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BEHAVIOR OF STEEL-CONCRETE

COMPOSITE BRIDGE WITH ISOLATOR

Suresh GS & Rakshith AM


The National Institute of Engineering, Mysuru,India
Introduction

• Bridge failures can lead to injuries, loss of life,


and property damage on a scale equal to plane
crashes, terrorist attacks, and natural disasters.
• Who can forget the pictures of the section of
the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge that
fell down during the Loma Prieta earthquake in
1989 which measured 6.9 on the moment
magnitude scale?

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Western side of Bridge

Bay Bridge Collapse

Bridge After Restoration

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Bridge Collapse of Hanshin Expressway in Japan-1995

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Overpass that collapsed on Highway 10 due to earthquake in Mexico-1994

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tong-tou-bridge failed due to chi-chi (Taiwan) earthquake 1999

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Viaduct: located
along Cypress Street between
7th Street and Interstate 80 in
the West Oakland
neighborhood. It officially
opened to traffic on June 11,
1957, and was in use until the
1989 Loma Prieta earthquake,
when much of the upper
tier collapsedonto the lower
tier, killing 42 people.

Cypress-Viaduct

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Sr.
Date, Time, Magnitude
No Place Deaths Epicenter
and Year
.
08:50, West coast
1 Indian Ocean > 283,106 December 9.1–9.3 of Sumatra,
26, 2004 Indonesia
Muzaffarab
08:50:38, ad,
2 Kashmir 130,000 October 8, 7.6 Pakistan-
2005 administere
d Kashmir
14 :13, South of
3 Bihar and Nepal > 30,000 January 15, 8.7 Mount
1934 Everest
08:50:00,
Kutch,
4 Gujarat 20,000 January 26, 7.7
Gujarat
2001
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Sr. Date, Time, Magnitude Epicenter
Place Deaths
No. and Year
06:10, April
5 Kangra > 20,000 7.8 Himalayas
4, 1905
22:25,
Killari,
6 Latur > 9,748 September 6.4
Latur
30, 1993
19:39,
7 Assam 1,526 August 15, 8.6 Rima, Tibet
1950

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Sr. Date, Time,
Place Deaths Magnitude Epicenter
No. and Year

Exact
17 :11, June
8 Assam 1,500 8.1 location not
12, 1897
known

Unknown
time, Garhwal,
9 Uttarkashi >1,000 6.8
October 20, Uttarakhand
1991

04:21,
10 Koynanagar 180 December 6.5 Koyna
11, 1967

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ISOLATORS

Elastomeric Isolators with Lead Cores


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ISOLATORS

LEAD RUBBER BEARING


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ISOLATORS

FRICTION PENDULUM SYSTEM (SLIDING TYPE)

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Introduction

• From the past historical records of earthquake


occurrence, it has been seen that earthquake is one of
the most dangerous natural disasters which has caused
incalculable destruction of properties and injury and
loss of lives to the population
• The sudden release of energy during an earthquake
may lead to surface faulting, ground shaking, and
ground failures
• Stresses are generated in structures due to the ground
shaking and if a structure is incapable of resting these
additional stresses, it will suffer damage.
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Introduction

• The bridge design codes, in India, have less


seismic design provision at present. A large
number of bridges are designed and constructed
without considering seismic forces
• The rapid growth of seismic isolation technology
led to the development of specific guidelines for
design, construction, and testing of different
isolation devices, as well as the analysis of
isolated bridge structures
• Among the seismic isolation devices commonly
used are elastomeric bearing.
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Introduction

• The effectiveness of isolation devices in uncoupling


the bridge substructure from the horizontal
components of ground motion excitation and
therefore reducing its force and displacement
demand has been thoroughly assessed through
numerous experimental and analytical research
studies
• In this study two analysis cases are considered for
a proposed Composite Bridge in India:-
➢ Equivalent static force method according to IS 1893-
2002 guidelines
➢ Time history Analysis.
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SPECIFICATIONS AND
BRIDGE MODELING

Longitudinal Section

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SPECIFICATIONS AND
BRIDGE MODELING

Cross- Section
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SPECIFICATIONS AND
BRIDGE MODELING
Bridge Elements
Bridge Components Sizes ,m
Pile Dia. 1.2
Pile cap 4.4x5.70x1.8
Abutment 10.5x1.4
Pier 4.5x1.5
Pier beam 2.12x1.2
Top flange 0.35x0.025
Girder @support Web 1.609x0.016
Bottom flange 0.55x0.016
Top flange 0.35x0.025
Girder @mid span Web 1.598x0.016
Bottom flange 0.55x0.032
Deck slab 0.2
Isolators between deck and Pier elastomeric bearings.

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Dead load & Super imposed dead load
Wearing coat and Crash barrier loads are taken as 2 kN/m2 and 7.75kN/m

Vehicular live load


As Per IRC: 6 deck of the super structure is analyzed for the following vehicles and
whichever produces the severest effect has been considered in the analysis.
Following combination are adopted
1) One lane of 70R loading
2) Two lane of class AA loading

Seismic loading
As per IS 1893-2002 seismic loading is analyzed for the zone II with hard soil strata.

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IRC 70R TRACKED
VEHICLE
IRC CLASS-AA
TRACKED
VEHICLE
IRC 70R WHEELED
VEHICLE

IRC CLASS-AA
WHEELED VEHICLE

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ANALYSIS
1. EQUIVALENT STATIC FORCE METHOD
• A simplified approach
• replacement to the consequence of dynamic loading
• Anticipate earthquake by a static force distributed laterally on a
structure for design purposes.
• The total applied seismic force V is generally evaluated in
horizontal directions parallel to the main axes of the structure.
• The structure must be able to withstand consequence caused by
seismic forces in either direction, but not in both directions
simultaneously.

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ANALYSIS

2. TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS


• Dynamic response of the bridge will be calculated at each time
intervals.
• Recorded ground motion data from past earthquake database.
• Overcomes all the disadvantage of response spectrum analysis if
there is no involvement of nonlinear behavior.
• It requires greater efforts in calculating response of bridge in
discrete time interval.
• In this work Bhuj earthquake of magnitude 7.7 with ground peak
acceleration -1.0382 m/s/s is taken for the time history analysis.
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BRIDGE MODEL-SAAP-2000

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Modal analysis results

Modal time period Modal frequency


1.4 3
Without bearing
Without bearing

Frequency (Cyc/sec)
1.2 2.5
Elestomaric bearing Elestomaric bearing
1 2
Time (sec)

0.8
1.5
0.6
1
0.4
0.5
0.2
0
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Mode
Mode

Modal time period Modal frequency


Elastomeric bearing has increased the time period and thereby reducing the
modal frequency.

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Equivalent static results

Base shear

Base shear Base shear


6000 2500
Without bearing Without bearing
2400
5000
Elestomaric bearing Elestomaric bearing

Base shear (kN)


2300
Base shear (kN)

4000
2200
3000
2100
2000 2000

1000 1900

0 1800

Along X Along Y

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Equivalent static results

Displacement of deck slab


Displacment
14 Displacment
12
without bearing
12
without bearing
10
Elestomaric bearing
10

Displacement (mm)
Elestomaric bearing
Displacement (mm)

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8
6
6
4
4
2
2
0
0

Along X Along Y

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Time History Result

Base shear
Base shear Base shear
8000 2500
2000 without bearing
6000
without bearing
1500 Elestomaric bearing
4000
Elestomaric bearing 1000

Base shear (kN)


Base shear (kN)

2000 500

0 0
0 50 100 150 0 50 100 150
-500
-2000
-1000
-4000 -1500

-6000 -2000
-2500
-8000

Along X with respect to time X Along Y with respect to time Y

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Time History Result

Base Moment
Base moment
Base moment
400000
150000
Without bearing
Without bearing
300000
Elestomaric bearing 100000
Elestomaric bearing

Base moment (kN-m)


Base moment (kN-m)

200000
50000
100000
0
0 50 100 150
0
0 50 100 150 -50000
-100000
-100000
-200000
-150000
-300000

Along X with respect to time Y Along Y with respect to time X

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Equivalent static results

Displacement of deck slab


Deck slab displacment Deck slab displacment
20 15
Elestomaric bearing
15 Elestomaric bearing
10
without bearing
10 without bearing
Displacement (mm)

Displacement (mm)
5
5

0 0

-5 -5
-10
-10
-15
-15
-20

Along X with respect to time X Along Y with respect to time Y

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Conclusion

• Steel-concrete composite structure reduced the dead load


of structure there by reduces the base shear value of
structure.
• Steel-concrete composite structure is faster in
construction, these structures arestiffer then concrete
structure.
• It’s most reliable to adopt seismic isolated bearings
system for effective earthquake resistance design.

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Conclusion

• It’s most reliable to adopt seismic isolated bearings


system for effective earthquake resistance design.
• Seismic isolated bearings reduce the frequency of the
structures compared to non-isolated bearings.
• The provision of seismic isolation bearings system will
reduce the base shear, and increase the deck slab
displacement.

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Conclusion

• From time history analysis it is conclude that, there is


reduction in base shear, base moment but there is
increase in deck slab displacement for seismic isolated
bearing in both direction.
• Based on overall comparison it is concluded that
Elastomeric isolator system is more effective in reducing
base shear and increasing the modal time as compared to
without isolator.

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REFERENCES

[1] Can Akogul and Oguz c. Celik (2008) “Effect Of Elastomeric Bearing Modeling
Parameters On The Seismic Design Of RC Highway Bridge With Precast Concrete Girders”.
The 14th world conference on earthquake engineering.
[2] Chavan and Murnal (2015) “A Comparative Study on Seismic Response of Bridge with
Elastomeric Bearing and Elastomeric Isolator”Journal of Civil Engineering and
Environmental Technology Print ISSN: 2349-8404; Online ISSN: 2349-879X; Volume 2,
Number 10; April-June, 2015 pp. 38-41
[3] Haque et.al. (2010) “Seismic response analysis of base isolated highway bridge:
Effectiveness of using laminated rubber bearings”IABSE-JSCE Joint Conference on Advances
in Bridge Engineering-II, August 8-10, 2010, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
[4] Zhenghua Wei et.al, (2011) “Seismic Performance of Continuous Girder Bridges Using
Cable-sliding Friction Aseismic Bearing”. The twelfth East Asia- Pacific conference on
structural engineering and construction.

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REFERENCES

[5] Motlag andRahai (2014) “Dynamic Behavior Evaluation of a Continuous Concrete Box
Girder Bridge with Seismic Isolator in Near-field Earthquake”. Second European conference
on earthquake engineering and seismology, Istanbul.
[6] Jian-GuoNie and Li Zhu (2014) “Beam-Truss Model of Steel-Concrete Composite Box-
Girder Bridges” journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE, ISSN 1084-0702/04014023(22)
[7] Monzon et.al,(2016) “Seismic Performance and Response of Seismically Isolated Curved
Steel I-Girder Bridge”the Journal of Structural Engineering, © ASCE, ISSN 0733-9445.
[8] IRC 6:2016 “Standard specifications and code of practice for road bridges” section-II
loads and stresses (sixth revision).
[9] IS 1893(part1): 2002 “criteria for earthquake resistant design of structure” part 1 general
provisions and buildings (Fifth revision).
[10] IS 1893(part3): 2014 “criteria for earthquake resistant design of structure” part 3 Bridge
and Retaining walls.

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G.S.SURESH
DEAN & Prof.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING, MYSURU
INDIA, email: gss.nie@gmail.com
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