76
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.1.1: Mean Moisture Content (%) of Cement Bonded Particle Board Using
Different Combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
Particle Type

Cement: Bamboo: Bamboo: Bamboo:


Wood Bamboo Lantana Lantana Lantana Lantana Mean
Ratio (CBBB) (75:25) (50:50) (25:75) (CLBB)
(CBLB1) (CBLB2) (CBLB3)

2.0:1.0
12.45 12.39 12.29 12.07 11.62 12.16
(R1)
2.5:1.0
11.60 11.88 11.46 11.53 10.16 11.32
(R2)
3.0:1.0
10.61 11.17 10.74 10.41 9.89 10.56
(R3)
Mean 11.55 11.81 11.49 11.33 10.55
As per IS: 14276 (2009): 6-12 %

Table 4.8.1.2: ANOVA for Moisture Content of All Cement Particle Boards
Source of Variance df Mean Square F Sig.
2.0: 1.0 (R1) 4 1.128 27.968 <0.001
Error 45 .040
2.5: 1.0 (R2) 4 4.504 94.477 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .048
3.0: 1.0 (R2) 4 2.181 53.508 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .041

Table 4.8.1.3: Duncan’s subset for Moisture Content of All Cement Particle Boards
at 2.0: 1.0 (R1)
Particle Type Moisture Content (%)
N
(R1) 1 2 3
CLBB 10 11.62
CBLB3 10 12.06
CBLB2 10 12.28
CBLB1 10 12.39
CBBB 10 12.45
Sig. 1.000 1.000 .089

Table 4.8.1.4: Duncan’s subset for Moisture Content of All Cement Particle Boards
at 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
Particle Type Moisture Content (%)
N
(R2) 1 2 3
CLBB 10 10.15
CBLB2 10 11.45
CBLB3 10 11.52
CBBB 10 11.59
CBLB1 10 11.88
Sig. 1.000 .196 1.000

77
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.1.5: Duncan’s subset for Moisture Content of All Cement Particle Boards
at 3.0: 1.0 (R3)
Particle Type Moisture Content (%)
N
(R3) 1 2 3 4
CLBB 10 9.89
CBLB3 10 10.40
CBBB 10 10.60
CBLB2 10 10.74
CBLB1 10 11.16
Sig. 1.000 1.000 .139 1.000

4.8.2 Comparative study of water absorption after 2hrs soaking in water

Table 4.8.2.1 indicate that the mean water absorption after 2hrs soaking by
different cement particle board at different cement wood ratio. It was observed that
the maximum water absorption occur in CBBB and minimum in CLBB. Result
revealed that water absorption by board decreased with increasing lantana particle
board (Table 4.8.1.5). During the board preparation, it was observed that it is easy to
get homogeneous or uniform particles from lantana rather than bamboo for board
preparation. On the basis of this observation it may be assumed that board prepared
with bamboo has more tendencies to absorb water than lantana. Table 4.8.2.2 gives
the ANOVA of water absorption after 2hrs at all the three ratios and five different
wood particles. It is seen that there is no significance differences between CBLB2 and
CBLB3 at all three ratios R1, R2 and R3 at 5 % significance level. Even CBLB1 also
behaves like CBLB2 and CBLB3 at R2 (p<0.05). The highest observation in terms of
water absorption was found in CBBB followed by CBLB1, CBLB2, and CBLB3 and
CLBB. It shows that bamboo particles absorb more water as compared to lantana. As
per IS: 14276 (2009), cement bonded particle board should have maximum 13 %
water absorption after 2hrs. So only board prepared with lantana particles at all ratio
fulfilled the specification as per IS: 14276 (2009). The other board prepared with
mixing bamboo particle demonstrated satisfactory results only on increasing cement
ratio in board (Table 4.8.2.1). During the experiment, when bamboo was chipped into
particle, fibres were obtained rather than proper particles. So it was assumed that pore
spaces in bamboo board provided spaces for water to retain and showed high water
absorption than lantana. In previous work, the feasibility of single species for cement
bonded particle boards was done (Alhedy et al. 2006, Sotannde et al. 2010), but
comparison of lantana and bamboo is not reported.

78
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.2.1: Mean Water Absorption 2hrs (%) of Cement Bonded Particle Board
Using Different Combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
Particle Type
Cement: Bamboo: Bamboo: Bamboo:
Wood Bamboo Lantana Lantana Lantana Lantana
Mean
Ratio (CBBB) (75:25) (50:50) (25:75) (CLBB)
(CBLB1) (CBLB2) (CBLB3)
2.0:1.0
13.80 13.49 13.27 13.23 12.27 13.21
(R1)
2.5:1.0
13.24 13.07 12.95 12.98 11.06 12.66
(R2)
3.0:1.0
12.38 12.19 11.95 11.80 10.49 11.76
(R3)
Mean 13.14 12.91 12.72 12.67 11.27
As per IS: 14276 (2009): 13 % (Maximum)

Table 4.8.2.2: ANOVA for Water Absorption 2hrs of All Cement Particle Boards
Source of Variance df Mean Square F Sig.
2.0: 1.0 (R1) 4 3.270 123.234 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .027
2.5: 1.0 (R2) 4 8.096 214.006 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .038
3.0: 1.0 (R3) 4 5.533 98.369 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .056

Table 4.8.2.3: Duncan’s subset for Water Absorption 2hrs of All Cement Particle
Boards at 2.0: 1.0 (R1)
Particle Water Absorption after 2hrs (%)
N
Type (R1) 1 2 3 4
CLBB 10 12.27
CBLB3 10 13.22
CBLB2 10 13.27
CBLB1 10 13.48
CBBB 10 13.79
Sig. 1.000 .549 1.000 1.000

Table 4.8.2.4: Duncan’s subset for Water Absorption 2hrs of All Cement Particle
Boards at 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
Particle Type Water Absorption after 2hrs (%)
N
(R2) 1 2 3
CLBB 10 11.06
CBLB2 10 12.94
CBLB3 10 12.97
CBLB1 10 13.06 13.06
CBBB 10 13.24
Sig. 1.000 .193 .052

79
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.2.5: Duncan’s subset for Water Absorption 2hrs of All Cement Particle
Boards at 3.0: 1.0 (R3)
Particle Type Water Absorption after 2hrs (%)
N
(R3) 1 2 3
CLBB 10 10.49
CBLB3 10 11.79
CBLB2 10 11.95
CBLB1 10 12.18
CBBB 10 12.38
Sig. 1.000 .151 .070

4.8.3: Comparative study for water absorption after 24hrs soaking in water

The means of water absorption after 24hrs by different boards is shown in


Table 4.8.3. Results revealed highest water absorption by CBBB followed by CBLB1,
CBLB2, CBLB3 and CLBB at all test cement wood ratios. At R1, CBBB, CBLB1,
CBLB2, CBLB3 and CLBB demonstrated 25.83 %, 24.50 %, 24.36 %, 24.16 % and
22.55 % mean water absorption after 24hrs respectively. Cement bonded particle
board showed mean water absorption after 24hrs ranged between 20.20 to 24.38 % at
R2. Whereas at R3, 19.75 to 22.86 % mean water absorption was recorded by cement
bonded particle boards after 24 hrs. Duncan subset for R1, R2 and R3 is presented in
Table 4.8.3.3, 4.8.3.4 and 4.8.3.5 respectively. Statistical analysis showed that that
results obtained by CBLB2 was not found significantly different between by CBLB1
and CBLB3 at R1 (p<0.05). At R2, CBLB2 and CBLB3 manifested similar water
absorption tested at 5 % significance level. Whereas, all the boards gave significantly
different results, when cement wood particle ratio was increased up to 3:1 (p<0.05). It
was observed that all boards at all test ratios fulfilled the criteria of IS: 14276 (2009),
except CBBB at R1. Water absorption by boards after 24hrs followed the same pattern
as after 2hrs described in section 4.8.2. Mohamed et al. (2011) also carried out study
on water absorption of cement bonded particle board after 24hrs and observed the
high values of water absorption i.e. 26.16 % at R3 (3: 1 ratio), whereas in the present
study 21.52 % water absorption was recorded at R3.

80
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.3.1: Mean Water Absorption 24hrs (%) of Cement Bonded Particle Board
Using Different Combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
Particle Type
Cement: Bamboo: Bamboo: Bamboo:
Wood Bamboo Lantana Lantana Lantana Lantana
Mean
Ratio (CBBB) (75:25) (50:50) (25:75) (CLBB)
(CBLB1) (CBLB2) (CBLB3)
2.0:1.0
25.83 24.50 24.36 24.16 22.55 24.28
(R1)
2.5:1.0
24.38 23.68 23.11 23.02 20.20 22.88
(R2)
3.0:1.0
22.86 22.49 21.54 20.97 19.75 21.52
(R3)
Mean 24.36 23.55 23.01 22.72 20.83
As per IS: 14276 (2009): 25 % (Maximum)

Table 4.8.3.2: ANOVA for Water Absorption 24hrs of All Cement Particle Boards
Source of Variance df Mean Square F Sig.
2.0: 1.0 (R1) 4 13.607 130.221 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .104
2.5: 1.0 (R2) 4 25.434 185.311 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .137
3.0: 1.0 (R3) 4 15.441 92.001 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .168

Table 4.8.3.3: Duncan’s subset for Water Absorption 24hrs of All Cement Particle
Boards at 2.0: 1.0 (R1)
Particle Type Water Absorption after 24hrs (%)
N
(R1) 1 2 3 4
CLBB 10 22.55
CBLB3 10 24.16
CBLB2 10 24.36 24.36
CBLB1 10 24.49
CBBB 10 25.82
Sig. 1.000 .175 .352 1.000

Table 4.8.3.4: Duncan’s subset for Water Absorption 24hrs of All Cement Particle
Boards at 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
Particle Type Water Absorption after 24hrs (%)
N
(R2) 1 2 3 4
CLBB 10 20.19
CBLB3 10 23.01
CBLB2 10 23.11
CBLB1 10 23.68
CBBB 10 24.38
Sig. 1.000 .573 1.000 1.000

81
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.3.5: Duncan’s subset for Water Absorption 24hrs of All Cement Particle
Boards at 3.0: 1.0 (R3)
Particle Type Water Absorption after 24hrs (%)
N
(R3) 1 2 3 4 5
CLBB 10 19.74
CBLB3 10 20.97
CBLB2 10 21.54
CBLB1 10 22.48
CBBB 10 22.86
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

4.8.4. Comparative study for density

Table 4.8.4.1 exhibits mean densities of the boards in different wood particle
ratios i.e. R1, R2 and R3 except CBBB in R1. Results revealed that board prepared with
lantana showed higher density i.e. 1.24 g/cm3 than bamboo i.e. 1.18 g/cm3. The
probable reason for this may be the high density of lantana, which is 0.82 g/cm3
(Humberto et al. 2016) as compared to bamboo i.e. 0.64 g/cm3. Malony (1989) also
reported that cement bonded particle board made with bamboo had lower density than
board prepared with wood. It is interesting to note that density did not vary in large
extent by changing bamboo and lantana ratios in cement particle board (Table 4.8.1).
CLBB only met the minimum criteria of cement bonded particle board as per IS:
14276 (2009) at R2 and R3, whereas the other boards could not perform well. To
understand the individual behaviour of the different particles, Duncan’s subsets were
formed for density of different cement/wood ratios. These are given in Table 4.8.4.3,
4.8.4.4 and 4.8.4.5. Density observed in CBBB was found significantly different by
CLBB, whereas the other boards produced similar kind of results (p<0.05).

Table 4.8.4.1: Mean Density (g/cm3) of Cement Bonded Particle Board Using
Different Combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
Particle Type
Cement: Bamboo: Bamboo: Bamboo:
Wood Bamboo Lantana Lantana Lantana Lantana
Mean
Ratio (CBBB) (75:25) (50:50) (25:75) (CLBB)
(CBLB1) (CBLB2) (CBLB3)
2.0:1.0
1.16 1.18 1.19 1.19 1.19 1.18
(R1)
2.5:1.0
1.19 1.21 1.21 1.21 1.25 1.21
(R2)
3.0:1.0
1.20 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.28 1.23
(R3)
Mean 1.18 1.20 1.21 1.20 1.24
As per IS: 14276 (2009): 1.25 g/cm3 (Minimum)

82
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.4.2: ANOVA for Density of All Cement Particle Boards


Source of Variance df Mean Square F Sig.
2.0: 1.0 (R1) 4 .004 3.194 0.022
Error 45 .001
2.5: 1.0 (R2) 4 .005 14.100 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .001
3.0: 1.0 (R3) 4 .009 23.197 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .001

Table 4.8.4.3: Duncan’s subset for Density of All Cement Particle Boards at 2.0: 1.0
(R1)
Particle Type Density (g/cm3)
N
(R1) 1 2
CBBB 10 1.16
CBLB1 10 1.17 1.17
CBLB3 10 1.18
CLBB 10 1.18
CBLB2 10 1.18
Sig. .140 .178

Table 4.8.4.4: Duncan’s subset for Density of All Cement Particle Boards at 2.5: 1.0
(R2)
Particle Type Density (g/cm3)
N
(R2) 1 2 3
CBBB 10 1.18
CBLB1 10 1.20
CBLB2 10 1.21
CBLB3 10 1.21
CLBB 10 1.25
Sig. 1.000 .744 1.000

Table 4.8.4.5: Duncan’s subset for Density of All Cement Particle Boards at 3.0: 1.0
(R3)
Particle Type Density (g/cm3)
N
(R3) 1 2 3
CBBB 10 1.20
CBLB3 10 1.22
CBLB1 10 1.23
CBLB2 10 1.23
CLBB 10 1.28
Sig. 1.000 .526 1.000

83
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.8.5: Comparative study for thickness swelling after 2hrs soaking in water

The mean thickness swelling at different woos particles in a particular


cement/wood ratio is presented in Table 4.8.5.1. It is observed that thickness swelling
of CBBB decreased with adding lantana particle in board, which was reduced up to
50 % in CBLB3 (2.1 %) as compared to CBBB (4.2 %) at R1. Board prepared at R2
demonstrated 3.1 % mean thickness swelling at CBBB and 1.8 % in CLBB,
remaining showed 1.7 or 1.8 %. CBLB3 attained minimum and CBBB maximum 1.3
% and 2.2 % mean thickness swelling respectively at R3. CBBB showed maximum
thickness swelling overall (3.16 %) followed by CLBB (2.03 %), CBLB1 (1.86 %),
CBLB2 (1.70 %) and CBLB3 (1.70 %). Table 4.8.5.2 explain the ANOVA for
different cement/wood ratio with different particles. To see the individual interactions
between boards, Duncan’s subset is shown in Table 4.8.5. However, on the basis of
statistical analysis, all cement particle boards except CBBB reported similar thickness
swelling at all ratios (p<0.05). It is important to note that thickness welling of cement
particle board decreased with increasing lantana in board. It was also observed that
CBBB could not satisfied the specification of cement bonded particle boards as per
IS: 14276 (2009). Whereas, board manufactured with lantana particle met the criteria
at all test ratios. When bamboo and lantana was mixed in different ratio, the
favourable results were recorded at only R2 and R3 ratios. It may be possible that
lantana played important role to control thickness swelling, since board prepared with
lantana manifested thickness swelling less than bamboo. At the same time the
importance of cement: wood ratio cannot be ignored, since increasing cement in
boards controlling the thickness swelling of board.
Table 4.8.5.1: Mean Thickness Swelling (%) of Cement Bonded Particle Board
Using Different Combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
Particle Type
Cement: Bamboo: Bamboo: Bamboo:
Wood Bamboo Lantana Lantana Lantana Lantana
Mean
Ratio (CBBB) (75:25) (50:50) (25:75) (CLBB)
(CBLB1) (CBLB2) (CBLB3)
2.0:1.0
4.2 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.6
(R1)
2.5:1.0
3.1 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.8 2.0
(R2)
3.0:1.0
2.2 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.6
(R3)
Mean 3.1 1.8 1.7 1.7 2.0
As per IS: 14276 (2009): 2 % (Maximum)

84
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.5.2: ANOVA for Thickness Swelling 2hrs of All Cement Particle Boards
Source of Variance df Mean Square F Sig.
2.0: 1.0 (R1) 4 8.330 11.751 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .709
2.5: 1.0 (R2) 4 3.670 7.406 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .496
3.0: 1.0 (R3) 4 1.250 3.750 0.010
Error 45 .333

Table 4.8.5.3: Duncan’s subsets for Thickness Swelling 2hrs of All Cement Particle
Boards in All Three Different Cement/Particle Ratios
Thickness Swelling after 2hrs (%)
Particle
N 2.0: 1.0 (R1) 2.5: 1.0 (R2) 3.0: 1.0 (R3)
Type
1 2 1 2 1 2
CBLB2 10 1.9 1.7 1.3
CBLB3 10 2.1 1.7 1.4
CBLB1 10 2.4 1.8 1.5
CLBB 10 2.1 1.8 1.6
CBBB 10 4.2 3.1 2.2
Sig. .057 1.000 .776 1.000 .298 1.000

4.8.6: Comparative study for tensile strength

The tensile strength of the boards in different particles ratios is enlisted in


Table 4.8.6.1. It is interesting to observe that CLBB satisfied the minimum required
criteria of cement bonded boards as per IS: 14276 (2009). Other boards performed
satisfactory only on increasing the cement part in board. Results revealed mean
tensile strength ranged from 0.28 N/mm2 to 0.43 N/mm2 at R1, 0.34 N/mm2 to 0.56
N/mm2 at R2 and 0.38 N/mm2 to 0.58 N/mm2 at R3. It was observed that CLBB
showed highest tensile strength, whereas lowest was found in CBBB. It is very
important to note that the lantana particles increased the tensile strength according to
their quantity added to the bamboo in board. The overall mean was also gradually
increasing with increase in cement in the board. Papadopoulos (2008) also reported
direct relation of cement: wood ratio to tensile strength. Soluble sugar present in
wood also plays important role in compatibility of wood with cement (Chew et al.
1992). Since bamboo has more soluble sugar than lantana, which may interfere the
cement setting and lead to poor tensile strength. To understand the individual
behaviours Duncan’s subset were formed for R1, R2 and R3 in different subheads and
presented in Table 4.8.6.3, 4.8.6.4 and 4.8.6.5 respectively. Table 4.8.6.3 reveals no
significant difference between tensile strength recorded by CBBB and CBLB1, while

85
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

other was found significantly differ at R1 (p<0.05). In case of R2, CBLB1, CBBB and
CBLB2 and CBLB3 demonstrated statistically similar observation in terms of tensile
strength at 5 % significance level. Table 4.8.6.5 showed no significant differences
between CBLB1 and CBBB at R1 (p<0.05).

Table 4.8.6.1: Mean Tensile strength (N/mm2) of Cement Bonded Particle Board
Using Different Combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
Particle Type
Cement: Bamboo: Bamboo: Bamboo:
Wood Bamboo Lantana Lantana Lantana Lantana
Mean
Ratio (CBBB) (75:25) (50:50) (25:75) (CLBB)
(CBLB1) (CBLB2) (CBLB3)
2.0:1.0
0.28 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.43 0.33
(R1)
2.5:1.0
0.34 0.34 0.38 0.40 0.56 0.40
(R2)
3.0:1.0
0.40 0.38 0.42 0.47 0.58 0.45
(R3)
Mean 0.34 0.34 0.37 0.40 0.52
2
As per IS: 14276 (2009): 0.4 N/mm (Minimum)

Table 4.8.6.2: ANOVA for Tensile Strength of All Cement Particle Boards
Source of Variance df Mean Square F Sig.
2.0: 1.0 (R1) 4 .035 45.958 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .001
2.5: 1.0 (R2) 4 .080 158.824 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .001
3.0: 1.0 (R3) 4 .066 173.734 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .001

Table 4.8.6.3: Duncan’s subset for Tensile Strength of All Cement Particle Boards at
2.0: 1.0 (R1)
Particle Type Tensile Strength (N/mm2)
N
(R1) 1 2 3 4
CBBB 10 0.28
CBLB1 10 0.29
CBLB2 10 0.31
CBLB3 10 0.34
CLBB 10 0.42
Sig. .377 1.000 1.000 1.000

86
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.6.4: Duncan’s subset for Tensile Strength of All Cement Particle Boards at
2.5: 1.0 (R2)
Particle Type Tensile Strength (N/mm2)
N
(R2) 1 2 3
CBLB1 10 0.34
CBBB 10 0.34
CBLB2 10 0.37
CBLB3 10 0.39
CLBB 10 0.55
Sig. 1.000 .052 1.000

Table 4.8.6.5: Duncan’s subset for Tensile Strength of All Cement Particle Boards at
3.0: 1.0 (R3)
Particle Type Tensile Strength (N/mm2)
N
(R3) 1 2 3 4
CBLB1 10 0.38
CBBB 10 0.39
CBLB2 10 0.41
CBLB3 10 0.46
CLBB 10 0.58
Sig. .092 1.000 1.000 1.000

4.8.7: Comparative study for screw withdrawal in face surface

Table 4.8.7.1 shows mean screw withdrawal strength in face surface for
different bamboo, lantana cement particle board. All boards fulfilled the minimum
required screw withdrawal strength in face surface of cement bonded particle board as
per IS: 14276 (2009) except CBBB, CBLB1 at R1. It shows that desired strength can
be achieved in bamboo boards only by using high cement: wood ratio, whereas board
prepared with lantana performed good at lowest test cement: wood ratio i.e. 2:1. In a
particular cement quantity the strength properties varies with the particles which is
used for board making. Overall highest mean screw withdrawal strength was
demonstrated by CLBB (1456 N) followed by CBLB3 (1362 N), CBLB2 (1348 N),
CBLB1 (1311 N) and CBBB (1279 N). Mean screw withdrawal strength was found
1229 to 1324 N at R1, 1281 to 1488 N at R2 and 1330 to 1557 N at R3 tested in face
side. Details of ANOVA for screw withdrawal at face are listed in Table 4.8.7.2. The
results recorded by CBLB3 were found non-significant with CBLB1 and CBLB2 at R1
at 5 % significance level. While, all boards performed significantly different at R2
(p<0.05). Statistical analysis exhibited that significant effect of varying wood
particles on screw withdrawal strength, except CBLB2 and CBLB3 (p<0.05).

87
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.7.1: Mean Screw Withdrawal Face (N) of Cement Bonded Particle Board
Using Different Combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
Particle Type
Cement: Bamboo: Bamboo: Bamboo:
Wood Bamboo Lantana Lantana Lantana Lantana
Mean
Ratio (CBBB) (75:25) (50:50) (25:75) (CLBB)
(CBLB1) (CBLB2) (CBLB3)
2.0:1.0
1229 1247 1264 1258 1324 1264
(R1)
2.5:1.0
1281 1308 1359 1385 1488 1363
(R2)
3.0:1.0
1330 1379 1422 1444 1557 1426
(R3)
Mean 1279 1311 1348 1362 1456
As per IS: 14276 (2009): 1250 N (Minimum)

Table 4.8.7.2: ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Face) of All Cement Particle Boards
Source of Variance df Mean Square F Sig.
2.0: 1.0 (R1) 4 12870.230 53.221 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 241.827
2.5: 1.0 (R2) 4 64941.120 237.928 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 272.944
3.0: 1.0 (R3) 4 72587.320 120.820 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 600.791

Table 4.8.7.3: Duncan’s subset for Screw Withdrawal (Face) of All Cement Particle
Boards at 2.0: 1.0 (R1)
Particle Type Screw Withdrawal in Face (N)
N
(R1) 1 2 3 4
CBBB 10 1228
CBLB1 10 1247
CBLB3 10 1257 1257
CBLB2 10 1263
CLBB 10 1323
Sig. 1.000 .124 .401 1.000

Table 4.8.7.4: Duncan’s subset for Screw Withdrawal (Face) of All Cement Particle
Boards at 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
Particle Type Screw Withdrawal in Face (N)
N
(R2) 1 2 3 4 5
CBBB 10 1280
CBLB1 10 1307
CBLB2 10 1358
CBLB3 10 1384
CLBB 10 1488
Sig. 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

88
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.7.5: Duncan’s subset for Screw Withdrawal (Face) Of All Cement Particle
Boards at 3.0: 1.0 (R3)
Particle Type Screw Withdrawal in Face (N)
N
(R3) 1 2 3 4
CBBB 10 1329
CBLB1 10 1379
CBLB2 10 1422
CBLB3 10 1443
CLBB 10 1557
Sig. 1.000 1.000 .057 1.000

4.8.8: Comparative study for screw withdrawal in edge surface

The mean screw withdrawal strength of all cement particle boards was also
tested in edge surface and results are enlisted in Table 4.8.8.1. Results were compared
with IS: 14276 (2009) and it was found that at lowest cement: wood ratio i.e. 2:1 none
of the board satisfied the criteria mentioned in IS: 14276 (2009), whereas at R2 only
CLBB performed satisfactory. In this study cement played its crucial role to decide
screw withdrawal strength, since all boards met the minimum criteria on increasing
cement in board (R3). Duncan’s subsets were formed with the transformed screw
withdrawal at edge surface. These are given in Table 4.8.8.3 and 4.8.8.4. Results
revealed the highest mean screw withdrawal strength i.e. 798 N by CLBB and lowest
i.e. 762 N by CBLB2 prepared at R1. In case of R2, mean screw withdrawal strength
was found in ranged 817 N to 930 N. It was important to point out that all boards’
demonstrated statistically similar screw withdrawal strength in edge at R 1 and R2
except CLBB tested at 5 % significance level (Table 4.8.8.3). Board manufactured at
R3 showed maximum mean screw withdrawal strength by CLBB (997 N) followed by
CBLB3 (930 N), CBLB1 (896 N), CBLB2 (881 N), and CBBB (876 N). Statistical
analysis revealed no significant difference in results shown by CBBB, CBLB1 and
CBLB2, whereas CBLB3 and CLBB were found significantly different (p<0.05). It
was observed that overall screw withdrawal strength of lantana board was found
highest and strength decreased with increasing bamboo particle in board. The reason
may be the higher density of lantana than bamboo cement boards which is earlier
discussed in section 4.8.4.

89
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.8.1: Screw Withdrawal Edge (N) of Cement Bonded Particle Board Using
Different Combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
Particle Type
Cement: Bamboo: Bamboo: Bamboo:
Wood Bamboo Lantana Lantana Lantana Lantana Mean
Ratio (CBBB) (75:25) (50:50) (25:75) (CLBB)
(CBLB1) (CBLB2) (CBLB3)
2.0:1.0
771 768 762 765 798 772
(R1)
2.5:1.0
834 817 817 817 930 843
(R2)
3.0:1.0
876 896 881 930 997 916
(R3)
Mean 827 827 820 837 908
As per IS: 14276 (2009): 850 N (Minimum)

Table 4.8.8.2: ANOVA for Screw Withdrawal (Edge) of All Cement Particle Boards
Source of Variance df Mean Square F Sig.
2.0: 1.0 (R1) 4 2119.170 5.201 0.002
Error 45 407.429
2.5: 1.0 (R2) 4 24104.630 22.515 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 1070.620
3.0: 1.0 (R3) 4 25087.230 40.999 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 611.900

Table 4.8.8.3: Duncan’s subsets for Screw Withdrawal (Edge) of All Cement Particle
Boards at 2.0: 1.0 (R1) and 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
Screw Withdrawal in Edge (N)
Particle Type
N 2.0: 1.0 (R1) 2.5: 1.0 (R2)
(R1)
1 2 1 2
CBLB2 10 762 817
CBLB3 10 765 817
CBLB1 10 768 817
CBBB 10 771 834
CLBB 10 798 930
Sig. .372 1.000 .295 1.000

Table 4.8.8.4: Duncan’s subset for Screw Withdrawal (Edge) Of All Cement Particle
Boards at 3.0: 1.0 (R3)
Particle Type Screw Withdrawal in Edge (N)
N
(R3) 1 2 3
CBBB 10 876
CBLB2 10 881
CBLB1 10 896
CBLB3 10 930
CLBB 10 997
Sig. .089 1.000 1.000

90
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.8.9: Comparative study for modulus of rupture

Table 4.8.9.1 exhibited mean modulus of rupture of all cement bonded particle
board at all test ratios i.e. R1, R2 and R3. As per IS: 14276 (2009), cement bonded
wood particle board should have at least 9 N/mm2 MOR. Results of the present study
showed that only board prepared with lantana i.e. CLBB met the desired MOR at all
test ratios, whereas other boards had to struggle to achieve minimum MOR at lower
ratios (Table 4.8.9.1). ANOVA were formed to compare different particles and their
ratios (Table 4.8.9.2). Result revealed mean MOR of 5.97 N/mm2 to 10.03 N/mm2 by
different board at R1 (Table 4.8.9.1). Duncan’s subset for MOR of all boards at R1 is
presented in Table 4.8.9.3 and it was noted that CBLB1 and CBLB2 were found in
same subset at 5 % significance level.
At R2 CLBB and CBBB attained maximum 12.30 N/mm2 and minimum 8.18
N/mm2 mean MOR respectively. Duncan subset for MOR at R2 is shown in Table
4.8.9.4. It was observed that CBLB1 and CBLB2 produced similar results at R2,
whereas other boards performed significantly different (p<0.05). Board prepared at R3
exhibited mean MOR 8.86 to 12.46 N/mm2, where highest value was resulted by
CLBB and lowest by CBLB1. Statistically no significant difference was found
between CBBB, CBLB2 and CBLB3 at 5 % significance level (Table 4.8.9.5).The
overall mean is gradually increased with cement/wood ratios. Abdalla (1998) also
reported direct relation of MOR with cement: wood ratio. It was found that overall
board prepared with only lantana showed highest MOR and the MOR decreased with
increasing bamboo particles in board (Table 4.8.9.1). Work done by Papadopoulos
(2008) showed that MOR decreased after increasing ratio of cement: wood from 3:1
to 4:1.

91
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.9.1: Mean MOR (N/mm2) of Cement Bonded Particle Board Using
Different Combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
Particle Type
Cement: Bamboo: Bamboo: Bamboo:
Wood Bamboo Lantana Lantana Lantana Lantana
Mean
Ratio (CBBB) (75:25) (50:50) (25:75) (CLBB)
(CBLB1) (CBLB2) (CBLB3)
2.0:1.0
5.97 6.78 6.87 7.35 10.03 7.40
(R1)
2.5:1.0
8.18 7.95 7.92 8.94 12.30 9.05
(R2)
3.0:1.0
9.69 8.86 9.35 9.68 12.46 10.01
(R3)
Mean 7.94 7.86 8.05 8.65 11.60
2
As per IS: 14276 (2009): 9 N/mm (Minimum)

Table 4.8.9.2: ANOVA for MOR of All Cement Particle Boards


Source of Variance df Mean Square F Sig.
2.0: 1.0 (R1) 4 24.001 328.526 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .073
2.5: 1.0 (R2) 4 34.505 944.447 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .037
3.0: 1.0 (R3) 4 19.955 133.969 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 .149

Table 4.8.9.3: Duncan’s subset for MOR of All Cement Particle Boards at 2.0: 1.0
(R1)
Particle Type Modulus of Rupture (N/mm2)
N
(R1) 1 2 3 4
CBBB 10 5.97
CBLB1 10 6.78
CBLB2 10 6.87
CBLB3 10 7.34
CLBB 10 10.02
Sig. 1.000 .465 1.000 1.000

Table 4.8.9.4: Duncan’s subset for MOR of All Cement Particle Boards at 2.5: 1.0
(R2)
Particle Type Modulus of Rupture (N/mm2)
N
(R2) 1 2 3 4
CBLB2 10 7.92
CBLB1 10 7.94
CBBB 10 8.17
CBLB3 10 8.94
CLBB 10 12.29
Sig. 1.000 .465 1.000 1.000

92
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.9.5: Duncan’s subset for MOR of All Cement Particle Boards at 3.0: 1.0
(R3)
Particle Type Modulus of Rupture (N/mm2)
N
(R3) 1 2 3
CBLB1 10 8.85
CBLB2 10 9.35
CBLB3 10 9.67
CBBB 10 9.68
CLBB 10 12.45
Sig. 1.000 .072 1.000

4.8.10: Comparative study for modulus of elasticity

Mean MOE of cement bonded particle board using lantana and bamboo
particle in different ratio is presented in Table 4.8.10.1. The comparison of results
with IS: 14276 (2009) revealed that all boards are fulfilling the minimum desired
MOE of cement particle board except CBBB, CBLB1, CBLB2 at R1.CBBB, CBLB1,
CBLB2, CBLB3 and CLBB demonstrated 2494, 2905, 2974, 3328 and 4081 N/mm2
mean MOE at R1 respectively. The significant effect of wood particles on MOE at R1
was observed except CBLB1 and CBLB2 (p<0.05). Mean MOE was found 3637 to
4969 N/mm2 on using higher cement wood particle ratio i.e. R2 (Table 4.8.10.1). At
R3 maximum mean MOE was revealed by CLBB i.e. 4899 N/mm2, whereas minimum
is resulted by CBLB1 i.e. 3938 N/mm2. It is interesting to note that statistically CBBB,
CBLB1 and CBLB2 performed similar MOE at R2 and R3 (p<0.05) (Table 4.8.10.4 and
4.8.10.5). Overall the highest MOE was shown by CLBB (4649 N/mm2) followed by
CBLB3 (3960 N/mm2), CBLB2 (3520 N/mm2), CBLB1 (3451 N/mm2) and CBBB
(3384 N/mm2). Results show that the MOE decreased with increasing quantity of
bamboo. Sotannde et al. (2010) reported that the strength of board also depends on
the distribution of particles in board. The particles with void spaces generally resulted
the board of poor mechanical strength. So it can be concluded that board prepared
with bamboo provides lower MOE than lantana due to presence of void spaces in
board.

93
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.10.1: Mean MOE (N/mm2) of Cement Bonded Particle Board Using
Different Combinations of Bamboo and Lantana
Particle Type
Mean
Cement:
Bamboo: Bamboo: Bamboo:
Wood
Bamboo Lantana Lantana Lantana Lantana
Ratio
(CBBB) (75:25) (50:50) (25:75) (CLBB)
(CBLB1) (CBLB2) (CBLB3)
2.0:1.0
2494 2905 2974 3328 4081 3156
(R1)
2.5:1.0
3637 3511 3460 4124 4969 3940
(R2)
3.0:1.0
4024 3938 4129 4428 4899 4283
(R3)
Mean 3384 3451 3520 3960 4649
As per IS: 14276 (2009): 3000 N/mm2 (Minimum)

Table 4.8.10.2: ANOVA for MOE of All Cement Particle Boards


Source of Variance df Mean Square F Sig.
2.0: 1.0 (R1) 4 3549513.880 95.865 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 37026.267
2.5: 1.0 (R2) 4 3995597.930 71.265 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 56066.513
3.0: 1.0 (R3) 4 1527799.830 36.450 ˂ 0.001
Error 45 41915.338

Table 4.8.10.3: Duncan’s subset for MOE of All Cement Particle Boards at 2.0: 1.0
(R1)
Particle Type Modulus of Elasticity (N/mm2)
N
(R1) 1 2 3 4
CBBB 10 2494
CBLB1 10 2905
CBLB2 10 2974
CBLB3 10 3328
CLBB 10 4081
Sig. 1.000 .426 1.000 1.000

Table 4.8.10.4: Duncan’s subset for MOE of All Cement Particle Boards at 2.5: 1.0
(R2)
Particle Type Modulus of Elasticity (N/mm2)
N
(R2) 1 2 3
CBLB2 10 3459
CBLB1 10 3511
CBBB 10 3636
CBLB3 10 4123
CLBB 10 4968
Sig. .121 1.000 1.000

94
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.8.10.5: Duncan’s subset for MOE of All Cement Particle Boards at 3.0: 1.0
(R3)
Particle Type Modulus of Elasticity (N/mm2)
N
(R3) 1 2 3
CBLB1 10 3938
CBBB 10 4023
CBLB2 10 4128
CBLB3 10 4428
CLBB 10 4899
Sig. .054 1.000 1.000

95
Summary

CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY
Wood based panel products are important material for variety of domestic, commercial
and industrial applications. Wood based industries are facing the gap between demand and
supply of solid raw material in India and looking for some alternative. Besides the natural forests
the raw materials can be obtained from plantation forest and import sector, but both have their
own limitations. By 2020, the demand of wood products will be exceeded up to 153 MM3 and
supply that can be done will be only 100.7 MM3. It is reported that natural forests, plantations
and import sectors can contribute only 15 %, 70-75 % and 8-12 %, respectively. So, major
source of wood as a raw material will be plantation forests. Even use of alternate raw material for
manufacture of panel products can play crucial role in wood based industries. Silvicultural
practices have pointed out the utilization of Lantana lignocellulosic weed and fast growing
Bamboo as futuristic raw materials to augment panel product supplies as has been successfully
demonstrated for MDF and Particle boards. A lot of work has done on mineral bonded wood
particle board to reduce the cost and save wood raw material and give a new dimension to wood
based panel. This work has been attempted about five decade earlier “Duratuff” “Bison Panels”
and the merit of such boards is doing away with costly resinous and other glue systems. In
contrast, the cement gives desired bond strength and is capable of producing weather friendly
components for prefab type housings.
Many reasons such as environmental, health and socio economic implications of residues
and waste cement, plastic, agriculture and wood processing outfits have necessitated the need for
their use for the production of value added products. Recently there has been a spur in interest, in
the commercial manufacture of cement-bonded composites from agriculture and wood residues
in the developing countries for low cost housing projects. These boards possess the advantage of
inorganic and organic materials. Other desirable characteristics include fire resistance and
durability in warm, humid climate where decay and termites are a major concern
Because of the versatile nature, the boards found large scale application in low cost
housing, shuttering, sandwich type boards for insulation, ceilings etc. They are superior in
physical properties such as thermal conductivity, sound absorption and possess adequate strength
and excellent working qualities. Cement bonded particle boards are classified as class-I fire
resistant materials based on surface spread on flame test. All these factors have contributed

96
Summary

significantly to the adoption of this material in low cost housing and construction of industrial
and commercial complexes.
Therefore, present work was carried out to examine the compatibility of lignocellulosic
Lantana weed and fast growing Bamboo fiber for bonding with cements of varying composition.
Their properties will also be tested in order to assess the suitability of formed boards for
structural purposes.
OBJECTIVES:
1. To investigate different proportion of cement and lignocellulosic material (Lantana and
Bamboo) for cement bonded particle boards
2. To evaluate physical and mechanical properties such as density, moisture content, water
absorption, surface swelling, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength,
screw withdrawal of cement bonded particle boards (IS: 14276)
In order to achieve the given objectives, different ratios of cement/wood particles were used
for board preparation. The wood particles of Lantana camara, Dendrocalamus strictus and their
combinations in different ratios was studies to find their suitability for manufacture of cement
bonded particle board. The details of different cement/wood ratios and their combinations are
given below:
1. CBBB (Cement bamboo bonded board):- 2:1 (R1), 2.5:1 (R2) and 3:1 (R3)
cement/particle ratios
2. CLBB (Cement lantana bonded board):- 2:1 (R1), 2.5:1 (R2) and 3:1 (R3)
cement/particle ratios
3. CBLB1 (Cement bamboo lantana board) (bamboo: lantana- 75:25):- 2:1 (R1), 2.5:1
(R2) and 3:1 (R3) cement/particle ratios
4. CBLB2 (Cement bamboo lantana board) (bamboo: lantana- 50:50):- 2:1 (R1), 2.5:1
(R2) and 3:1 (R3) cement/particle ratios
5. CBLB3 (Cement bamboo lantana board) (bamboo: lantana- 25:75):- 2:1 (R1), 2.5:1
(R2) and 3:1 (R3) cement/particle ratios

The crucial problem with wood cement board is the compatibility of wood and cement.
The presence of wood extractives (soluble sugar and tannin) prevent the development of wood
cement bonded product which delay cement stiffness and cause inhibition of cement hardening

97
Summary

and curing. Total soluble sugar and tannin content in lantana and bamboo was estimated by
ferricyanide method (volumetric method) as per Sharma and Varshney (2012) and Folin-Denis
method (Schanderi, 1970) respectively. Lantana revealed 0.147 % soluble sugar and 0.028 %
tannin content, whereas 0.703 % soluble sugar and 0.026 % tannin was recorded in bamboo.
Pozzolana Portland cement (Type IV) was used for manufacturing of cement bonded wood
particle board. Major components of cement were determined and compared with per IS: 1489
(1991). Results showed loss of ignition 2.0 % only, which is below 5 % suggested as per IS:
1489 (1991). Test cement contained 13.95 % SiO2 (Silicon dioxide), 5.63 % Al2O3 (Aluminum
oxide), 2.62 % Fe2O3 (Iron oxide) and 41.90 % CaO (Calcium oxide), whereas the insoluble
residue was obtained 28.41 %. The results recorded was found comparable to specified values
as per IS: 1489 (1991) for different parameters of cement analysis.
Woody shrub Lantana camara and Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) was procured from
Forest Research Institute Campus, Dehradun. The raw material was chipped, dried, and grinded
and screened into required particle sizes. The dried coarse and fine particles were soaked in
water for 48hrs before mixing with cement. After that 2 % sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) was added
with cement to reduce heat of hydration and 2 % aluminum sulphate [Al2 (So4)3] were added as
accelerator for cement setting. Cement were mixed with lantana and bamboo particles in
different proportion i.e. 2.0:1.0 (2.34 kg cement and 1.17 kg particles), 2.5:1.0 (2.51 kg cement
and 1 kg particles) and 3.0:1.0 (2.61 kg cement and 0.90 kg particles) respectively. After mixing
of coarse and fine particles and cement, three layer mat of size 21 x 21 sq. inch was formed. The
fine particle mixture was kept on the top and bottom layer and the coarse particle mixture was on
the middle layer. After mat formation the entire iron frame was kept in cold press at 400 lbs/sq.
inch (28 kg/cm2) for 6hrs. The pressed board was kept under chamber at 50ºC temperature for
6hrs. After that the boards were removed from frame and covered with cellophane and
conditioned for 7 days. After 7 days cellophane was removed from the boards and boards were
dried to reduce moisture content up to 9 %. Then the boards were trimmed and sized for testing.

98
Summary

The number of sample and the size of test sample from each prepared cement bonded
particle board for various tests are described in the table given below as per IS: 2380 (1998).
Physical and Mechanical No. of Test
Sl. No. Size of Test Sample
properties Samples
1 Density 10 150 mm X 75 mm
2 Moisture Content 10 150 mm X 75 mm
3 Water Absorption 10 300 mm X 300 mm
4 Thickness Swelling 10 125 mm X 100 mm
5 Modulus of Rupture 10 24 X t* + 50 mm
6 Modulus of Elasticity 10 24 X t* + 50 mm
7 Tensile Strength 10 50 mm X 50 mm
8 Screw Withdrawal (Face and Edge) 10 150 mm X 75 mm
*t = Thickness of the board.
All the physical i.e. density, moisture content, water absorption, thickness swelling and
mechanical properties such as tensile strength, MOR, MOE and screw withdrawal strength was
estimated as per IS: 14276 (2009). Results revealed that board prepared with lantana showed
higher density i.e. 1.24 g/cm3 than bamboo i.e. 1.18 g/cm3. It is interesting to note that density did
not vary in large extent by changing bamboo and lantana ratios in cement particle board. To
understand the individual behavior of the different particles, Duncan’s subsets were formed with
the transformed density of different cement/wood ratios. Density observed in CBBB was found
significantly different by CLBB, whereas the other boards produced similar kind of results
(p<0.05).
CBBB and CLBB showed maximum and minimum moisture content i.e. 12.45 % and
11.62 % at R1 respectively. It is also important to note that moisture content of board decreased
as lantana particle was added to bamboo at R1. Statistically CBBB, CBLB1 and CBLB2 showed
similar results in terms of moisture content at R1 (p<0.05). In case of R2 maximum and minimum
moisture content was revealed by CBLB1 and CLBB respectively. On the basis of statistical
analysis no significant difference was found among CBBB, CBLB2 and CBLB3 at 5 %
significance level. At R3 CBLB1 and lantana board exhibited maximum and minimum moisture
content i.e. 11.17 % and 9.89 % respectively. Whereas analysis revealed similar moisture content
by CBBB and CBLB2 tested at 5 % significance level. Overall bamboo: lantana particle mixed at

99
Summary

75:25 (CBLB1) demonstrated highest moisture content i.e. 11.81 %, whereas lantana board
showed lowest value of moisture content i.e. 10.55 %. Apart from this, the moisture content of
board decreased with increasing cement particle ratios.
The mean water absorption after 2hrs soaking by different cement particle board at
different cement wood ratio. It was observed that the maximum water absorption occur in CBBB
and minimum in CLBB. Result revealed that water absorption by board decreased with
increasing lantana particle board. During the board preparation it was observed that it is easy to
get homogeneous or uniform particles from lantana rather than bamboo for board preparation.
On the basis of this observation it may be assumed that board prepared with bamboo has more
tendencies to absorb water than lantana. It is seen that there is no significance differences
between CBLB2 and CBLB3 at all three ratios R1, R2 and R3 at 5 % significance level. Even
CBLB1 also behaves like CBLB2 and CBLB3 at R2 (p<0.05). The maximum observation in terms
of water absorption is found in CBBB followed by CBLB1, CBLB2, and CBLB3 and CLBB.
The means of water absorption after 24hrs by different boards results revealed highest
water absorption by CBBB followed by CBLB1, CBLB2, CBLB3 and CLBB at all test cement
wood ratios. Statistical analysis Duncan subsets showed that that results obtained by CBLB2 was
not found significantly different between by CBLB1 and CBLB3 at R1 (p<0.05). At R2, CBLB2
and CBLB3 manifested similar water absorption tested at 5 % significance level. Whereas, when
the cement wood particle ratios was increased up to 3:1, all the boards gave significantly
different results (p<0.05).
The mean thickness swelling at different woods particles in a particular cement/wood
ratio is observed and it is found that thickness swelling of CBBB decreased with adding lantana
particle in board, which was reduced up to 50 % in CBLB3 (2.1 %) as compared to CBBB (4.2
%) at R1. Board prepared at R2 demonstrated 3.1 % mean thickness swelling at CBBB and 1.8
% in CLBB, remaining showed 1.7 or 1.8 %. CBLB3 attained minimum and CBBB maximum
1.3 % and 2.2 % mean thickness swelling respectively at R3. To see the individual interactions
between boards, on the basis of statistical analysis, all cement particle boards except CBBB
reported similar thickness swelling at all ratios (p<0.05). It is important to note that thickness
swelling of cement particle board decreased with increasing lantana in board. It may be possible
that lantana played important role to control thickness swelling, since board prepared with
lantana manifested thickness swelling less than bamboo.

100
Summary

The tensile strength of the boards in different particles ratios revealed mean tensile
strength ranged from 0.28 to 0.43 N/mm2 at R1, 0.34 to 0.56 N/mm2 at R2 and 0.38 to 0.58 N/mm2
at R3. It was observed that CLBB showed highest tensile strength, whereas lowest was found in
CBBB. It is very important to note that the lantana particles increased the tensile strength
according to their quantity added to the bamboo in board. The overall mean was also gradually
increasing with increase in cement in the board. To understand the individual behaviors
Duncan’s subset reveals no significant difference between tensile strength recorded by CBBB
and CBLB1, while other was found significantly differ at R1 (p<0.05). In case of R2, CBLB1,
CBBB and CBLB2 and CBLB3 demonstrated statistically similar observation in terms of tensile
strength at 5 % significance level. No significant differences between CBLB1 and CBBB at R1
(p<0.05).
The mean screw withdrawal strength in face surface for different bamboo, lantana cement
particle board the strength property varies with the particles which is used for board making.
Overall highest mean screw withdrawal strength was demonstrated by CLBB (1456 N) followed
by CBLB3 (1362 N), CBLB2 (1348 N), CBLB1 (1311 N) and CBBB (1279 N). Mean screw
withdrawal strength was found 1229 to1324 N at R1, 1281 to 1488 N at R2 and 1330 to 1557 N at
R3 tested in face side. The results recorded by CBLB3 were found no significant with CBLB1 and
CBLB2 at R1 at 5 % significance level. While, all boards performed significantly different at R2
(p<0.05). Statistical analysis exhibited that significant effect of varying wood particles on screw
withdrawal strength, except CBLB2 and CBLB3 (p<0.05).
The mean screw withdrawal strength of all cement particle boards was also tested in edge
surface. Results revealed the highest mean screw withdrawal strength i.e. 798.3 N by CLBB and
lowest i.e. 762.1 N by CBLB2 prepared at R1. In case of R2, mean screw withdrawal strength was
found in ranged 817 N to 930 N. It was important to point out that all boards’ demonstrated
statistically similar screw withdrawal strength in edge at R1 and R2 except CLBB tested at 5 %
significance level. Board manufactured at R3 showed maximum mean screw withdrawal strength
by CLBB (997 N) followed by CBLB3 (930 N), CBLB1 (896 N), CBLB2 (881 N), and CBBB (876
N). Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in results shown by CBBB, CBLB 1 and
CBLB2, whereas CBLB3 and CLBB were found significantly different (p<0.05). It was observed
that overall screw withdrawal strength of lantana board was found highest and strength decreased

101
Summary

with increasing bamboo particle in board. The reason may be the higher density of lantana than
bamboo cement boards which may responsible for increasing screw holding capacity of board.
Modulus of rupture of all cement bonded particle board at all test ratios i.e. R1, R2 and R3
result revealed mean MOR of 5.97 N/mm2 to 10.03 N/mm2 by different boards at R1. Duncan
subset for MOR of all boards at R1 was noted that CBLB1 and CBLB2 were found in same subset
at 5 % significance level. It is interesting to note that if the particle changes the MOR strength
get almost double and when the lantana particle increases the strength properties also increases.
CBLB3 observed minimum7.92 N/mm2 in R2 and CBLB2 minimum 8.86 N/mm2 in R3 and
maximum 12.30 N/mm2 in R2 and 12.46 N/mm2 in R3. CLBB performs better in all other
particles and all the three different ratios. The overall mean is gradually increases with
cement/wood ratios.
The mean modulus of elasticity in all three different ratios R1, R2 and R3 is gradually
increasing with quantity of cement increases. In R1 minimum MOE observed in CBBB 2494
N/mm2 and maximum in CLBB 4081 N/mm2. There are no significant difference found in
CBLB1 and CBLB2. Mean MOE in R2 revealed that the best results CLBB followed by CBLB3,
CBBB, CBLB1 and CBLB2. There are no significant differences observed in CBBB, CBLB 1 and
CBLB2. In case of R3 the maximum MOE observed in CLBB 4899 N/mm2 and minimum in
CBLB1 3938 N/mm2.

102
CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS
Following inferences are drawn on the basis of study on physical and mechanical
properties of cement bonded wood particle board:
 Bamboo contained more soluble sugar than lantana, whereas tannin was found
approximately same in lantana than bamboo. Therefore it is assumed that soluble
sugar present in bamboo and lantana played key role to decide compatibility of wood
particles with cement.
 All the major chemical constitution analysed in Pozzolana Portland cement (Type IV)
used for manufacturing of cement bonded wood particle board was found comparable
to specified values as per IS: 1489 (1991) except Calcium oxide.
 Board prepared with lantana showed higher density than bamboo and density did not
change significantly by varying bamboo and lantana ratios in cement particle board.
 Moisture content of bamboo cement board was recorded highest, whereas lantana
board showed lowest values. Even moisture content of board decreased as lantana
particle was added to bamboo in cement bonded particle board. Apart from this, the
moisture content of board decreased with increasing cement particle ratios.
 The maximum water absorption was recorded in cement bamboo bonded board and
minimum in cement lantana bonded board. Result revealed that water absorption by
board decreased with increasing lantana particle in board as well as cement part.
 Thickness swelling of cement bamboo bonded board after 2hrs soaking in water was
found maximum and decreased with adding lantana particle in board, which was
reduced up to 50 % in cement lantana bonded board.
 Cement lantana bonded board showed highest tensile strength, whereas lowest was
found in cement bamboo bonded board. It is very important to note that the lantana
particles increased the tensile strength according to their quantity added to the
bamboo in board. The overall mean was also gradually increasing with increase in
cement in the board.
 Overall highest mean screw withdrawal strength at face and edge surface was
demonstrated by Cement lantana bonded board followed by Cement bamboo lantana
board (75:25), Cement bamboo lantana board (50:50), Cement bamboo lantana board
(25:75) and Cement bamboo bonded board.
 Board manufactured with lantana and bamboo revealed highest and lowest values of
MOE and MOR respectively.

103
CONCLUSIONS

 It is interesting to note that all physical and mechanical properties of boards are
interconnected. Results showed that board prepared with lantana was found denser
than bamboo, which was also reflected in MOR, MOE, screw withdrawal strength and
tensile strength. These mechanical properties increased with adding lantana particle in
board. Results revealed that bamboo board absorbed more water than lantana, due
improper particle size and resulted poor mechanical properties.
 Cement also played important role to decide the physical and mechanical properties,
since best results were obtained at 3:1 cement: wood ratio in board.
 Overall best results in terms of physical and mechanical properties were recorded in
cement lantana bonded board at cement: wood ratio (2.5:1) as per IS: 14276 (2009).
Therefore it is concluded that lantana can be used in cement bonded board at 2.5:1
ratio and there is no need to use high quantity (3:1 ratio) of cement in board.
 Reaction of sugar with cement is exothermic, which resulted poor bonding in bamboo
board.
 Though nail-screw holding test were done in the present study, however latest trends
in this direction do not suggest nailing, screwing as vibrational forces act against the
“bond strength”. Now a day’s drill is done to nail (pre drill endues based) and plastic
pen type housing casing is inserted followed by screwing. In these panels this
approach is expected to deliver best results.
 From futuristic stand point carbon (boiler ash) is expected to be another additive
along with lignocellulosic particles and cement panel thus formed is expected to lock
carbon and ash contributing towards better environment.

104
Plate 1: Chipping of particles

Plate 2: Particle preparation in Condux mill


Plate 3: Description of coarse & fine particles

Plate 4: Mixing of cement with wood particles


Plate 5: Mat formation of cement bonded bamboo board

Plate 6: Mat formation of cement bonded lantana board


Plate 7: Analysis of moisture content of prepared mat of cement bonded particle
board before pressing

Plate 8: Water soaking of cement bonded particle board for testing of water
absorption & thickness swelling
Plate 9: Testing of thickness swelling of cement bonded particle board by
screw gauge

Plate 10: MOR & MOE testing of cement bonded particle board at universal
testing machine
Plate 11: Testing of tensile strength of cement bonded particle board at universal
testing machine

Plate 12: Sample preparation for Testing of screw withdrawal strength of cement
bonded particle board
Plate 13: Testing of screw withdrawal strength of cement bonded particle board at
face surface

Plate 13: Testing of screw withdrawal strength of cement bonded particle


board at edge surface
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121
Indian Forester, 143 (4) : 360-363, 2017 ISSN No. 0019-4816 (Print)
http://www.indianforester.co.in ISSN No. 2321-094X (Online)

EFFECT OF CEMENT: WOOD PARTICLE RATIO ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CEMENT
BONDED PARTICLE BOARD USING LANTANA CAMARA

MANISH RANJAN, D. P. KHALI AND SHWETA BHATT

Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (Uttarakhand)


E-mail:manishranjan509@gmail.com, khalidp@icfre.org

ABSTRACT
The experiment was carried out to study the suitability of Lantana camara particles for making cement bonded particle
boards. Portland cement was used as a sizing agent. The amount of Lantana particles was taken on air-dry basis. Different
proportion of Cement/Lantana particle ratios 2.0:1.0, 2.5:1.0, and 3.0:1.0 were used. 2% of Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and
2% Aluminum sulfate (Al2 (So4)3) were used to prevent hydration and increase the rate of cement setting. 28Kg/cm2 pressure
were used for preparation of 10mm thick board. It was observed that physical properties of the board decreases with
increase in cement: lantana particle ratio and the mechanical properties of the board increases with increase in cement:
lantana particle ratio.
Key words: Physical properties, Mechanical properties, Cement Bonded Particle Board, Lantana camara, Portland cement,
Bonded particle boards, Effect of cement.

Introduction due to the presence of certain extractives such as soluble


On one hand, decrement of wood raw materials, sugar and tannin content (Sandermann et al., 1960;
and on the other hand, increment of demand for wooden Sandermann and Kohler, 1964).
composite materials have encouraged evaluating Lantana is one of the exotic woody shrubs belong to
utilization of weeds and agro-based materials in family Verbenaceae which found abundantly in the
composite manufacturing including cement-bonded Australian-Pacific region. Lantana is native of tropical
particle board (CBPB). Cement has been used as bonding region of America and Africa but exist as an introduced
agent forwood excelsior board, particle board, fiber board species in numerous areas in India. It can grow 0.5m to
and other wood cement composite products for nearly 50 2.0m height. The soluble sugar and tannin content is low in
years in Europe, South America and Asia (Lee and Short, this particular species therefore the hydration is very less
1989). Lee (1984) concluded that cement excelsior board during the setting and it can easily bind with Portland
(CEB) was very stable dimensionally when subjected to cement.
water soaking, the water absorption and residual water Therefore, present work was carried out to examine
absorption are much less than those of plywood. Wood- the compatibility of lignocellulosic woody shrub Lantana
cement panels are currently used in many countries for particle for bonding with Portland cements of varying
roof decking, flooring, exterior walls, partitions, and wall composition. Their physical and mechanical properties
panelling in houses, school and industrial buildings were also tested in order to assess the suitability of boards
(Hachmi and Moslemi, 1989). for structural purposes.
For the expansion of the raw material base, Material and Methods
extensive studies have demonstrated the feasibility of
producing cement bonded particle board using tropical Cement bonded particle board (CBPB) were made
hardwood species, some agriculture waste and industrial by using Lantana camara particles for this study. Lantana
residues (Evan, 2000; Fernandez and Taja-on, 2000; materials were collected from Forest Research Institute
Eusebio, 2003). Campus, Dehradun. Lantana was first cut down in small
pieces and then processed in condux mill. The particles
Various studies have been indicated that some were tested for soluble sugar and tannin content, since it
lignocellulosic materials are not suitable for the prevent hydration during board preparation. The particles
manufacture of cement bonded particle board. This were then sieved through 60 mesh and 40 mesh to get fine
characteristic varies with the type of material. The and coarse uniform size particles respectively. The coarse
variation arises due to adverse effects on cement setting and the fine particles were used in both the face and back

Physical properties of cement bonded particle board of Lantana decreased with the increase of cement.
2017] Effect of cement: wood particle ratio on physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board... 361

layer of CBPB respectively to get smooth surface. The at significance level 0.05 for the data obtained for all the
coarse and fine particles weighted on oven dry basis properties evaluated. The results of exact behaviour
according to requirement. Before the mixing of cement among each of specific cement particle ratio, Duncan's
the particles were soaked in water for 48hrs. Portland subset were formed using SPSS software.
cement was used as a sizing agent. Different proportion of Table 1 shows the overall mean of physical
cement: lantana particle ratios i.e. 2.0:1.0, 2.5:1.0, and properties such as moisture content, water absorption
3.0:1.0 were used to study physical and mechanical and thickness swelling of ten cement bonded particle
properties of cement bonded particle board. To prevent boards under three different Cement/Lantana particle
hydration of wood with cement 2% Sodium silicate ratios. The mean values for thickness swelling and water
(Na2SiO3) and 2% Aluminium sulphate (Al2 (So4)3) were absorption decreased with the increase of cement/
added to accelerate cement setting. 28 Kg/cm2 pressure lantana particle ratio (Table 1). The highest values were
were used in cold press for 6 hours. After pressing, curing observed with the cement: lantana particle 2.0:1.0 ratios
was done for 6 hours in oven at 500C temperature. The and the lowest were seen with the cement: lantana
boards were removed and wrapped with cellophane and particle ratio of 3.0:1.0. It indicates that the properties of
kept in room temperature for 7 days. The moisture content dimensional stability of all the ratio of cement bonded
of the boards was reduced to 12% by keeping boards in the panels such as mean moisture content, thickness swelling
oven. and water absorption 2hrs and 24hrs water soaking test
The test specimens were cut on a circular saw. The conform favourably to figures reported in past studies
edges were trimmed to avoid edge effect on the boards (Badego 1990). The ANOVA of cement bonded lantana
during testing. The boards were further cut into various particle board (Table 2) and Duncan's subset for physical
test specimens for evaluation of physical and mechanical properties clearly indicated that water absorption and
properties of boards according to IS 14276: 1995. thickness swelling are significantly different from
Results and Discussion individual Cement: Lantana particle ratio.

The average values obtained for physical and The mean value of mechanical properties such as
mechanical properties such as Density, Moisture Content, density, tensile strength, MOR, MOE was gradually
Water absorption, Thickness swelling, Tensile strength, increasing with increase in cement: lantana particle ratio
Modulus of rupture (MOR), Modulus of elasticity (MOE) (Table 3).The results presented (Table 3) is adequately
and screw withdrawal of Cement bonded lantana particle compared well with those reported by Manish and Khali
Boards are tabulated in table 1 and table 3. Table 2 and (2016). It was observed that the densities of 3.0:1.0
table 4 shows the One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) cement: lantana particle ratio, CBPB is 1.28 gm/cm3

Table 1: Physical properties of cement bonded Lantana particle boards


Cement : Particle Ratios Moisture content Water absorption in Water absorption in Thickness swelling in
(%) 2hr water soaking (%) 24hrs water soaking (%) 2hrs Water soaking (%)
2.0:1.0 11.62a 12.27a 22.55a 2.7a
2.5:1.0 10.16b 11.06b 20.20b 1.8b
3.0:1.0 9.89c 10.49c 19.75c 1.6c
a, b, c = Significant (p < 0.05)
Table 2: ANOVA for Physical Properties of cement bonded lantana particle boards
Source of variation Sum of square df Mean square F Sig.
Moisture Content (%) 17.343 2 8.672 286.879 0.00
Errors 0.816 27 0.03
Total 3362.723 29
Water absorption in 2hr water soaking (%) 16.461 2 8.23 111.688 0.00
Errors 1.99 27 0.074
Total 3832.67 29
Water absorption in 24hrs water soaking (%) 45.457 2 22.729 84.688 0.00
Errors 7.246 27 0.268
Total 13072.704 29
Thickness Swelling in 2hr Water soaking (%) 6.867 2 3.433 6.574 0.005
Errors 14.1 27 0.522
Total 145 29
362 The Indian Forester [April

Table 3: Mechanical properties of cement bonded lantana particle boards

Cement : Particle Density (g/cm3) Tensile Strength Modulus of Modulus of Screw withdrawal Screw withdrawal
Ratios (N/mm2) Rupture (N/mm2) Elasticity (N/mm2) Face (N) Edge (N)
2.0:1.0 1.18 a 0.43 a 10.03 a 4081 a 1325 a 798 a
2.5:1.0 1.25 b 0.55 b 12.30 b 4968 b 1488 b 930 b
3.0:1.0 1.28 c 0.58 c 12.46 c 4899 c 1557 c 998 c
a, b, c = Significant (p < 0.05)

Table 4: ANOVA for mechanical properties of cement bonded lantana particle boards

Source of variation Sum of square Df Mean square F Sig.


3
Density (g/cm ) 0.05 2 0.025 44.576 0.00
Errors 0.015 27 0.001
Total 46.143 29
Tensile Strength (N/mm2) 0.136 2 0.068 54.598 0.00
Errors 0.034 27 0.001
Total 8.365 29
Modulus of Rupture (N/mm2) 37.011 2 18.505 364.453 0.00
Errors 1.371 27 0.051
Total 4071.007 29
Modulus of Elasticity (N/mm2) 4.870 2 2435060.8 27.211 0.00
Errors 2416161.2 27 89487.452
Total 6.560 29
Screw withdrawal Face (N) 287281.267 2 143640.633 174.31 0.00
Errors 22249.4 27 824.052
Total 6.390 29
Screw withdrawal Edge (N) 206156.067 2 103078.033 106.733 0.00
Errors 26075.4 27 965.756
Total 2.501 29

highest and the density of 2.0:1.0 cement lantana particle lantana particle ratio.
ratios, CBPB is 1.18 gm/cm3 lowest among all studied Conclusion
cement to particle ratio. Tensile strength varies from
The physical and mechanical properties of cement
0.43N/mm2 to 0.58N/mm2. The MOE 4899N/mm2
bonded particle boards produced from Lantana camara
observed highest in 3.0:1.0 cement: lantana particle ratios
particles were evaluated. This was done using three
and lowest in 2.0:1.0 cement: lantana particle ratios.
cement-lantana particle ratios (2.0:1.0, 2.5:1.0, and
Screw Withdrawal strength varies from 1325 N to 1557 N
3.0:1.0). The physical properties of board such as moisture
in Face and 798 N to 998 N in Edge with increase in cement:
content, water absorption and thickness swelling are
lantana particle ratios. The MOR observed more in 3.0:1.0
decreases with increase in cement: lantana particle ratio.
cement: lantana particle ratios that is 12.46 N/mm2 and
The mechanical properties of the boards such as density,
lowest in 10.03 N/mm2. These mechanical properties of
tensile strength, MOR, MOE and screw withdrawal are
cement bonded lantana particle board clearly observed
increases with increase in cement: lantana particle ratio.
that ANOVA (Table 4) and Duncan's subset that MOR,
The 2.5:1.0 and 3.0:1.0 cement: lantana particle ratios
MOE, Tensile Strength and Screw Withdrawal are
performed best for cement bonded Lantana particle board
significantly different from all studied individual cement:

Acknowledgements
The authors place on record the help rendered by the manager and staff members of NCL Industries, Paonta Sahib
for making the CBPB samples. The help in conducting the raw material preparation by the staff of Composite Wood
Discipline, Forest Products Division, FRI is highly appreciated and gratefully acknowledged.
2017] Effect of cement: wood particle ratio on physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle board... 363

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Reference
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management strategies of self-sufficiency in wood production. Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, 12-15.
Eusebio D.A. (2003). Cement bonded boards: Today's alternative. Paper presented at a technical forum in celebration of the 21 Philippin
Council for Industry and Energy Research and Development Anniversary, Dept. of Science and Technology, held at Edsa Shangri-La,
GDSA, Pasig City, Philippines, 9pp.
Evans P.D. (2000). Summary: An introduction to wood – cement composites. Wood cement compositesin the Asian region. In: Proc. of
Workshop held at Rydges Hotel, Canberra, Australia,pp.7-10.
Fernandez E.C. and Taia-on V.P. (2000). The use and processing of ricestraw in the manufacture of cement–bonded fiber board. In: Proceedings
of Wood-cement Composites in the Asia Pacific Region. A workshop held at Canberra, Australia, pp. 49-54.
Hachmi M. and Moslemi A.A. (1989). Correlation between wood-cement compatibility and wood extractives. Forest Products Journal, 39,
55–58.
Kumar S. (1980). Development of wood–wool boards from indigenousmaterials.PL-480 Project. Final Research Report, Forest Research
Institute and College, Dehradun, India. 96.
Lee A.W.C. (1984). Effect of cement/wood ratio on bending properties of cement bonded Southern pine excelsior board. Wood and Fiber
Science, 17(3):361-364.
Lee A.W.C. and Short P.H. (1989). Pretreating hard wood for cement-bonded excelsior boards. Forest Product Journal, 39(10):68-70.
Manish R. and Khali D.P. (2016). Effect of cement: bamboo particle ratios on physical and mechanical properties of cement bonded particle
board. Research Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, 4 (11): 1-4.
Sandermann W. and Kohler R. (1964). Studies on mineral bondedwood materials VI.A short test of theaptitude of woods for cement bonded
materials. Berlin, Holzforschung, 18:53-59.
Sandermann W. H., Preusser J. and Schweers W. (1960). Studies on mineral bonded wood materials. Holzforschung materials; the effect
of wood extractives on the setting of cement- bonded wood. Berlin, Holzforschung,14:70-77.
Research Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences ________________________________E-ISSN 2320-6063
Vol. 4(11), 1-4, November (2016) Res. J. Agriculture and Forestry Sci.

Short Communication
Effect of Cement: Bamboo Particle Ratios on Physical and Mechanical
Properties of Cement Bonded Particle Board
Manish Ranjan* and D.P. Khali
Composite Wood Discipline, Forest Products Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, India
manishranjan509@gmail.com
Available online at: www.isca.in, www.isca.me
Received 31st September 2016, revised 29th October 2016, accepted 5th November 2016
Abstract
In this study Bamboo (Dendrocalamusstrictus) particles were taken for making cement bonded particle boards. Portland
cement was used as a sizing agent. The amount of bamboo particles was taken on air-dry basis. Different proportion of
cement/bamboo particle ratios 2.0:1.0, 2.5:1.0, and 3.0:1.0 were used for study of physical and mechanical properties of
cement bonded particle board. 2% of sodium silicate and 2% aluminum sulfatewere used forpreventinghydration and
increasing the rate of cement setting. 28kg/cm2 pressure were used for preparation of 10mm thick board. The results showed
that physical properties of the board decreases with increase in cement: bamboo particle ratios and the mechanical
properties of the board increases with increase in cement: bamboo particle ratios.

Keywords:

Introduction resistance and durability in warm, humid climate where decay


and termites are a major concern4.
Wood based panel products are important material for variety of
domestic, commercial and industrial applications. Forest, which Because of the versatile nature the boards found large scale
was the main source of woody raw material for manufacture of application in low cost housing, shuttering, sandwich type
such products, cannot be exploited any further now as they play boards for insulation, ceilings etc. They are superior in physical
a vital role for environmental stability; ecological balances as properties such as thermal conductivity, sound absorption and
well as carbon sink of the country1. possess adequate strength and excellent working qualities.
Cement bonded particle boards are classified as class-I fire
Plantation wood is therefore, now being used by the panel resistant materials based on surface spread on flame test. All
product industries as raw material in a big way. But still there is these factors have contributed significantly to the adoption of
an ever increasing gap between demand and supply of wood due this material in low cost housing and construction of industrial
to population explosion, improved standard of living and and commercial complexes.
diversified industrial activity in the country. Use of alternate
raw material for manufacture of panel products is therefore, Therefore, present work was being carried out to examine the
need of the hour. compatibility of lignocellulosic fast growing Bamboo particle
for bonding with cements of varying composition. Their
Mineral-bonded wood products were initially developed in physical and mechanical properties were tested in order to
Europe nearly half a century ago. The first product was assess the suitability of formed boards for structural purposes.
magnesite-bonded light weight wood wool (excelsior) board,
which was later modified to adopt Portland cement as a Materials and Methods
binder2,3. Building products, such as cement bonded particle
board (CBPB), wood wool cement board (WWCB), cement The species used in this study was Dendrocalamusstrictus,
bonded fiberboard (CBFB), etc., made from mineral binding which is one of the most common species of Bamboo and easily
materials and wood aggregates are widely applied in many available in India. This bamboo species were collected from
developing countries. Forest Research Institute Campus Dehradun. Bamboo processed
first in a chipper and then in condux mill. The particles were
Recently there has been a spur in interest, in the commercial then sieved through 60 mesh and 40 mesh to get fine and coarse
manufacture of cement-bonded composites from agriculture and uniform size particles. The particles separated in coarse and fine
wood residues in the developing countries for low cost housing so that the coarse particle in centre and the fine particle in both
projects. These boards possess the advantage of inorganic and the face to get smooth surface. The coarse and fine particles
organic materials. Other desirable characteristics include fire weighted on oven dry basis according to requirement. Before

International Science Community Association 1


Research Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences _____________________________________________E- ISSN 2320-6063
Vol. 4(11), 1-4, November (2016) Res. J. Agriculture and Forestry Sci.

the mixing of cement the particles were soaked in water for Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Screw Withdrawal of
48hrs. Portland cement was used as a sizing agent. Different Cement Bonded Bamboo Particle Boards are tabulated on
proportion of cement/bamboo particle ratios 2.0:1.0, 2.5:1.0, Table-1 and Table-3. Table-2 and Table-4 show the One-way
and 3.0:1.0 were used to study physical and mechanical ANOVAat significance level in of 0.05 for the data obtained for
properties of cement bonded particle board. To prevent all the properties evaluated. The results of exact behaviour
hydration of wood with cement 2% Sodium Silicate (Na 2SiO3) among each of specific cement particle ratios, Duncan’s subset
and 2% Aluminium Sulphate (Al2(SO4)3) were added to were formed using SPSS.
accelerate cement setting. 28kg/cm2 pressure were used in cold
press for 6 hours. After pressing curing is done for 6 hours in According to the result it is observed that the moisture content,
oven and maintain temperature 500C. The boards were removed water absorption (2Hrs and 24Hrs), and thickness swelling is
and wrapped with cellophane and kept in room temperature for gradually decreasing with increase in cement: bamboo particle
7 days. For maintaining 12% moisture content the board was ratios (Table-1). The result presented (Table-1) is adequately
again kept on oven to reduce moisture content of the board. compared well with those reported in literatures6-8. The highest
values were observed with the cement: bamboo particle 2.0:1.0
The test specimens were cut on a circular saw. The edges were ratios and the lowest were seen with the cement: bamboo
trimmed to avoid edge effect on the board during testing. The particle ratios of 3.0:1.0. It indicates that property of
board was further cut into various test specimens for evaluation dimensional stability of all the ratios of cement bonded particle
of physical and mechanical properties of board according to IS board depends on the proportional of cement and lignocellulosic
142765. material. The Analysis of Variance and Duncan’s subset for
physical properties of cement bonded bamboo particle board
Results and Discussion (Table-2) clearly indicates that water absorption and thickness
The mean values obtain for physical and mechanical properties swelling are significantly different for all studied cement to
such as Density, Moisture content, Water absorption, Thickness bamboo particle ratio.
Swelling, Tensile Strength, Modulus of Rupture (MOR),

Table-1
Physical Properties of Cement Bonded Bamboo Particle Boards
Cement : Particle Moisture Water absorption in 2hr Water absorption in 24hrs Thickness Swelling in
Ratios Content (%) water soaking (%) water soaking (%) 2hr Water soaking (%)
2.0:1.0 12.45a 13.79a 25.83a 4.2a
2.5:1.0 11.59b 13.24b 24.38b 3.1b
3.0:1.0 10.61c 12.38c 22.86c 2.2c
a, b, c
= Significant (p < 0.05)
Table-2
ANOVA for Physical Properties of Cement Bonded Bamboo Particle Boards
Source of Variation Sum of Square Df Mean Square F Sig.
Moisture Content (%) 17.068 2 8.534 239.651 0.00
Errors 0.961 27 0.036
Total 4020.797 30
Water absorption in 2hr water soaking (%) 10.14 2 5.07 302.946 0.00
Errors 0.452 27 0.017
Total 5190.905 30
Water absorption in 24hrs water soaking
43.996 2 21.998 195.521 0.00
(%)
Errors 3.038 27 0.113
Total 17846.399 30
Thickness Swelling in 2hr Water soaking
20.067 2 10.033 13.478 0.00
(%)
Errors 20.1 27 0.744
Total 341 30

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The mean value of mechanical properties such as density, 4024 N/mm2to 2494 N/mm2. Screw Withdrawal strength to face
tensile strength, MOR, MOE is gradually increasing with and edge varies from 1229 N to 1329 N and 771 N to 876 N
increase in cement: bamboo particle ratio (Table-3). It is respectively with increase in cement: bamboo particle ratios.
observed that the densities of 3.0:1.0 cement: bamboo particle The MOR varies from 9.68 N/mm2to 5.97 N/mm2. The Analysis
ratio, CBPB is 1.2gm/cm3 highest and the density of 2.0:1.0 of Variance and Duncan’s subset (Table-4) clearly indicated that
cement bamboo particle ratios, CBPB is 1.16gm/cm3 lowest MOR, MOE, Tensile Strength and Screw Withdrawal are
among all studied cement to particle ratio. Tensile strength significantly different forall studied cement: particle ratios.
varies from 0.28 N/mm2 to 0.40N/mm2. The MOE varies from

Table-3
Mechanical Properties of Cement Bonded Bamboo Particle Boards
Cement : Tensile Modulus of Modulus of Screw Screw
Particle Density (g/cm3) Strength Rupture Elasticity withdrawal withdrawal
Ratios (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (N/mm2) Face (N) Edge (N)
2.0:1.0 1.16a 0.28a 5.97a 2494a 1229a 771a

2.5:1.0 1.19b 0.34b 8.18b 3637b 1281b 834b

3.0:1.0 1.20c 0.40c 9.68c 4024c 1329c 876c


a, b, c
= Significant (p < 0.05)

Table-4
ANOVA for Mechanical Properties of Cement Bonded Bamboo Particle Boards
Source of Variation Sum of Square Df Mean Square F Sig.
Density (g/cm3) 0.007 2 0.004 25.504 0.00
Errors 0.004 27 0.001
Total 42.043 30
2
Tensile Strength (N/mm ) 0.07 2 0.035 114.899 0.00
Errors 0.008 27 0
Total 3.546 30
Modulus of Rupture (N/mm2) 69.786 2 34.893 199.654 0.00
Errors 4.719 27 0.175
Total 1968.036 30
2
Modulus of Elasticity (N/mm ) 1.270 2 6324327.7 235.08 0.00
Errors 726377.3 27 26902.863
Total 3.5701 30
Screw withdrawal Face (N) 50820.267 2 25410.133 156.043 0.00
Errors 4396.7 27 162.841
Total 4.920 30
Screw withdrawal Edge (N) 56000.467 2 28000.233 95.953 0.00
Errors 7878.9 27 291.811
Total 2.06 30

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Conclusion 3. Lee A.W.C. (1985). #Bending and thermal insulation


properties of cement bonded southern pine excelsior
The results obtained from this study showed that use of bamboo board.# Forest Product Journal, 35(11/12), 57-58.
(Dendrocalamusstrictus) as a promising raw material for board
production. This study aimed to determine the physical and 4. De Souza M.R., Geimer R.L. and Moslemi A.A. (1997).
mechanical properties of Cement Bonded Bamboo Particle #Degradation of conventional and Co2 –Injected cement
Board prepare at different cement: bamboo particle ratios. The bonded particleboard by exposure to Fungi and Termites.#
physical properties of board are decreasing with increase Journal of Tropical Forest Product. 3(1), 63-69.
cement: particle ratios. The mechanical properties of the board 5. BIS 14276 (1995). #Cement Bonded Particle Board
are increasing with increase in cement: bamboo particle ratios. Specification.# Bureau of Indian Standards.
The 3.0:1.0 cement/bambooparticle ratio performed best for
6. Geimer R.L., Souza M.R., Moslemi A.A. and Sumatupang
cement bonded bamboo particle board production.
N.H. (1993). #Carbondioxide application for rapid
production of cement-bonded particle board.# Moslemi, A.
Acknowledgements A. (Ed) Inorganic Bonded Wood and Fibre Composite
The authors place on record the help rendered by the manager Materials. Forest Prod. Res. Soc. Madison, Wis, 3, 31-
and staff members of NCL Industries, Paonta Sahib for making 4132-34.
the CBPB samples. The help in conducting the raw material 7. Badejo S.O. (1990). #Sawmill Wood residues in Nigeria
preparation by the staff of Composite Wood Discipline, Forest and their utilization.# Invited paper, Proceeding of the
Products Division, FRI is gratefully acknowledged. National workshop on forestry management strategies of
self-sufficiency in wood production, Forestry Research
References Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, 12-15.
1. Ministry of Environment and Forest Government of India 8. Ajayi B. (2000). #Strength and dimensional stability of
(1988). #National Forest Policy (NFP).# Government of cement-bonded flake board produced from Gmelinarborea
India, www.envfor.nic.in. and LeucecinaLeucocephala.# PhD Thesis, Department of
Forestry and Wood technology, 11-40.
2. Lee A.W.C. (1984). #Physical and mechanical properties of
cement bonded southern pine excelsior board.# Forest
Product Journal, 34(4), 30-34.

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