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Macro Skills

1. LISTENING (receptive skill)

2. SPEAKING (productive skill)
3. READING (receptive skill)
4. WRITING (productive skill)


 Linguistics is the study of a language system.

 Phonology: It is the first component of linguistics and formed
from Greek word phone. Phonology is a study of the
External structure or cognitive aspects of speech in language on the
basis of speech units and also on pronunciation.
 Phonetics: It is a study of speeches of sounds on the basis
of their physical aspects.
 Syntax: Many people get confused between grammar and
syntax. It is a study of arrangement and order of words and
also has a relationship between these hierarchical units.
 Semantics: It is a study of the meaning conveyed in the words.
Internal  Pragmatics: A programmatic is the study of the functions in a language and
also its context to use.
 Morphology: The next component of linguistics is morphology. It is a study of structure or form
of words in a specific language and also their classification. Therefore, it considers the principle
of formation of words in a language.

10 Steps to Effective Listening

Step 1: Face the speaker and maintain eye contact.
Talking to someone while they scan the room, study a computer screen, or gaze out the window
is like trying to hit a moving target. How much of the person's divided attention you are actually
getting? Fifty percent? Five percent? If the person were your child you might demand, "Look at
me when I'm talking to you," but that's not the sort of thing we say to a lover, friend or

In most Western cultures, eye contact is considered a basic ingredient of effective

communication. When we talk, we look each other in the eye. That doesn't mean that you can't
carry on a conversation from across the room, or from another room, but if the conversation
continues for any length of time, you (or the other person) will get up and move. The desire for
better communication pulls you together.
Do your conversational partners the courtesy of turning to face them. Put aside papers, books,
the phone and other distractions. Look at them, even if they don't look at you. Shyness,
uncertainty, shame, guilt, or other emotions, along with cultural taboos, can inhibit eye contact
in some people under some circumstances. Excuse the other guy, but stay focused yourself.

Step 2: Be attentive, but relaxed.

Now that you've made eye contact, relax. You don't have to stare fixedly at the other person.
You can look away now and then and carry on like a normal person. The important thing is to be
attentive. The dictionary says that to "attend" another person means to:

be present
give attention
apply or direct yourself
pay attention
remain ready to serve
Mentally screen out distractions, like background activity and noise. In addition, try not to focus
on the speaker's accent or speech mannerisms to the point where they become distractions.
Finally, don't be distracted by your own thoughts, feelings, or biases.

Step 3: Keep an open mind.

Listen without judging the other person or mentally criticizing the things she tells you. If what
she says alarms you, go ahead and feel alarmed, but don't say to yourself, "Well, that was a
stupid move." As soon as you indulge in judgmental bemusements, you've compromised your
effectiveness as a listener.

Listen without jumping to conclusions. Remember that the speaker is using language to
represent the thoughts and feelings inside her brain. You don't know what those thoughts and
feelings are and the only way you'll find out is by listening.

Don't be a sentence-grabber. Occasionally my partner can't slow his mental pace enough to
listen effectively, so he tries to speed up mine by interrupting and finishing my sentences. This
usually lands him way off base, because he is following his own train of thought and doesn't
learn where my thoughts are headed. After a couple of rounds of this, I usually ask, "Do you
want to have this conversation by yourself, or do you want to hear what I have to say?" I
wouldn't do that with everyone, but it works with him.

Step 4: Listen to the words and try to picture what the

speaker is saying.
Allow your mind to create a mental model of the information being communicated. Whether a
literal picture, or an arrangement of abstract concepts, your brain will do the necessary work if
you stay focused, with senses fully alert. When listening for long stretches, concentrate on, and
remember, key words and phrases.

When it's your turn to listen, don’t spend the time planning what to say next. You can't rehearse
and listen at the same time. Think only about what the other person is saying.

Finally, concentrate on what is being said, even if it bores you. If your thoughts start to wander,
immediately force yourself to refocus.

Step 5: Don't interrupt and don't impose your "solutions."

Children used to be taught that it's rude to interrupt. I'm not sure that message is getting across
anymore. Certainly the opposite is being modeled on the majority of talk shows and reality
programs, where loud, aggressive, in-your-face behavior is condoned, if not encouraged.

Interrupting sends a variety of messages. It says:

"I'm more important than you are."

"What I have to say is more interesting, accurate or relevant."
"I don't really care what you think."
"I don't have time for your opinion."
"This isn't a conversation, it's a contest, and I'm going to win."
We all think and speak at different rates. If you are a quick thinker and an agile talker, the
burden is onyouto relax your pace for the slower, more thoughtful communicator—or for the
guy who has trouble expressing himself.

When listening to someone talk about a problem, refrain from suggesting solutions. Most of us
don't want your advice anyway. If we do, we'll ask for it. Most of us prefer to figure out our own
solutions. We need you to listen and help us do that. Somewhere way down the line, if you are
absolutely bursting with a brilliant solution, at least get the speaker's permission. Ask, "Would
you like to hear my ideas?"

Step 6: Wait for the speaker to pause to ask clarifying

When you don't understand something, of course you should ask the speaker to explain it to
you. But rather than interrupt, wait until the speaker pauses. Then say something like, "Back up
a second. I didn't understand what you just said about…"

Step 7: Ask questions only to ensure understanding.

At lunch, a colleague is excitedly telling you about her trip to Vermont and all the wonderful
things she did and saw. In the course of this chronicle, she mentions that she spent some time
with a mutual friend. You jump in with, "Oh, I haven't heard from Alice in ages. How is she?"
and, just like that, discussion shifts to Alice and her divorce, and the poor kids, which leads to a
comparison of custody laws, and before you know it an hour is gone and Vermont is a distant

This particular conversational affront happens all the time. Our questions lead people in
directions that have nothing to do with where they thought they were going. Sometimes we
work our way back to the original topic, but very often we don't.

When you notice that your question has led the speaker astray, take responsibility for getting
the conversation back on track by saying something like, "It was great to hear about Alice, but
tell me more about your adventure in Vermont."

Step 8: Try to feel what the speaker is feeling.

If you feel sad when the person with whom you are talking expresses sadness, joyful when she
expresses joy, fearful when she describes her fears—and convey those feelings through your
facial expressions and words—then your effectiveness as a listener is assured. Empathy is the
heart and soul of good listening.

To experience empathy, you have to put yourself in the other person's place and allow yourself
to feel what it is like to be her at that moment. This is not an easy thing to do. It takes energy
and concentration. But it is a generous and helpful thing to do, and it facilitates communication
like nothing else does.

Step 9: Give the speaker regular feedback.

Show that you understand where the speaker is coming from by reflecting the speaker's
feelings. "You must be thrilled!" "What a terrible ordeal for you." "I can see that you are
confused." If the speaker's feelings are hidden or unclear, then occasionally paraphrase the
content of the message. Or just nod and show your understanding through appropriate facial
expressions and an occasional well-timed "hmmm" or "uh huh."

The idea is to give the speaker some proof that you are listening, and that you are following her
train of thought—not off indulging in your own fantasies while she talks to the ether.

In task situations, regardless of whether at work or home, always restate instructions and
messages to be sure you understand correctly.

Step 10: Pay attention to what isn't said—to nonverbal

If you exclude email, the majority of direct communication is probably nonverbal. We glean a
great deal of information about each other without saying a word. Even over the telephone, you
can learn almost as much about a person from the tone and cadence of her voice than from
anything she says. When I talk to my best friend, it doesn't matter what we chat about, if I hear
a lilt and laughter in her voice, I feel reassured that she's doing well.

Face to face with a person, you can detect enthusiasm, boredom, or irritation very quickly in the
expression around the eyes, the set of the mouth, the slope of the shoulders. These are clues
you can't ignore. When listening, remember that words convey only a fraction of the message.

Listening Skills Exercise: Summarize, Summarize,

For at least one week, at the end of every conversation in which information is exchanged,
conclude with a summary statement. In conversations that result in agreements about future
obligations or activities, summarizing will not only ensure accurate follow-through, it will feel
perfectly natural. In conversations that do not include agreements, if summarizing feels
awkward just explain that you are doing it as an exercise.
“I like to listen. I have learned a great deal from listening carefully. Most people never listen.”
-Ernest Hemingway

- is the mental operational involving processing sound waves,
interpreting their meaning and storing their meaning in the memory.
- is the active process of the perceiving aural stimuli and assigning
meaning to it. (Cabaltera & Farnoles, 2011)
- most demanding skills

o Expressing our wants, feelings, thoughts and opinions clearly effectively

is only half of the communication process needed for interpersonal
effectiveness. The other half is listening and understanding what others

Reading- 10

Seeing- 20


Seeing & Hearing- 50

Collaboration- 70

Doing- 80

Tips on Effective Listening

"We were given two ears but only one mouth, because listening is twice as hard as talking."

Brief Theory of Communication

Expressing our wants, feelings, thoughts and opinions clearly and effectively is only half of the
communication process needed for interpersonal effectiveness. The other half is listening and
understanding what others communicate to us. When a person decides to communicate with another
person, he/she does so to fulfill a need. The person wants something, feels discomfort, and/or has
feelings or thoughts about something. In deciding to communicate, the person selects the method or
code which he/she believes will effectively deliver the message to the other person. The code used to
send the message can be either verbal or nonverbal. When the other person receives the coded
message, they go through the process of decoding or interpreting it into understanding and meaning.
Effective communication exists between two people when the receiver interprets and understands the
sender’s message in the same way the sender intended it.

Sources of Difficulty by the Speaker

o Voice volume too low to be heard.

o Making the message too complex, either by including too many unnecessary details or too many
o Getting lost, forgetting your point or the purpose of the interaction.
o Body language or nonverbal elements contradicting or interfering with the verbal message, such
as smiling when anger or hurt is being expressed.
o Paying too much attention to how the other person is taking the message, or how the person
might react.
o Using a very unique code or unconventional method for delivering the message.

Sources of Difficulty by the Listener

o Being preoccupied and not listening.

o Being so interested in what you have to say that you listen mainly to find an opening to get the
o Formulating and listening to your own rebuttal to what the speaker is saying.
o Listening to your own personal beliefs about what is being said.
o Evaluating and making judgments about the speaker or the message.
o Not asking for clarification when you know that you do not understand.

The Three Basic Listening Modes

Competitive or Combative Listening happens when we are more interested in promoting our
own point of view than in understanding or exploring someone else’s view. We either listen for
openings to take the floor, or for flaws or weak points we can attack. As we pretend to pay
attention we are impatiently waiting for an opening, or internally formulating our rebuttal and
planning our devastating comeback that will destroy their argument and make us the victor.
In Passive or Attentive Listening we are genuinely interested in hearing and understanding the
other person’s point of view. We are attentive and passively listen. We assume that we heard
and understand correctly. but stay passive and do not verify it.
Active or Reflective Listening is the single most useful and important listening skill. In active
listening we are also genuinely interested in understanding what the other person is thinking,
feeling, wanting or what the message means, and we are active in checking out our
understanding before we respond with our own new message. We restate or paraphrase our
understanding of their message and reflect it back to the sender for verification. This verification
or feedback process is what distinguishes active listening and makes it effective.

Levels of Communication

Listening effectively is difficult because people vary in their communication skills

and in how clearly they express themselves, and often have different needs, wants and
purposes for interacting. The different types of interaction or levels of communication
also adds to the difficulty. The four different types or levels are.

1. Clichés.
2. Facts.
3. Thoughts and beliefs.
4. Feelings and emotions.

As a listener we attend to the level that we think is most important. Failing to

recognize the level most relevant and important to the speaker can lead to a kind
of crossed wires where the two people are not on the same wavelength. The purpose
of the contact and the nature of our relationship with the person will usually determine
what level or levels are appropriate and important for the particular interaction. Note
the different requirements in the following situations:

You’re lost, and you ask a stranger for directions.

Your child comes to you crying.
You are in trouble and someone offers to help.
Your spouse is being affectionate and playful.
Opposing council is cross-examining you in court.

If we don’t address the appropriate elements we will not be very effective, and can
actually make the situation worse. For example: If your wife is telling you about her
hurt feelings and you focus on the facts of the situation and don’t acknowledge her
feelings, she will likely become even more upset.

There is a real distinction between merely hearing the words and really listening for
the message. When we listen effectively we understand what the person is thinking
and/or feeling from the other person’s own perspective. It is as if we were standing in
the other person’s shoes, seeing through his/her eyes and listening through the
person's ears. Our own viewpoint may be different and we may not necessarily agree
with the person, but as we listen, we understand from the other's perspective. To listen
effectively, we must be actively involved in the communication process, and not just
listening passively.

We all act and respond on the basis of our understanding, and too often there is a
misunderstanding that neither of us is aware of. With active listening, if a
misunderstanding has occurred, it will be known immediately, and the communication
can be clarified before any further misunderstanding occurs.

Several other possible benefits occur with active listening:

Sometimes a person just needs to be heard and acknowledged before the person is willing to
consider an alternative or soften his /her position.
It is often easier for a person to listen to and consider the other’s position when that person
knows the other is listening and considering his/her position.
It helps people to spot the flaws in their reasoning when they hear it played back without
It also helps identify areas of agreement so the areas of disagreement are put in perspective and
are diminished rather than magnified.
Reflecting back what we hear each other say helps give each a chance to become aware of the
different levels that are going on below the surface. This helps to bring things into the open
where they can be more readily resolved.
If we accurately understand the other person’s view, we can be more effective in helping the
person see the flaws in his/her position.
If we listen so we can accurately understand the other’s view, we can also be more effective in
discovering the flaws in our own position.

Listening Tips

Usually it is important to paraphrase and use your own words in verbalizing your understanding
of the message. Parroting back the words verbatim is annoying and does not ensure accurate
understanding of the message.
Depending on the purpose of the interaction and your understanding of what is relevant, you
could reflect back the other persons:

1. Account of the facts.

2. Thoughts and beliefs.
3. Feelings and emotions.
4. Wants, needs or motivation.
5. Hopes and expectations.

Don’t respond to just the meaning of the words, look for the feelings or intent beyond the words.
The dictionary or surface meaning of the words or code used by the sender is not the message.
Inhibit your impulse to immediately answer questions. The code may be in the form of a
question. Sometimes people ask questions when they really want to express themselves and are
not open to hearing an answer.
Know when to quit using active listening. Once you accurately understand the sender’s
message, it may be appropriate to respond with your own message. Don’t use active listening to
hide and avoid revealing your own position.
If you are confused and know you do not understand, either tell the person you don’t understand
and ask him/her to say it another way, or use your best guess. If you are incorrect, the person
will realize it and will likely attempt to correct your misunderstanding.
Active listening is a very effective first response when the other person is angry, hurt or
expressing difficult feelings toward you, especially in relationships that are important to you.
Use eye contact and listening body language. Avoid looking at your watch or at other people or
activities around the room. Face and lean toward the speaker and nod your head, as it is
appropriate. Be careful about crossing your arms and appearing closed or critical.
Be empathic and nonjudgmental. You can be accepting and respectful of the person and their
feelings and beliefs without invalidating or giving up your own position, or without agreeing
with the accuracy and validity of their view.

Public Speaking
 Inform
 Influence
 Entertain

GLOSSOPHOBIA – fear of public speaking


 Opening
 Three middle points
 Summary