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Maximum power point tracking(MPPT)[1][2] or sometimes just power point tracking(PPT)[3][4]) is a technique used commonly

with wind turbines andphotovoltaic (PV) solar systems to maximize power extraction under all conditions.

Although solar power is mainly covered, the principle applies generally to sources with variable power: for example, optical power

transmission and thermophotovoltaics.

PV solar systems exist in many different configurations with regard to their relationship to inverter systems, external grids, battery

banks, or other electrical loads.[5] Regardless of the ultimate destination of the solar power, though, the central problem addressed by

MPPT is that the efficiency of power transfer from the solar cell depends on both the amount of sunlight falling on the solar panels

and the electrical characteristics of the load. As the amount of sunlight varies, the load characteristic that gives the highest power

transfer efficiency changes, so that the efficiency of the system is optimized when the load characteristic changes to keep the power

transfer at highest efficiency. This load characteristic is called the maximum power point (MPP) and MPPT is the process of finding

this point and keeping the load characteristic there. Electrical circuits can be designed to present arbitrary loads to the photovoltaic

cells and then convert the voltage, current, or frequency to suit other devices or systems, and MPPT solves the problem of choosing

the best load to be presented to the cells in order to get the most usable power out.

Solar cells have a complex relationship between temperature and total resistance that produces a non-linear output efficiency which

can be analyzed based on the I-V curve.[6][7] It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the output of the PV cells and apply the

proper resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions.[8] MPPT devices are typically integrated

into an electric power convertersystem that provides voltage or current conversion, filtering, and regulation for driving various loads,

including power grids, batteries, or motors.

Solar inverters convert the DC power to AC power and may incorporate MPPT : such inverters sample the output

power (I-V curve) from the solar modules and apply the proper resistance (load) so as to obtain maximum power.

The power at the MPP (Pmpp ) is the product of the MPP voltage (Vmpp ) and MPP current (Impp ).

Contents

Background

Implementation

Classification

Perturb and observe

Incremental conductance

Current sweep

Constant voltage

Temperature Method

Advantages

Disadvantages

Comparison of methods

MPPT placement

Operation with batteries

References

External links

Background

Photovoltaic cells have a complex relationship between their operating environment

and the maximum power they can produce. The fill factor, abbreviated FF, is a

parameter which characterizes the non-linear electrical behavior of the solar cell. Fill

factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum power from the solar cell to the

product of open circuit voltage Voc and short-circuit current Isc. In tabulated data it

is often used to estimate the maximum power that a cell can provide with an optimal

load under given conditions, P=FF*Voc*Isc. For most purposes, FF, Voc, and Isc are

enough information to give a useful approximate model of the electrical behavior of

a photovoltaic cell under typical conditions.

For any given set of operational conditions, cells have a single operating point where

Photovoltaic solar cell I-V curves

the values of the current (I) and voltage (V) of the cell result in a maximum power

where a line intersects the knee of

output.[9] These values correspond to a particular load resistance, which is equal to

the curves where the maximum

V / I as specified by Ohm's Law. The power P is given by P=V*I. A photovoltaic power transfer point is located.

cell, for the majority of its useful curve, acts as a constant current source.[10]

However, at a photovoltaic cell's MPP region, its curve has an approximately inverse

exponential relationship between current and voltage. From basic circuit theory, the power delivered from or to a device is optimized

where the derivative (graphically, the slope) dI/dV of the I-V curve is equal and opposite the I/V ratio (where dP/dV=0).[11] This is

known as the maximum power point(MPP) and corresponds to the "knee" of the curve.

A load with resistance R=V/I equal to the reciprocal of this value draws the maximum power from the device. This is sometimes

called the 'characteristic resistance' of the cell. This is a dynamic quantity which changes depending on the level of illumination, as

well as other factors such as temperature and the age of the cell. If the resistance is lower or higher than this value, the power drawn

will be less than the maximum available, and thus the cell will not be used as efficiently as it could be. Maximum power point

trackers utilize different types of control circuit or logic to search for this point and thus to allow the converter circuit to extract the

maximum power available from a cell.

Implementation

When a load is directly connected to the solar panel, the operating point of the panel will rarely be at peak power. The impedance

seen by the panel derives the operating point of the solar panel. Thus by varying the impedance seen by the panel, the operating point

can be moved towards peak power point. Since panels are DC devices, DC-DC converters must be utilized to transform the

impedance of one circuit (source) to the other circuit (load). Changing the duty ratio of the DC-DC converter results in an impedance

change as seen by the panel. At a particular impedance (i.e. duty ratio) the operating point will be at the peak power transfer point.

The I-V curve of the panel can vary considerably with variation in atmospheric conditions such as radiance and temperature.

Therefore, it is not feasible to fix the duty ratio with such dynamically changing operating conditions.

MPPT implementations utilize algorithms that frequently sample panel voltages and currents, then adjust the duty ratio as needed.

Microcontrollers are employed to implement the algorithms. Modern implementations often utilize larger computers for analytics and

load forecasting.

Classification

Controllers can follow several strategies to optimize the power output of an array. Maximum power point trackers may implement

different algorithms and switch between them based on the operating conditions of the array.[12]

In this method the controller adjusts the voltage by a small amount from the array and measures power; if the power increases, further

adjustments in that direction are tried until power no longer increases. This is called the perturb and observe method and is most

common, although this method can result in oscillations of power output.[13][14] It is referred to as a hill climbing method, because it

depends on the rise of the curve of power against voltage below the maximum power point, and the fall above that point.[15] Perturb

and observe is the most commonly used MPPT method due to its ease of implementation.[13] Perturb and observe method may result

[16][17]

in top-level efficiency, provided that a proper predictive and adaptive hill climbing strategy is adopted.

Incremental conductance

In the incremental conductance method, the controller measures incremental changes in PV array current and voltage to predict the

effect of a voltage change. This method requires more computation in the controller, but can track changing conditions more rapidly

than the perturb and observe method (P&O). Like the P&O algorithm, it can produce oscillations in power output.[18] This method

utilizes the incremental conductance (dI/dV) of the photovoltaic array to compute the sign of the change in power with respect to

voltage (dP/dV).[19]

The incremental conductance method computes the maximum power point by comparison of the incremental conductance (IΔ / VΔ)

to the array conductance (I / V). When these two are the same (I / V = IΔ / VΔ), the output voltage is the MPP voltage... The

[13]

controller maintains this voltage until the irradiation changes and the process is repeated.

The incremental conductance method is based on the observation that at the maximum power point dP/dV = 0, and that P = IV. The

current from the array can be expressed as a function of the voltage: P = I(V)V. Therefore, dP/dV = VdI/dV + I(V). Setting this equal

to zero yields: dI/dV = -I(V)/V. Therefore, the maximum power point is achieved when the incremental conductance is equal to the

negative of the instantaneous conductance.

Current sweep

The current sweep method uses a sweep waveform for the PV array current such that the I-V characteristic of the PV array is

obtained and updated at fixed time intervals. The maximum power point voltage can then be computed from the characteristic curve

at the same intervals.[20][21]

Constant voltage

The term "constant voltage" in MPP tracking is used to describe different techniques by different authors, one in which the output

voltage is regulated to a constant value under all conditions and one in which the output voltage is regulated based on a constant ratio

to the measured open circuit voltage (VOC ). The latter technique is referred to in contrast as the "open voltage" method by some

authors.[22] If the output voltage is held constant, there is no attempt to track the maximum power point, so it is not a maximum

power point tracking technique in a strict sense, though it does have some advantages in cases when the MPP tracking tends to fail,

and thus it is sometimes used to supplement an MPPT method in those cases.

In the "constant voltage" MPPT method (also known as the "open voltage method"), the power delivered to the load is momentarily

interrupted and the open-circuit voltage with zero current is measured. The controller then resumes operation with the voltage

controlled at a fixed ratio, such as 0.76, of the open-circuit voltage VOC .[23] This is usually a value which has been determined to be

[18][19] The operating point of

the maximum power point, either empirically or based on modelling, for expected operating conditions.

the PV array is thus kept near the MPP by regulating the array voltage and matching it to the fixed reference voltage Vref=kVOC . The

value of Vref may be also chosen to give optimal performance relative to other factors as well as the MPP, but the central idea in this

technique is that Vref is determined as a ratio to VOC .

One of the inherent approximations to the "constant voltage" ratio method is that the ratio of the MPP voltage to VOC is only

approximately constant, so it leaves room for further possible optimization.

Temperature Method

This method of MPPT estimates the MPP voltage ( ) by measuring the temperature of the solar module and comparing it against

a reference.[24] Since changes in irradiation levels have a negligible effect on the maximum power point voltage, its influences may

be ignored - the voltage is assumed to only vary linearly with the temperature changes.

Where:

is a reference temperature;

Advantages

Simplicity: This algorithm solves one linear equation. Therefore, it does not consume much computational power

.

Can be implemented as analog or digital circuits.

Since temperature varies slowly with time, there are no steady-state oscillation and instability

.

Low cost: temperature sensors are usually very cheap.

Robust against noise.

Disadvantages

Estimation error might not be negligible for low irradiation levels (e.g. below 200 W/m²).

Comparison of methods

Both perturb and observe, and incremental conductance, are examples of "hill climbing" methods that can find the local maximum of

, and so provide a true maximum power point.[6][15][18]

the power curve for the operating condition of the PV array

The perturb and observe method requires oscillating power output around the maximum power point even under steady state

irradiance.

The incremental conductance method has the advantage over the perturb and observe (P&O) method that it can determine the

maximum power point without oscillating around this value.[13] It can perform maximum power point tracking under rapidly varying

irradiation conditions with higher accuracy than the perturb and observe method.[13] However, the incremental conductance method

can produce oscillations (unintentionally) and can perform erratically under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The sampling

[19]

frequency is decreased due to the higher complexity of the algorithm compared to the P&O method.

In the constant voltage ratio (or "open voltage") method, the current from the photovoltaic array must be set to zero momentarily to

measure the open circuit voltage and then afterwards set to a predetermined percentage of the measured voltage, usually around

76%.[19] Energy may be wasted during the time the current is set to zero.[19] The approximation of 76% as the MPP/VOC ratio is not

necessarily accurate.[19] Although simple and low-cost to implement, the interruptions reduce array efficiency and do not ensure

, efficiencies of some systems may reach above 95%.[23]

finding the actual maximum power point. However

MPPT placement

Traditional solar inverters perform MPPT for the entire PV array (module association) as a whole. In such systems the same current,

dictated by the inverter, flows through all modules in the string (series). Because different modules have different I-V curves and

different MPPs (due to manufacturing tolerance, partial shading,[25] etc.) this architecture means some modules will be performing

below their MPP, resulting in lower efficiency.[26]

Some companies (see power optimizer) are now placing maximum power point tracker into individual modules, allowing each to

operate at peak efficiency despite uneven shading, soiling or electrical mismatch.

Data suggests having one inverter with one MPPT for a project that has east and west-facing modules presents no disadvantages

.[27]

when compared to having two inverters or one inverter with more than one MPPT

At night, an off-grid PV system may use batteries to supply loads. Although the fully charged battery pack voltage may be close to

the PV panel's maximum power point voltage, this is unlikely to be true at sunrise when the battery has been partially discharged.

Charging may begin at a voltage considerably below the PV panel maximum power point voltage, and an MPPT can resolve this

mismatch.

When the batteries in an off-grid system are fully charged and PV production exceeds local loads, an MPPT can no longer operate the

panel at its maximum power point as the excess power has no load to absorb it. The MPPT must then shift the PV panel operating

point away from the peak power point until production exactly matches demand. (An alternative approach commonly used in

spacecraft is to divert surplus PV power into a resistive load, allowing the panel to operate continuously at its peak power point.)

In a grid-connected photovoltaic system, all delivered power from solar modules will be sent to the grid. Therefore, the MPPT in a

grid connected PV system will always attempt to operate the PV modules at its maximum power point.

References

1. Seyedmahmoudian, M.; Horan, B.; Soon, T . Kok; Rahmani, R.; Than Oo, A. Muang; Mekhilef, S.; Stojcevski, A.

(2016-10-01). "State of the art artificial intelligence-based MPPT techniques for mitigating partial shadingfects

ef on

PV systems – A review".Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 64: 435–455. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.06.053

(https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.rser.2016.06.053).

2. Seyedmahmoudian, Mehdi; Horan, Ben; Rahmani, Rasoul; Maung Than Oo, Aman; Stojcevski, Alex (2016-03-02).

"Efficient Photovoltaic System Maximum Power Point Tracking Using a New Technique". Energies. 9 (3): 147.

doi:10.3390/en9030147 (https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fen9030147).

3. "What is Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)" (https://www.solar-electric.com/mppt-solar-charge-controllers.htm

l).

4. Ali, Ali Nasr Allah; Saied, Mohamed H.; Mostafa, M. Z.; Abdel- Moneim,.TM. (2012). "A survey of maximum PPT

techniques of PV systems"(http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/6294016/6304622/06304652.pdf)(PDF). A Survey of

Maximum PPT techniques of PV Systems - IEEE Xplore . pp. 1–17. doi:10.1109/EnergyTech.2012.6304652 (https://d

oi.org/10.1109%2FEnergyTech.2012.6304652). ISBN 978-1-4673-1835-8.

5. Seyedmahmoudian, M.; Rahmani, R.; Mekhilef, S.; Maung Than Oo, A.; Stojcevski, A.; Soon,ey

T Kok; Ghandhari,

A. S. (2015-07-01). "Simulation and Hardware Implementation of New Maximum Power Pointracking

T Technique for

Partially Shaded PV System Using Hybrid DEPSO Method".IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. 6 (3): 850–

862. doi:10.1109/TSTE.2015.2413359(https://doi.org/10.1109%2FTSTE.2015.2413359) . ISSN 1949-3029 (https://w

ww.worldcat.org/issn/1949-3029).

6. Seyedmahmoudian, Mohammadmehdi; Mohamadi, Arash; Kumary , Swarna (2014). "A Comparative Study on

Procedure and State of the Art of Conventional Maximum Power Point racking

T Techniques for Photovoltaic

System". International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering

. 6 (5): 402–414.

doi:10.17706/ijcee.2014.v6.859(https://doi.org/10.17706%2Fijcee.2014.v6.859) .

7. Seyedmahmoudian, Mohammadmehdi; Mekhilef, Saad; Rahmani, Rasoul; usof, Y Rubiyah; Renani, Ehsan Taslimi

(2013-01-04). "Analytical Modeling of Partially Shaded Photovoltaic Systems".

Energies. 6 (1): 128–144.

doi:10.3390/en6010128 (https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fen6010128).

8. Surawdhaniwar, Sonali; Diwan, Ritesh (July 2012). "Study of Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Perturb and

Observe Method". International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering &echnology.

T 1 (5): 106–

110.

9. Seyedmahmoudian, Mohammadmehdi; Mekhilef, Saad; Rahmani, Rasoul; usof, Y Rubiyah; Shojaei, Ali Asghar

(2014-03-01). "Maximum power point tracking of partial shaded photovoltaic array using an evolutionary algorithm: A

particle swarm optimization technique".Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy . 6 (2): 023102.

doi:10.1063/1.4868025 (https://doi.org/10.1063%2F1.4868025). ISSN 1941-7012 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/194

1-7012).

10. "University of Chicago GEOS24705 Solar Photovoltaics EJM May 2011"

(http://geosci.uchicago.edu/~moyer/GEOS2

4705/2011/Notes/SolarPhysics.pdf)(PDF).

11. Sze, Simon M. (1981). Physics of Semiconductor Devices(2nd ed.). p. 796.

12. Rahmani, R.; Seyedmahmoudian, M.;, Mekhilef, S.; Y usof, R.; 2013. Implementation of fuzzy logic maximum power

point tracking controller for photovoltaic system. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 10: 209-218.

13. "Maximum Power Point Tracking" (https://web.archive.org/web/20110416062158/http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/

p/id/8106). zone.ni.com. zone.ni.com. Archived fromthe original (http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/8106)on

2011-04-16. Retrieved 2011-06-18.

14. "Advanced Algorithm for MPPT Control of Photovoltaic System"(https://web.archive.org/web/20131219221448/htt

p://sbrn.solarbuildings.ca/c/sbn/file_db/Doc_File_e/Advanced%20algorithm%20for%20MPPT .pdf) (PDF).

solarbuildings.ca. Archived fromthe original (http://sbrn.solarbuildings.ca/c/sbn/file_db/Doc_File_e/Advanced%20alg

orithm%20for%20MPPT.pdf) (PDF) on 2013-12-19. Retrieved 2013-12-19.

15. Hohm, D. P.; Ropp, M. E. (2003). "Comparative Study of Maximum Power Point racking

T Algorithms". Progress in

Photovoltaics: Research and Applications. 11: 47–62. doi:10.1002/pip.459 (https://doi.org/10.1002%2Fpip.459).

16. "Performances Improvement of Maximum Power Point rTacking Perturb and Observe Method"(http://www.actapres

s.com/Abstract.aspx?paperId=23133). actapress.com. 2006-03-09. Retrieved 2011-06-18.

17. Zhang, Q.; Hu, C.; Chen, L.; Amirahmadi, A.; Kutkut, N.; Batarseh, I. (2014). "A Center Point Iteration MPPT Method

With Application on the Frequency-Modulated LLC Microinverter".IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. 29 (3):

1262–1274. doi:10.1109/tpel.2013.2262806(https://doi.org/10.1109%2Ftpel.2013.2262806) .

18. "Evaluation of Micro Controller Based Maximum Power Point racking

T Methods Using dSPACE Platform" (https://we

b.archive.org/web/20110726191244/http://itee.uq.edu.au/~aupec/aupec06/htdocs/content/pdf/165.pdf) (PDF).

itee.uq.edu.au. Archived fromthe original (http://itee.uq.edu.au/~aupec/aupec06/htdocs/content/pdf/165.pdf)(PDF)

on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2011-06-18.

19. "MPPT algorithms" (http://powerelectronics.com/power_semiconductors/power_microinverters_computercontrolled_i

mprove_0409/). powerelectronics.com. April 2009. Retrieved 2011-06-10.

20. Esram, Trishan; Chapman, P. L. (2007). "Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point rTacking

Techniques". IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. 22 (2).

21. Bodur, Mehmet; Ermis, M. (1994). "Maximumpower point tracking for low power photovoltaic solar panels".

Proceedings of the 7th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference

: 758–761.

22. "Energy comparison of MPPT techniques for PV Systems"(http://www.wseas.us/e-library/transactions/power/2008/2

7-545.pdf) (PDF). wseas. Retrieved 2011-06-18.

23. Ferdous, S.M.; Mohammad, Mahir Asif; Nasrullah, Farhan; Saleque, Ahmed Mortuza; Muttalib, A.Z.M.Shahriar

(2012). 2012 7th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering

. ieee.org. pp. 908–911.

doi:10.1109/ICECE.2012.6471698(https://doi.org/10.1109%2FICECE.2012.6471698) . ISBN 978-1-4673-1436-7.

24. "A MPPT approach based on temperature measurements applied in PV systems - IEEE Conference Publication"

(htt

ps://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5684440). ieeexplore.ieee.org. Retrieved 2018-10-12.

25. Seyedmahmoudian, M.; Mekhilef, S.; Rahmani, R.; Yusof, R.; Renani, E.T. Analytical Modeling of Partially Shaded

Photovoltaic Systems. Energies 2013, 6, 128-144.

26. "Invert your thinking: Squeezing more power out of your solar panels"(http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/solar-at-ho

me/invert-your-thinking-squeezing-more-power-out-of-your-solar-panels/) . blogs.scientificamerican.com. Retrieved

2015-05-05.

27. "InterPV.net - Global PhotoVoltaic Business Magazine"(http://www.interpv.net/tech/tech_print.asp?idx=418&part_co

de=030140054). interpv.net.

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