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Question 1:

How can outbreaks be spread through network?


Many diseases spread through human populations by contact between those who are carrying the
disease, and those who do not have the disease yet. The pattern of the diseases causing contacts
forms a network (Newman, 2002). Therefore, outbreaks are able to be formed through these
networks. The game, Vax, emphasized how one’s contact group, the friends of your friends, are
able to become the base of the outbreak. Furthermore, the outbreak is able to travel through the
network to your immediate group of friends, and then to you. If no action is taken, the entire
network would be infected. In literal terms, disease outbreaks are usually caused by an infection,
transmitted by person-to-person, environment, or media contact (WHO, 2012). For example,
water, sanitation, food and air quality are some of the most key elements in transmitting diseases
(WHO, 2012). Moreover, chemicals or toxins cause these elements to carry bacteria, viruses,
parasites, or other disease-causing agents. According to the Mayo Clinic, a nonprofit academic
center, a way to stop outbreaks from spreading throughout a network is by enforcing frequent
and good hygiene, as well as getting the right vaccination to prevent them in the first place
(Mayo Clinic, 2018). With immediate and good practice of application, outbreaks can be
avoided.
Word Count: 199 (excluding intext citations & references)

References

Disease outbreaks. (2012, August 24). Retrieved April 28, 2019, from

https://www.who.int/environmental_health_emergencies/disease_outbreaks/en/

Infectious diseases. (2018, January 03). Retrieved April 28, 2019, from

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/infectious-diseases/symptoms-

causes/syc-20351173

Newman, M. E. (2002). Spread of epidemic disease on networks. Physical Review E,66(1).

doi:10.1103/physreve.66.016128
Question 2:
What do you learn about vaccination and quarantines?
Many diseases spread through human populations by contact between those who are carrying the
disease, and those who do not have the disease yet. The pattern of the diseases causing contacts
forms a network (Newman, 2002). In the game, VAX, a certain number of dots, or people, are
vaccinated. Vaccines are capable of stimulating the immune system in order to produce
antibodies, developing immunity to certain diseases (CDC, 2012). However, vaccines take time
to be able to show its full affect, so they are ineffective if an infection has started to spread
already. Quarantining is then played to immediately remove the connection of the network that
are likely infected during the outbreak. However, as quarantining is played, the disease would
spread more each time. Therefore, it is difficult to take action as quickly as possible. To avoid
the difficulty in doing quarantines quickly and efficiently, one must take action in the root of the
problem. According to the Mayo Clinic, a nonprofit academic center, a way to stop outbreaks is
enforcing frequent and good hygiene, as well as getting the right vaccination to prevent them in
the first place (Mayo Clinic, 2018). With immediate and good practice of application, outbreaks
can be avoided.
Word Count: 196 (excluding intext citations & references)

References

Basics of Vaccines | CDC. (2012, March 14). Retrieved April 28, 2019, from

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/vpd-vac-basics.html

Infectious diseases. (2018, January 03). Retrieved April 28, 2019, from

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/infectious-diseases/symptoms-

causes/syc-20351173

Newman, M. E. (2002). Spread of epidemic disease on networks. Physical Review E,66(1).

doi:10.1103/physreve.66.016128
Question 3:
If you are a future public health official - how do you choose the most efficient way to vaccinate
and quarantine a population with limited resources?
Many diseases spread through human populations by contact between those who are carrying the
disease, and those who do not have the disease yet. The pattern of the diseases causing contacts
forms a network (Newman, 2002). In the game, VAX, a certain number of dots, or people, are
vaccinated. However, vaccines take time to be able to show its full affect, so they are ineffective
if an infection has started to spread already. Quarantining is then played to immediately remove
the connection of the network that are likely infected during the outbreak. However, as
quarantining is played, the disease would spread more each time. If I was a future public health
official, the most efficient way to vaccinate and quarantine with limited resources is to find the
root of the disease and how to avoid it. I would educate the population about the horrible effects
of diseases and heavily promote vaccination as an essential part for a positive lifestyle.
According to the CDC, vaccination is not just to protect the younger generation today, but it to
protects the future and those around us (CDC, 2018). Education is important to lessen
quarantines and increase the practice of a healthier life (CDC, 2018).
Word Count: 195 (excluding intext citations & references)

References

Newman, M. E. (2002). Spread of epidemic disease on networks. Physical Review E,66(1).

doi:10.1103/physreve.66.016128

Vaccines: Vac-Gen/Why Immunize? (2018, September). Retrieved April 28, 2019, from

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/why.htm
- The connection represents contact between two people
- More friends are connected to you (immediate group), and their mutual friend make up
(contact network)
- Diseases move through these networks, so if one person in the contact network is sick,
the infection spreads
- If no action is taken, the entire network is infected
- The chance that someone spreads the infection depends on how many neighbors they
have
- Vaccinating a node will remove it and cannot be infected
- Use vaccines to break up network, making it less likely for an infection to spread to every
node
- So when an infection spreads, it is more confined to a smaller network
- Vaccines take time to kick in so they’re ineffective if an infection has already begun to
spread
- Quarantining is a way to immediately remove nodes that are likely to be infected during
an epidemic outbreak