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Civil Engineering Department,

BITS, Pilani-333031

Introduction

submerged bodies are

Fluid flowing around stationary submerged object.

The force exerted by the fluid

on the body may in FL FR

general be inclined in the z

direction of the body or

motion

x

These can be

Along the direction of FD

motion

Perpendicular to the

direction of motion direction of

fluid flow

drag and lift force

respectively & denoted by

Fd & FL

For a symmetrical body moving through an ideal fluid

(sphere )

having no viscosity

At uniform velocity

Pressure distribution is symmetrical

Net force acting on the body is zero.

But it is observed that body experience a resistive force

while moving at uniform velocity in the real fluid.

So it can be concluded that viscosity of the fluids is

responsible for causing Drag on body.

A body held Stationary in a Stream of Real

Fluid Moving at Uniform Velocity

Analysis

Let us consider a body held stationary in a fluid velocity of

fluid be V

Force acting on a small area dA can be

1. Along the direction tangential to the surface = dA

=shear force

2.Normal to the surface = pdA = Pressure force

over the entire surface

which is 1. Friction drag Fdf = dA cos

2.Pressure drag Fdp = pdA sin

Total Drag Fd = Fdf + Fdp

Types of Drag

1. Surface or friction drag (Boundary layer formation)

2. Deformation drag (Viscosity causes the fluid particles to undergo

deformation; In case of large viscosity fluid deformation fluid

particles take place in a very wide zone extending from the body in

the lateral direction: Example very small object moving at very small

velocity through a fluid of large viscosity)

3. Form drag or Pressure drag to viscosity (Wide spread fluid

deformation in the lateral results in developing a variation in

pressure due to which pressure drag is developed)

The existence of viscosity for the real fluids is mainly responsible for

causing drag on the bodies.

Separation and Wakes

corners

fluid can’t accelerate to go around a sharp

corner

small

Velocities in the Wake are ______

(relative to the free stream velocity)

Pressure in the Wake is relatively

constant (determined by the pressure

________

in the adjacent flow)

Lift

The Lift on the body is given by the summation of the component of the

shear and pressure forces acting over the entire surface of the body in the

direction perpendicular to the direction of the fluid motion:

For a body moving through a large mass of fluid, It can also be given as

FD= CDAV2/2 FL=CLAV2/2

where

CD, CL coefficient of drag & lift.

A= area is characteristic area

=mass density of fluid

Generally A is represented in terms of length taken as L2

Factors affecting drag and lift

Position of immersed body

Flow of fluid

Fluid characteristics

Shear and Pressure Forces: Horizontal and

Vertical Components

p < p0 U 2

negative pressure Fd Cd A

2

A defined as projected

normal to force!

area _______

U 2

U FL C L A

lift 2

q

drag

p > p0 positive pressure

Shear and Pressure Forces

Shear forces

viscous drag, frictional drag, or skin friction

caused by shear between the fluid and the

solid surface

surface area

function of ___________and length

______of

object

Pressure forces

pressure drag or form drag

flow separation

caused by _____________from the body

function of area normal to the flow

Drag

• Point of separation is fixed; Large drag is exerted on the plate which

mainly a pressure drag or form drag; none of the shear forces on the

disc have components in the original direction of flow

• In case of cylinder there is no fixed point of separation; the point of

separation depends on RE No. The wake in such cases is smaller

than that of the disc; Todal drag on the cylinder = 1/3rd of the disc

(But for sphere or cylinder friction drag is not zero but they may be

negligible as compare to the pressure drag)

• For well streamlined body the separation occurs only at the d/s end.

Wake is small so pressure drag is low but friction drag is more as

compare to cylinder as more surface area is in contact. But in this

case both friction drag and pressure drag so small that theier drag is

1/40th the disc.

Drag on cylinder

Consider a cylinder having radius R, axis

perpendicular to flow, r is the radial distance of any

point. Velocity of flow v, θ is the angular distance

of the point from front or rear stagnation point.

Fluid flowing past the cylinder is ideal ie non viscous,

flow pattern will be symmetrical., which is represented

by velocity potential Φ and stream function ψ is given

by

R 2

V r cos

r

R

2

V r sin

r

Vr and V

r rr

The velocity components,Vr and Vθ at any point in the

flow field may be obtained as.

R2

Vr V 1 2 cos

r

R2

V V 1 2 sin

r

By substituting r = R we can find out the resultant

velocity which is given by v= 2Vsinθ .The pressure p

at any point on the cylinder is given by Bernoulli

equation

1 2 1 2

p p 0 ρV ρv

2 2

So by substituting the value of v in the equation we can

find p as

1

p p0 V 2 2 V 2 sin 2

2

Equation is independent of sign of sinθ. Pressure

distribution is symmetrical about the mid-section .

drag on the cylinder is 0.

Real Fluid

Due to the viscosity by fluid, the pressure distribution is

modified.

Let thin circular cylinder of infinite length, placed

transversely in a fluid stream

Note that for a given cylinder of a given diameter

immersed in a given fluid the Reynolds number is

directly proportional to the velocity and therefore the

variation with Re No could be imagined as the variation

with velocity for a given cylinder.

In this case, as long as the boundary layer is laminar, the

point of separation are located on the u/s half portion of

the cylinder, but when the boundary layer becomes

turbulent, the point of separation shift farther d/s towards

the rear of the cylinder.

The pressure distribution diagrams are similar to that of

sphere.

flow pattern behind the cylinder is different from that

behind a sphere.

Vortex Shedding

For small velocities of flow (Re < 0.5), The inertia forces

are negligible and the streamlines are similar to that of

an ideal fluid. The pressure drag is negligible and the

profile drag consists mainly of skin friction. The drag is

proportional to the velocity and CD is inversely

proportional Reynolds number

w.r.t an axis perpendicular to the direction of flow

becomes unsymmetrical. Why?

a more or less orderly series of vortices, which alternate

the position about the center line, are developed.

Vortex Shedding

from each side of a cylinder

The separation point and

thus the resultant drag force

oscillate fd

Dimensionless frequency of S

shedding given by Strouhal U

number S

S is approximately 0.2 over a

wide range of Reynolds

numbers (100 - 1,000,000)

If velocity increases, so that the Re ranging from 2 to 30,

boundary layer separates at two points S and S and two very

weak eddies (vortices) are formed on the d/s of the cylinder,

which rotate in opposite directions. this is the initial stage for

the development of the wake.

The two eddies remain more or less fixed in position and the

main streamlines remain close behind them keeping the

length of wake limited.

At Re ranging from 40 to70 wake as well as pair of vortices are

distinct and a periodic oscillation of the wake is observed

By further increase in the value of Re the vortices become

more & more elongated in the direction of flow.

At Re equal to about 90 these vortices become symmetrical

and separate away from the cylinder & slowly move in the d/s

direction. The eddies break away alternatively from the two

sides of the cylinder and washed d/s.

This process gets intensified with increase in Re and the

shedding of eddies is continuous and as a result, two

different rows of vortices are formed in the wake.

The center of vortex in a row lies at a point midway

between the centers of consecutive vortices in the other

row. This arrangement of vortices is known as vortex

street or Von Karman Vortex street.

The periodic shedding of vortices from the two sides of

the cylinder produces alternating lateral forces that may

cause a forced vibration of cylinder at the same

frequency.

When the frequency of the vortex shedding is close to

the natural frequency of the wires, a typical singing

sound is produced. The frequency of the vortex shedding

is given by

fd 19.7

0.1981 for 250 R e 2 105

U Re

dimensionless value and useful for analyzing

oscillating, unsteady fluid flow dynamics problems

and f = oscillation frequency, d or L = relevant

length scale, v = relevant velocity scale

Karman type shedding in reattaching flows, illustrative

example (leading edge of blunt cylinder)

Karman type shedding

(symmetric mode -interaction

KH vortices amalgamate to form large scale vortices with mirror vortex)

At high Re (say Re = 104), the vortices disappear and a

highly turbulent wake is formed . This leads to an

increased value of CD and the skin friction drag is

negligible in comparison to the pressure drag.

The boundary layer on the cylinder is laminar up to Re =

2 x 105 and depending upon the intensity of the free

stream turbulence, it changes to turbulent bdry layer

before separation.

When the points of separation move further d/s, the

wake becomes narrower and there is substantial drop in

the value of CD. The critical value of Re at which the

value of CD decreases depend upon the degree of

turbulence in the main flow and upon the roughness of

the surface upstream of the point of separation.

Effect of Boundary Layer

Transition

Ideal (non Real (viscous) Real (viscous)

viscous) fluid fluid: laminar fluid: turbulent

boundary layer boundary layer

No shear!

Problem 1

The electrical transmission towers, 10 m high are fixed 400

m apart to support 16 cables, each 2 cm in dia. If a 100

kmph wind is blowing transeversely across the cables,

make calculations for the total force to which each tower

would be subjected and the moment acting at the base of

each tower. Assume air density ρ = 1.2 kg/m3 and dynamic

viscosity μ = 1.65 x 10-5 N-sec/m2. Assume there is no

interference between the wires and take drag coefficients

as Cd = 0.95 for 103 < Re < 104 and Cd = 1.2 for 104 < Re <

105. Would the cables be subjected to self induced

vibrations and if so calculate the frequency of vortex

shedding.

Problem 2

A chimney in a stream power plant is 40 m

high. The diameter at the base is 4.5 m and

it gradually reduces to 2.5 m at the top.

Calculate the bending moment at the base

of the chimney when wind speed is 60 km/h.

ρ= 1.2 kg/m3; μ = 1.9 x 10-5 N-s/m2.

Drag on a sphere

Observation:

Viscosity of flowing fluid is absent

Flow pattern and pressure distribution is symmetrical on the

front and rear of the sphere.

Highest intensity of pressure occurs at stagnation points.

Intensity is lowest around the circumference at right angles to

the flow.

Pressure is 0 due to symmetry. So no pressure drag.

Conclusion: No drag in case of flow in ideal fluid.

Flow in Real fluid

Pressure distribution is entirely different.

Viscous forces are more predominant than inertia forces

.

Pressure distribution is different compared to ideal fluids.

If the velocity is very low so that Reynolds number is

very low (0.2).

Viscous forces are more predominant than inertia forces.

where µ= viscosity

V=Velocity of flowing fluid.

D= Diameter of the Sphere.

Skin Friction is given by 2/3 of FD i.e. 2πµVD

Pressure Drag is given by 1/3 of FD i.e. πµVD

Coeff of drag can be found as CD= 24/Re.

The above equation is known as stokes law equation.

These are satisfied for Re≤ 0.2.

increased , so drag coeff. is given by

24 D

Cd 1 2.1

Re D1

Where D1 is smallest lateral

dimension of the container

What we have seen till now that the above equation are

valid for Re≤ 0.2. But Swedish Physicist Oseen gave

equation which is valid Re<1.

24 3

CD 1 Re

Re 16

Effect of Reynolds number

By increase of Re the viscosity is reduced in the

predominant area.

It is restricted to a very small zone of boundary layer

formed closed to the sphere.

A separation of boundary layer begins from d/s to u/s

and point of separation move further forward towards

upstream as Re increases until Re≈ 1000.

A more or less stable position for the point of separation

is achieved which is about 800 from the upstream

stagnation point.

A large wake is produced .

It results in (form) drag about 95%. as compared to skin

friction drag which is 5% of total drag.

CD is independent in the range of 103 to 105 of Re.But CD

increases slightly from0.4 to0.5 in this range of Re

Upto Re<3×105 boundary may be considered to be

laminar and the pressure distribution around the sphere

on the U/S side upto the points of separation is almost

the same as Ideal fluid.

point of separation shift to the D/S.

located at about is about 1100 from the upstream

stagnation point.

coefficient is reduced when flow changes from laminar to

turbulent.

Flow separation

results in high drag on the sphere

Flow pattern varies with Re

Flow pattern varies with Re

Flow pattern varies with Re

Flow pattern varies with Re

Effect of Turbulence Levels on

Drag

Flow over a sphere: (a) Reynolds number

= 15,000; (b) Reynolds number = 30,000,

Causes boundary layer to become turbulent

Point of separation

Drag on a Golf Ball

DRAG ON A GOLF BALL comes mainly from

pressure drag. The only practical way of

reducing pressure drag is to design the ball so

that the point of separation moves back

further on the ball. The golf ball's dimples

increase the turbulence in the boundary layer,

inertia of the boundary layer,

increase the _______

and delay the onset of separation. The effect

is plotted in the chart, which shows that for

Reynolds numbers achievable by hitting the

ball with a club, the coefficient of drag is much

lower for the dimpled ball.

Drag on a Flat Plate

Plate held parallel to flow

Total drag= friction drag

Formation of boundary layer

Magnitude depends upon the boundary layer

Inertia forces are predominant

F FR

L z

x

FD

direction of fluid

flow

Forces on a flat

surface

Flat Plate:

Streamlines

3

v2

p p0

U Cp 1 2

2 2

U

2

4 U

0 1 Point v Cp p

1 0 1 >p0

2 <U >0 >p0

3 >U <0 <p0

4 <p0

Points outside boundary layer!

Perpendicular to the flow

For ideal fluid flow pattern will be symmetrical on u/s &

d/s.

different.

Significance of CD

CD is function of Re at low & moderate value.

Flat Plate Drag Coefficients

0.01

1 x 10-3

CDf = [1.89 - 1.62log (e / l )]

- 2.5

5 x 10-4

2 x 10-4

1 x 10-4 e

5 x 10-5

2 x 10-5 l

CDf 1 x 10-5

5 x 10-6

2 x 10-6

1 x 10-6

CDf = 0.072 Rel- 0.2

1.328 0.455 1700

C Df =

0.001 CDf = -

(Rel )0.5 [log (Re )]

2.58

l

Rel 0.455

CDf =

[log (Re )]

00

2.58

0

0

0

00

00

0

00

00

00

00

00

0

00

l

00

00

10

00

00

0

10

00

00

10

00

10

10

00

10

10

Ul

Rel =

n

Lift on Cylinder

Ideal Fluid

When the body is symmetrical with respect to its axis

and so located that its axis is parallel to the direction of

motion, then the resultant force exerted by fluid on the

body is in the direction of motion, and in such a case the

lift is zero.

Ideal Fluid

Let an ideal fluid flowing past a cylinder of radius R with

a uniform velocity of fluid V.

Flow pattern will be symmetrical about both axes.

Resultant velocity v at any point on the surface = 2Vsinθ

Pressure distribution are identical (no lift)

Spinning Spheres

if we start spinning the sphere?

LIFT!

In real fluid

Consider a a constant circulation Г

Flow pattern consist of a Series of stream lines.

Peripheral velocity Vc=Г/2πR .

Superimposing the 2 cases.

Flow pattern will be unsymmetrical.

v 2v sin / 2R

The postion of stagnation points S1 and S2 on the

surface of the cylinder may be obtained by

considering v = 0 and solving for Sin as

Γ

Sinθ

RV 4π

Velocity is higher at upper, lower at lower.

Pressure is higher at upper and lower at lower.

Force will be exerted perpendicularly to the motion.

pressure=

p p 0 0.5ρ v 2 2vsinθ Γ/2πR 2

2π

FL LR p0 0.5 v2 2vsinθ Γ/2πR2 sinθ dθ

0

FL A ρVLΓ 2RL Γ

FL ρVLΓ Lift coeff. C L

1 2 1 2 RV

ρV ρV

2 2

Problem

A cylinder rotates clockwise at 300 rpm about its axis

which is perpendicular to the air stream having a velocity

of 2 m/sec. The cylinder is 2m in dia and 10 m long.

Determine (a) circulation (b) The theoretical lift force per

unit length (c) the position of stagnation points. (d) The

actual life and drag and the resultant force on the

cylinder. Take density of air 1.24 kg/m3. Also assume

vc/V=1.57 for cD = 0.65 and cL = 3.40 find also the speed

of rotation of the cylinder which yields only a singe

stagnation point.

Calculate the dia of a parachute to be used for dropping

and object weighting 1000 N so that the maximum

terminal velocity of dropping is 5 m/sec. The drug

coefficient for parachute which may be treated as

hemispherical is 1.3. Take density of air 1.216 kg/m3.

In investigating the possibility of using rotors in place of

airplane wings it is assumed that each of the two rotating

cylinders would have a diameter of 1.0 m and length 4.0

m. If the weight of the entire plane is 80,000 N,

determine the speed of rotation of rotors which will

support this load at a 250 km/hr crushing speed. Use fig

18.17 for determining the drag and lift coefficient. Also

determine the power required to overcome the rotor

drag. Take density of air 1.208 kg/m3.

Please refer problem sheet provided in the

class for extra problems.

Thank You

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