You are on page 1of 9

PREPARACIÓN PARA FFCCSS. GUARDIA CIVIL. INGLÉS.

TEMA 1
UNIT 1: THE ARTICLE
1. El Artículo
1.1 El artículo determinado
El artículo invariable THE es invariable. Se usa para el masculino, femenino, singular y plural. Por tanto se
traduce por: el, la, los, las.

The pupil: el alumno The boy: el niño

The books: los libros The girl: la niña

1.2 Usos del artículo determinado


REGLAS GENERALES
* Para referirnos a algo que ya ha sido mencionado.
- On Monday, an unarmed man stole $1000 from the bank. The thief hasn’t been caught yet.
El lunes, un hombre desarmado robó 1000€ del banco. El ladrón aún no ha sido cogido.
* Cuando asumes que hay solo una de esa cosa en ese sitio, aunque no haya sido mencionado
antes.
- We went on a walk in the forest yesterday.
Fuimos a dar un paseo al bosque ayer.
* Se usa en frases en las que defines o identificas un objeto o persona en particular.
- The man who wote this book is famous.
El hombre que escribió este libro es famoso..
- I scratched the red car parked outside.
He arañado el coche rojo aparcado fuera.
* Para referirnos a objetos o personas que son unicas.
- The president will be speaking on TV tonight.
El presidente estará hablando en la televisión esta noche.
- Yesterday I adopted the dog we saw abandoned the other day.
Ayer adopté el perro que vimos abandonado el otro día.
* Antes de superlativos y números ordinales.
- This is the highest building in New York.
Este es el edificio mas alto de Nueva York.
- This is the third time I have called you today.
Esta es la tercera vez que te llamo hoy.
* Con adjetivos, al referirnos a un grupo de personas.
- The French enjoy cheese.
Los franceses disfrutan el queso.
- She has given a lot of money to the poor.
Ella ha dado mucho dinero a los pobres.
*Con décadas.
-He was born in the seventies.
El nació en los setenta.
NOMBRES PROPIOS
* Con nombres de áreas geográficas.
- The Artic, the Nile, The Atlantic
*Con nombres de países que son plurales.
- The Netherlands, The Philippines.
* Con los paises que tienen la palabra ‘republic’ ‘ kingdom’ o ‘estates’ en el nombre.
-The republic of Ireland, The united states.
* Con el apellido de las familias.
- The Smiths, The Browns
WHEN NO TO USE ‘THE’
*Con el nombre de países. (excepto los anteriores)
-Germany is an important economic power.
Alemania es una importante potencia económica.
* Con los idiomas.
-French is spoken in Tahiti.
Francés se habla en Tahiti.
* Con el nombre de las comidas.

J.A. Cantillo-Pedro Meléndez-Jorge Sosa-Alba Jiménez-Curro-Tomás


PREPARACIÓN PARA FFCCSS. GUARDIA CIVIL. INGLÉS. TEMA 1
-Lunch is my favourite meal.
El alumerzo es mi comida favorita.
* Con el nombre de la gente.
-Jhon is coming over later.
Jhon vendrá más tarde.
*Profesiones
- Engineering is a well-paid career.
Ingeniero es una carrera bien pagada.
* Con años
- He was born in 1995.
El nació en 1995.
* Con sustantivos incontables.
- Rice is an important food in Asia.
El arroz es una importante comida en Asia.

1.3 El artículo indeterminado


Hay 2 tipos de artículo indeterminado, son invariables. Usas uno u tro dependiendo de la primera
letra de la palabra que sigue al artículo.

A: Palabra que empieza por consonante o u y eu.

AN: La palabra empieza en vocal o con una h muda.

1.4 Usos del artículo indeterminado


Se emplea delante de los siguientes sustantivos:

* Para referirse a algo por primera vez.

- Would you like a drink? ¿Te gustaría una bebida?

* Con nombres de trabajos.

- He wants to be a dancer. Él quiere ser un bailarín.

* Nacionalidades y religiones en singular.

- Kate is Catholic. Kathe es católica.

* Con los días de la semana, si no te estas refiriendo a ningún día en particular.

- I was born on a Thursday. Nací un jueves.

1.5 ¿Cuándo no se usa ningún artículo?


1. Cuando nos referimos a ideas generales, plurales o nombres incontables.
Religion is an important issue. La religión es un problema importante.
Mexican food is spicy. La comida mexicana es picante.

2. Nombres de personas, obras y libros.


I have read Romeo and Juliet. He leído Romeo y Julieta
(Exceptions – The USA, The UK, The Netherlands, The Czech Republic, The Philippines).
3. Planetas
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn

4.Deportes o juegos
Soccer
Tennis
Skiing

ARTICLES
1. Decide whether or not to use the definite article the.
a) My grandmother likes ....... flowers very much.

J.A. Cantillo-Pedro Meléndez-Jorge Sosa-Alba Jiménez-Curro-Tomás


PREPARACIÓN PARA FFCCSS. GUARDIA CIVIL. INGLÉS. TEMA 1
b) I love ..... flowers in your garden.

c) See you on ...... Wednesday.

d) I always listen to ..... radio in the morning.

e) Alex goes to work by ....... bus.

f) Don’t be late for ...... school.

g) Listen! Dennis is playing ...... trumpet.

h) We often see our cousins over ...... Easter.

i) She has never been to ....... Alps before.

j) What about going to Australia in ..... February.

2. Use a or an.
a) Lucy has .... dog.

b) Let’s sing ..... song.

c) Emily needs ..... new desk in her room.

d) I need ......blue pen.

e) Ben has ..... old bike.

f) Peter has ..... aunt in Berlin.

g) We listen to ..... English CD.

h) She .... exercise book in her school bag.

i) The speed of this car was 160 miles ...... hour.

j) The finished ..... unit.

3. Fill in the article, a, an or the where necessary. Choose x where no article is used.
a) The tomatoes are 99 pence ...... kilo.

b) What do you usually have for ....... breakfast?

c) Ben has ...... terrible headache.

d) Where’s ...... USB drive I lent you last week?

e) I like ..... blue T-shirt over there better than ...... red one.

f) Their car does 150 miles ....... hour.

g) They are building ..... new small down-town. I heard that ...... mall will house ..... movie theatre, ..... great
restaurants, and ..... ice skating rink.

h) We went to .... awful party last night: Ugh, ...... music was bad, .... people were boring, and .... food was
terrible. I had ..... terrible time.

i) Excuse me, do you have ..... time? I’m supposed to meet ..... friend here at 8PM but .... friend hasn’t arrived
yet.

VERB ‘TO BE’ (ser o estar)


Affirmative Negative Interrogative Answers

I am I am not Am I...? *Yes, I am/No, I am not

You are You aren’t Are you...? *Yes, he is/No, he isn’t

He is He isn’t Is he...? *Yes,we are/No, we aren’t

She is She isn’t Is she...?

J.A. Cantillo-Pedro Meléndez-Jorge Sosa-Alba Jiménez-Curro-Tomás


PREPARACIÓN PARA FFCCSS. GUARDIA CIVIL. INGLÉS. TEMA 1
We are We aren’t Are we...?

You are You aren’t Are you...?

They are They aren’t Are they...?

VERB ‘TO HAVE’ (tener o haber)


Affirmative Negative Interrogative Answers

I have I haven’t Have I...? *Yes, I have/No, I haven’t

You have You haven’t Have you...? *Yes, he has/No, he hasn’t

He has He hasn’t Has he...?

She has She hasn’t Has she...?

We have We haven’t Have we...?

You have You haven’t Have you...?

They have They haven’t Have they...?

PRESENTE SIMPLE
[SUJETO] + [VERBO] (en infinitivo sin to)

Para conjugar el presente simple, usamos el infinitivo del verbo en todas las personas salvo en he, she, it
añadimos una -s, -es, -ies

-S: En la mayoría de nombres se les agrega una s al final.


To live-He lives To Run- She Runs To work-It works

-ies: Las palabras que terminan en consonante + ‘y’: La y cambia a una i y añadimos -es.
To occupy - He occupies To study-He studies

Pero si la y va precedida de una vocal, la tercera persona se forma con -s.


To buy-He buys To play-She plays

-es: Las palabras que terminan en ‘s’, ‘ss’, ‘sh’, ‘ch’, ‘x’, ‘o’: añadimos -es.
To go-He goes To wish-She wishes To kiss-He kisses

LA NEGACIÓN
[SUJETO] + do(es) + not + [VERBO]

- I do not sing. Yo no canto

- He does not sing. Él no canta.

En inglés el ‘do + not’ se contrae a ‘don’t’ y ‘does+not’ se contrae a ‘doesn´t’.

- I don’t sing. Yo no canto

- He doesn’t sing. Yo no canto

LA INTERROGACIÓN
En las oraciones interrogativas también se hace uso del verbo auxiliar TO DO. Anteponiendolo al sujeto.

J.A. Cantillo-Pedro Meléndez-Jorge Sosa-Alba Jiménez-Curro-Tomás


PREPARACIÓN PARA FFCCSS. GUARDIA CIVIL. INGLÉS. TEMA 1
La estructura de las preguntas cerradas (si o no) es:

do(es) + [SUJETO] + [VERBO] ?


- Do you like music? ¿Te gusta la música?

La estructura de las preguntas abiertas es:

[PARTÍCULA INTERROGATIVA] + do(es) + [SUJETO] + [VERBO] ?

Why do you like music? ¿Por qué te gusta la música?

When do you come back? ¿Cuándo vuelves?

USOS DEL PRESENTE SIMPLE


 RUTINAS

- I work in a silver mine. Trabajo en una mina de plata.

 SITUACIONES PERMANENTES

- She has a car. Ella tiene un coche

 LEYES NATURALES O FÍSICAS

- The Sun appears in the East. El sol sale por el este.

CASOS ESPECIALES
 VERBO IRREGULAR TO BE

 LOS VERBOS MODALES. Can, must, may

- no añaden la ‘s’ en la tercera persona

- forman la negación y la interrogación sin verbo auxiliar

EJERCICIOS
1. Choose the correct conjugation.
a) I ...... a student
b) You ..... happy
c) He ...... a boy.
d) She ...... a girl.
e) It ..... a dog
f) We ..... babies.
g) You ..... friends

J.A. Cantillo-Pedro Meléndez-Jorge Sosa-Alba Jiménez-Curro-Tomás


PREPARACIÓN PARA FFCCSS. GUARDIA CIVIL. INGLÉS. TEMA 1
h) They ...... footballers
2. Choose the correct form in each gap.

. Peter Baker 1...... from Manchester, but Paul and John 2...... from London. Manchester and London
3....... cities in England. Hamburg 4....... a city in Germany. Sandra 5....... at school today. Jack and
Peter 6....... her friends. They 7...... in the same class. Mr and Mrs Baker 8...... on a trip to the USA to visit
their cousin Anne. She 9....... a nice girl. Peter says: "My grandfather 10...... in hospital. I 11.......at home
with my grandmother." What time 12...... it? It 13...... 8 o'clock. 14........ you tired? No, I 15...... not.
3. Complete with HAVE TO or HAS TO
a) They ............ write a test.

b) She .......... clean her desk.

c) Ken and Liz ...... learn English.

d) Andy ....... help his brother.

e) We ....... do our homework.

f) I ...... feed the hamster.

g) You ...... take photos.

h) Victoria ....... read the newspaper.

i) The teacher ....... sends a text message.

4. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in present simple.

a) She ........ noodles every Monday. (eat)

b) Wichai ........ computer games every day. (play)

c) They ...... English well. (speak)

d) He ........ television every morning. (watch)

e) I ....... up late. (get)

f) We ....... pictures every day. (draw)

g) The boys ....... in the pool. (swim)

h) My father ........ a new car. (drive)

5. Write the third person correctly


I. I help → he ..........
II. I watch → he ...........
III. I do → he .........
IV. I tidy → he .........
V. I can → he ........
VI. I say → he .......
VII. I walk → he .......
VIII. I pass → he .......
IX. I must → he ........
X. I hurry → he ........

6. Put in the correct verb form into the gaps.


a) .......... you ........ mineral water? (to drink)
b) ......... Sarah and Linda ....... their pets? (to feed)
c) ..........your teacher ....... your homework? (to check)
d) ..........they........ in the old house? (to live)
e) ...........the cat ....... on the wall in the mornings? (to sit)

J.A. Cantillo-Pedro Meléndez-Jorge Sosa-Alba Jiménez-Curro-Tomás


PREPARACIÓN PARA FFCCSS. GUARDIA CIVIL. INGLÉS. TEMA 1
f) ...........Nina ............ computer games? (to play)
g) ...........your parents.......... TV in the afternoon? (to watch)
h) ..........your grandmother .......... the phone? (to answer)
i) ...........Andy........ the shopping? (to do)
j) ............Garry and Ken........ a cup of tea in the afternoon? (to have)

7. Choose the best answer to fill the gap in each of the following.
1. I ________________ like tea, but I like coffee.
a. don't b. does c. do d. doesn't
2. Where _________________ you work?
a. does b. do c. doesn’t
3. Where _____________________ your mother live?
a. don’t b. do c. does
4. How often _____________________ see your friends?
a. do you b. you do c. you don’t
5. She _____________________ live in London, she lives in Paris.
a. does b. doesn’t c. don’t d. do
6. _____________________ to go to the cinema tonight?
a. want you b. do you want c. are you
7. What _____________________ this word mean?
a. don’t b. does c. doesn’t d. do
8. _____________________ they live in a house or a flat?
a. doesn’t b. does c. do 9.
9. The house _____________________ a garden.
a. doesn’t have b. haven’t c. don’t have d. doesn’t
10. What time _____________________ ?
a. leaves the bus b. does the bus leave c. the bus leaves

8. Write am, is or are:


Hi! I ..................... Peter and this .......................... Emma. She ........................ my sister. We
.................... brother and sister. I ................... eleven and she .......................... ten. We
................... from Salford. Salford ......................... near Manchester. What ............................
your name? Where ........................ you from?

9. Write sentences. Use the correct form of be. I/young


.............................................................................. She / clever
........................................................................ You / not old
........................................................................ You / sleepy
....................................................................... We / not naughty
................................................................ She / not short
................................................................ It / rainy ...................................................................
They / unhappy ................................................................... He / not hungry
................................................................... They / tidy ...................................................................
He / handsome ...................................................................

10. Write the full forms.


I´m Laura .........................................................................
He´s my brother ...................................................................
She isn´t at home. ...............................................................
It´s your seat. .....................................................................

J.A. Cantillo-Pedro Meléndez-Jorge Sosa-Alba Jiménez-Curro-Tomás


PREPARACIÓN PARA FFCCSS. GUARDIA CIVIL. INGLÉS. TEMA 1
What´s that book called? ......................................................
They´re friends. ....................................................................
11. Write he, she, it or they.
Jane and Martin are friends. They are friends......................
Elephants are huge. ..........................................................
My father is an astronaut. ...................................................
His cat is grey. ......................................................................
My family and I are from Madrid. ......................................
John is quite tall. ..................................................................
12. Ask questions.
....................................................... I´m ten.
....................................................... She´s from Scotland.
....................................................... My mum is at home.
....................................................... Her birthday is on 12th June.
....................................................... He´s 23 years old.
13. Put in Do or Does.

.......................................... your mum like sports?


......................................... they work a lot every day?
......................................... she like aerobics?
......................................... you watch football on TV?
......................................... mammals drink milk from their mums?
......................................... fish live in water?
......................................... reptiles creep?
......................................... birds lay eggs?
......................................... an anteater eat mice?
4. Put the sentences in order.
do / you / live / Where?
..................................................................................................
he / Does / TV / watch / on?
..................................................................................................
German / Mary / speak / can´t
..................................................................................................
suit / a / wears / He / work / everyday / to.
..................................................................................................

J.A. Cantillo-Pedro Meléndez-Jorge Sosa-Alba Jiménez-Curro-Tomás


PREPARACIÓN PARA FFCCSS. GUARDIA CIVIL. INGLÉS. TEMA 1
they / up / do / time / What / get?
..................................................................................................

J.A. Cantillo-Pedro Meléndez-Jorge Sosa-Alba Jiménez-Curro-Tomás