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By

Dr. Ajit Pratap Singh,

Civil Engineering Department,
BITS, Pilani-333031
Introduction

The types of problems encountered in flow around

submerged bodies are
 Fluid flowing around stationary submerged object.

 Both the object & fluid in motion.

The force exerted by the fluid
on the body may in FL FR
general be inclined in the z
direction of the body or
motion
x
These can be
 Along the direction of FD
motion

 Perpendicular to the
direction of motion direction of
fluid flow

So the forces are called

drag and lift force
respectively & denoted by
Fd & FL
For a symmetrical body moving through an ideal fluid
(sphere )
 having no viscosity
 At uniform velocity
 Pressure distribution is symmetrical
 Net force acting on the body is zero.
But it is observed that body experience a resistive force
while moving at uniform velocity in the real fluid.
So it can be concluded that viscosity of the fluids is
responsible for causing Drag on body.
A body held Stationary in a Stream of Real
Fluid Moving at Uniform Velocity
Analysis
Let us consider a body held stationary in a fluid velocity of
fluid be V
Force acting on a small area dA can be
1. Along the direction tangential to the surface = dA
=shear force
2.Normal to the surface = pdA = Pressure force

So total drag on the surface is given by the summation

over the entire surface
which is 1. Friction drag Fdf =  dA cos
2.Pressure drag Fdp =  pdA sin
Total Drag Fd = Fdf + Fdp
Types of Drag
1. Surface or friction drag (Boundary layer formation)
2. Deformation drag (Viscosity causes the fluid particles to undergo
deformation; In case of large viscosity fluid deformation fluid
particles take place in a very wide zone extending from the body in
the lateral direction: Example very small object moving at very small
velocity through a fluid of large viscosity)
3. Form drag or Pressure drag to viscosity (Wide spread fluid
deformation in the lateral results in developing a variation in
pressure due to which pressure drag is developed)
The existence of viscosity for the real fluids is mainly responsible for
causing drag on the bodies.
Separation and Wakes

 Separation often occurs at sharp

corners
 fluid can’t accelerate to go around a sharp
corner
small
 Velocities in the Wake are ______
(relative to the free stream velocity)
 Pressure in the Wake is relatively
constant (determined by the pressure
________
in the adjacent flow)
Lift
The Lift on the body is given by the summation of the component of the
shear and pressure forces acting over the entire surface of the body in the
direction perpendicular to the direction of the fluid motion:

FL =  dA sin + p dA cos

For a body moving through a large mass of fluid, It can also be given as
FD= CDAV2/2 FL=CLAV2/2
where
CD, CL coefficient of drag & lift.
A= area is characteristic area
 =mass density of fluid
Generally A is represented in terms of length taken as L2
Factors affecting drag and lift

 Shape of immersed body

 Position of immersed body
 Flow of fluid
 Fluid characteristics
Shear and Pressure Forces: Horizontal and
Vertical Components

FL    p cos    0 sin  dA lift Normal to the approach velocity

p < p0 U 2
negative pressure Fd  Cd A
2
A defined as projected
normal to force!
area _______
U 2
U FL  C L A
lift 2
q
drag
p > p0 positive pressure
Shear and Pressure Forces
 Shear forces
 viscous drag, frictional drag, or skin friction
 caused by shear between the fluid and the
solid surface
surface area
 function of ___________and length
______of
object
 Pressure forces
 pressure drag or form drag
flow separation
 caused by _____________from the body
 function of area normal to the flow
Drag
• Point of separation is fixed; Large drag is exerted on the plate which
mainly a pressure drag or form drag; none of the shear forces on the
disc have components in the original direction of flow
• In case of cylinder there is no fixed point of separation; the point of
separation depends on RE No. The wake in such cases is smaller
than that of the disc; Todal drag on the cylinder = 1/3rd of the disc
(But for sphere or cylinder friction drag is not zero but they may be
negligible as compare to the pressure drag)
• For well streamlined body the separation occurs only at the d/s end.
Wake is small so pressure drag is low but friction drag is more as
compare to cylinder as more surface area is in contact. But in this
case both friction drag and pressure drag so small that theier drag is
1/40th the disc.
 Drag on cylinder
Consider a cylinder having radius R, axis
perpendicular to flow, r is the radial distance of any
point. Velocity of flow v, θ is the angular distance
of the point from front or rear stagnation point.
 Fluid flowing past the cylinder is ideal ie non viscous,
flow pattern will be symmetrical., which is represented
by velocity potential Φ and stream function ψ is given
by
 R 2 
  V r   cos
 r 
 
 R 
2
  V  r   sin 
 r 
 
Vr  and V 
r rr
The velocity components,Vr and Vθ at any point in the
flow field may be obtained as.

 R2 
Vr  V 1  2  cos
 r 
 R2 
V  V 1  2  sin 
 r 
By substituting r = R we can find out the resultant
velocity which is given by v= 2Vsinθ .The pressure p
at any point on the cylinder is given by Bernoulli
equation
1 2 1 2
p  p 0  ρV  ρv
2 2
 So by substituting the value of v in the equation we can
find p as
1
p  p0  V 2  2 V 2 sin 2 
 2
 Equation is independent of sign of sinθ. Pressure
distribution is symmetrical about the mid-section .
 drag on the cylinder is 0.
Real Fluid
 Due to the viscosity by fluid, the pressure distribution is
modified.
 Let thin circular cylinder of infinite length, placed
transversely in a fluid stream
 Note that for a given cylinder of a given diameter
immersed in a given fluid the Reynolds number is
directly proportional to the velocity and therefore the
variation with Re No could be imagined as the variation
with velocity for a given cylinder.
 In this case, as long as the boundary layer is laminar, the
point of separation are located on the u/s half portion of
the cylinder, but when the boundary layer becomes
turbulent, the point of separation shift farther d/s towards
the rear of the cylinder.
 The pressure distribution diagrams are similar to that of
sphere.
 flow pattern behind the cylinder is different from that
behind a sphere.
Vortex Shedding
 For small velocities of flow (Re < 0.5), The inertia forces
are negligible and the streamlines are similar to that of
an ideal fluid. The pressure drag is negligible and the
profile drag consists mainly of skin friction. The drag is
proportional to the velocity and CD is inversely
proportional Reynolds number

 By the increase in Reynolds number the flow pattern

w.r.t an axis perpendicular to the direction of flow
becomes unsymmetrical. Why?

 Because in the wake developed just behind the cylinder

a more or less orderly series of vortices, which alternate
the position about the center line, are developed.
Vortex Shedding

 Vortices are shed alternately

from each side of a cylinder
 The separation point and
thus the resultant drag force
oscillate fd
 Dimensionless frequency of S
shedding given by Strouhal U
number S
 S is approximately 0.2 over a
wide range of Reynolds
numbers (100 - 1,000,000)
 If velocity increases, so that the Re ranging from 2 to 30,
boundary layer separates at two points S and S and two very
weak eddies (vortices) are formed on the d/s of the cylinder,
which rotate in opposite directions. this is the initial stage for
the development of the wake.
 The two eddies remain more or less fixed in position and the
main streamlines remain close behind them keeping the
length of wake limited.
 At Re ranging from 40 to70 wake as well as pair of vortices are
distinct and a periodic oscillation of the wake is observed
 By further increase in the value of Re the vortices become
more & more elongated in the direction of flow.
 At Re equal to about 90 these vortices become symmetrical
and separate away from the cylinder & slowly move in the d/s
direction. The eddies break away alternatively from the two
sides of the cylinder and washed d/s.
 This process gets intensified with increase in Re and the
shedding of eddies is continuous and as a result, two
different rows of vortices are formed in the wake.
 The center of vortex in a row lies at a point midway
between the centers of consecutive vortices in the other
row. This arrangement of vortices is known as vortex
street or Von Karman Vortex street.
 The periodic shedding of vortices from the two sides of
the cylinder produces alternating lateral forces that may
cause a forced vibration of cylinder at the same
frequency.
 When the frequency of the vortex shedding is close to
the natural frequency of the wires, a typical singing
sound is produced. The frequency of the vortex shedding
is given by
fd  19.7 
 0.1981   for 250  R e  2  105
U  Re 

L.H.S is known as The Strouhal Number which is a

dimensionless value and useful for analyzing
oscillating, unsteady fluid flow dynamics problems
and f = oscillation frequency, d or L = relevant
length scale, v = relevant velocity scale
Karman type shedding in reattaching flows, illustrative
example (leading edge of blunt cylinder)
Karman type shedding
(symmetric mode -interaction
KH vortices amalgamate to form large scale vortices with mirror vortex)

Initial instability causes KH vortices Large scale vortices impinge on body

 At high Re (say Re = 104), the vortices disappear and a
highly turbulent wake is formed . This leads to an
increased value of CD and the skin friction drag is
negligible in comparison to the pressure drag.
 The boundary layer on the cylinder is laminar up to Re =
2 x 105 and depending upon the intensity of the free
stream turbulence, it changes to turbulent bdry layer
before separation.
 When the points of separation move further d/s, the
wake becomes narrower and there is substantial drop in
the value of CD. The critical value of Re at which the
value of CD decreases depend upon the degree of
turbulence in the main flow and upon the roughness of
the surface upstream of the point of separation.
Effect of Boundary Layer
Transition
Ideal (non Real (viscous) Real (viscous)
viscous) fluid fluid: laminar fluid: turbulent
boundary layer boundary layer

No shear!
Problem 1
The electrical transmission towers, 10 m high are fixed 400
m apart to support 16 cables, each 2 cm in dia. If a 100
kmph wind is blowing transeversely across the cables,
make calculations for the total force to which each tower
would be subjected and the moment acting at the base of
each tower. Assume air density ρ = 1.2 kg/m3 and dynamic
viscosity μ = 1.65 x 10-5 N-sec/m2. Assume there is no
interference between the wires and take drag coefficients
as Cd = 0.95 for 103 < Re < 104 and Cd = 1.2 for 104 < Re <
105. Would the cables be subjected to self induced
vibrations and if so calculate the frequency of vortex
shedding.
Problem 2
A chimney in a stream power plant is 40 m
high. The diameter at the base is 4.5 m and
it gradually reduces to 2.5 m at the top.
Calculate the bending moment at the base
of the chimney when wind speed is 60 km/h.
ρ= 1.2 kg/m3; μ = 1.9 x 10-5 N-s/m2.
Drag on a sphere

Let us consider flow in a ideal fluid.

Observation:
 Viscosity of flowing fluid is absent
 Flow pattern and pressure distribution is symmetrical on the
front and rear of the sphere.
 Highest intensity of pressure occurs at stagnation points.
 Intensity is lowest around the circumference at right angles to
the flow.
 Pressure is 0 due to symmetry. So no pressure drag.
Conclusion: No drag in case of flow in ideal fluid.
Flow in Real fluid

 Viscosity in flowing fluid is possessed. Resulting

Pressure distribution is entirely different.
 Viscous forces are more predominant than inertia forces
.
 Pressure distribution is different compared to ideal fluids.
 If the velocity is very low so that Reynolds number is
very low (0.2).
 Viscous forces are more predominant than inertia forces.

Total Drag is given by FD= 3πµVD

where µ= viscosity
V=Velocity of flowing fluid.
D= Diameter of the Sphere.
Skin Friction is given by 2/3 of FD i.e. 2πµVD
Pressure Drag is given by 1/3 of FD i.e. πµVD
Coeff of drag can be found as CD= 24/Re.
The above equation is known as stokes law equation.
These are satisfied for Re≤ 0.2.

Due to proximity of boundaries the resistance to motion is

increased , so drag coeff. is given by

24  D
Cd  1  2.1 
Re  D1 
Where D1 is smallest lateral
dimension of the container
What we have seen till now that the above equation are
valid for Re≤ 0.2. But Swedish Physicist Oseen gave
equation which is valid Re<1.

24  3 
CD   1  Re 
Re  16 
Effect of Reynolds number
 By increase of Re the viscosity is reduced in the
predominant area.
 It is restricted to a very small zone of boundary layer
formed closed to the sphere.
 A separation of boundary layer begins from d/s to u/s
and point of separation move further forward towards
upstream as Re increases until Re≈ 1000.
 A more or less stable position for the point of separation
is achieved which is about 800 from the upstream
stagnation point.
 A large wake is produced .
 It results in (form) drag about 95%. as compared to skin
friction drag which is 5% of total drag.
 CD is independent in the range of 103 to 105 of Re.But CD
increases slightly from0.4 to0.5 in this range of Re
 Upto Re<3×105 boundary may be considered to be
laminar and the pressure distribution around the sphere
on the U/S side upto the points of separation is almost
the same as Ideal fluid.

 Re>3×105,boundary layer becomes turbulent and In this,

point of separation shift to the D/S.

 The points of separation shift considerably and are

located at about is about 1100 from the upstream
stagnation point.

 The value of CD drops from 0.5 TO 0.2 , i.e. drag

coefficient is reduced when flow changes from laminar to
turbulent.
Flow separation

 Front-to-rear asymmetry of forces

results in high drag on the sphere
Flow pattern varies with Re
Flow pattern varies with Re
Flow pattern varies with Re
Flow pattern varies with Re
Effect of Turbulence Levels on
Drag
 Flow over a sphere: (a) Reynolds number
= 15,000; (b) Reynolds number = 30,000,
Causes boundary layer to become turbulent

Point of separation
Drag on a Golf Ball
DRAG ON A GOLF BALL comes mainly from
pressure drag. The only practical way of
reducing pressure drag is to design the ball so
that the point of separation moves back
further on the ball. The golf ball's dimples
increase the turbulence in the boundary layer,
inertia of the boundary layer,
increase the _______
and delay the onset of separation. The effect
is plotted in the chart, which shows that for
Reynolds numbers achievable by hitting the
ball with a club, the coefficient of drag is much
lower for the dimpled ball.
Drag on a Flat Plate
Plate held parallel to flow
 Total drag= friction drag
 Formation of boundary layer
 Magnitude depends upon the boundary layer
 Inertia forces are predominant
F FR
L z

x
FD
direction of fluid
flow
Forces on a flat
surface
Flat Plate:
Streamlines

3
v2  
 p  p0 
U Cp  1  2
2 2 
 U 
2
4 U
0 1 Point v Cp p
1 0 1 >p0
2 <U >0 >p0
3 >U <0 <p0
4 <p0
Points outside boundary layer!
Perpendicular to the flow
 For ideal fluid flow pattern will be symmetrical on u/s &
d/s.

 For real fluid flow pattern & Pressure distribution are

different.
Significance of CD
 CD is function of Re at low & moderate value.

 If L/B is not large , CD is reduced.

Flat Plate Drag Coefficients
0.01
1 x 10-3
CDf = [1.89 - 1.62log (e / l )]
- 2.5
5 x 10-4
2 x 10-4
1 x 10-4 e
5 x 10-5
2 x 10-5 l
CDf 1 x 10-5
5 x 10-6
2 x 10-6
1 x 10-6
CDf = 0.072 Rel- 0.2
1.328 0.455 1700
C Df =
0.001 CDf = -
(Rel )0.5 [log (Re )]
2.58
l
Rel 0.455
CDf =
[log (Re )]
00

2.58
0

0
0

00
00

0
00
00

00

00
00
0
00

l
00

00
10

00

00
0
10

00

00
10

00
10

10

00
10

10

Ul
Rel =
n
Lift on Cylinder
Ideal Fluid
 When the body is symmetrical with respect to its axis
and so located that its axis is parallel to the direction of
motion, then the resultant force exerted by fluid on the
body is in the direction of motion, and in such a case the
lift is zero.

Ideal Fluid
 Let an ideal fluid flowing past a cylinder of radius R with
a uniform velocity of fluid V.
 Flow pattern will be symmetrical about both axes.
 Resultant velocity v at any point on the surface = 2Vsinθ
 Pressure distribution are identical (no lift)
Spinning Spheres

 What happens to the separation points

if we start spinning the sphere?
LIFT!
In real fluid
 Consider a a constant circulation Г
 Flow pattern consist of a Series of stream lines.
 Peripheral velocity Vc=Г/2πR .
 Superimposing the 2 cases.
 Flow pattern will be unsymmetrical.

v  2v sin    / 2R
 The postion of stagnation points S1 and S2 on the
surface of the cylinder may be obtained by
considering v = 0 and solving for Sin as
Γ
Sinθ  
RV  4π
 Velocity is higher at upper, lower at lower.
 Pressure is higher at upper and lower at lower.
 Force will be exerted perpendicularly to the motion.
 pressure=

p  p 0  0.5ρ v 2  2vsinθ  Γ/2πR 2 

  
FL  LR p0  0.5 v2  2vsinθ  Γ/2πR2 sinθ dθ
0

FL A ρVLΓ 2RL Γ
FL  ρVLΓ  Lift coeff. C L   
1 2 1 2 RV
ρV ρV
2 2
Problem
 A cylinder rotates clockwise at 300 rpm about its axis
which is perpendicular to the air stream having a velocity
of 2 m/sec. The cylinder is 2m in dia and 10 m long.
Determine (a) circulation (b) The theoretical lift force per
unit length (c) the position of stagnation points. (d) The
actual life and drag and the resultant force on the
cylinder. Take density of air 1.24 kg/m3. Also assume
vc/V=1.57 for cD = 0.65 and cL = 3.40 find also the speed
of rotation of the cylinder which yields only a singe
stagnation point.
 Calculate the dia of a parachute to be used for dropping
and object weighting 1000 N so that the maximum
terminal velocity of dropping is 5 m/sec. The drug
coefficient for parachute which may be treated as
hemispherical is 1.3. Take density of air 1.216 kg/m3.
 In investigating the possibility of using rotors in place of
airplane wings it is assumed that each of the two rotating
cylinders would have a diameter of 1.0 m and length 4.0
m. If the weight of the entire plane is 80,000 N,
determine the speed of rotation of rotors which will
support this load at a 250 km/hr crushing speed. Use fig
18.17 for determining the drag and lift coefficient. Also
determine the power required to overcome the rotor
drag. Take density of air 1.208 kg/m3.
Please refer problem sheet provided in the
class for extra problems.

Thank You