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20.

LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT


Animals, plants exhibit wide movement range (significant features, living beings)
Protoplasm streaming (unicellular organisms, Amoeba) - cilia, flagella tentacles
Humans move limbs, jaws, eyelids, tongue, etc - some movements result change, place/location (locomotion) - walk, run, climb, fly, swim
Locomotory structures need not be diff. For diff. Movement - Paramoecium, cilia helps food movement through cytopharynx + locomotion
- Hydra, tentacles capture prey + locomotion
- We use limbs, change body postures + locomotion
Movements + locomotion cannot be studied separately - all locomotions are movements, all movements are not locomotions
Locomotion by animals vary (habitats, situation) - search food, shelter, mate, suitable breeding grounds / climatic conditions, escape (enemies/predators)
20.1 TYPES OF MOVEMENT : human body cells, three movement types (amoeboid, ciliary, muscular)
Some specialised cells (macrophages, leucocytes) exhibit amoeboid movement - pseudopodia formed by protoplasm streaming (Amoeba)
- cytoskeletal elements (microfilaments) also involved
Ciliary movement (most internal tubular organs, lined by ciliated epithelium)
- coordinated cilia movements (trachea) remove dust particles, foreign substances inhaled along
- Passage of ova through female reproductive tract
Muscular movement - limbs, jaws, tongue, etc - contractile property effectively used
- locomotion + other movements (human beings, majority multicellular organisms)
- requires perfect coordinated activity (muscular, skeletal, neural systems)
Cilia , flagella are outgrowths (cell membrane) - flagellar movement helps spermatozoa swim, maintain water current in sponges canal system
- locomotion of Protozoans (Euglena)
20.2 MUSCLE : specialized tissue, mesodermal origin - human adult 40-50% body weight, muscles
- have special properties (excitability, contractility, extensibility, elasticity)
Classified (location, appearance, nature of regulation of their activities) - 3 location types:
(i) skeletal - closely associated with skeletal components (body) - striped under microscope, called striated muscles - under voluntary
control of nervous system, voluntary muscles - primarily locomotory actions, change body postures
(ii) visceral - inner walls, hollow visceral organs (alimentary canal, reproductive tract, etc) - called smooth muscles (nonstriated muscle) -
not under voluntary control of nervous system, involuntary muscles - transport food through digestive tract - gametes through genital tract
(iii) cardiac - heart - many muscle cells assemble, branch pattern – striated but involuntary (nervous system, no direct control
Skeletal muscle in detail to understand structure, contraction mechanism : each organised muscle made of number of muscle bundles/fascicles
- held together by common collagenous connective tissue layer (fascia) - each muscle bundle contains number of muscle fibres
- each muscle fibre lined by plasma membrane (sarcolemma), enclosing the sarcoplasm - Muscle fibre, syncitium (sarcoplasm contains many nuclei)
- endoplasmic / sarcoplasmic reticulum, store house of calcium ions - characteristic feature, large number of parallelly arranged filaments in
sarcoplasm (myofilaments / myofibrils) - Each myofibril has alternate dark, light bands on it)
- detailed study of myofibril, striated appearance due to distribution pattern (two important proteins - Actin, Myosin)
- light bands contain actin, I / Isotropic band, dark band contain myosin, A / Anisotropic band
- both proteins arranged as rod-like structures, parallel to each other and also to longitudinal axis of myofibrils
- Actin filaments thinner than myosin filaments, commonly called thin and thick filaments respectively
- centre of each ‘I’ band, elastic fibre ‘Z’line bisects - thin filaments firmly attached to ‘Z’ line
- thick ‘A’ band filaments also held together in middle by thin fibrous membrane ‘M’ line
- ‘A’ and ‘I’ bands alternately throughout length of myofibrils - myofibril portion b/w 2 successive ‘Z’ lines, functional unit (contraction, sarcomere)
- In rest, edges of thin filaments partially overlap free ends of thick filaments on either side leaving central thick filaments region (‘H’ zone)
20.2.1 Structure of Contractile Proteins : each thin actin filament is of 2 ‘F’ (filamentous) actins helically wound to each other
- each ‘F’ actin, polymer of monomeric ‘G’(Globular) actins - 2 filaments (another protein tropomyosin) also run close to ‘F’ actins throughout length
- complex protein Troponin, at regular intervals on tropomyosin - at rest, a troponin subunit masks active binding sites for myosin on actin filaments
- each myosin (thick) filament also polymerised protein (many monomeric proteins, Meromyosins)
20.2.2 Mechanism of Muscle Contraction : best explained by sliding filament theory (fibre contraction takes place by sliding thin over thick filaments)
- initiated by signal (CNS via motor neuron) - motor neuron + muscle fibres connected ( constitute motor unit)
- neuromuscular junction / motor-end plate (motor neuron, muscle fibre sarcolemma)
- neural signal reaching this junction release neurotransmitter (Acetyl choline), generate an action potential in sarcolemma
- spreads through muscle fibre, release Ca++ ions into sarcoplasm - increased Ca++ level leads binding (Ca++ & troponin subunit ) on actin filaments
- remove mask of active sites for myosin - utilise energy (ATP hydrolysis), myosin head now binds exposed active sites on actin form cross bridge
- pulls attached actin filaments towards ‘A’ band centre - ‘Z’ line attached to these actins also pull inwards, cause sarcomere shortening (contraction)
- during muscle shortening / contraction, ‘I’ bands reduce, ‘A’ bands retain length - myosin, releasing ADP & P1 goes back to its relaxed state
- new ATP binds, breaks cross-bridge - ATP again hydrolysed by myosin head, repeated cross bridge cycle (form, break) cause further sliding
- process continues till Ca++ ions, pumped back to the sarcoplasmic cisternae, result masking (actin filaments)
- cause return of ‘Z’ lines back to original position (relaxation) - reaction time (fibres) can vary, different muscles
- repeated muscle activation, accumulate lactic acid, due to anaerobic glycogen breakdown in them, cause fatigue
- muscles contain red colour oxygen storing pigment, myoglobin - red fibres appear red (high myoglobin content), also contain plenty mitochondria
- use large amount stored oxygen within them for ATP production (aerobic muscles)
- some muscles possess very less quantity myoglobin (pale/whitish - white fibres) – only few mitochondria but high amount sarcoplasmic reticulum
- depend anaerobic process for energy
20.3 SKELETAL SYSTEM : consists framework (bones, few cartilages) - significant role in body movement - chewing food ( jaw bones), walk (limb bones)
Bone, cartilage (specialised connective tissues) - former (very hard matrix of calcium salts) latter (slightly pliable matrix of chondroitin salts)
Human beings, 206 bones + few cartilages - two principal divisions (axial, appendicular)
Axial skeleton - 80 bones distributed along main body axis - skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs
Skull (2 sets of bones - cranial, facial) - 22 bones - 8 cranials form hard protective outer covering (cranium) brain
-14 facial elements form front skull + single U shaped bone (hyoid), at buccal cavity
- each middle ear contains 3 tiny bones - Malleus, Incus, Stapes( collectively Ear Ossicles)
skull region articulates with superior region (vertebral column) with help of 2 occipital condyles (dicondylic skull)
Vertebral column - 26 serially arranged units (vertebrae), dorsally - constitutes main framework of trunk from skull base
- each vertebra has central hollow portion (neural canal, spinal cord passes through)
- First vertebra (atlas) articulates with occipital condyles
Differentiation from skull {cervical (7, almost all mammals including human beings), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacral (1-fused), coccygeal (1-fused)}
- protects spinal cord, supports head, point of ribs attachment, back musculature
Sternum - flat bone on ventral midline of thorax
Ribs - 12 pairs - Each rib, thin flat bone connected dorsally to vertebral column, ventrally to sternum
- 2 articulation surfaces on dorsal end, bicephalic
- First seven pairs true ribs (dorsally attached to thoracic vertebrae, ventrally connected to sternum with hyaline cartilage)
- 8th, 9th, 10th pairs do not articulate directly with sternum but join 7th rib with hyaline cartilage (vertebrochondral /false ribs)
- Last 2 pairs (11th, 12th ) not connected ventrally, floating ribs
-Thoracic vertebrae, ribs and sternum together form rib cage
Appendicular skeleton - limb bones along girdles - each limb, 30 bones
Hand bones (fore limb) - humerus, radius and ulna, carpals (wrist bones, 8), metacarpals (palm bones, 5), phalanges (digits, 14)
Leg bones (hind limb) - femur (thigh bone, longest), tibia and fibula, tarsals (ankle bones, 7), metatarsals (5), phalanges (digits, 14)
cup shaped bone (patella) covers the knee ventrally (knee cap)
girdle bones (Pectoral, Pelvic) help articulation (upper, lower limbs respectively with axial skeleton)
- each girdle of two halves - each half (pectoral girdle) consists clavicle and scapula (large triangular flat bone, dorsal thorax part b/w 2 nd & 7th ribs)
- scapula has slightly elevated ridge (spine) projecting as flat, expanded process (acromion) - clavicle articulates with acromion - Below acromion,
depression (glenoid cavity) articulates with humerus head, form shoulder joint - each clavicle (long slender bone with two curvatures) , collar bone
Pelvic girdle consists two coxal bones - each coxal bone (fusion of three bones – ilium, ischium, pubis)
- thigh bone articulates with fusion point (acetabulum cavity) - 2 halves meet ventrally, form pubic symphysis contain fibrous cartilage
20.4 JOINTS : essential for all movements involving bony parts - locomotory movements too - contact points between bones / between bones, cartilages
- muscle force carry out movement through joints (fulcrum) - varied movability depend different factors - 3 major structural forms
Fibrous joints, allow no movement (flat skull bones which fuse end-to-end with help of dense fibrous connective tissues in suture form, to form the cranium
Cartilaginous joints, join bones together with cartilages - joint between adjacent vertebrae (vertebral column) permits limited movements
Synovial joints, presence of fluid filled synovial cavity between articulating surfaces of two bones - such arrangement allows considerable movement - help
locomotion, other movements - Ball and socket joint (humerus, pectoral girdle), hinge joint (knee joint)
pivot joint (atlas, axis), gliding joint (between carpals), saddle joint (between carpal, metacarpal of thumb)
20.5 DISORDERS OF MUSCULAR AND SKELETAL SYSTEM :
Myasthenia gravis - auto immune disorder, affect neuromuscular junction - fatigue, weak and paralysis (skeletal muscle)
Muscular dystrophy - progressive degeneration of skeletal muscle mostly due to genetic disorder.
Tetany - Rapid spasms (wild muscle contractions), low Ca++ in body fluid
Arthritis - joints inflammation
Osteoporosis - age-related disorder, decreased bone mass, increase fracture chances, cause - decreased estrogen levels
Gout - joints inflammation, uric acid crystals accumulate
Chambers of the Heart
heart (muscular organ, fist size, just behind breastbone (slight left). The heart pumps blood through the network of arteries and veins called the
cardiovascular system.
heart (four chambers): right atrium receives blood from veins, pumps to right ventricle - right ventricle pumps it to lungs (loaded with oxygen) - left atrium
receives oxygenated blood from lungs, pumps to left ventricle (strongest chamber) pumps oxygen-rich blood to rest of body - left ventricle’s vigorous
contractions create blood pressure
coronary arteries run along heart’s surface - provide oxygen-rich blood to heart muscle
nerve tissue (web) runs through heart, conduct complex signals, govern contraction/relaxation
pericardium sac surrounds heart
Heart Conditions
 Coronary artery disease: Over the years, cholesterol plaques can narrow the arteries supplying blood to the heart. The narrowed arteries are at higher
risk for complete blockage from a sudden blood clot (this blockage is called a heart attack).
 Stable angina pectoris: Narrowed coronary arteries cause predictable chest pain or discomfort with exertion. The blockages prevent the heart from
receiving the extra oxygen needed for strenuous activity. Symptoms typically get better with rest.
 Unstable angina pectoris: Chest pain or discomfort that is new, worsening, or occurs at rest. This is an emergency situation as it can precede a heart
attack, serious abnormal heart rhythm, or cardiac arrest.
 Myocardial infarction (heart attack): A coronary artery is suddenly blocked. Starved of oxygen, part of the heart muscle dies.
 Arrhythmia (dysrhythmia): An abnormal heart rhythm due to changes in the conduction of electrical impulses through the heart. Some arrhythmias
are benign, but others are life-threatening.
 Congestive heart failure: The heart is either too weak or too stiff to effectively pump blood through the body. Shortness of breath and leg swelling are
common symptoms.
 Cardiomyopathy: A disease of heart muscle in which the heart is abnormally enlarged, thickened, and/or stiffened. As a result, the heart's ability to
pump blood is weakened.
 Myocarditis: Inflammation of the heart muscle, most often due to a viral infection.
 Pericarditis: Inflammation of the lining of the heart (pericardium). Viral infections, kidney failure, and autoimmune conditions are common causes.
 Pericardial effusion: Fluid between the lining of the heart (pericardium) and the heart itself. Often, this is due to pericarditis.
 Atrial fibrillation: Abnormal electrical impulses in the atria cause an irregular heartbeat. Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common arrhythmias.
 Pulmonary embolism: Typically a blood clot travels through the heart to the lungs.
 Heart valve disease: There are four heart valves, and each can develop problems. If severe, valve disease can cause congestive heart failure.
 Heart murmur: An abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart with a stethoscope. Some heart murmurs are benign; others suggest heart
disease.
 Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining or heart valves of the heart. Usually, endocarditis is due to a serious infection of the heart valves.
 Mitral valve prolapse: The mitral valve is forced backward slightly after blood has passed through the valve.
 Sudden cardiac death: Death caused by a sudden loss of heart function (cardiac arrest).
 Cardiac arrest: Sudden loss of heart function.
Heart Tests
 Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): A tracing of the heart’s electrical activity. Electrocardiograms can help diagnose many heart conditions.
 Echocardiogram: An ultrasound of the heart. An echocardiogram provides direct viewing of any problems with the heart muscle’s pumping ability
and heart valves.
 Cardiac stress test: By using a treadmill or medicines, the heart is stimulated to pump to near-maximum capacity. This may identify people with
coronary artery disease.
 Cardiac catheterization: A catheter is inserted into the femoral artery in the groin and threaded into the coronary arteries. A doctor can then view X-
ray images of the coronary arteries or any blockages and perform stenting or other procedures.
 Holter monitor: If a doctor suspects an arrhythmia, a portable heart monitor can be worn. Called a Holter monitor, it records the heart's rhythm
continuously for a 24 hour period.
 Event monitor: If a doctor suspects an infrequent arrhythmia, a portable heart monitor called an event monitor can be worn. When you develop
symptoms, you can push a button to record the heart's electrical rhythm.
Heart Treatments
 Exercise: Regular exercise is important for heart health and most heart conditions. Talk to your doctor before starting an exercise program if you have
heart problems.
 Angioplasty: During cardiac catheterization, a doctor inflates a balloon inside a narrowed or blocked coronary artery to widen the artery. A stent is
often then placed to keep the artery open.
 Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): Angioplasty is sometimes called a PCI or PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) by
doctors.
 Coronary artery stenting: During cardiac catheterization, a doctor expands a wire metal stent inside a narrowed or blocked coronary artery to open up
the area. This lets blood flow better and can abort a heart attack or relieve angina (chest pain).
 Thrombolysis: “Clot-busting” drugs injected into the veins can dissolve a blood clot causing a heart attack. Thrombolysis is generally only done if
stenting is not possible.
 Lipid-lowering agents: Statins and other cholesterol (lipid) lowering drugs reduce the risk for heart attack in high-risk people.
 Diuretics: Commonly called water pills, diuretics increase urination and fluid loss. This reduces blood volume, improving symptoms of heart failure.
 Beta-blockers: These medicines reduce strain on the heart and lower heart rate. Beta-blockers are prescribed for many heart conditions, including
heart failure and arrhythmias.
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors): These blood pressure medicines also help the heart after some heart attacks or in
congestive heart failure.
 Aspirin: This powerful medicine helps prevent blood clots (the cause of heart attacks). Most people who have had heart attacks should take aspirin.
 Clopidogrel (Plavix): A clot-preventing medicine that prevents platelets from sticking together to form clots. Clopidogrel is especially important for
many people who have had stents placed.
 Antiarrhythmic medications: Numerous medicines help control the heart’s rate and electrical rhythm. These help prevent or control arrhythmias.
 AED (automated external defibrillator): If someone has sudden cardiac arrest, an AED can be used to assess the heart rhythm and send an electrical
shock to the heart if necessary.
 ICD (Implantable cardioverter defibrillator): If a doctor suspects you are at risk for a life-threatening arrhythmia, an implantable cardioverter
defibrillator may be surgically implanted to monitor your heart rhythm and send an electrical shock to the heart if necessary.
 Pacemaker: To maintain a stable heart rate, a pacemaker can be implanted. A pacemaker sends electrical signals to the heart when necessary to help it
beat properly.