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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/asoc

Review Article

equiripple FIR technique

A. Kumar a,∗ , G.K. Singh b , S. Anurag a

a

PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur 482005, MP, India

b

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, Uttrakhand, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this paper, an efﬁcient iterative algorithm is proposed for the design of multi-channel nearly perfect

Received 16 August 2011 reconstructed non-uniform ﬁlter bank. The method employs the constrained equiripple FIR technique

Received in revised form 14 May 2012 to design the prototype ﬁlter for ﬁlter banks with novelty of exploiting a new perfect reconstruction

Accepted 5 August 2012

condition of the non-uniform ﬁlter banks instead of using complex objective functions. In the proposed

Available online 29 August 2012

algorithm, passband edge frequency (ωp ) is optimized using linear optimization technique such that

the ﬁlter coefﬁcients values at quadrature frequency are approximately equal to 0.707. Several design

Keywords:

examples are included to illustrate the efﬁcacy of this methodology for designing non-uniform ﬁlter bank

Filter banks

QMF

(NUFB). It was found that the proposed methodology performs better as compared to earlier reported

Subband coding results in terms of reconstruction error (RE), number of iteration (NOI) and computation time (CPU time).

Non-uniform ﬁlter bank (NUFB) The proposed algorithm is very simple, linear in nature, and easy to implement.

Tree-structured © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

2. Overview of non-uniform ﬁlter bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

3. Proposed methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

4. Results and discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

5. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

applications include sub-band coding like audio coding, speech

Many advancements in the area of multirate ﬁlter banks in coding, data and image compression [1,2]. Uniform ﬁlter banks

conjunction with the ever increasing numerous applications have have many constraints like integer and uniform decimation in each

made multirate ﬁlter banks design an increasingly important ﬁeld sub-band, and limited time frequency resolution. These constraints

of research. The research effort was ﬁrst focused on design of a two- catalyze the importance of non-uniform ﬁlter banks (NUFBs). In

channel quadrature mirror ﬁlter (QMF) bank [1,2], which was later addition, NUFBs are able to provide any sort of rational decimation

extended to design of M-channel ﬁlter banks [2–5]. Since then, sev- in each channel, any extent of time–frequency resolution as per

eral techniques [6–11] were developed to enhance the performance requirement of the application, less quantization error, and low

of ﬁlter banks in different engineering ﬁelds. computational complexity. Over the past few years, a number of

Among different types of the ﬁlter banks, non-uniform ﬁlter design methods [12–15] have been proposed by different authors

banks have been elicited immense interest in the researchers in for the design of multi-channel ﬁlter banks. However, design of a

recent years due to their ability to differentiate information into linear phase multi-channel ﬁlter bank with linear optimization has

different frequency bands based on energy distribution of signal been still an issue since a very few references [16–20] provide linear

phase as well as zero aliasing error, which is very much essential

in several applications such as videos and communication systems.

∗ Corresponding author. Such an application oriented technique was presented in [21]. In

E-mail addresses: anilkdee@gmail.com (A. Kumar), gksngfee@gmail.com

this technique, the authors have been used the evolutionary pro-

(G.K. Singh), anurag1020201@iiitdmj.ac.in (S. Anurag). gramming algorithms to design the optimized prototype ﬁlter for

1568-4946/$ – see front matter © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2012.08.024

354 A. Kumar et al. / Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 353–360

Processing Unit

2 G0(z)

H0(z) 2

y (n)

x(n) H 1

10 (z) 2 2 G 110 (z)

H1(z) 2 2 G1(z)

(a)

H0 (z) =H0 (z) H 100 (z 2) 4

Processing unit

y(n)

x(n)

H1 (z) =H0 (z) H 110 (z 2) 4 4 G1 (z) = G0 (z) G 110 (z 2)

(b)

Fig. 1. A block diagram of multichannel non-uniform ﬁlter bank. (a) A block diagram of a tree structured ﬁlter bank and (b) its equivalent parallel structure.

designing modulated ﬁlter banks. Advances in ﬁlter banks have for NUFB. In Section 4, design results and application of the pro-

provided a new generation of subband coders for audio, image posed method to subband coding is carried out, followed by the

and video signals, analog to digital converters, signal compression concluding remarks in Section 5.

systems, design of wavelet bases, antenna systems, digital audio

industry and biomedical signal processing [1,2]. 2. Overview of non-uniform ﬁlter bank

Recently, several design methods [22–27] have been proposed

and evaluated for designing the non-uniform ﬁlter bank based on The non-uniform ﬁlter bank with integer decimation and linear

optimization and non-optimizations. But still, there is no such iter- phase is realized with the help of tree structured techniques, which

ative technique reported in the literature which can reduce the is based on building the ﬁlter bank using a two-channel ﬁlter bank

computation time, converse in low number of iteration and also as basic building blocks [1,2,32–34]. The generalized structure of M-

reduces the peak reconstruction error which can be used for ﬁlter channel ﬁlter banks based on tree structure approach is depicted in

banks with larger taps. Therefore, the authors in [28] have pro- Fig. 1. For M-channel NUFB having decimation M0 , M1 , M2 , . . ., MM−1

posed an optimized algorithm for designing NUFB with Blackman for each band, then decimation factors are such that [1,2,35,36]

Window family based on the algorithm given in [16]. Similar to

the cut-off frequency, a suitable value of passband edge frequency

M−1

1

(ωp ) can reduce the amplitude distortion. There are very few refer- =1 (1)

Mk

ences [16] available in which ωp has been optimized for designing k=0

a prototype ﬁlter for two-channel QMF banks and M-channel CM

and the reconstructed signal X̂(z) is

ﬁlter banks. Literature available so far on non-uniform ﬁlter banks

reveals that there is still need for a computationally efﬁcient tech-

M−1

1

Mk −1

l l

nique, which shall use linear optimization technique for designing X̂(z) = Gk (z) X(zWM )Hk (zWM ) (2)

Mk k k

non-uniform linear-phase ﬁlter bank. Apart from multirate ﬁlter k=0 l=0

banks designing techniques, the authors in [29] have recently pro-

where Hk (z) and Gk (z) are the analysis and synthesis ﬁlters respec-

posed efﬁcient optimization techniques to design two-dimensional l ) and X (zW l ) are

tively, while WL = e−j2/L . The terms Hk (zWM k M

IIR ﬁlters. This technique is based on the particle swarm intelli- k k

gence approach [30], which was initially introduced for simulating aliasing terms introduced due to decimation/interpolation. For the

human social behaviors. Later on, this particle swarm optimization perfect reconstruction (PR), these must be minimized by any strate-

(PSO) approach was improved by authors in [31] to give a new opti- gic approach. In a tree-structured approach, a two-channel QMF

mization algorithm called ﬁtness-adaptive differential evolution bank is used as building blocks; hence the aliasing error is com-

algorithm to design QMF banks. A comparative study of modern pletely eliminated by proper selection of synthesis ﬁlters in terms

search techniques is presented in [32] for designing two dimen- of analysis ﬁlters. In a two-channel QMF bank, the aliasing error is

sional IIR ﬁlters. eliminated with

In this paper, a new improved iterative methodology is pre-

G1 (z) = −2H0 (−z) and G0 (z) = 2H1 (−z) (3)

sented for the design of non-uniform ﬁlter bank. Organization of

the paper is as follows: a brief introduction has been provided As depicted in Fig. 1(a), the input signal x(n) was decomposed

in this section on design techniques of NUFBs. Section 2 gives an into two subbands in which the sampling rate is reduced to 1/2 of

overview of NUFBs. Section 3 presents the proposed methodology the original sampling rate. These subbands can be further extended

A. Kumar et al. / Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 353–360 355

2P subbands can be obtained by repeating the same decomposition

|HL (z)|4 + |HL (z)|2 |HL (−z)|2 + |HL (−z)|2 = 1. (13)

process P times and at each of the P stages of decomposition process,

the number of two-channel QMF bank structure required, is 2P−1 . In frequency domain, Eq. (13) is reduced to

Total number of two-channel systems required is 2P−1 . On the other

|HL (ejω )|4 + |HL(ejω )|2 |HL(ej(ω−) )|2 + |HL(ej(ω−) )|2 = 1 (14)

side, the process of reconstructing the original input signal can be

seen as mirror image of the decomposition process at analysis side and if it is computed at quadrature frequency (ω = 0.5), then

as illustrated in Fig. 1(a) and its equivalent parallel structure shown

2|HL (ejr/2 )|4 + |HL (ejr/2 )|2 = 1 (15)

in Fig. 1(b). After resolving the tree structured nonuniform ﬁlter

bank into its parallel forms, the following relations can be deduced Let HL (ej/2 ) = x, then Eq. (15) is simpliﬁed as

[1,2,28]: 4 2

2x + x − 1 = 0 (16)

H0 (z) = HL (z), HL (z 2 ), G0 (z) = GL (z), GL (z 2 ) (4)

Using simple factorization approach, the roots of above polynomial

H1 (z) = HL (z), HH (z 2 ), G1 (z) = GL (z), GH (z 2 ) (5) are

H2 (z) = HH (z), G2 (z) = GH (z) (6) 1

x = ± √ = ±0.7071 and x = ±i (17)

2

Performance of tree structured approach depends on the efﬁ-

cient design of QMF bank. The computation load is reduced due to The imaginary and negative roots are not possible, so discarding

some similarities between the coefﬁcients of high-pass and low- them and then, it leads to Eq. (18), giving a new PR condition.

pass ﬁlters of a two-channel ﬁlter bank. However, the frequency x = |HL (ej/2 )| = 0.7071 (18)

characteristics of the ﬁlters might differ from stage to stage, but

they must be the same within a particular stage. Depending on Similarly, in 4-channel NUFB with decimation factors (8, 8, 4, 2),

which of the ﬁlter bank is used in the design, there would be per- the perfect reconstruction can be achieved, if Eq. (19) is satisﬁed

fect reconstruction (PR) or near perfect reconstruction (NPR). But |H0 (ejω )|2 + |H1 (ejω )|2 + |H2 (ejω )|2 + |H3 (ejω )|2 = 1,

the realization of perfect reconstruction ﬁlter bank requires very

tedious and complex approach, which makes it practically unreal- for 0≤ω≤ (19)

5

izable. Therefore, a common interest of researchers is towards NPR,

since it is a practically realizable approach. But during realization where

of this approach, there is always an introduction of three distort- H0 (z) = HL (z)HL (z 2 )HL (z 4 ), H1 (z) = HL (z)HL (z 2 )HH (z 4 ),

ions: amplitude distortion, phase distortion and aliasing error. The

aliasing error can be removed by using proper pairs of analysis and H2 (z) = HL (z)HH (z 2 ), and H3 (z) = HH (z). (20)

synthesis ﬁlters, phase error by using linear phase ﬁlters, and ampli-

tude distortion can be minimized by using different optimization Using Eq. (20), then Eq. (19) turns out to be

techniques.

|HL (z)HL (z 2 )HL (z 4 )|2 + |HL (z)HH (z 2 )HH (z 4 )|2

3. Proposed methodology + |HL (z)HH (z 2 )| + |HH (z)|2 = 1 (21)

reconstruction is possible if As discussed earlier, the energy of original signal and its up

sampled version has same value, therefore

M−1

|Hk (ejω )|2 = 1, for 0<ω≤ (7) |HL (z 4 )|2 = |HH (z 2 )|2 = |HL (−z)|, and |HH (z 4 )|2

M

k=0

= |HH (z 2 )|2 = |HH (z)|2 (22)

where Hk (ejω )

is kth analysis ﬁlter in equivalent parallel structure

of a non-uniform ﬁlter bank, and M is the number of bands in NUFB. Using the above equation and HH (z) = HL (− z), Eq. (21) is further

For example in Fig. 1(b), perfect reconstruction is possible if reﬁned as

|H0 (ejω )|2 + |H1 (ejω )|2 + |H2 (ejω )|2 = 1, for 0 ≤ ω ≤ (8) |HL (z)|6 + |HL (z)|4 + |HL (−z)|2 + |HL (z)|2 |HL (−z)|2 + |HL (−z)|2 = 1

3

If Eq. (8) is further simpliﬁed using the prototype ﬁlter HL (ejω ) of a (23)

two-channel QMF bank, then it is reduced to

|HL (z)HL (z 2 )|2 + |HL (z)HH (z 2 )|2 + |HH (z)|2 = 1 (9) and in frequency domain, it leads to

Since energy of the original signal and its up-sampled version will |HL (ejω )|6 + |HL (ejω )|4 |HL (ej(ω−) )|2 + |HL (ejω )|2 |HL (ej(ω−) )|2

be same as in up sampled signal. In up sampling, L − 1 equidistant + |HL (ej(ω−) )|2 = 1 (24)

zero valued samples are inserted between two consecutive samples

of the original signal. Therefore,

Similarly, if it is also evaluated at ω = 0.5, then

|HL (z 2 )|2 = |HL (z)|2 (10)

2|HL (ej/2 )|6 + |HL (ej/2 )|4 + |HL (ej/2 )|2 = 1 (25)

similarly,

Similar to 3-channel NUFB, let HL (ej/2 ) = x, and ﬁnally the above

|HH (z 2 )|2 = |HH (z)|2 (11) equation becomes a six degree polynomial equation in terms x

Using the above equations and the quadrature mirror ﬁlter condi- 2x6 + x4 + x2 − 1 = 0 (26)

tion (HH (z) = HL (− z)), Eq. (9) is redeﬁned as

The roots of this equation is found using simple factoriza-

|HL (z)|4 + |HL (z)|2 |HL (−z)|2 + |HL (−z)|2 = 1 (12) tion approach, these are x = ±0.7071, 0.5 ± 0.866i and 0.5 ± 0.866i.

356 A. Kumar et al. / Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 353–360

Start

as deﬁned by Eq. (18)

Like 3-channel, 4-channel NUFB, same procedure is repeated

for ﬁnding perfect reconstruction for 5-channel non-uniform ﬁlter Specify: band (M), passband edge frequency (ωP),

bank with decimation factors 16, 16, 8, 4, and 2. Just like 3-channel stopband edge frequency (ωS), filter tap length (N),

and 4-channel NUFBs, PR can be achieved if stopband attenuation (AS), and passband ripple (AP)

|H0 (ejω )|2 + |H1 (ejω )|2 + |H2 (ejω )|2 + |H3 (ejω )|2 + |H3 (ejω )|2 = 1,

Initialize: step size (Step), Magnitude Response of a prototype

for 0 ≤ ω ≤ (27) filter (MRI) = 0.707, Tolerance (Tol) and Counter (Count).

5

where

Design prototype filter (HL (z)) using the constrained equiripple

H0 (z) = HL (z)HL (z 2 )HL (z 4 )HL (z 8 ), FIR technique and calculate magnitude response (MRC) at ω =

π /2. Also compute Error = MRI-MRD

H1 (z) = HL (z)HL (z 2 )HL (z 4 )HH (z 8 ), H2 (z) = HL (z)HL (z 2 )HH (z 4 ),

YES Is |Error| ≤ Tol_

Using Eq. (28), then Eq. (27) turns out to be

Design other filters

NO

|HL (z)HL (z 2 )HL (z 4 )HL (z 8 )|2 + |HL (z)HL (z 2 )HL (z 4 )HH (z 8 )|2 using prototype filter.

YES

+ |HL (z)HL (z 2 )HH (z 4 )| + |HH (z)|2 = 1 (29) Is MRC< MRI

End

Since ωp = ωp + step

NO

8 2 4 2 2 2

|HL (z ) | = |HL (z ) | = |HL (z ) | = |HL (z)2 | (30)

ωc = ωc - step

and

2 2 2

|HH (z 8 ) | = |HH (z 4 ) | = |HH (z 2 ) | = |HH (z)2 | (31)

Using the above equations and HH (z) = HL (− z), Eq. (29) is further

reﬁned as

Step=Step/2

|HH (z)|8 + |HH (z)|6 |HH (−z)|2 + |HH (z)|4 |HH (−z)|2 and

Count =Count + 1

+ |HH (z)|2 |HH (−z)|2 + |HH (−z)|2 = 1 (32)

Fig. 2. A ﬂowchart for the developed method.

and it leads to Eq. (33) in frequency domain

|HL (ejω )|8 + |HL (ejω )|6 |HL (ej(ω−) )|2 + |HL (ejω )|4 |HL (ej(ω−) )|2

+ |HL (ejω )|2 |HL (ej(ω−) )|2 + |HL (ej(ω−) )|2 = 1 (33)

Step 1: Specify design speciﬁcations stopband attenuation (As ),

passband ripple (Ap ), and normalized passband (ωp ), stopband

Now, if it is evaluated at ω = 0.5, then

frequency (ωs ), number of band (M), and step size.

2|HL (ej/2 )|8 + |HL (ej/2 )|6 + |HL (ej/2 )|4 + |HL (ej/2 )|2 = 1 (34) Step 2: Initialize counter and the magnitude response (MR) of the

prototype ﬁlter given by Eq. (18) and also specify tolerance (Tol).

Let HL (ej/2 ) = x,

and ﬁnally the above equation becomes a eight Step 3: Design the prototype ﬁlter using constrained equiripple

degree polynomial equation in terms x ﬁnite impulse response (FIR) technique before the optimization

start. Calculate the magnitude response of designed ﬁlter (MRD)

2x8 + x6 + x4 + x2 − 1 = 0 (35)

at ω = /2. Also calculate error = MR − MRD.

The roots of this equation are found using simple factoriza- Step 4: (A) If error is not comparable to tolerance (Tol), the passband

tion approach and the roots are x = ±0.7071, −0.7071 ± 0.7071i, edge frequency (ωp ) is varied using the step size. It is varied in two

0.7071 ± 0.7071i, and ±i. Since negative and imaginary roots are ways:

not possible, so after discarding them a. if MRD < MR, then increase ωp by step

b. Otherwise, decrease ωp by step

x = 0.7071 ⇒ |HL (ej/2 )| = 0.707 (36)

Step 4: (B) If error is not comparable to tolerance. Then, design the

Therefore, the above ﬁndings lead to same perfect reconstruc- other ﬁlters composing the parallel equivalent NUFB using Eqs.

tion as deﬁned by Eq. (18). Now, the non-uniform ﬁlter bank (4)–(6) in case of 3-channel NUFB, Eq. (24) in 4-channel NUFB and

design problem is reduced to estimate the optimized values ﬁlter Eq. (28).

coefﬁcients so that their values at quadrature frequency are 0.707. Step 5: Redesign the prototype ﬁlter using new ωp and same order.

In the proposed method, this new PR condition is approximately Calculate MRD and also error.

satisﬁed by adjusting the ﬁlter coefﬁcients. Similar to other algo- Step 6: Increment the counter by 1 and step = step/2. Go to step 4

rithms [16], the passband edge frequency is optimized to satisfy till error is not comparable to tolerance.

new perfect reconstruction. In this algorithm, instead of comput-

ing complex objective function, the ﬁlter coefﬁcients are evaluated

at ω = /2 in each iteration, which reduces the computation com- A ﬂowchart of the complete routine is shown in Fig. 2. The pro-

plexity. The desired steps required for design of prototype ﬁlter posed method has been simulated in Matlab 7.6 on Genuine Intel

using the proposed method are: (R) CPU T2300 @ 1.66 GHz, 1 GB RAM.

A. Kumar et al. / Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 353–360 357

Magnitude ->(dB)

Magnitude in dB:

0

-100

-50

-200

-100

-300

-150 -400

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Normalized Freq. by 2pi: Normalized freq by 2pi:

1.002

Magnitude ->(dB)

0.01

Magnitude ->

1.001

0

1

-0.01

0.999

0.998 -0.02

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Normalized freq by 2pi: Normalized freq by 2pi:

Fig. 3. Performance of 3-channel non-uniform ﬁlter bank (4, 4, and 2) designed using the proposed method. (a) Magnitude responses of the prototype ﬁlter in dB, (b)

magnitude responses of the analysis ﬁlters in dB, (c) variation of peak reconstruction error and (d) variation of peak reconstruction error in dB.

4. Results and discussion this method is evaluated in terms of number of iterations (NOI),

computation time (CPU time), and reconstruction error (PRE) given

In this section, the proposed methodology has been imple- by

mented on MATLAB and employed for designing non-uniform

M−1 M−1

ﬁlter bank via constrained equiripple FIR technique. To illus-

trate the efﬁcacy of the developed method, many examples with PRE = max jω 2

Hk (e ) − min jω 2

Hk (e ) (37)

different design speciﬁcations are included. The performance of k=0 k=0

(a) 50 (b) 50

0

Magnitude in dB:

Magnitude ->(dB)

-50 -50

-100 -100

-150 -150

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Normalized Freq. by 2pi: Normalised freq. by 2pi:

1.002

Magnitude ->(dB)

0.01

Magnitude ->

1.001

0

1

-0.01

0.999

0.998 -0.02

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Normalised freq. by 2pi: Normalised freq. by 2pi

Fig. 4. Performance of 4-channel non-uniform ﬁlter bank (8, 8, 4 and 2) designed using the proposed method. (a) Magnitude responses of the prototype ﬁlter in dB, (b)

magnitude responses of the analysis ﬁlters in dB, (c) variation of peak reconstruction error and (d) Variation of peak reconstruction error in dB.

358 A. Kumar et al. / Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 353–360

a 50 b 50

Magnitude ->(dB)

Magnitude in dB:

0 0

-50 -50

-100 -100

-150 -150

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

0.02

c 1.003 d

Magnitude ->(dB)

1.002 0.01

Magnitude ->

1.001

0

1

-0.01

0.999

0.998 -0.02

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Fig. 5. Performance of 5-channel non-uniform ﬁlter bank (16, 16, 8, 4, and 2) designed using the proposed method. (a) Magnitude responses of the prototype ﬁlter in dB, (b)

magnitude responses of the analysis ﬁlters in dB, (c) variation of peak reconstruction error and (d) Variation of peak reconstruction error in dB.

Example-I: A 3-channel linear-phase non-uniform ﬁlter bank designed with the proposed method. The design results obtained in

with decimation factors 4, 4, and 2 is designed by the pro- this case are shown in Fig. 5. The proposed method is also exploited

posed method. Design speciﬁcations for the prototype ﬁlter for other design examples, and the simulation results obtained

are N + 1 =96, stopband attenuation (As ) = 80 dB, passband ripple are tabulated in Table 1. As it can be observed from the simula-

(Ap ) = 0.000521 dB, ωs = 0.51, and ωp = 0.41. The peak reconstruc- tion results, the proposed method gives better performance in all

tion error (PRE), computational time (CPU time) and number of aspects. The peak reconstruction error is reduced appreciably. The

iterations (NOI) obtained are 2.8 × 10−3 , 0.826 s, and 11, respec- average peak reconstruction error obtained in 3-channel and 4-

tively (Fig. 3). channel NUFBs is 4.9 × 10−3 , and 4.81 × 10−3 , respectively, while in

Example-II: A 4-channel linear-phase non-uniform ﬁlter bank 5-channel NUFBs is 4.85 × 10−3 . The computation time and number

(8, 8, 4, 2) with the prototype ﬁlter design speciﬁcations: N + 1 =48, of iterations required in the proposed method are extremely low

As = 80 dB, Ap = 0.0005 dB, ωs = 0.61 and ωp = 0.41 is designed even if the number of ﬁlter taps is more. Hence, this technique can

with this method. In this case, PRE and computational time are be effectively utilized for designing non-uniform ﬁlter bank with

3.11 × 10−3 and 0.733 s, respectively, while NOI = 15 and the simu- larger ﬁlter taps.

lation results is depicted in Fig. 4. Results of the comparative studies made are given in Table 2,

Example-III: A 5-channel NUFB with decimation factors 16, 16, which clearly show the superiority of the proposed methodol-

8, 4, and 2 and same design speciﬁcations as used in example II is ogy over the exiting algorithms [28,38,39]. For this, non-uniform

Table 1

Performance of the proposed method for designing nonuniform ﬁlter bank.

Band (M) Filter taps (N) As (dB) PRE NOI CPU time (s)

−3

48 0.00050 3.11 × 10 15 0.733

66 0.00017 2.51 × 10−3 17 0.782

72 0.00016 4.91 × 10−3 16 0.846

Three band (4, 4, 2)

80 0.00077 8.11 × 10−3 17 0.923

90 0.00027 8.11 × 10−3 16 0.867

96 0.00051 2.80 × 10−3 11 0.826

66 0.00017 5.70 × 10−3 9 0.702

72 0.00016 5.70 × 10−3 18 1.056

Four band (8, 8, 4, 2)

80 0.00077 7.40 × 10−3 16 0.923

90 0.00027 3.50 × 10−3 18 1.162

96 0.00051 3.50 × 10−3 15 1.157

66 0.00017 5.70 × 10−3 9 0.686

72 0.00016 5.70 × 10−3 17 1.216

Five band (16, 16, 8, 4, 2)

80 0.00077 7.31 × 10−3 17 1.232

90 0.00027 3.72 × 10−3 18 1.211

96 0.00051 3.59 × 10−3 17 1.102

A. Kumar et al. / Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 353–360 359

Table 2

Comparison of the proposed methodology with earlier published results.

Algorithms Band (M) Filter taps (N) As (dB) PRE NOI CPU time (s)

Algorithm in [28] Three band (4, 4, 2) 63 110 3.85 × 10−3 158 2.35

63 70 1.10 × 10−3 158 2.28

Three band (4, 4, 2) 66 80 2.51 × 10−3 17 0.782

72 80 4.91 × 10−3 16 0.846

Proposed method 48 80 3.11 × 10−3 15 0.733

Four band (8, 8, 4, 2)

66 80 5.70 × 10−3 9 0.702

96 80 3.59 × 10−3 17 1.102

Five band (16, 16, 8, 4, 2)

90 80 3.72 × 10−3 18 1.211

Table 3

Fidelity assessment parameters in the proposed algorithm.

Speech, F, Eng.: M 45 1.035 × 10−1 4.316 × 10−11 1.016 × 10−5 59.61

Speech, L, Eng.: M 45 0.977 × 10−1 1.620 × 10−11 9.251 × 10−4 60.21

Speech, O, Eng.: M 45 0.935 × 10−1 1.358 × 10−11 8.029 × 10−4 60.44

ﬁlter banks with similar design speciﬁcations as published ear- it is necessary to compress the speech signal. Here, the proposed

lier have been designed and compared. As, it can be seen that the method has been used for subband coding of speech signal. For

performances of the proposed method are signiﬁcantly improved this, 3-channel NUFB is designed with same design speciﬁcations

as compared to the earlier known techniques in terms of peak as in Example I, and is exploited for subband coding. Several ﬁdelity

reconstruction error, computational time (CPU time) and number of parameters such as percent root mean square difference (PRD),

iterations. The percentage difference in peak reconstruction error mean square error (MSE), maximum error (ME), and signal to noise

provided by this method relative to other methods [28,38,39] is ratio (SNR) discussed in [6,20,37–39] are computed and summa-

15.31%, 51.03%, and 51.03%, respectively. The computational time rized in Table 3. Fig. 6 shows the original ECG signals (MIT/BIH-100)

and number of iterations are signiﬁcantly reduced as in each iter- and its reconstructed version.

ation only ﬁlter coefﬁcients value at ω = /2 are computed and As it can be observed from Table 3, all the ﬁdelity parameters

compared with the ideal values. Therefore, this technique can be obtained with this methodology are much better than the accept-

successfully employed for various applications which are carried able range in practice. Thus, it is evident that the proposed method

out in real time and quasi real time. can effectively used for subband coding of the signal.

In practice, almost all the real signals have uneven distribution of

energy in different bands or energy is dominantly concentrated in a 5. Conclusions

particular region of frequency. This uneven distribution of energy in

different bands provides the basis for signal or source compression. A new algorithm for the design of linear-phase non-uniform ﬁl-

The speech signal has also non-uniform frequency distribution. ter bank is presented. In this method, the passband frequency is

Since speech coding is widely used in numerous applications such optimized so that the magnitude response of the prototype ﬁlter

as mobile satellite communications, cellular telephony, video tele- is approximately close to 0.707 at quadrature frequency. A com-

conferencing systems and storage of speech for speech synthesis parative study of the performance has also been carried out. From

and playback, or for the transmission of voice at a later time, hence the study, it is evidenced that the peak reconstruction error is less

as compared to earlier published result. It is also observed that

Origional Signal the proposed algorithm requires less computational time and con-

1 verges very fast in low number of iterations. It can be effectively

Magnitude->

0

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