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A site investigation is the overall process for the collection of information, appraisal of
data, assessment and reporting. This data must be gained competently, in a timely manner
and to a degree which is adequate and appropriate to each stage of design and development.
In this way risk and liability are minimised, the potential for economic and safe design is
maximised and the project is more likely to be completed on time and within budget.
Inadequate site investigations may lead to the wrong choice of design, incorrect
dimensioning, inadequate foundation solution, encroachment on neighbouring properties or
easements (road reserves, pipelines, overhead supply lines), ill-judged or dangerous
execution of ground construction work as well as damage to neighbouring buildings or other
structures. The economic cost can be enormous. The approach to be adopted for a particular
site investigation, its extent and the techniques used will all depend upon the site-specific
circumstances, and the experience and judgement of those involved.
All site investigation requires a field investigation, geotechnical contractors should
obtain information on the type of the structures which are intended to be build and what there
uses will be. This includes key characteristic of the structure, when it is scheduled to be built.
What methods of construction are planned and how long construction is estimated to be done.
Site investigation will access the soil condition of the site from a geological, geotechnical
and aerial perspective. This also takes into account facts such as local experience and
structures and building close to the site.
The purpose of this report is to study on how site investigation regarding to Projek
Menaiktaraf Laluan 64, Jalan Benta-Jerantut-Maran (Fasa 1-Segmen 7) on 24th September
2018 , collaboration with JKR is done. We interviewed Engineer Zaidatul Syahida bt Adnan,
one of the civil engineer of Global Lab Engineering Company at Taman Seri Perdana, Bandar
Indera Mahkota on 27th Sept 2018. Based on the interview session, we have discussed about
site investigation objectives and the method of conducting site investigation specifically for
this particular project.


Site investigation is the process of collecting information, assessment of the data and
reporting potential hazard beneath a site which are unknown
Site investigation is grouped as follows:
1) Soil investigation
2) Geologic survey maps
3) Preliminary investigation
4) Detailed site investigation
5) Supplementary investigation

The objective of a site investigation is to gather the information needed to carry out the risk
assessment, in order to be in a position to assess the presence and significant of
contamination of land
The number of objective of a site investigation is to determine as accurately as may required
i. The nature and sequence of strata
ii. The ground water conditions at the site
iii. The physical properties of soil and rock underlying the site
iv. The mechanical properties such as strength of the different soil or rock strata


Global Lab Engineering has summarised the objectives of investigation based on Projek
Menaiktaraf Laluan 64, Jalan Benta-Jerantut-Maran (Fasa 1-Segmen 7) Site investigations
should be conducted and managed to ensure that;
1. Explore the subsoil condition at the purpose site by 7 exploratory boreholes.
2. To carry out associated field testing in the boreholes e.g. Standard Penetration Test
3. To carry out soil sampling including disturbed samples.
4. To carry out rock coring in borehole.
5. To carry out complementary laboratory test on soil samples, which comprise of
Classification Test as specified.

Based on the interview session between Eng. Zaidatul Syahida and our group members, there
are a few procedures that need to be follow before investigation of site can be done. The
Global Lab Engineering has practiced these procedures in every project they delivered.

1. Desk/Case Study
This is essentially the collection of a wide variety of information relating to the site. For
example: maps, drawings, local authority information; geological maps, memoirs,
records; details of utilities.
Based on the report that we discussed, JKR Pahang has appointed Global Lab
Engineering to make an investigation on upgrading the road at Jalan Benta-Jerantut-
Maran (Fasa 1-Segmen 7). JKR will sent letter of award, also known as an award letter as
written confirmation that Global Lab has been successful and will be awarded a contract.
They also received a layout plan from JKR that contained all check points made by JKR.
Then, the team has listed all the problem statements, scopes and ways to overcome the
issue regarding to the site. They have to decide either to use what type of foundation for
example, pile foundation or pad footing for base to support the structure based on the
classification of soil.

2. Site Reconnaissance
An early examination of the site by appropriate experts is most desirable like geotechnical
engineer, geologist etc. information should be collected on the overall site layout,
topography, basic geology, details of access, entry and height restrictions. Local
conditions should be examined such as climate, stream flows, groundwater conditions,
site utilisation related to weather and time of year. Global Lab took a day to recognize the
site of project. As mentioned in the conversation, Global Lab Engineering’s team are the
first group to reach at the site and they have find an entrance by cutting off the long

3. Site Exploration & Sampling

Investigation of detailed sub-surface soil conditions using surface surveys, trial pits,
headings, boreholes, blows as appropriate; survey of groundwater conditions over a
signification period of time. Examination of existing and adjacent structures or cavities,
buried pipes are provision of samples for further examination and laboratory testing.
Method to execute field exploration

 Boring
Field exploration was carried out using multi-speed Rotary Boring Machine (YWE).
These boreholes were drilled by local trained driller under direct supervision of our
technician according to instruction and specification given. Casing NW and HW size
were used to prevent the collapse of borehole wall. These boreholes were washed by
circulating water and disturbed samples were collected for visual examination

 Rock Drilling
The procedure for rock drilling used was as in according with MS 2038: 2006. The
diameter of the core barrels used were such as to produce a rock of 54.0 mm diameter size
that is NMLC or NX core barrels.
The core Recovery Ratio (CBR) and the Rock Quality Designation (RQD) was also
reported for each core run. The CBR meant the ratio of the total length of good quality
core over the drilling length expressed to the nearest 5%. The RQD was the ratio of the
total length of good quality core each exceeding 100mm in length over the drilling run
correct to nearest 5% also. Good quality rock defined as intact core having a fully circular
circumference or in the case of broken rock fragments assembled to form core with fully
circular circumference.

 Mackintosh Probe Test

One of the most common types of probing is Mackintosh Probe Test. This is a dynamic
penetrometer test used to check the consistency of the subsoil which takes around 7 days
for one bore hole. Mackintosh probe which has 30° cone penetrometer while JKR probes
has 60° cone penetrometer. This is a light dynamic test and the cone is driven directly into
the soil by driving a hammer 5 kg. Weight dropping through a free height of 280 mm.
The probe is unable to penetrate into medium strength soil and gravelly ground.

Table shows the differences between Mackintosh Probe, JKR probe and
Standard Penetration Test (SPT)

4. Field test/ In-situ Test
Test carried out on the site either prior to or during the construction process. For example;
Standard Proctor Test (SPT)

 Standard Penetration test

Standard Penetration Test was carried out at 1.5 metre interval for both cohesive and non-
cohesive soils. A split spoon sampler of 50 mm internal diameter was driven into the soil
by 63.5 kg (140 lbs) weight operated automatically. The weight was dropped from a
height of 750 mm a sufficient number of times the secure the desired 400 mm sampler
penetration or maximum of 50 blows. The number of blows for the second and third 150
mm as the N – value. Each sample obtained from the sampler in the field was examinated
and classified by technician. Representative portion of each sample were sealed in
polythene bags and labelled indicating sample number and depths taken and sent to our

5. Laboratory Testing
Tests on disturbed and undisturbed samples submitted from the site team. The following
laboratory tests were carried out in accordance with the procedure in BS 1377 on selected
i. Natural Moisture Content
ii. Liquid Limit
iii. Plastic Index
iv. Plastic Limit
v. Linear Shrinkage
vi. Specific Gravity
vii. Particle size Distribution for Coarse Grained Size
viii. Particle size distribution for Fine Grained Size
ix. Bulk Density and Dry Density
x. Rock Core Test (Uniaxial Compression Strength)

6. Report Writing
Details of geological study, including structures, stratigraphy and mapping; results of
borings, etc., including log, references for samples and stratigraphy interpretations as
requested; comments and recommendations relating to the design and construction of the
proposed works; recommendations relating to further investigating or testing, and to
ongoing or post-completion monitoring. This final stage is the stage whereby bore log
sheet and UCSC soil classification are used to describe the texture and grain size of soil.

Site investigation is important to study the general suitability of the site for construction
project and material used for the foundation as a base support. A safe, practical and economic
design is enable to be prepared so that the cost can by calculated under budget. Lastly, it is to
determine the possible difficulties that may be encountered by a specific construction method
for any particular civil project.
In a nutshell, site investigation reveals the characteristics of the ground which forms a site
thereby contributes to its safe and economic development. A lesson to be taught to every
geotechnical engineer, they have to plan well to conduct site investigation since we are living
in Malaysia, we faced rainy seasons every end of the year. So they do not have to delay
investigating activity that should be done in time. However, all the methods used by Global
Lab Engineering are suitable with the condition of soil in our country

Site Field / Insitu

Site Laboratory Report
Desk Study Reconnaissaince Exploration &
test testing Writing

Figure shows the summary of site investigation involved

The process of determining the layers of natural soil deposits that will underlie a
proposed structure and their physical properties is generally referred to as site investigation.
This purpose of this study of site investigation report was to determine the site’s suitability
for structure/building and the nature and the extent of preliminary work that will be needed. It
will show the detailed to many physical aspects such as sub-soil composition, demolition and
the legal aspect such as planning permission, right of access and preservation order.
The clients have appointed Global Lab Engineering to deliver a site investigation are to
assess the general suitability of the site with the proposed works and help to produce a design
for foundation of the structure which is adequate and economic. The possible difficulties and
delays that may arise during construction period due to ground and other local conditions can
be overcome with investigating the site area. Besides that, it helps to predict possible changes
that may occur and cause of all changes in site condition and maximize potential of the site.
Generally, the common method that carried out in site investigation are boring test,
standard penetration test, rock drilling and mackintosh probe test that will conducted before
the samples are proceed for in-situ test and laboratory test. They took 7 days to make one
point of bore holes by using Mackintosh Probe Test. Then they collected all the data of the
soil sample in laboratory which is took around 30 days to done depends on how big is the
project. The reports will then send to their clients for further action. Bore log sheet and USCS
soil classifications are some of the content in the report.
Based on the interview session that have been conducted, Global Lab Engineering have
faced a few challenges in order to deliver an investigation of the site. Since they are the first
group to reach at the site, they have to cut off the long bushes in order to create an access
entrance at the site and to find the point for bore holes. Weather also has affected the
investigation activity generally when rainy days, they have to wait for the rain to stop because
the condition of soil is very moist for any testing and any accident can be avoided.
In conclusion, site investigation is a carry out a formal inquiry that must be done before
starting the construction of the building due to identifying the soil condition at the site in
order to determine the suitable foundation used for the structure. The soil plays a main role to
support the load come from the structure while, the structure need a suitable foundation to
transfer the load to the ground. Therefore, the investigation of soil need to be done to identify
the type of soil to ensure the soil can carry the load.




DATA – received from Global Lab Engineering

Soil sample collection

Depths of soil layers and descriptions using the nomenclature of the Australian Standard for
‘Geotechnical site investigations AS 1726 – 1993’, should be logged for all soil types encountered.
Particular attention should be paid to the description of soil consistency and structure and if
encountered, any auger refusal on shallow rock. Shallow water tables and the presence of fill should
be noted. The size of the sample should be based on the number and type of tests to be performed.

Based on borehole log sheet 03 (BH 03) of Kerja-kerja Penyiasatan Tapak Bagi Projek
Menaiktaraf Laluan 64 Jalan Benta-Jerantut-Maran (Fasa1-segmen 7), only top soil will be
discussed. The D1 in column ‘Type & No.’ in the bore log sheet is means disturted sample.
Disturbed sample is the sample that has been taken from the site then tested in the lab which
is taken for every 1.5m of soil layer. For description for the top soil is brown and dark grey,
gravelly SAND of intermediate plasticity with a little gravel. This description is determined
by using BS Code.