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Copyright Notice ©

The material in this document is subject to copyright protection unless otherwise


indicated. Much of the material contained herein was developed by the authors
as part of the CCOPPS project, funded by the EU Leonardo programme. The
University of Strathclyde is the formal copyright holder for this material.
Permission has been granted by the University of Strathclyde for use of this
material in this document.

The collection of pressure vessel related photographs contains what is believed


to be public domain and royalty free images. Where the source is known, this has
been acknowledged. Should the copyright owner of any images in the collection
wish these to be removed from the collection, then an e-mail to the following
address will suffice: jim@wood-home.myzen.co.uk.
Acknowledgements
Many people have contributed to the content of this resource, in varying degrees.
I would therefore like to acknowledge this contribution in the following areas:

Development of the CCOPPS work-based learning modules, which


provided the two units contained herein, as well as the worked examples,
tutorials and many of the photographs:

Martin Muscat, University of Malta.


Kevin Degiorgio, University of Malta.
Johnny Zerafa , University of Malta.
Hongjun Li, University of Strathclyde.
Ian Holland, University of Strathclyde.
Richard Cope, University of Strathclyde.

Development of the CCOPPS Educational Base:

John McVee, retired consultant.


Adib Becker, University of Nottingham.
Trevor Hellen, retired consultant.
Andy Morris, Eon Engineering UK.
Steve Maddox, TWI.
Manfred Zehn, Berlin University.
Donald MacKenzie, University of Strathclyde.
Jim Boyle, University of Strathclyde.
Bobby Hamilton, University of Strathclyde.
Alexander McIver Galloway, University of Strathclyde.
David Nash, University of Strathclyde (also for the supply of photographs).
PREFACE

The purpose of this resource book is to provide cost effective and convenient
access to some of the material produced as part of the CCOPPS project,
including the commercially available learning modules. Hopefully it will also act
as an incentive for individuals to enrol on the work-based learning modules
developed as part of CCOPPS and now offered by the University of Strathclyde
(http://www.mecheng.strath.ac.uk/cpd.asp).

The CCOPPS project had the following aims:


• to maintain and develop the standard of professional development for
engineers and analysts using analysis and simulation technology, in the
power and pressure systems industry;
• to encourage a greater diversity of learning and teaching delivery
modes;
• to promote lifelong learning.

The resource book provides the following:


1. Access to the CCOPPS Educational Base in a manner that allows the
individual to change and modify the content as desired (e.g. to add
additional reference texts or to add additional competence statements).
The original functionality and coverage of the CCOPPS Educational Base
is retained. The reader can browse the 800 statements of competence
covering 16 technical areas and use the hypertext links to identify
reference texts that can be used to aid in the development of these
competences. Individual records of each competence can be used to
monitor personal development.
2. Access to 2 introductory units from the CCOPPS work-based learning
modules : Introduction to Finite Element Analysis and Introduction to
Design by Analysis – including 2 self-test quizzes.
3. Access to 9 system independent worked examples and tutorials. The
focus is on the problem, idealisation and results. To access the solid
models contained in the worked examples and tutorials you will have to
use the freely available Adobe Reader 8.1 or later. This is available on the
following link: http://www.adobe.com/downloads/.
4. Access to a collection of pressure vessel images, some of which form the
basis of quizzes in the CCOPPS work-based learning modules. The
majority however are simply nice photographs discovered in our search for
educationally relevant images. Please note the copyright statement at the
start of this document.

This resource book is NOT aimed at a comprehensive coverage of pressure


vessel design; does NOT provide a comprehensive coverage of FEA or DBA and
does not contain coverage of specific commands on how to use any particular
finite element system. It is quite simply a collection of resource material in the
pressure vessel and finite element areas, which will hopefully be of some use in
personal development.
CONTENTS

1. An Educational Base for the Use of FEA in the


Power and Pressure Systems Industry.
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background Educational Rationale
1.2.1 Some reflections on “Experience”
1.3 Using the Educational Base
1.4 Areas of Competence
1.5 Possible Further Developments
1.5.1 Available work-based learning material
1.5.2 Assessment of competencies

2. A Practical Introduction to Finite Element Analysis.

3. An Introduction to Pressure Vessel Design by Analysis.

4. Worked Examples and Tutorials.


4.1 Thick cylinder under various loading
4.2 Small pipeline under in-plane-bending
4.3 Cylindrical vessel with elliptical opening
4.4 Elastic analysis of a flush cylindrical nozzle in a
spherical vessel
4.5 Large fabrication containing intersections
4.6 Axisymmetric cylindrical vessel-skirt junction
4.7 Thin un-welded flat end stress categorization
4.8 Thick hemisphere plastic load analysis
4.9 Torishperical head under internal pressure - buckling check
(ASME VIII Div2 Part 5)

5. Pressure Vessel Related Images.


1. An Educational Base for the Use of FEA in the Power and
Pressure Systems Industry.

1.1 Introduction
The CCOPPS Educational Base (available at http://www.ccopps.eu/) defines a
set of recommended minimum educational requirements, for users of finite
element analysis systems, in the Power and Pressure Systems Industry. The
requirements provide a transparent, understandable description of the abilities
that should be apparent in staff carrying out analysis and simulation in this
industry sector.

The Educational Base was developed as part of the EU-funded CCOPPS project
(Certification of Competencies in the Power and Pressure Systems Industry) and
it followed from a study of the educational and training needs of industry.

The Educational Base is intended as guidance to those who are engaged in


Continuing Professional Development, both at a personal level and at an
organisational level. The base will be of use in staff development programmes as
well as the design of educational resource material to deliver and assess the
competencies expressed by these learning outcomes. In addition to enabling
individuals and employers to establish whether they or their staff can meet these
competence requirements, the base will provide links to resource material
necessary to develop them. The Educational Base consists of a set of
Competencies, expressed as Learning Outcomes, covering the following topic
areas:

Beams, Membranes, Plates and Shells


Buckling and Instability
Code of Practice Philosophy and Application
Composite Materials and Pressure Components
Creep and Time-Dependency
Design by Analysis
Dynamics and Vibration
Fatigue
Finite Element Analysis of Pressure Systems and Components
Flaw Assessment in Pressure Components
Mechanics, Elasticity and Strength of Materials
Nonlinear Geometric Effects and Contact
Plasticity and Shakedown
Pressure System Components and Fabrication
Pressure Vessel Materials
Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour

All of the above are extensive areas of study in their own right and many
researchers spend their entire professional lives working in only one or two of
these. It is emphasized therefore that the competencies expressed in the
CCOPPS Educational Base represent a recommended minimum for practising
engineers and analysts using FEM and who will invariably already have a first
degree in engineering or a related discipline. For such engineers and analysts,
moving into a new area of analyses, or perhaps needing to refresh existing
competencies, this educational base and supporting material, should provide a
useful resource. It therefore focuses on aspects of technology that will be
relevant to current engineering practice. The aim is that these should be
sufficient to allow safe and effective use of modern analysis and simulation tools.
They should also provide a basis for further educational development in these
and related areas. They do not however consider the training needs of the
particular application software being used, which is also clearly an
important area of competence for effective use of the technology.

The competencies outlined in the Educational Base do not address in a broad


sense, underpinning subjects such as mathematics and computing, which might
be expected to form part of an undergraduate education. In a similar vein, the
Educational Base does not address wider aspects of an engineer’s professional
development, such as management, finance, safety, ethics, environmental issues
and inter-personal skills. In the UK, the output standards for accredited
engineering degree programmes have been derived from a generic statement of
learning outcomes adopted by the ECUK (former Engineering Council).
Someone graduating from an accredited degree programme will, as a
consequence, have competencies in these broader areas of an engineer’s
development. It is also recognised that many unaccredited engineering degrees
throughout the world, will also certainly address such areas, to varying levels.

The route for the formation and development of engineers and analysts who use
modern analysis and simulation tools to develop innovative, safe and competitive
products in today’s marketplace are a progression of learning experiences
beginning with an undergraduate degree, continuing through initial professional
development in early employment and thereafter extending throughout their
professional life. Once qualified, professional engineers and analysts today are
expected to keep up to date by continued learning throughout (and in support of)
their career through Continuing Professional Development (CPD). Many of the
competencies covered in the Educational Base would normally be developed as
part of a formal postgraduate course, as part of a series of training courses or as
part of on-the-job learning.

1.2 Background Educational Rationale


The idea of an Educational Base providing a statement of the educational
underpinning necessary for professional engineers is not new and most
professional engineering bodies in the UK, will have a document containing such
requirements. This document will be based on the ECUK generic statement of
learning outcomes and will reflect their interpretation in the context of a specific
engineering discipline (mechanical, electrical, civil etc). Satisfying the
requirements of such an Educational Base will form part of the process of
becoming a member of a professional body. In the UK, the easiest way of
satisfying these educational base requirements, is to graduate from an
accredited University degree course, which has been designed to satisfy these
requirements. Such degree programmes are regularly accredited by the
appropriate professional engineering body and on approval, the University
Department is sanctioned to deliver the accredited programme for a period of
time – usually 5 years. This process involves all aspects of degree course
design, delivery and assessment and includes consideration of intake and output
standards.

While the CCOPPS Educational Base has some similarities to the above, there
are differences and it may be useful to consider these briefly. Firstly, the
Educational Base statements guiding the design of undergraduate courses and
membership of professional bodies are much broader in their scope and
generally less specific in the statements of learning outcomes. For example the
general learning outcomes will address practical skills in laboratories as well as
transferable skills in working with others, information retrieval and planning self-
learning. The specific learning outcomes will address the underpinning science
(materials, mathematics, mechanics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, vibration,
production and manufacture, control etc) as well as industrial context of the
subject being studies. Design, creativity, project management, finance,
environmental issues, sustainability, management, ethics, risk, health and safety
are all indicative of the wider scope of such educational bases. Secondly, the
individual modules forming part of a course of study will generally contain no
more than half a dozen (often less) “higher level” learning outcomes. In this
respect subject or module descriptors in degrees and diplomas may differ, with
the latter containing more learning outcomes and often embodying different
assessment regimes to certify competence. The reasons for this are partly
historical. However, there is no doubt that assessing and re-assessing a large
number of competencies in individual subject areas by the traditional examination
methods inherent in existing University degree courses, would prove problematic.

Assessing competencies using the appropriate tool is clearly important and much
guidance is available for staff involved in this process. However the CCOPPS
project was not concerned with the practicalities and constraints within any
educational system or sector and therefore had the luxury of developing a
detailed list of competencies that can be used in a formative sense by individuals
engaged in continuous professional development in the work place. In this case,
self-assessment or assessment by a mentor or line-manager is likely to be the
order of the day, rather than by means of the invigilated examination systems
typical of University systems. This obviously does not preclude use of such
learning outcomes in a formal assessment system, but in this case the
development of module descriptors for use as part of a formal degree
programme would almost certainly involve a focus on delivery and formal
assessment of a fewer selected number of “higher level” learning outcomes.
It may also be useful at this point to introduce some of the educational rationale
behind the use of statements of competence or learning outcomes in an
educational base. Learning outcomes in this context are statements of what an
analyst should be able to do at the end of a programme of learning. The
emphasis on doing is what distinguishes a learning outcome approach from one
based on more intangible ideas related to educational aims, objectives and a list
of syllabus content. For some, the main problem with such a syllabus is that it
can give little or no indication of depth or approach to any particular topic and
also time spent. Many academics in fact value such looseness and academic
freedom, to place emphasis where they see fit. There can also be course
management advantages and disadvantages associated with such freedom.
However, in terms of providing the employer, or the student with details of what
competences they should have at the end of the course, it is argued that it is less
than satisfactory, even when notional hours are provided in such syllabi. A list of
detailed learning outcomes, on the other hand, provides employers and students
with useful information on what competences should be in place at the end of the
learning experience. Learning outcomes also help instructors to design and
select suitable resource material more effectively, to select the appropriate
method of delivery and to select appropriate assessment methods. It might also
be argued that learning outcomes are particularly useful where resource material
and learning activities are going to be designed by many different people, in
order to be used by others, perhaps in a distributed environment. This point is
particularly relevant in today’s diverse and distributed finite element community
and the way that this Educational Base may be used in the development and
selection of supporting resource material. It is concluded therefore that learning
outcomes or statements of competence are the natural way to frame educational
requirements in this environment.

In the present context however, we are interested in identifying desirable learning


outcomes or competencies for the various users of the technology undertaking
the different analysis types. The specified list must inevitably strike a balance
between the level of prescriptive detail and the general indications of competency
required. Issues associated with the assessment, re-assessment, quality and
retention of these competences are clearly important educational considerations.
These issues are not the main focus of this project, although they are addressed
briefly, later in this section. It is also emphasized that effective course design, in
an academic environment, would naturally involve selection of the appropriate
assessment tools and also identification of the most appropriate methods of
delivery of the course content, with a view to satisfying the learning outcomes.

It is also argued that, given the various levels in the cognitive area, discussed
below, the process of identifying suitable material (text books, short courses,
web-based learning modules etc), that can be used in satisfying the learning
outcomes, should involve more than simply identifying textual information aimed
solely at imparting knowledge. Any material specified should allow those using it
to develop competence in the so-called higher cognitive levels (if not also in the
affective and psychomotor areas), even if only in a formative manner. This latter
point emphasises the need for diversity in resource material, including
workbooks, case studies, worked examples, tutorials etc.

Various attempts have been made at systematically describing different


categories and levels of learning and it has long been postulated that there are 3
broad categories:
• Cognitive - which deals with acquisition and use of knowledge.
• Affective - which deals with attitudes and value judgements.
• Psychomotor - which deals with manipulative skills.

It has been accepted that University level education, in engineering in general,


traditionally gives much more attention to the cognitive area.

The Cognitive Area


The following six cognitive sub-areas are typically presented as increasing in
level from knowledge to evaluation. The engineering problem-solving and design
activity, typical in the University sector, is clearly associated with the so-called
higher cognitive levels, while building on a solid foundation of knowledge and
understanding.
Knowledge is the ability to recall information, to describe known ways of dealing
with this information or to state previously learned general principles or theories.
Comprehension is the ability to demonstrate understanding by interpreting
information or extrapolating from given data in order to determine likely
implications or effects. It is common for those not involved in education to
assume that the term knowledge includes comprehension, but clearly this need
not be so. For example, it may be argued that many pressure vessel designers
routinely use Code formulae with little comprehension of how such formulae were
derived and the assumptions inherent in their development. Codes of Practice
will typically avoid the possible serious consequences of this state of affairs by
including a range or scope statement - however, this clearly does not imply
comprehension on the part of the user. In fact, it is possible that some non-
educationalists will effectively assume the term knowledge to include the entire
cognitive area.
Application is the ability to apply principles to particular situations.
Analysis is the ability to break a problem down into its constituent parts to seek
clarification, to identify structure and relationships between parts.
Synthesis is concerned with bringing together a number of facts and ideas to
create a new approach or procedure.
Evaluation deals with judgements about the value of materials, methods,
solutions and designs.

Academics typically will use different assessment instruments to ascertain


competences in each of these areas. For example computer-based multiple
choice questions are commonly used to assess knowledge,
comprehension and to a lesser extent application, whereas typical engineering
problem solving exam questions can address all of the above, as can project
work. Work-based projects are an excellent vehicle to develop and reinforce
competencies, in the so-called higher cognitive levels of application,
analysis, synthesis and evaluation in particular.

As shown in Figure 1, the statements of competence in each topic covered by


the CCOPPS Educational Base, have been conveniently grouped into each of
the above cognitive areas.

Figure 1: Sample Statements of Competence from the CCOPPS Educational


Base

The Affective Area


It is true to say that much less attention is given in engineering higher education
to the assessment of attitude and value judgements by students - unlike
medicine for example, where students must demonstrate attitudes, ethical
development and values desirable in a medical practitioner.

The Psychomotor Area


The importance of psychomotor skills varies across disciplines from music to
social studies. In engineering, they play some importance in laboratory work,
including keyboard skills and the use of application software such as finite
element systems.
The learning outcomes contained in the CCOPPS Educational Base primarily
address the cognitive area.

Also inherent in today’s holistic and increasingly global view of education is the
concept of level and when used to construct a degree award it is common to
associate learning outcomes with a level of study. A number of generic level
definitions exist across the Higher Education sector and efforts are underway to
produce a standard model. These efforts are often driven by the need to facilitate
mobility (nationally and internationally) amongst students through some form of
Credit Accumulation and Transfer System. The diversity of education systems
throughout the world makes the realisation of this particularly challenging.

It should be recognised that the level of study is different from the level of
performance or standard of attainment achieved in fulfilling the learning outcome.
When used as part of a formal award such as a degree, learning outcomes would
normally be accompanied by a threshold statement and grade indicators. These
would in turn be used by assessors to categorise and rank student performance.
To illustrate this further development of learning outcomes, it may be useful to
consider an example. Consider the learning outcome Employ a range of post-
solution checks to determine the integrity of FEA results. A minimum acceptable
performance or threshold statement associated with this might be Use 2 or 3
post-solutions checks to determine the integrity of FEA results. An “A grade” or
comprehensive performance on the other hand might be to Identify the most
appropriate post-solution checks and use them to specify the integrity of FEA
results, with a full justification of choices. It should be recognised that even with
this level of detail, there is still scope for any assessor to exercise their
professional judgement in setting any examination instrument and in interpreting
level of achievement. It has already been indicated however that the Educational
Base will find use in an individual assessing their own competence level in an
informal manner or in his manager attesting to a member of staff’s competence
informally, as part of an internal system of staff development, or even in the
development of a Register of Suitably Qualified Staff as part of an internal Quality
Assurance System. In these instances, users may not be interested in
performance level indicators. Performance level statements for Threshold and
Comprehensive have however been included in the Educational Base, for
completeness and to assist with adoption and integration into formal educational
programmes. These are included on the Individual Competence Record Sheet
associated with each statement of competence in each topic area, as shown in
Figure 2. These sheets may be printed out to enable individuals to keep a record
of their achievements.
Figure 2: Individual Record Sheet from the CCOPPS Educational Base

To encourage this latter use of the statements of competence encompassed in


the CCOPPS Educational Base, it will prove useful to present the material with
reference to a particular educational model. The model chosen for this purpose is
the developing European Higher Education Area which embodies the European
Credit Transfer Scheme. The framework for the EHEA consists of three main
cycles. First cycle qualifications relate to bachelor or undergraduate degrees
(with and without honours). Second cycle qualifications relate to Masters degree
level and third cycle to Doctoral degrees. This system is based on the concept
that one academic year consists of 60 credits worth of learning or student effort
hours. The thinking behind the concept of a student effort hour and how many
should constitute an academic year for a full-time student is not discussed here.
Suffice to say that any concept of student credit will stem from such
considerations. Student effort hours would normally include private study time as
well as formal class contact, laboratories, tutorials and assessments. In the
European Qualifications Framework there are 8 levels and level 6 corresponds
to cycle 1, level 7 to cycle 2 and level 8 to cycle 3.

Although an introduction to the study of finite element analysis and pressure


system design may appear in cycle 1 degrees, these subjects and related topics
such as shells, fracture mechanics, plasticity, creep, shakedown etc are more
often found in cycle 2 degrees. In the UK, study in depth in these areas would
normally be found in MSc programmes as opposed to integrated MEng degrees.
Such MSc’s however are few in number. More often, coverage of these topics in
any depth will be delivered in short intensive courses, which normally would not
form part of any formal degree award. In some disciplines however, postgraduate
awards (typically MBAs) may be found, where the method of delivery is short
intensive courses.

In summary therefore, the learning outcomes contained in the CCOPPS


Educational Base are mainly at levels 7 and 8, although there are also outcomes
relating to a revision of underpinning material at level 6. The two supporting web-
based learning modules would typically represent 20 credits in the European
credit model (i.e. a third of an academic year’s effort) at level 7. While such
considerations may be of little interest to someone simply using the Educational
Base to guide informal personal development, such rationale will prove useful to
anyone considering using it to construct formal modules for an award. The EQF
level for each learning outcome has also been added to the Educational Base.
Also included is an indication as to whether the learning outcome / statement of
competence is considered appropriate to an analyst at Standard or Advanced
level. The concept of Standard and Advanced analyst is currently embodied in a
model for a NAFEMS Registered Analyst Scheme. The idea of Standard and
Advanced analysts is somewhat similar to the notion of Incorporated Engineer or
Chartered Engineer in the UK. It may also be observed that the learning
outcomes categorised as Advanced are mainly associated with the higher
cognitive levels. It is argued that the CCOPPS Educational Base, framed in terms
of competence statements, could form a robust and philosophically sound basis
for a Registered Analyst Scheme. It is noted that NAFEMS are in fact considering
the possibility of generalising the CCOPPS Educational Base and in turn use this
as the basis for specifying and assessing analysts competence.

1.2.1 Some reflections on “Experience”


Application for membership of a professional body will often have requirements in
addition to satisfying the Educational Base - which is primarily taken as a
measure of the adequacy of someone’s underpinning background engineering
education. In particular, applicants generally have to undergo a period of Initial
Professional Development and to demonstrate sufficient experience in a
position of professional responsibility. There is invariably a requirement to supply
details of professional experience – in particular, details of responsibility
(management, projects, budgets, key achievements, demonstration of
engineering expertise). This latter requirement is often assessed at a
Professional Review Interview after submission of a Professional Review Report.

The current NAFEMS Registered Analyst Scheme also places emphasis on


experience - in this case conducting various types of analyses in a particular
branch of industry and in planning and managing FEA projects and resources.

It may be useful therefore to reflect on the meaning of experience in a wider


educational sense, in relation to the formation of an engineer or analyst.

A simple definition of experience is practical knowledge gained by trial or


practice. Having an education and never having put it into practice in a real
industrial context would be regarded as a less than ideal situation for an
engineer. Learning from idealised problems and benchmarks are essential as
part of the educational process, but at the end of the day, the focus necessary
when faced by a real application, in an industrial environment, is recognised as
highly beneficial in many ways. The term experience is often used loosely and it
is generally thought of as good, but its quality is very rarely measured. The
observations may be made that experiences can be bad as well as good; that
having experience indicates nothing in itself about particular outcomes or the
quality of any relevant outcomes from such experience; that someone can have
the same experience a hundred times and learn very little that is new. In this
latter case however, it is also recognised, from an educational viewpoint, that
repetitive experience is a mechanism for committing knowledge to long-term
memory and is therefore generally of benefit. In terms of developing what
educationalists refer to as deep learning, it is accepted that practice and
experience of a range of problems covering a wide range of possible variables is
a necessary ingredient in the process.

While it is true to say that an analyst’s industrial experience is never subjected to


the same formal assessment process as their education, the argument might be
made that the fact that the analyst remains in employment is testimony to
satisfactory experience at least. A reference from an employer or statement by a
referee might be regarded in a similar way, in spite of the fact that it would not be
uncommon for an employer or referee to have a vested interest in the outcome of
an individual’s application to join a professional body. This may often be
satisfactory for the purpose, but it is important to realise that this situation is
obviously not as rigorous as an educational process that involves assessment of
stated competences. It is however a fact of life that the further one progresses in
a career, the more one is judged by actual achievements and the testimony of
others, rather than formal assessment of competencies. When combined with a
formal interview by a panel of peers, structured around a technical submission,
the rigour and integrity of the process of examining experience and
achievements is clearly enhanced.
The assessment of experiential learning is also something that has taxed the
minds of academia in recent years, in an effort to award appropriate credit
towards an academic award for prior experiential learning. The interest in this
area is generally to facilitate advanced entry into formal educational programmes
for mature students. No doubt much useful guidance is available in the literature
on this matter. However, it is likely that the process involves subjective
judgement rather than any kind of formal assessment, such as a written or even
oral examination.

How then should requirements regarding experience in the professional


development of analysts be stated? For example, should someone become a
advanced analyst by accumulating repetitive experience on the same type of jobs
- that may in themselves be relatively undemanding? Simply requiring an
advanced analyst to have more experience would seem to be a rather woolly and
ill-defined requirement (particularly if measured by say a simple accumulation of
points gained by conducting the same or similar analyses). Clearly any
experiential statement requires some form of context and qualification. This issue
also raises fundamental questions relating to the purpose and use of any
statement of education and professional development in the finite element area.
For example is the purpose to draw up a professional development framework:
• that may be adopted by some regulatory body?
• that courts might use when assessing professional negligence cases?
• that companies might refer to when placing contracts or employing staff?
• that employers and users of the technology might simply refer to in terms of
professional development?

Clearly the first three demands more rigour in assessing individual competence
than the latter.

Arguably it should be possible to frame the result of any industrial experience as


a learning outcome or statement of competence, if we view experience as part of
an educational process i.e. to specify what has been the educational outcome of
this experience. In this regard the extensive learning outcomes embodied in the
CCOPPS Educational Base already reflect the outcome of relevant experiential
processes for the analyst. However if we also recognise experience as a context
of application in an industrial environment, then it is clear that this is where
the benefit of any experiential requirement lies. It is therefore recommended
that the higher level learning outcomes in the Educational Base be
developed in an industrial context wherever possible. It is also
recommended that any definition of an advanced analyst be based solely
on achievement of these learning outcomes. Clearly there is still a
requirement for a scope statement outlining the range of competencies, at what
level and in what industry sector. Having competence in finite element application
in the aircraft industry does not necessarily indicate the same level of
competence in the power and pressure systems industry or biomedical device
sector. However, it is noted that industrial sector relevance can also be
addressed by competency statements, such as those expressed in the topics:
Code of Practice Philosophy and Application
Design by Analysis
Pressure System Components and Fabrication
Pressure Vessel Materials

The grouping of statements of competency in such industry-specific categories,


is the vehicle to allow a generalisation of the CCOPPS Educational Base so that
it has direct relevance to other sectors.

1.3 Using the Educational Base


The Educational Base is available with this resource book and users are able to
access all areas covered. Users are also able to print out the lists of learning
outcomes / statements of competence, as well as the individual record sheets for
each competence. This therefore will allow analysts to maintain their own
personal development record and to plan accordingly. Unlike the on-line version
of the Educational Base, users of the version accompanying this resource book
will also be able to modify the base.

As shown in Figures 1 and 2, the sheets printed out will contain the following
information:

• A category and code number for each learning outcome or statement of


competence.
• A statement of each learning outcome / statement of competence.
• A Threshold and Comprehensive performance interpretation of each
learning outcome.
• An indication of the European Qualification Framework (EQF) level for
each learning outcome and whether the outcome is considered to be
appropriate to a Standard or Advanced level of analysis.
• A reference to supporting resource material that can be used to facilitate
the development of each learning outcome.
• Tick boxes to indicate whether the competence expressed in each
learning outcome has been attained and whether this has been done
informally (e.g. by self learning or a short course with no examination) or
formally (e.g. by an examined programme of learning).
• A signature box to allow a manager to attest to such achievement.

Most of the above information is for the use of the person engaged in personal
development. The latter two items of information are to encourage and facilitate
the development of company staff development schemes and perhaps a future
Registered Analyst Scheme.

1.4 Areas of Competence


The focus of this Educational Base is the use of finite element methods in
support of the design and analysis of pressure systems and components. The
learning outcomes / statements of competence have been grouped into the 16
areas shown in Figure 3. This figure shows the web-based interface to the
CCOPPS Educational Base.

Figure 3: Web-based Interface to the CCOPPS Educational Base

These categories include specific outcomes relating to finite element analysis as


well as a wide range of topics necessary to support safe and effective use of this
technology. The areas were identified in a study of Industry Needs, also
completed as part of the CCOPPS project. In developing the learning outcomes
in these supporting topic areas, the goal was to provide sufficient background to
support finite element analysis. For this reason, non-numerical and other
numerical methods have not been addressed.
Development of the learning outcomes embodied in these areas, invariably
would not represent the same amount of student effort hours and a number of
them could be combined to provide similar levels of educational content, if being
used in a formal educational programme.

The Educational Base has been developed in a manner that allows future
expansion and modification of the learning outcomes and supporting topic areas.

1.5 Possible Further Developments

1.5.1 Available work-based learning material


The CCOPPS project developed web-based learning material in Design by
Analysis and Finite Element Analysis of Pressure Systems and
Components. This material will allow engineers engaged in CPD to develop
their competence in these specific areas. Each learning outcome in the
Educational Base in these areas will provide reference to the specific area of the
web-based learning material that addresses the particular competence. The web-
based learning material will also contain self-test questions, worked examples,
tutorials and suggestions for further analysis. In developing the web-based
learning material, attempts have been made to facilitate an informal, exploratory
approach to the material.

It is anticipated that these modules will also act as exemplars for the
development of web-based learning material in the other topic areas, as future
funding becomes available. The Educational Base however provides
references to conventional text-based resource material that can also be
used to develop competencies in all areas.

This resource book contains two introductory units from these work-based
learning modules.

1.5.2 Assessment of competencies


The web-based learning modules developed as part of the CCOPPS project will
provide self-test resource material for the informal formative assessment of the
competencies expressed by the various learning outcomes in the Educational
Base. This resource book contains two self-test quizzes from these work-based
learning modules.
The formal summative assessment of competencies, as typified by invigilated
University examinations, will be addressed to some extent through the production
of threshold and comprehensive statements for each outcome. It should not
prove difficult therefore, to use the Educational Base for the development of
modules leading to formal academic awards.
2. A Practical Introduction to Finite Element Analysis.

Before investigating the unit from the CCOPPS learning module, please have a
look at the readme file on the following link:

http://personal.strath.ac.uk/j.wood/CCOPPS_FEA/readme.htm

This unit from the CCOPPS Introduction to FEA of Pressure Systems and Components work-
based learning module is available by simply clicking on the link below:

http://personal.strath.ac.uk/j.wood/CCOPPS_FEA/home.htm

As can be seen, the structure of the full work-based learning module is available, although access
is restricted to this unit only. This enables readers to browse the module content and structure to
some extent, before registering for the full module. Registration also allows access to the course
tutors for 5 months.

The Element Selection self-test quiz from the Basic Modelling unit in this module is available by
clicking on the following link:

http://personal.strath.ac.uk/j.wood/CCOPPS_FEA\quiz\Element_Selection\eleme
nt_selection_quiz.html
3. An Introduction to Pressure Vessel Design by Analysis.

Before investigating this unit from the CCOPPS learning module, please have a
look at the readme file on the following link:

http://personal.strath.ac.uk/j.wood/CCOPPS_FEA/readme.htm

This unit from the CCOPPS Introduction to DBA of Pressure Systems and Components work-
based learning module is available by simply clicking on the link below:

http://personal.strath.ac.uk/j.wood/CCOPPS_DBA/home.htm

As can be seen, the structure of the full work-based learning module is available, although access
is restricted to this unit only. This enables readers to browse the module content and structure to
some extent, before registering for the full module. Registration also allows access to the course
tutors for 5 months.

The DBA Basics self-test quiz from the Introduction to Pressure Vessel DBA unit in this module is
available by clicking on the following link:

http://personal.strath.ac.uk/j.wood/CCOPPS_DBA/Quiz\Quiz_DBA_basics\Quiz_
DBA_basics.html
4. Worked Examples and Tutorials.

The following are a selection of the worked examples and tutorials available in
the work-based learning modules developed as part of CCOPPS and now
offered by the University of Strathclyde. The following link provides further details
on costs and how to enrol: (http://www.mecheng.strath.ac.uk/cpd.asp). The
modules contain a further 55 worked examples.

To access the solid models contained in the following worked examples and
tutorials you have to use the freely available Adobe Reader 8.1 or later:
http://www.adobe.com/downloads/.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 1 of 5

Number: Title: Date:


CCOPPS_BMW1 Thick cylinder under various loadings 20th May 2009

Statement of Purpose:
The main purpose of this example is to demonstrate the use of 2D planar elements and
axisymmetric elements to model a long thick cylinder under different loadings: internal
pressure, non-uniform temperature field, rotation about its centre line and a shrink fit.

Geometry:

a=0.1m, b=0.2m, c=0.3m


WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 2 of 5

Analysis Type(s): Material:


Linear material, static, small displacement. Steel, with Young’s Modulus = 209GN/m2;
Poisson’s Ratio = 0.3; Density =
7800kg/m3, thermal expansion coefficient =
1.3e-5/degK.

Loading: Boundary Conditions:


Symmetry boundary conditions are applied
Case 1: a uniform internal pressure of 1 MPa.
on planes of symmetry.
Case 2: a rotation ω=1000 rad/s about its axis.

Case 3: temperature Ti=1°C on the inner surface


and To=0°C on the outer surface. The steady
state through thickness temperature distribution
is given by the function:

Ti b
T= ln
b r
ln
a
Case 4: the interference shrinkage, δ=1E-4m, at
the bore of the outer cylinder i.e. inner
radius=0.1999m.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 3 of 5

Target Solution Quantities Required for Comparison:


Loading case 1 (Internal Pressure):
The radial stress distribution is described by [1]:
pa 2 ⎡ b2 ⎤
σr = ⎢1 − 2 ⎥
b2 − a2 ⎣ r ⎦
and hoop stress distribution by:
pa 2 ⎡ b 2 ⎤
σh = ⎢1 + ⎥
b2 − a2 ⎣ r 2 ⎦
Loading case 2 (Rotation About Axis):
The radial stress [1]:
3+v⎛ 2 a 2b 2 ⎞ 2
σr = ⎜⎜ a + b 2 − r 2 − 2 ⎟⎟ ρω
8 ⎝ r ⎠
occurs at r = ab = 0.1414 m
The hoop stress is maximum at the inner edge:
3+v⎛ 2 1 + 3v 2 a 2 b 2 ⎞ 2
σh = ⎜⎜ a + b 2 − r + 2 ⎟⎟ ρω
8 ⎝ 3+v r ⎠
Loading case 3 (Thermal Stress):
The radial stress distribution is described by [1]:
EαTi ⎡ b a2 ⎛ b2 ⎞ b⎤
σr = − − ⎜⎜1 − 2 ⎟⎟ ln ⎥
b⎢
ln
r b2 − a2
2(1 − v ) ln ⎣ ⎝ r ⎠ a⎦
a
and hoop stress distribution by:
EαTi ⎡ b a2 ⎛ b2 ⎞ b⎤
σh = − − ⎜⎜1 + 2 ⎟⎟ ln ⎥
b⎢
1 ln
r b2 − a2
2(1 − v ) ln ⎣ ⎝ r ⎠ a⎦
a
Loading case 4 (Shrink Fit):
The contact pressure between the cylinders [1]:
Eδ (b 2 − a 2 )(c 2 − b 2 )
pc = = 24.49 MPa
b 2b 2 (c 2 − a 2 )

The radial stress at the bore of the outer cylinder = − p c

p (b 2 + c 2 )
The hoop stress at this position σ h =
c2 − b2

Idealisations:

The cylinder is long enough and loadings are symmetric so that the cross-section remains
plane during deformation. Due to the symmetry, only a quarter of the cross section need be
modelled as shown in the following figure. An axisymmetric idealisation is also possible as
shown.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 4 of 5

Further Considerations:
1. Reduce the model to say a 10 degree sector (Mesh ABFE) and apply suitable
constraints along edge EF. Compare results with previous model.

2. If an axisymmetric model is used, what boundary conditions should be applied on edges


IJ and GH for plane stress and plane strain cases, respectively?
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 5 of 5

3. Which idealisation is better, axisymmetric or planer? Why might this be?

4. Examine the effects of varying aspect ratio in the hoop direction.

5. How much would you have to heat the outer cylinder up by so that it just slipped onto
the inner cylinder, for load case 4?

6. What rotational speed would cause loss of contact at the interface in load case 4.

7. Identify the axial stress distribution for each loading case.

Useful references:
1. S. Timoshenko, Strength of Material, Part II, Advanced Theory and Problems, 3rd
Edition, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, NY, 1956, pp. 208, loading case 1, pp.
217, loading case 2, pp. 231, loading case 3, pp. 211, loading case 4.
SOLUTION
Page 1 of 13

Number: Title: Date:

CCOPPS_BMW1 Thick cylinder under various loadings 20th May 2009

Idealisation:

The cylinder is long enough and loadings are symmetric so that the cross-section remains
plane during deformation. Due to the symmetry, only a quarter of the cross section need
modelled ABCD as shown in the following figure. A smaller sector model is possible, although
this would involve the imposition of constraints in a non-global axis set. Both 2D plane stress
and plane strain elements may be used for the 90 degree 2D solid model, although only the
plane strain idealization is equivalent to the axisymmetric model shown. An axisymmetric
idealisation is also possible as shown. Again a single element wide idealisation should be
possibly in the absence of end effects.
SOLUTION
Page 2 of 13

Mesh:

Load case 1: uniform internal pressure

Axisymmetric model

2D planar model
(Plane Stress or Plane Strain)
SOLUTION
Page 3 of 13

Load case 2: rotation & load case 3: temperature

Axisymmetric model

2D planar model

Load case 4: shrink fit

Axisymmetric model

System and Element(s) Used:

ABAQUS version 6.6-1

Axisymmetric model: An 8-node second-order element with reduced integration, CAX8R

2D planar model: An 8-node bi-quadratic plane stress quadrilateral element with reduced
integration, CPS8R (stress in normal direction is zero) and an 8-node bi-quadratic plane strain,
quadrilateral, reduced integration element, CPE8R (strain in normal direction is zero).

Surface to surface contact defined with default properties.

Results for Comparative Target Solution Quantities:


SOLUTION
Page 4 of 13

Load case 1: a uniform internal pressure of 1 MPa.

Figure 1 Mesh convergence study for the axisymmetric model, load case 1

Figure 2 Hoop stress fringe plot for the axisymmetric model, load case 1

Figure 3 Radial stress fringe plot for the axisymmetric model, load case 1
SOLUTION
Page 5 of 13

From the previous convergence study, it was found that 2 elements provided a reasonable
estimate of maximum values, The model with six elements in the radial direction is used to
compare results with theory. For the 2D planar model, a mesh convergence study was also
carried out by fixing the number of elements in the radial direction at 6 and increasing the
elements in the hoop direction. This study is however providing more of an indication of the
effects of element distortion than mesh refinement.

Figure 4 Mesh convergence study for the 2D planar model, load case 1

Figure 5 Hoop stress fringe plot for the 2D planar model, load case 1

It is clear from the above figure that the stress fringe plot is not quite smooth. This may be due
to the typical variation observed between corner and midside node results. This difference will
reduce with mesh refinement in the hoop direction. Such variations are also sometimes a
result of fringe plotting algorithms. A check of corner and nodal values will help to confirm the
cause.
SOLUTION
Page 6 of 13

Figure 6 Radial stress fringe plot for the 2D planar model, load case 1

As the same results were obtained for plane strain and plane stress elements, in the Figure 7,
only one set of the results are plotted with the name “2Dplanar”.

Figure 7 Comparison with theorectical results for load case 1


SOLUTION
Page 7 of 13

Load case 2: a rotation ω=1000 rad/s about its axis.

Figure 8 Mesh convergence study for the axisymmetric model, load case 2

Figure 9 Hoop stress fringe plot for the axisymmetric model, load case 2

Figure 10 Radial stress fringe plot for the axisymmetric model, load case 2
SOLUTION
Page 8 of 13

From the axisymmetric model convergence study, it is found that six elements along radial
direction are able to provide excellent results. For the 2D planar model, a mesh convergence
study was also carried out by fixing the number of elements in the radial direction at 6 and
increasing the elements in the hoop direction.

No. of elements  Max. radial stress (Mpa) Error_r (%) Max.hoop stress (Mpa) Error_p (%)


4 3.53E+07 5.35 2.86E+08 2.88
6 3.40E+07 1.73 2.81E+08 1.08
8 3.37E+07 0.72 2.79E+08 0.36
10 3.35E+07 0.24 2.78E+08 0.14
12 3.35E+07 0.00 2.78E+08 0.00
Table 1 Mesh convergence study for the 2D planar model, load case 2

A coarse mesh with six elements in the hoop direction is used in the following analysis.

Figure 11 Hoop stress fringe plot for the 2D planar model, load case 2

Figure 12 Radial stress fringe plot for the 2D planar model, load case 2
SOLUTION
Page 9 of 13

3.00E+08

2.50E+08

2.00E+08
Theory_radial
2
) Theory_hoopl
m 1.50E+08 Axisym_hoop
/
N
(  Axisym_radial
ss
e plane_strain_hoop
rt 1.00E+08 plane_strain_radial
S
plane_stress_hoop
5.00E+07 plane_stress_radial

0.00E+00
0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22
‐5.00E+07

Radial distance  (m)
Figure 13 Comparison with theoretical results for load case 2

Load case 3: steady state temperature distribution through thickness

By comparing the analytical stress solutions for load case 1, 2 and 3 and mesh convergence
studies for load case 1 and 2, it is reasonable to say that 6 elements along radial direction is
able to produce a satisfactory solution. The figure 14 proves our judgement. The numerical
hoop stress results show a large discrepancy from the analytical solution. A 10 percent error
was predicted by the axisymmetric model. Hence a finer mesh with 10 elements in the radial
direction was created. In the fine planar mesh, 10 elements in the hoop direction were used.
Figure 15 presents the comparison with theoretical results using fine meshes.
SOLUTION
Page 10 of 13

2.00E+06

1.50E+06

1.00E+06

5.00E+05

) 0.00E+00
2
m
/ 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22
(N
s s ‐5.00E+05
re
tS
‐1.00E+06

‐1.50E+06 Theory_radial Theory_hoopl


Axisym_hoop Axisym_radial
‐2.00E+06
plane_stress_hoop plane_stress_radial
‐2.50E+06 plane_strain_hoop plane_strain_radial

‐3.00E+06

Radial distance  (m)

Figure 14 Comparison with theoretical results for load case 3, 6 elements in radial direction.

2.00E+06

1.50E+06

1.00E+06

5.00E+05

2
) 0.00E+00
m
/ 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22
N
(  ‐5.00E+05
ss
e
rt
S ‐1.00E+06

‐1.50E+06 Theory_radial Theory_hoopl


Axisym_hoop Axisym_radial
‐2.00E+06
plane_stress_hoop plane_stress_radial
‐2.50E+06 plane_strain_hoop plane_strain_radial

‐3.00E+06

Radial distance  (m)

Figure 15 Comparison with theoretical results for load case 3, 10 elements in radial direction.
SOLUTION
Page 11 of 13

Figure 16 Radial stress fringe plot for the axisymmetric model, load case 3

Figure 17 Hoop stress fringe plot for the axisymmetric model, load case 3

Load case 4: shrink fit


SOLUTION
Page 12 of 13

Figure 18 Radial stress fringe plot for the axisymmetric model, load case 4

Figure 19 Hoop stress fringe plot for the axisymmetric model, load case 4

2D solid model (error %)


Analytical Axisymmetric model (error %)
solution
Plane stress Plane strain

24.7 MPa
24.49 MPa 24.48 MPa (0.04%) 27.2 MPa (11%)
(0.8%)

Figure 20 Comparison with theorectical results for load case 4

Relevant Codes of Practice, Industry Standard and/or Statement of Assessment Criteria:

Description of Results Post-processing (where relevant):

Conclusion(s):

In this example, a thick cylinder was modelled under four different loadings: internal pressure,
non-uniform temperature field, rotation about its centre line and a shrink fit.
SOLUTION
Page 13 of 13

Load case 1 (Internal Pressure):

The axisymmetric idealisation, with Plane Strain constraints, provides good agreement with
theory.

Both 2D plane stress or plane strain elements also provide excellent results, as the hoop
stress and radial stress do not depend on the elongation εy.

Load case 2 (Rotation):

The axisymmetric idealisation, with Plane Strain constraints, provides good agreement with
theory.

The radial stress results from all the 2D planar models are in good agreement with the
theoretical solution. For the hoop stress distribution, the plane strain element model shows a
little deviation (6.6%), for the mesh used.

Load case 3 (Temperature):

The axisymmetric idealisation, with Plane Strain constraints, provides good agreement with
theory.

Not surprisingly, a large discrepancy occurs between the Plane Strain analytical solution and
results predicted by the Plane Stress model, indicating that the assumption that the axial stress
is planar and zero, is not suitable for this case.

Load case 4 (Shrink Fit):

The axisymmetric idealisation, with Plane Strain constraints, provides good agreement with
theory.

If you are interested in analysing this type of structure and component, it is highly
recommended that you repeat this exercise with your own FE system and elements therein.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 1 of 3

Number: Title: Date:


CCOPPS_BMW2 Small pipeline under IPB 20th May 2009

Statement of Purpose:
The main purpose of this example is to demonstrate the use of thin shell elements to model a small
pipeline with an elbow. In addition, simple beam elements with a “flexibility factor” and “stress
intensification factor” are used to quantify the global effect of ovalization.

Geometry:

a=250mm r=11.4mm t=0.6mm, R=100mm


WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 2 of 3

Analysis Type(s): Material:


Linear material, static, small displacement. Steel, with Young’s Modulus = 194GN/m2;
Poisson’s Ratio = 0.3.

Loading: Boundary Conditions:


Shell model: Symmetry boundary conditions
Case1: Unit inward displacements imposed on both
ends of the structure. are used on the two symmetry planes of the
pipe line, the intrados node of the bend on the
symmetry plane is fixed to prevent free body
movement. Beam model: symmetry boundary
condition is on the cross-sectional symmetry
plane.

Target Solution Quantities Required for Comparison:


Compare reaction forces and bending stresses using different models.

Idealisations:
Since the pipe mean radius to thickness ratio is 19, thin shell element would be appropriate. Due to
geometry symmetry, a quarter of the pipeline is modelled in a shell element model. The schematic
representation of the FE idealisation is shown as below.

An alternative method of modelling the pipeline is to use beam elements. To include the effects of
ovalization, reduced bending stiffness should be implemented in elements of the elbow. These elements
are highlighted in green colour in the following figure.

The value of the reduced stiffness was obtained from the equation:

1.66 Rt
k= λ=
λ where
r 2 1 −ν 2
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 3 of 3

R is the radius of the curved section, r is the mean radius of the pipe, t is the wall thickness of
the pipe, and v is Poisson’s ratio. The reference for the above equation is Dodge and
Moore [1].

This gives a value of k = 3.43, so the bending stiffness was reduced by a factor of 3.43. This
was done by reducing the thickness of the bend.

The other approach to reducing the bending stiffness is to reduce the Young’s modulus. The
flexibility characteristic, flexibility factor and stress intensification factor are calculated as below
according to ASME B31.1-2007.
Rt
Flexibility characteristic, λ =
r2
1.65
Flexibility factor, k =
λ
0 .9
Stress intensification factor, i= 2
h 3

The calculated factors are k=3.57 and i=1.5.

Further Considerations:
(1) Study convergence

(2) Compare results with models using elbow elements. How do these elements include the effects
of ovalization, enhanced flexibility and increased stress levels?

(3) Compare results with those from a specialized pipework stress analysis system.

(4) Will any warping at the ends of the structure affect the region around the bend?

(5) Will tangent pipe length affect ovalization decay?

(6) Re-run with end loads rather than prescribed displacements and note differences in results.

(7) Do you think large displacement effects will make any difference?

(8) How will the ovalization affect the opening of the bend angle?

(9) Forming pipe bends can result in a thinning of the extrados and thickening of the intrados
regions. How would you model this?

Useful references:
1. Dodge, W. G., and S. E. Moore, “Stress Indices and Flexibility Factors for Moment Loadings on
Elbows and Curved Pipes,” Welding Research Council Bulletin, no. 179, 1972
SOLUTION
Page 1 of 7

Number: Title: Date:

CCOPPS_BMW2 Small Pipeline Under IPB 20th May 2009

Idealization:

Since the pipe mean radius to thickness ratio is 19, thin shell elements would be appropriate.
Due to problem symmetry, a quarter of the pipeline is modelled in a shell element model.

Fig 1. Shell model idealization.

The unit displacement constraint is applied to the node highlighted by the blue point.

An alternative method of modelling this pipeline is to use beam elements.

Fig 2. Beam model idealization.

As a result of ovalization, increased flexibility should be implemented in the elements of the


elbow. The value of the reduced stiffness was obtained from the equation:

1.66 Rt
k= where λ=
λ r 2 1 −ν 2
R is the radius of the curved section, r is the mean radius of the pipe, t is the wall thickness of
the pipe, and v is Poisson’s ratio. The reference for the above equation is Dodge and
Moore [1].

This gives a value of k = 3.43, so the bending stiffness was reduced by a factor of 3.43. This
was done by reducing the thickness of the bend.

The other method to reduce the bending stiffness is to reduce the Young’s modulus. The
flexibility characteristic, flexibility factor and stress intensification factor are calculated as
bellow according to ASME B31.1-2007.
SOLUTION
Page 2 of 7

Rt
Flexibility characteristic, λ =
r2
1.65
Flexibility factor, k =
λ
0.9
Stress intensification factor, i= 2
h 3

The calculated factors are k=3.57 and i=1.5.

Mesh:

Fig 3. Shell element mesh.

The mesh shown contains 20 elements along the straight section, 18 along the bend as
modelled and 16 elements circumferentially as modelled. It should be possible to obtain
satisfactory results with a coarser mesh.
SOLUTION
Page 3 of 7

Fig 4. Beam element mesh.

The mesh shown contains 20 elements along each straight section and 32 elements in the
entire bend. It should be possible to obtain satisfactory results with a coarser mesh.

System and Element(s) Used:

The shell model was meshed using 8-noded elements, in this case ANSYS element SHELL93.
The deformation shapes are quadratic in both in-plane directions.

The beam model was meshed using 3-node quadratic beam elements, in this case ANSYS
element BEAM 189.

Results for Comparative Target Solution Quantities:


SOLUTION
Page 4 of 7

Fig 5. Stress plot of shell element model. Small displacement assumption used.

Fig 6. Exaggerated deformation plot to highlight ovalisation effect.


SOLUTION
Page 5 of 7

Fig 7. Axial strain plot of beam element model without reduced bending stiffness.

Fig 8. Axial strain plot of beam element model with reduced bending stiffness.
SOLUTION
Page 6 of 7

Fig 9. Plot of equivalent stress around 180 degrees of the pipe at the mid span of the bend.

Beam 2 includes reduced bending stiffness in the bend and Beam 1 does not include any
reduced bending stiffness. The shell plot has results from the top and bottom of the shell
element (outer and inner surfaces).

Fig 10. Plot of stress varying with cross section height


SOLUTION
Page 7 of 7

Reaction (X) Reaction (Y)


Model (N) (N)
Shell element 30.932 -30.932

Beam elements 67.227 -67.227


(normal cross section)
Beam elements 33.839 -33.839
(Reduced cross section)
Beam elements 28.354 -28.354
(Reduced Young’s modulus)
Table1. Reaction forces for all models.

Relevant Codes of Practice, Industry Standard and/or Statement of Assessment Criteria:

N/A

Description of Results Post-processing (where relevant):

Conclusion(s):
The effect of ovalization in a pipe bend is to enhance bend (and pipeline) flexibility. This in turn
will reduce terminal reactions at the nozzles on vessels connected by the pipeline. The
ovalization will however result in an increase in the stresses local to the bend.

The shell model displays ovalisation effects with the highest stresses occurring at the sides of
the bend (not at the top and bottom outer fibres if treated as a beam). Beam models cannot
include ovalisation effects directly, which is why a reduced bending stiffness model was
created to simulate this effect. The stress plot on figure 10 shows the difference between the
beam element models and the shell element model. The two beam element models show a
stress distribution which follows
σ = My/I and the shell element model has a completely different stress plot due to the
ovalisation effect.

Table 1 shows that both the two beam models with reduced stiffness give a close result to the
reaction forces of the shell model, 9.39% and 8.3% differences for reduced cross section and
reduced young’s modulus models, respectively. The reaction force for the normal beam model
is approximately twice that of the others.

It should be noted that a displacement controlled loading rather than a load controlled loading
is applied at the pipe ends. The stresses are therefore secondary (as per Pressure Vessel
Code definitions) and self-limiting, thus the beam model with reduced young’s modulus
produces the lowest stresses, and the beam model with reduced cross section gives the
highest stress values, as shown in Figure 9 and Figure 10.

If you are interested in analysing this type of structure and component, it is recommended that
you repeat this exercise with your own FE system and elements therein.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 1 of 3

Number: Title: Date:


CCOPPS_BMW3 Cylindrical vessel with elliptical opening 20th May 2009

Statement of Purpose:
The main purpose of this example is to demonstrate the use of 2D plane elements to calculate
the stress concentration factor for an elliptical hole in a pressurized thin cylindrical vessel.

Geometry:
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 2 of 3

Analysis Type(s): Material:


Linear material, static, small displacement. Steel, with Young’s Modulus = 200GN/m2;
Poisson’s Ratio = 0.3.

Loading: Boundary Conditions:


A uniform internal pressure P=1MPa is applied in Symmetry boundary conditions on planes
the cylinder with closed ends. of symmetry.

Target Solution Quantities Required for Comparison:


The maximum stress concentration factor is 1.5 for an elliptical hole of this shape and
orientation in a cylindrical vessel [1].

Idealisations:

Since the radius to thickness ratio is 100 and membrane stresses dominates in the cylinder,
the problem may be analysed as a flat plate. The schematic representation of the model with
2D plane stress elements is shown below:

Further Considerations:
(1) Make sure results are independent of “plate” width L.
(2) Model the actual cylindrical vessel with 3D shell elements or 3D solids rather than a “2D
solid” idealisation, compare results.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 3 of 3

(3) Compare results with tutorial BMT4 for the stress concentration factor for a circular hole
in an infinite plate.
(4) At what R/t ratio (for a fixed a/b ratio) would such an approach become inaccurate
within 5%?
(5) Is this approximation, which has its roots in hand calculations and early FEA, now worth
doing?
(6) Is there a better shape of hole in such a cylinder?
(7) What is the best shape for a pressurized sphere?

Useful references:
1. R.E. Peterson, Stress Concentration Factors, John Wiley, 1974.
SOLUTION
Page 1 of 5

Number: Title: Date:

COPPS_BMW3 Cylindrical vessel with elliptical opening 20th May 2009

Idealisation:

Since the radius to thickness ratio is 100 and membrane stresses dominate in the cylinder, the
problem may be analysed as a flat plate i.e. the effects of curvature will be negligible (try
modelling in 3D to check). The schematic representation of the model with 2D plane stress
elements is shown below (plane stress is the appropriate assumption given the thickness of
the vessel):

Fig 1. Model idealisation

Mesh:

Fig. 2. Coarsest mesh examined with 8 elements along AE.


SOLUTION
Page 2 of 5

Fig. 3. Fine mesh of entire model, with 30 elements along AE

Fig. 4. Fine mesh around elliptical hole.

System and Element(s) Used:

The model was created and solved using ANSYS v11. The element used was an 8-noded 2D
plane stress element, PLANE82 with the plane stress option.

Results for Comparative Target Solution Quantities:


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Page 3 of 5

Number of elements along Maximum von Mises Difference (%)


AE Stress (MN/sq.m)
8 165 7.22
12 159 3.34
18 157 2.06
20 155 0.62
22 155 0.73
26 154 0.42
30 154 0.17
36 154 0.05
42 154 0.00

Table 1. Convergence study.

Fig 5. Von Mises stress plot of entire model


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Page 4 of 5

Fig 6. Von Mises stress plot around elliptical hole.

Fig 7. 1st principal stress plot around elliptical hole, edge AE.
SOLUTION
Page 5 of 5

Relevant Codes of Practice, Industry Standard and/or Statement of Assessment Criteria:

N/A

Description of Results Post-processing (where relevant):

Conclusion(s):

For this model the SCF is defined as the ratio of maximum stress to hoop stress (PR/t) which
for this model is equal to 1x108 N/m2. This provides a converged stress concentration factor of
1.54. This compares with a value of 1.5 in ref.[1].

The convergence results in table 1 shows that capturing the elliptical profile accurately is
important for satisfactory results. The coarsest mesh examined had 8 elements along AE and
this provided a 7.22% difference in maximum von Mises stress.

If you are interested in analysing this type of structure and component, it is recommended that
you repeat this excerise with your own FE system and elements therein.
WORKED EXAMPLE
 

DEFINITION Page 1 of 2

Number: Title: Date:

CCOPPS_FMCW4 Elastic analysis of a flush cylindrical nozzle 26th May 2009


in a spherical vessel

Statement of Purpose:

The main purpose of this example is to carry out an elastic analysis of a flush cylindrical nozzle
in a spherical vessel, which is subjected to internal pressure only and to determine the “Limit of
proportionality” for this configuration.

Geometry:
Analysis Type(s): Material:

Linear material, static, small displacement. Nozzle, with Young’s Modulus = 200GN/m2;
Poisson’s Ratio = 0.3, yield stress=302.7
MPa.

Sphere, with Young’s Modulus = 200.8


GN/m2; Poisson’s Ratio = 0.3, yield
stress=269.8 MPa.

Loading: Boundary Conditions:

Internal pressure. See the figure below in the idealisation


section.

WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 2 of 2

Target Solution Quantities Required for Comparison:

Pressure at the experimental ‘Limit of Proportionality” is 6.06MPa.


Idealisations:

Given the geometry and loading shown, the problem is idealised as a 2D axisymmetric model.
By calculating the decay lengths of a cylindrical nozzle and a spherical vessel subject to
internal pressure, the size of the model is determined, i.e. L and φ. Constant hydrostatic end
pressure imposed along EF to simulate end cap effect. Radio edge CD is constrained so that
no movement takes place in the hoop direction.

Further Considerations:

(1) Mesh convergence study.


(2) Study the stress distribution at the nozzle and sphere junction and plot graphs of hoop
and meridional stress along inner and outer boundary curves. Calculate the maximum
stress concentration factor.
(3) How small a nozzle length and angle subtended by the sphere can you use without
significantly affecting these results?
Useful references:

1. DINNO K.S, GILL S.S., “An Experimental Investigation into the Plastic Behaviour of
Flush Nozzles in Spherical Pressure Vessels”. International Journal of Mechanical
Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 817-839, 1965.

 
SOLUTION
Page 1 of 6

.Number: Title: Date:

CCOPPS_FMCW4 Elastic analysis of a flush cylindrical 21st May 2009


nozzle in a spherical vessel
Idealisation:

Given the geometry and loading shown, the problem is idealised as a 2D axisymmetric model.
By calculating the decay lengths of a cylindrical nozzle and a spherical vessel subject to
internal pressure, the size of the model may be determined, i.e. L and φ. For simplicity, in the
first instance, a 90 degree sector is modelled. Uniform hydrostatic end pressure imposed along
EF to simulate end cap effect. Edge CD is assumed to be a symmetry boundary.

rO
rI

Fig. 1. Idealization.
SOLUTION
Page 2 of 6

Mesh:

Fig. 2. Mesh for the flush cylindrical nozzle in a spherical vessel.

It should be noted that FE systems may have different rules regarding the modelling of
axisymmetric problems. In this particular case, the axis of symmetry has to be global Y and the
structure must be in the positive X-Y quadrant.

System and Element(s) Used:

The model was created in ANSYS v11 and meshed with PLANE82, an 8-noded quadratic solid
of revolution element. A comparison with Mechanica adaptive ‘p’ elements (Wildfire 3) is also
shown.

Results for Comparative Target Solution Quantities:


SOLUTION
Page 3 of 6

Fig. 3. Von Mises stress plot at the intersection of nozzle and sphere.

Fig. 4. Hoop stress plot for the whole model.


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Page 4 of 6

Fig. 5. Hoop stress plot at the intersection of nozzle and sphere.

3.0E + 08
H oop s tres s  dis tribution along  the ex ternal 

∞ ∞
A ns ys
2.5E + 08
W eld edge
s urfac e of ves s el (1 N/m )
2

E x perimental
Theoretic al Hoop S tres s 2.0E + 08

1.5E + 08

1.0E + 08

5.0E + 07
Cylinder S phere

0.0E + 00
‐0.4 ‐0.3 ‐0.2 ‐0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3

D is tanc e from the middle of the weld, point A (m)

Fig. 6. Hoop stress distribution along the external surface of the vessel.
SOLUTION
Page 5 of 6

Fig. 7. Mechanica hoop stress distribution along external surface of the vessel. Note inclusion
of end cap in this analysis to show distribution of stress in this region.
Relevant Codes of Practice, Industry Standard and/or Statement of Assessment Criteria:

Description of Results Post-processing (where relevant):

Conclusion(s):

Figure’s 6 and 7 show the hoop stress plots from Ansys and Mechanica at the intersection of
nozzle and sphere, the maximum stress occurs at the weld toe as expected. For the Ansys
model, theoretically elastically, this stress should be infinite and the finite element result will
tend to infinity with mesh refinement. It should also be noted that the Mechanica results have
instead a 1mm radii at the toes of the welds. This approach is sometimes used to obtain “hot-
spot” stresses for fatigue (see FEA module unit).

When the vessel is under an internal pressure of 6.06 MPa, the hoop stress at point A from
numerical model is 214.67 N/m2 comparing with the experimental stress, 232.97 N/m2 – a
-7.9% difference. This error remains fairly consistent throughout the range of experimental
values and the trends in both the experimental and numerical results appear to be similar.
However, the theoretical hoop stress remote from the weld generally compares quite well with
both the Ansys and Mechanica results.
ANSYS EXPERIMENT MECHANICA
HOOP STRESS at MIDDLE
OF WELD FACE 214.64 232.97 218.13
(N/sq.mm)
MAXIMUM PRINCIPAL
STRESS at CROTCH 207.61 - 209.11
(N/sq.mm)
Table 1
SOLUTION
Page 6 of 6

The interesting forms of the stress distribution in the regions of the flat head and the weld
should also be noted. Furthermore, table 1 shows the stress values at both point A and the
crotch corner as determined by Ansys and Mechanica. It can be seen that the stress at the
crotch is lower than that at point A which may be unexpected, however the agreement
between the Ansys and Mechanica values is reassuring on the issue.

If you are interested in analysing this type of structure and component, it is recommended that
you repeat this exercise with your own FE system and elements therein.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 1 of 3

Number: Title: Date:


CCOPPS_FMCW5 Large fabrication containing welded 20th May 2009
intersections

Statement of Purpose:
The main purpose of this example is to identify the limitations of modelling practices currently in
use, using plate/shell elements, for adequate representation of the stiffness and stresses in
large fabrications containing welded intersections that exhibit a slope discontinuity in shell/plate
midsurfaces.
The stresses and deflections in the fabricated detail shown are to be determined using
common industrial modelling practices. Target solution quantities required for deflection and
stresses have been specified.

Geometry:

R1 = 650 mm; R2 = 1000 mm


H = 300 mm; t1 = 20mm
t2 = 15 mm; L = 15mm (leg length)
Neglect self-weight; 45 degree full penetration fillet
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 2 of 3

Analysis Type(s): Material:


Linear material, static, small displacement. EN10025 S355 JR steel (old BS 4360
Grade 50B) in the as-rolled, as-welded
condition.
Young’s Modulus = 200000 N/mm2;
Poisson’s Ratio = 0.3.

Loading: Boundary Conditions:


Internal pressure P = 0.2 N/mm2 See figure above.

Target Solution Quantities Required for Comparison:


Deflections and principal stresses at points 1, 2 and 3; Principal stress distributions through the
thickness at sections s1 and s2.
Elastic stress(es) to be used for assessment of static failure margin(s) and “Hot-spot” stress(es)
for fatigue assessment.

Idealisations:
Although the problem can be analysed as 2D, the intention is that it should be representative of
large general plate/shell fabrications. With this in mind, idealisations using general 3D
plate/shell elements are required.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 3 of 3

Further Considerations:

(1) Determine the coarsest mesh that would provide you with an acceptable variation from
the following highly refined meshes.

(2) If you have the resources try a 3D solid representation (for a small sector)?

Useful references:

1. Maddox, SJ. Fatigue Strength of Welded Structures, Woodhead Publishing, Second


Edition, ISBN 1 85573 013 8, 1991.

2. Niemi E., Structural Hot-Spot Approach to Fatigue Analysis of Welded Components:


Designer’s Guide; IIW Draft Report XIII-1819-00; June 2003.

3. Peckover RS et al, United Kindom Offshore Steels Research Project- Phase 1 Final
Report OTH 88 282; UK Department of Energy, 1985.
SOLUTION
Page 1 of 22

Number: Title: Date:

CCOPPS_FMCW5 Large fabrication containing welded 20th May 2009


intersections
Idealisation:

The main purpose of this example is to identify the limitations of modelling practices currently
in use, using plate/shell elements, for adequate representation of the stiffness and stresses in
large fabrications containing welded intersections that exhibit a slope discontinuity in the
shell/plate midsurface.

Although the problem can be analysed as 2D, the intention is that it should be representative
of large general plate/shell fabrications. With this in mind, idealisations using general 3D
plate/shell elements and 3D solids are required.

Mesh:
Model 1_1 Solid of Revolution
The highly refined Mechanica adaptive P mesh is shown in Figure 1, with the p-levels (levels of
polynomial refinement) shown in Figure 2. Levels run from 9 (red) to 1 (blue).

Figure 1. Solid of revolution idealization (Mechanica)

Figure 2. Solid of revolution p-levels (Mechanica)


SOLUTION
Page 2 of 22

Figure 3. Ansys h-element solid of revolution models. The coarse mesh has an element size of
10mm at the weld and the fine model has an element size of 4mm at the weld.

Model 1_2 Shell, with weld neglected


This is a highly refined shell idealisation with no representation of the weld at all. The
Mechanica adaptive P mesh is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Shell model with no weld (Mechanica)


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Page 3 of 22

Figure 5. Ansys h-element shell models. The coarse meshes for all shell models have an
element size of 10x10mm at the weld and the fine models have an element size of 4x4mm at
the weld.

Model 1_6 Shell, with weld represented as sloping band of elements


This is a highly refined shell idealisation with the weld represented as a sloping band of
elements running from toe to toe locations, with an element thickness equivalent to the weld
throat thickness. The vertical leg continues down to the intersection with the lower plate,
simulating a full penetration weld. The Mechanica adaptive P mesh is shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6. Shell model with weld included as a sloping band of elements (Mechanica)
SOLUTION
Page 4 of 22

Figure 7. Ansys h-element shell models.

Model 1_7 Shell, with weld represented as thicker bands of elements


This is a highly refined shell idealisation with the weld represented as a vertical and horizontal
band of elements. The element thickness for these bands was assumed to be the parent plate
thickness plus the weld throat thickness. The Mechanica adaptive P mesh is shown in Figure
8.

Figure 8. Shell model with weld included as thicker bands of elements (Mechanica)
SOLUTION
Page 5 of 22

Figure 9. Ansys h-element shell models.

System and Element(s) Used:

Various h-element models were created and solved using ANSYS v11. Model 1_1 was
meshed with element type PLANE83 which is an 8-noded axisymmetric structural solid
element. Element type SHELL93 was used for models 1_2, 1_6 and 1_7 which is an 8-noded
structural shell element.

The adaptive p-element models were solved using Mechanica 2D solid of revolution elements
and general 3D shell elements.
SOLUTION
Page 6 of 22

Results for Comparative Target Solution Quantities:

Deflection Deflection Deflection σ1 σ1 σ1 σ2 σ2 σ2


Pt. 1 Pt. 2 Pt. 3 Pt. 1 Pt. 2 Pt.3 Pt. 1 Pt. 2 Pt. 3
(% error) (% error) (% error) (% (% (% (% (% (%
error) error) error) error) error) error)
1_1 4.9 0.5 0.03 119.6 -5.5 13.5 119.6 -18.5 10.3
(M)
1_1 4.9 0.51 0.03 119.6 -5.5 13.9 119.6 -18.4 11.9
(A) (0) (2.0) (0) (0) (0) (3.0) (0) (0.54) (12.6)
(F)
1_1 4.9 0.51 0.03 119.3 -5.5 14.0 119.3 -18.3 11.9
(A) (0) (2.0) (0) (-0.25) (0) (3.7) (-0.25) (1.1) (12.6)
(C)
1_2 5.2 0.68 0.03 123.7 -7.0 13.3 123.7 -23.4 9.7
(M) (6.1) (36) (0) (3.4) (27.3) (-1.5) (3.4) (26.5) (-5.8)
1_2 5.2 0.68 0.03 123.8 -7.0 13.2 123.8 -23.4 9.6
(A) (6.1) (36) (0) (3.5) (27.3) (2.2) (3.4) (26.5) (-6.8)
(F)
1_2 5.2 0.68 0.03 123.8 -7.0 12.7 123.8 -23.4 8.2
(A) (6.1) (36) (0) (3.5) (27.3) (-5.9) (3.5) (26.5) (18.4)
(C)
1_6 5.0 0.5 0.03 120.9 -5.7 13.6 120.9 -19.0 10.3
(M) (2.0) (0) (0) (1.1) (3.6) (0.7) (1.1) (2.7) (0)
1_6 5.1 0.57 0.03 121.7 -6.1 13.4 121.7 -20.3 10.0
(A) (4.1) (14) (0) (1.8) (10.9) (-0.74) (1.8) (9.7) (-2.9)
(F)
1_6 5.1 0.57 0.03 121.9 -6.1 13.4 121.9 -20.3 9.9
(A) (4.1) (14) (0) (1.9) (10.9) (-0.74) (1.9) (9.7) (-3.9)
(C)
1_7 4.8 0.5 0.03 118.0 -5.3 13.7 118.0 -17.8 10.7
(M) (-2.0) (0) (0) (-1.3) (-3.6) (1.5) (-1.3) (-3.8) (3.9)
1_7 4.8 0.49 0.03 118.1 -5.3 13.6 118.1 -17.7 10.6
(A) (-2.0) (-2.0) (0) (-1.3) (-3.6) (2.9) (-1.3) (-4.3) (2.9)
(F)
1_7 4.8 0.49 0.03 118.3 -5.3 13.6 118.3 -17.7 10.6
(A) (-2.0) (-2.0) (0) (-1.1) (-3.6) (2.9) (-1.1) (-4.3) (2.9)
(C)

Table 1. (M) refers to the Mechanica p-element models and (A) refers to the ANSYS h-element
models. (F) refers to a fine mesh and (C) refers to a coarse mesh.

Deformation in “mm” and stresses in “N/mm2”. Percentage errors are given relative to the
results from the Mechanica model 1_1.

From this table, it may be concluded that all of the idealisations reported are in reasonable
agreement for the result quantities tabulated. The 36% and 26.4% differences for 1_2 should
be considered in terms of the overall magnitude of the quantities themselves. Model 1_2 is the
most flexible of all the models, as expected. The fact that it is also the simplest and most
convenient should also be borne in mind.

The through-thickness principal stress distributions at sections 1 and 2 (corresponding to toes


of weld) are shown in Figures 10 - 21. The distributions for Model 1_1 have been linearized
using the standard post-processing facilities available in Mechanica and ANSYS. Two sets of
results have been presented for the simple shell intersection model 1_2 … those for the
intersection and those for a position corresponding to where the weld toe would have been.
SOLUTION
Page 7 of 22

Section 1
250
Meridional Stress (N/sq.mm)

200 Model 1_1

Model 1_2 (Intersection)


150
Model 1_2

100 Model 1_6

Model 1_7
50
0
-50 -7.5 7.5
-100
-150
-200
-250

Figure 10. Meridional stress distributions for Section 1. (Mechanica)

Figure 11. Meridional stress distribution for Section 1, ANSYS coarse mesh
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Page 8 of 22

Figure 12. Meridional stress distributions for Section 1, ANSYS fine mesh.

Section 1
80
60 Model 1_1
Hoop Stress (N/sq.mm)

Model 1_2 (Intersection)


40 Model 1_2

Model 1_6
20 Model 1_7

0
-20 -7.5 7.5

-40
-60
-80
-100

Figure 13. Hoop stress distributions for Section 1


SOLUTION
Page 9 of 22

Figure 14. Hoop stress distributions for Section 1, ANSYS coarse mesh.

Figure 15. Hoop stress distribution for Section 1, ANSYS fine mesh.
SOLUTION
Page 10 of 22

Section 2
40
Meridional Stress (N/sq.mm)

30 Model 1_1

Model 1_2 (Intersection)


20 Model 1_2

Model 1_6
10 Model 1_7

0
-10 -10 10

-20
-30
-40

Figure 16. Meridional stress distributions for Section 2 (Mechanica)

Figure 17. Meridional stress distributions for Section 2, ANSYS coarse mesh.
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Page 11 of 22

Figure 18. Meridional stress distributions for Section 2, ANSYS fine mesh.

Section 2
5
4 Model 1_1
Hoop Stress (N/sq.mm)

Model 1_2 (Intersection)


3 Model 1_2

2 Model 1_6

Model 1_7

1
0
-1 -10 10
-2
-3
-4

Figure 19. Hoop stress distributions for Section 2. (Mechanica)


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Page 12 of 22

Figure 20. Hoop stress distributions for Section 2. ANSYS coarse mesh.

Figure 21. Hoop stress distributions for Section 2, ANSYS fine mesh.
SOLUTION
Page 13 of 22

From these distributions the following observations may be made:


• The simple shell intersection results (Model 1_2), when the actual intersection results
are used, generally provide an overestimate on meridional stress, but not always hoop.
Use of results for the simple shell idealisation, at a position corresponding to where the
weld toe would be, generally provides better agreement (but at the cost of additional
meshing effort).
• The shell results are generally in good agreement with the solid of revolution values.
• There is little difference between the two methods used to simulate the weld, in this
particular case. Models along the lines of 1_7 will be slightly easier to create than 1_6.
• There is little difference between that of the coarse and fine ANSYS h-element meshes.

A final point worth noting, are the differences that can arise due to the linearization procedure
itself. Figure 22 shows the non-linearised through-thickness distributions for section 1, for
Mechanica Model 1_1. As may be observed, the effect of the weld toe singularity is confined to
the quarter thickness closest to the singularity itself. For this particular problem, the first three-
quarters of the thickness exhibits a perfectly linear distribution. An engineer’s manual solution
to the linearization process would be to simply extend this linear distribution, rather than
employ a mathematical ‘best-fit straight line’ algorithm. In the latter case, the peak component
will influence the bending stress component and will in effect alter the slope of the distribution,
resulting in slightly higher stress values on the surfaces (in this case -79 cf -68 and -139 cf -
118 for the hoop and meridional stresses respectively on the singularity surface).

Figure 22. Non-linearized through-thickness stress distributions for Section 1


(Mechanica Model 1_1)

Before addressing the issue of assessment, it would be useful to consider the general issue of
‘hot-spot’ extrapolation. In this case it is argued that such extrapolation is unnecessary for the
shell idealisations as no singularity exists in these models. Surface extrapolation as
recommended by the International Institute of Welding (see module) will be confined to the
principal stress distributions for Model 1_1. Furthermore, it is clear from the linearised results
that the maximum stresses occur on section 1. Surface extrapolation will be confined to the
vertical shell in this case.
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Page 14 of 22

Surface distributions of meridional and hoop stresses leading up to section 1 are shown in
Figures 23 - 34 for both the inner and outer surfaces. Results for the simple shell model 1_2
are shown for comparison. Vertical lines are shown at locations corresponding to the wall
centreline for the lower plate, the upper surface of the lower plate, the weld toe and 1,2,3
upper shell thicknesses from the weld toe. The vertical lines on the graph enable the form of
the stress distributions to be better appreciated. The two distributions would be in better
agreement if the thin shell distribution were to be displaced by half a lower plate thickness to
the right. While this fact is interesting, it is unnecessary for the purposes of surface
extrapolation of the shell of revolution results. The UKOSRP project (see module) in the study
of joints for offshore structures noted that the distance that such thin shell graphical
distributions had to ‘displaced’ was also a function of the intersection angle as well as the shell
thicknesses.

Figure 23. Outer surface meridional stress distributions, Mechanica p-elements.


SOLUTION
Page 15 of 22

Figure 24. Outer surface meridional stress distributions, ANSYS h-element, coarse mesh.

Figure 25. Outer surface meridional stress distributions, ANSYS h-element, fine mesh.
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Page 16 of 22

Figure 26. Outer surface hoop stress distributions, Mechanica p-elements.

Figure 27. Outer surface hoop stress distributions, ANSYS h-elements, coarse mesh.
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Page 17 of 22

Figure 28. Outer surface hoop stress distributions, ANSYS h-element, fine mesh.

Figure 29. Inner surface meridional stress distributions, Mechanica p-elements.


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Page 18 of 22

Figure 30. Inner surface meridional stress distributions. ANSYS h-elements, coarse mesh.

Figure 31. Inner surface meridional stress distributions, ANSYS h-elements, fine mesh.
SOLUTION
Page 19 of 22

Figure 32. Inner surface hoop stress distributions. (Mechanica)

Figure 33. Inner surface hoop stress distributions. ANSYS h-elements, coarse mesh.
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Page 20 of 22

Figure 34. Inner surface hoop stress distributions, ANSYS h-elements, fine mesh.

From these distributions, various extrapolated hot-spot stresses have been derived using the
linear and quadratic recommendations discussed in the module, as shown in Table 2. It is
realised that in fact such extrapolation is not required for the inner surface, as the fatigue
assessment of the weld root requires use of a nominal stress rather than a ‘hot-spot’ value, as
recommended by the IIW and various Codes of Practice. These issues are addressed in the
module. A comparison is made for this surface non-the-less. Similarly no regard is given to
guidance relating to Type ‘a’ and ‘b’ hot-spots or coarse/fine meshes at this stage.

NB Figures 24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33 and 34 show the danger of using averaged nodal
stresses at intersections. This is the cause of the discontinuity in the distributions. This error in
the last point of the graph (ie at the intersection) may also affect the extrapolation procedures
in this case. This can be a common problem with graph plotting procedures in FEA systems.
Unaveraged stresses should be plotted for the last point in the distribution. In this regard the
Ansys results should be used with caution, while the Mechanica results have been corrected
for this problem.
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Page 21 of 22

Case Hot-Spot Stress (N/mm2)


Outer Outer Inner Inner
Surface Surface Surface Surface
Meridional Hoop Meridional Hoop

Thin Shell at intersection -187.8 -55.1 196.5 60.2


Mechanica
Thin Shell
At location of weld toe -125.0 -58.6
At inner surface re-entrant corner 170.5 41.3
Mechanica
Through-thickness linearization

At Weld toe -139.4 -79.0


At inner surface re-entrant corner 49.7 36.1
Mechanica
Linear extrapolation 0.5t / 1.5t -118.0 -61.2 104.0 15.3
(7.5mm / 22.5mm) -84.3 -56.2 132.5 13.8
Mechanica -134.9 -63.7 89.8 16.1
Linear Mechanica -127.0 -62.2 94.7 14.6
extrapolation -103.0 -58.7 134.0 18.7
5mm / 15mm -139.0 -64.0 75.1 12.6
ANSYS -113.5 -59.9 107.7 15.3
(Coarse) -93.0 -57.3 126.8 15.7
-134.1 -62.5 88.6 14.9
Linear extrapolation 0.4t / 1t 123.0 -61.7 97.5 14.7
(6mm / 15mm) -103.0 -58.7 134.0 18.7
-136.4 -63.7 73.0 12.0
Quadratic Mechanica -132.0 -63.2 93.5 15.1
extrapolation -130.0 -62.9 106.0 15.6
4mm/8mm/12mm -125.0 -62.0 125.0 18.0
-131.0 -62.9 87.5 16.5
ANSYS -133.7 -60.8 98.0 8.0
(Fine) -118.0 -61.1 105.5 15.9
-109.8 -59.8 123.4 17.2
-157.0 -59.0 72.6 -1.2
Table 2 Comparison of various ‘hot-spot’ stresses

For the outer surface, extrapolation is to the weld toe and for the inner surface it is to the re-
entrant corner corresponding to the full penetration weld root.
SOLUTION
Page 22 of 22

Relevant Codes of Practice, Industry Standard and/or Statement of Assessment Criteria:

N/A

Description of Results Post-processing (where relevant):

Conclusion(s):

From the previous results, the following observations may be made:


• The thin shell intersection values represent a ‘worst-case’ i.e. are an overestimate for
meridional stress, but not for hoop stress in all cases..
• There is little difference in the results from the various extrapolation schemes.
However, it should be borne in mind that the extrapolation schemes were not designed
to be used with well converged results from highly refined meshes. Given that the effect
of singularities are confined to the first quarter thickness / 3.75mm (as discussed in the
module) and that the first extrapolation point is at 4mm, then this is perhaps not
surprising.
• Although surface extrapolation is not applicable to the weld root location, it is
interesting to observe that the extrapolation procedures do not cope well with the more
complex form of stress distributions that exists in this area. The distributions are shown
in Figures 29 to 34 and it may be noted that the complexity extends to 2 shell
thicknesses from the re-entrant corner. Even quadratic extrapolation fails to handle
such distributions effectively. A relatively fine mesh is required however to accurately
reproduce this distribution.
• The poor comparison for the linearized results at the re-entrant corner (weld root) are
due to the fact that the results were linearized over a thickness corresponding to the
shell wall plus the weld leg length. This naturally has the effect of reducing the stress
magnitudes.
• Clearly a definitive set of guidelines for modelling and assessing welds is still awaited.
• Any idealisation of a welded intersection should be capable of modelling the correct
joint stiffness (as measured by deformations away from the weld) and also field
stresses remote from the weld. For dynamic problems, effective representation of the
mass distribution will also be necessary.
• Given the variation in results across the idealisations and the sensitivity of fatigue life
predictions to hot-spot stress levels, clearly care should be taken before adopting a
particular strategy. The use of in-house test results should be considered as a means
of validating modelling strategies.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 1 of 3

Number: Title: Date:


CCOPPS_MEW3 Axisymmetric cylindrical vessel-skirt 20th May 2009
junction

Statement of Purpose:
The main purpose of this example is to demonstrate the use of axi-symmetric shell elements to
model a cylindrical vessel with a skirt support and study the stresses at the shell intersection.

Geometry:

Analysis Type(s): Material:


WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 2 of 3

Linear material, static, small displacement. Steel, with Young’s Modulus = 210 GPa;
Poisson’s Ratio = 0.3.

Loading: Boundary Conditions:


A uniform internal pressure of 1.0 MPa along Ux=Uy=ROTZ=0 at A, and symmetry
edge BCD. boundary condition at point B, i.e.
Ux=ROTZ=0.

Target Solution Quantities Required for Comparison:


Axial stress, σyy= -319.9 MPa on the outer surface of the upper cylinder at point C [1].

Idealisations:
Since the geometry, loading and material do not vary with θ, an axisymmetric idealisation is
appropriate. The radius to thickness ratio is 100, indicating that the thin shell representation
would be appropriate.

Further Considerations:
(1) Identify other likely axisymmetric loadings.
(2) Study convergence.
(3) Plot graph of meridional and hoop stresses along edge BD and AD and identify location
of maximum bending. Comment on the forms of the distributions and the nature of the
results at the intersection. Compare the decay lengths with the standard formulae for
edge loaded cylinders and spheres in notes. Try imposing a boundary condition at D to
see if the significant results change.
(4) Where would you check for possible buckling? Would an axisymmetric (non axi-Fourier)
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 3 of 3

idealisation be appropriate for such a buckling analysis?


(5) Compare results and model size with a 3D thin shell representation.
(6) Compare results with an appropriate mesh of solid of revolution elements.
(7) Compare results with a combination of axisymmetric shell and solid of revolution
elements.

Useful references:
1. D., Hitchings, “Linear Statics Benchmarks”, NAFEMS Report LSB2, Nov, 1987.
SOLUTION
Page 1 of 10

Number: Title: Date:

CCOPPS_MEW3 Axisymmetric cylindrical vessel-skirt 20th May 2009


junction
Idealisation:

Since the geometry, loading and material do not vary with θ, an axisymmetric idealisation is
appropriate. The radius to thickness ratio is 100, indicating that the thin shell representation
would be appropriate.

Fig 1. Geometry idealisation

The lack of some form of constraint at D for this loading is not entirely practical. However
target results are available for this scenario. Results have also been provided for a pressure
end-cap effect i.e. with meridional stresses in the cylinder. This would normally be simulated
by applying a force (F) equal to the internal pressure multiplied by the internal cross-sectional
area (P x Ai).
SOLUTION
Page 2 of 10

Mesh:

Fig 2. ANSYS h-element 2-D axisymmetric shell mesh.

The mesh contains 50 elements along vessel head as well as the upper and lower cylinders. A
mesh spacing ratio of 4 was used for each section with finer elements towards point C.

It should be noted that FE systems may have different rules regarding the modelling of
axisymmetric problems. In this particular case, the axis of symmetry has to be global Y and the
structure must be in the positive X-Y quadrant.

The ANSYS 3-D shell model used the same mesh which was rotated 90 degrees.
SOLUTION
Page 3 of 10

Fig 3. ANSYS h-element solid of revolution mesh.

Fig 4. Mechanica p-element 2-d axisymmetric shell model.


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Page 4 of 10

Fig 5. Mechanica p-element 3-D shell model (24 elements).

Fig 6. Mechanica p-element 2-D solid of revolution model, showing automatic refinement in
vicinity of re-entrant corners.
SOLUTION
Page 5 of 10

System and Element(s) Used:

The h-element models were created and solved using ANSYS v11. The elements used were
SHELL209, which is a 3-node quadratic finite strain axisymmetric shell element and
SHELL93 which is an 8-noded quadratic structural shell element. The solid of
revolution model was meshed with PLANE82, an 8-noded quadratic plane element.

The p-element models were created and solved in Mechanica, using adaptive p
technology. Such elements can utilize up to a 9th order polynomial where necessary.
For the axisymmetric shell and solid of revolution models a coarse mesh and a fine
mesh were used.

Results for Comparative Target Solution Quantities:

It should be noted that all these results are for no-end-cap pressure case.

Fig 7. ANSYS post-processed 2-D axisymmetric σyy stress distribution.


(This is a 2D analysis with stress visualisation in 3D)
SOLUTION
Page 6 of 10

Fig 8. ANSYS solid of revolution σyy stress distribution.

Maximum stresses at such re-entrant corners (without a fillet) should not be used directly as
the value obtained from any FEA is a function of mesh refinement.

Fig 9. Mechanica 2-D axisymmetric shell results. Displacements are exaggerated.


SOLUTION
Page 7 of 10

Fig 10. Mechanica 3-D shell stress results. Displacements are exaggerated.

4.00E+08
Outside
3.00E+08 Inside
Outside (with endcap)
Axial stress (N/sq.m)

2.00E+08 Inside (with endcap)


) pr/2t
2
^
m
/ 1.00E+08
N
(
s
s 0.00E+00
e
rt 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
S
l
i -1.00E+08
a
x
A
-2.00E+08

-3.00E+08

-4.00E+08
Distancefrom
Distance frompoint
point
DD
Fig 11. Un-averaged stress plot for ANSYS 2-D axisymmetric shell model.
SOLUTION
Page 8 of 10

Distance from point D


Fig 12. Averaged stress plot for ANSYS 2-D axisymmetric shell model.

Fig 13. Mechanica plot of axial stress for fine 2-D axisymmetric shell model.
SOLUTION
Page 9 of 10

Both Figure12 and 13 show the danger of using averaged nodal stresses at intersections. This
is the cause of the discontinuity in the distributions.

Model System / Element Type Axial stress (MPa)


(difference from target, %)
2D Axisymmetric thin shell Mechanica / P-Element -311.8 (2.50%)
(Coarse mesh)
2D Axisymmetric thin shell Mechanica / P-Element -314.5 (1.68 %)
(Fine mesh)
2D Axisymmetric thin shell ANSYS / H-Element -314.4 (1.68%)

2D Axisymmetric thin shell ABAQUS / H-Element -313.4 (2.03%)

3D Thin Shell Mechanica / P-Element -310.7 (2.87%)


(Coarse mesh)
3D Thin shell ANSYS / H-Element -315.7 (1.31%)

2D Solid of revolution Mechanica / P-Element -282.8 (11.6%)


(Coarse mesh)
2D Solid of revolution Mechanica / P-Element -284.0 (11.2%)
(Fine mesh)
2D Solid of revolution ANSYS / H-Element -280.2 (12.4%)

Table 1. Axial stress results for finite element models.

Relevant Codes of Practice, Industry Standard and/or Statement of Assessment Criteria:

N/A

Description of Results Post-processing (where relevant):

In Figure 7, axisymmetric elements have been expanded to show stress contours. In ANSYS,
this is done by issuing a post-processing command “/expand” which allows the creation of a
larger graphic display than represented by the actual finite element analysis model. In this
worked-example, A 3D fringe image is produced for what is in essence a 2D axisymmetric
problem.

Conclusion(s):

This target stress value would not necessarily be the focus in practice, as it is compressive and
there are higher tensile stresses on the inside of the vessel as seen from the 2-D solid of
revolution plot in figure 8 and also the graph of stresses in figure 11.

Figure 11 also shows that with the addition of an end-cap effect, the compressive stress on the
outside is reduced and the tensile stress on the inside is increased. Neglecting the end-cap
effect is un-conservative.

The graphs in figures 12 and 13 show a common problem with results from a shell model at
SOLUTION
Page 10 of 10

intersections. For the common node at the intersection most systems will incorrectly use the
averaged stress when graphing results using such common nodes. This results in an incorrect
evaluation (invariably an underestimate) of the maximum thin shell intersection stress. It is
important therefore to use the un-averaged stress as has been done for the graph in figure 11.

The Mechanica plots in figures 9 and 10 show the stresses throughout the model. As would be
expected, the main region of distortion is at the head-shell intersection due to bending. The 3D
shell model also shows that there is localised bending occurring at the constrained bottom
edge. Away from these areas there are no bending stresses and only membrane stresses
exist.

The results from the thin shell models agree well with the target result of -319.9 MPa, in
general, for all idealisations. As would be expected, displacements are also well represented.
For example, the radial displacement at point C from the ANSYS 2D axisymmetric thin shell
was 0.27641x10-3 m which is close to that obtained from the reference which was 0.2797x10-3
m and a theoretical displacement of 0.2847x10-3 m.

The stresses from the axisymmetric solid of revolution models are in fact more realistic and do
not suffer from the approximations inherent in thin shell idealisations. The exception to this is
at the re-entrant corners on the 2D geometry. At these locations the stresses are theoretically
infinite. Unlike the shell intersection results, which are finite, 2D solid of revolution and 3D solid
idealisations produce un-converged finite results. Such values should not be used directly in
assessment. The FEA and DBA modules examine ways of producing realistic hot-spot
stresses for such re-entrant corners.

If you are interested in analysing this type of structure and component, it is recommended that
you repeat this exercise with your own FE system and elements therein.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 1 of 2

Number: Title: Date:


WE1 Thin un-welded flat end 20th May 2009
Stress categorization
Statement of Purpose:

The purpose of this example is to perform stress categorisation on a thin un-welded flat end.

This example is taken from the CEN DBA manual example 1.2.

Geometry:
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 2 of 2

Analysis Type(s): Material:

Elastic Analysis Young’s Modulus, E=212000Nmm-2

Yield stress, σy=255Nmm-2 at 20oC

Poisson’s ratio, ν=0.3

Loading: Boundary Conditions:

Pressure P = 4.2Nmm-2 Zero vertical displacement at the cylinder open


end.
Temperature T = 20oC

Target Solution Quantities Required for Comparison:

Idealisations:

Axisymmetric model.

Further Considerations:

Students may consider using different mesh densities and higher order elements to check the
effect on the results.

Strength of materials thin cylinder equations, Lame’s equations and circular disk equations can
be used to check the software results at certain classification lines such as at A and E.

Comparison with the “Direct Method” as detailed in EN13445 would provide an interesting an
perhaps simpler approach.

Useful references:

1. EN13445-3 Annex C, Unfired pressure vessels – Part3: Design

2. Design by Analysis Manual – published by the European Commission, Directorate


General Joint Research Centre, Petten, The Netherlands, 1999
SOLUTION
Page 1 of 9

Number: Title: Date:


WE1 Thin unwelded flat end 20th May 2009
Stress categorization
Idealisation:

Due to the symmetry of the example, the geometry can be represented by an axisymmetric
model, and using 4-noded quadrilateral elements.

Mesh:

Enlarged view

System and Element(s) Used:

Elements

4-noded quadrilateral elements, as implemented in the ANSYS system.


SOLUTION
Page 2 of 9

Results for Comparative Target Solution Quantities:

N/A

Relevant Codes of Practice, Industry Standard and/or Statement of Assessment Criteria:

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Pressure
Vessels, Division 2 – Alternative Rules; American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2007

EN13445-3 Annex B, Unfired pressure vessels – Part3: Design, Annex C

Description of Results Post-processing (where relevant):

Analysis data

Loading

Internal Pressure, P = 4.2Nmm-2

Material parameters

The following material parameters are used for analysis (given in the example description).

Young’s Modulus, E=212000Nmm-2

Yield stress, σy=255Nmm-2 at a temperature of 20oC

Poisson’s ratio, ν=0.3

Analysis steps

- An elastic analysis is performed in order to obtain the elastic stress distribution.

- 5 classification lines are considered, these are shown below as A, B, C, D, E.


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Page 3 of 9

- Using the FEA software post processor (Ansys software was used in this case), the
linearized stresses along the defined classification lines are extracted.
The Tresca equivalent stress is used. This is given directly by the software so it is not
required to do the calculations manually.

- The stresses are classified as necessary.

- The linearized stresses are checked against the allowable stress limits. In this example
the allowable stress limits and terminology used are those given in EN13445-3
AnnexC.

Description of Results

The figure shown below shows the elastic stress distribution for the applied internal pressure of
4.2Nmm-2. The maximum stress intensity is at the inside corner with a value of 290.93Nmm-2.
SOLUTION
Page 4 of 9

Elastic stress distribution

For each classification line, the stresses are linearized by the FEA software (Ansys). The
graphs shown below show the linearization results for each classification line. The graphs are
plotting the Tresca equivalent stress (Stress intensity, SINT) across the section thickness.

It may be noted that the membrane plus bending plot is not linear across the section thickness.
At the stress component level, the bending stress across the thickness is in fact linear.
However the graphs shown are for the Tresca equivalent stress which due to the nature of its
calculation will result in the contours shown.

The table lists the linearization results for classification line B. The results are grouped by
type, namely; membrane, bending, membrane plus bending, peak and total. The FEA
software lists both the component linearized stresses and the calculated Tresca’s and von
Mises’ equivalent stress. In this example the Tresca’s equivalent stress is used.

The software first linearizes the stresses at a component level and then calculates the
equivalent stress on the results.
SOLUTION
Page 5 of 9

Tresca’s equivalent stresses for classification line A

Tresca’s equivalent stresses for classification line B

Tresca’s equivalent stresses for classification line C


SOLUTION
Page 6 of 9

Tresca’s equivalent stresses for classification line D

Tresca’s equivalent stresses for classification line E


SOLUTION
Page 7 of 9

Linearisation results for classification line B

The maximum membrane, membrane plus bending, peak and total stresses for all five
classification lines are listed in the next table. For each classification line, the table also shows
the assigned stress categories, allowable and calculated stresses.

Note:
In this example there is no local stress concentration effects or thermal loads applied.
Therefore no peak stress can exist.
The calculated “peak” stress given by Ansys is a feature of the mathematical
linearization procedure. In this case, the peak stress is simply the difference between
the linearised membrane plus bending stress and the actual membrane plus bending
distribution. In EN13345-3 Annex C, this is referred to as the non-linear part.
As here there is no peak stress, the membrane plus non-linear bending stress
distribution is equivalent to the “total” stress distribution. Therefore, for this case the
calculated total equivalent stress is used in the assessment rather than the linearised
membrane plus bending equivalent stress.
SOLUTION
Page 8 of 9

CL Membrane Membrane plus Peak stress Total


stress intensity bending intensity stress intensity
stress intensity
Nmm-2 Nmm-2 Nmm-2 Nmm-2
A 10.52 14.07 0.54 14.36
B 7.90 27.87 28.32 56.17
C 7.24 48.47 211.90 193.50
D 37.71 221.60 26.46 247.60
E 19.15 187.10 4.65 187.10

CL Stress Allowable stress Calculated


Categories stress
Nmm-2 Nmm-2
A Pm f 170.00 10.52
Pm+Q 3f 510.00 14.36
B PL 1.5f 255.00 7.90
PL+Q 3f 510.00 56.17
C PL 1.5f 255.00 7.24
PL+Q 3f 510.00 193.50
D PL 1.5f 255.00 37.71
PL+Pb 1.5f 255.00 247.60
E Pm f 170.00 19.15
Pm+Pb 1.5f 255.00 187.10

The value of f is taken as .

Note
For classification line D, the bending stress could either be classified as primary or as
secondary. The choice in the classification depends on whether the plate edge bending
reduces the bending stress at the plate centre. Both the ASME and EN13445 codes make
reference to this situation. The ASME code basically says that if the bending moment at the
plate edge is required to maintain the bending stress in the centre region within acceptable
limits, the edge bending is classified as primary (Pb) otherwise it is classified as secondary (Q).
EN13445 says that the classification of bending stress into the primary (Pb) category ensures
that no plastic deformation can occur in the region under consideration during normal service.
So to be conservative it is best to classify the bending stress as primary bending.

Maximum allowable stress


All calculated stress are below their respective stress limits. Therefore the applied internal
pressure is allowable. The value most close to its stress limit is for classification line D, PL+Pb.
The maximum allowable stress can be calculated in the following manner;
SOLUTION
Page 9 of 9

Conclusion(s):

The applied internal pressure of 4.2Nmm-2 has been found to be admissible.

From this simple example it is evident that the process of stress classification can sometimes
be unclear, and further calculations (when possible) may be necessary to correctly determine
the appropriate category. The use of conservative assumptions can sometimes be used to
speed up assessment at little or no penalty.

Note on classification line C


Classification line C passes through a transition region and it may be argued that it is not a
valid classification line.

The CEN ‘Design by Analysis Manual’ gives guidelines on how to do stress linearization. Other
guidelines that are based on research work done by the US Pressure Vessel Research
Council project (PVRC) ‘Three dimensional stress criteria’ are given in the ASME code.

The student is encouraged to review these guidelines as a means of learning more on stress
categorization. Obviously the guidelines to be followed need to be the ones given in the
pressure vessel code being followed.

It would be wise to compare the FEA results with flat plate results at the centre of the head at
E and with thick cylinder results remote from end (at A) as a check on the accuracy of the field
stresses. These checks provide necessary validation but not sufficient however.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 1 of 3

Number: Title: Date:


WE4 Thick hemisphere 20th May 2009
Plastic load analysis
Statement of Purpose:

The main purpose of this example is to determine the plastic load of the given thick
hemisphere when subjected to an internal pressure.

The plastic load is to be determined using the tangent intersection method.

Geometry:
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 2 of 3

Analysis Type(s): Material:

Nonlinear material (plastic) and large Young’s Modulus, E=210000Nmm-2


displacement.
Tangent modulus Ep=4200 Nmm-2 (2% of E)

Yield stress, σy=240Nmm-2 at 20oC

Poisson’s ratio, ν=0.3

Loading: Boundary Conditions:

Internal pressure P Zero vertical displacement at the


hemisphere end
Temperature T = 20oC

Target Solution Quantities Required for Comparison:

Idealisations:

The following idealisations should be used for this example;

• Linear elastic-plastic material with Bilinear hardening


• Non-linear geometry
• Axisymmetric model

Further Considerations:

Students may repeat the example to see the effect of using different mesh densities, lower
order elements, large deformation theory, and also using a 3D model. Repeating the exercise
with both 8-noded and 4-noded quads would give a good insight into the minimum acceptable
mesh in 3D. Results from the latter would be expected to be the same as for the axisymmetric
model although computational time will increase considerably.

A single element wide sector model can be used to reduce run-time further, using symmetrical
boundary conditions in a non-global direction.

The student can also repeat the example using different bore and outside diameters or even
maybe find the plastic pressure for a thick cylinder.

Use of the twice elastic slope and/or the plastic work can also be used to calculate the plastic
load. The student is encouraged to compare results and effort required when using the
different plastic work criteria.

The student may also calculate the plastic collapse load using the methods now provided
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 3 of 3

within the EN13445-3 Annex B and the new 2007 ASME Section VIII Division 2 Part 5. These
codes are covered in the notes of ‘DBA codes of practice’ unit of this module.

Useful references:

- S. Kaliszky, Plasticity – Theory and Engineering Application, Elsevier, 1989


SOLUTION
Page 1 of 4

Number: Title: Date:


WE4 Thick hemisphere 20th May 2009
Plastic load analysis
Idealisation:

Due to the symmetry of the example, the geometry can be represented by an axisymmetric
model, using 8-noded quadrilateral elements.

As stated in the problem description a model with linear elastic-plastic material with Bilinear
hardening and non-linear geometry is used.

Mesh:

System and Element(s) Used:

Elements

8-noded quadrilateral elements


SOLUTION
Page 2 of 4

Results for Comparative Target Solution Quantities:

Relevant Codes of Practice, Industry Standard and/or Statement of Assessment Criteria:

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Pressure
Vessels, Division 2 – Alternative Rules; American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2007

EN13445-3 Annex B, Unfired pressure vessels – Part3: Design

Description of Results Post-processing (where relevant):

Analysis data

Loading

Maximum internal pressure, P. This value is not known and needs to be calculated.

Material parameters

The following material parameters are used for analysis (given in the example description).

Young’s Modulus, E=210000Nmm-2

Tangent Modulus, Ep=4200Nmm-2

Yield stress, σy=240Nmm-2

Poisson’s ratio, ν=0.3

Bilinear kinematic material model


SOLUTION
Page 3 of 4

Analysis steps

The objective of the analysis is to obtain a load – displacement graph from which the plastic
load is found using the tangent intersection criterion.

The internal pressure is applied in gradual steps. Preferably, the load increment step size
needs to be sized such that a smooth load-displacement contour is obtained.

The deformation parameter used is the radial displacement at the bore. For this simple
geometry the radial displacement is the same for all points on the inside of the hemisphere.

The solution need not be extended until it fails to converge. Since the objective is to use the
tangent-intersection method, an arbitrary pressure value may be chosen that gives an
adequate load-displacement contour from which to draw the tangent lines.

Description of Results

The internal pressure to apply is not given in the example. From some preliminary analysis on
the FEA model a pressure of 400Nmm-2 appears to be adequate to get a suitable load-
displacement graph.

The figure shown below shows the resulting load-displacement graph. The displacement
taken is in the radial direction.
Tangents were drawn as shown. The plastic load is the pressure value at the intersection point
of the two tangents. This was determined to be 332.5Nmm-2.
For comparison purposes the limit pressure calculated in worked example WE3 is 332.7Nmm-2
which uses an elastic-perfectly plastic material model and small deformation theory.
SOLUTION
Page 4 of 4

The plot below shows the von Mises stress distribution for a pressure Pti=332.5Nmm-2. It is
noted that the inside of the hemisphere has undergone some hardening (stress value is higher
than yield). The hardening process appears to have spread to around half of the material
thickness. On the other hand, the outside of the hemisphere is still below the yield stress.

Von Mises stress distribution for Pti=332.5Nmm-2

Conclusion(s):

For the example considered, the plastic load using the tangent intersection method was
determined to be 332.5Nmm-2.

It is noted that due to the effects of strain hardening, the stress distribution is different from that
of the limit analysis model obtained in example WE3. The inside of the hemisphere has
undergone some hardening, while the outside is still below yield.

To summarize:
1. Limit Load (ASME Code definition), with small displacements and elastic-perfectly-
plastic material = 332.7 N/sq.mm (last converged solution). Radial displacement at the
bore = 0.53mm.
2. Plastic Collapse Load (Code definition), with large displacements and strain hardening
= 1396 N/sq.mm (last converged solution). Radial displacement at the bore =
49.95mm. This result is not quite as per the Code in that the code requires "When
using this material model, the hardening behavior shall be included up to the true
ultimate stress and perfect plasticity behaviour (i.e. the slope of the stress-strain curves
is zero) beyond lhis limit” - ASME VIII. This result is therefore unrealistic.
3. “Plastic Load” using the Tangent Modulus method with strain-hardening and large
displacement analysis = 332.5 N/sq.mm.
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 1 of 2

Number: Title: Date:


WE14_B Torishperical head under internal 20th May 2009
pressure - Buckling check
(ASME VIII Div2 Part 5)
Statement of Purpose:

The main purpose of this example is to perform a buckling check on a torishperical head under
internal pressure according to the requirements given in ASME VIII Div2 part 5.

The check is to be carried out using the type 3 buckling assessment method;

Find the maximum internal pressure that can be applied.

Geometry:
WORKED EXAMPLE
DEFINITION Page 2 of 2

Analysis Type(s): Material:

Buckling Analysis Young’s Modulus, E=212000Nmm-2


Yield stress, σy=265Nmm-2
Poisson’s ratio, ν=0.3

Loading: Boundary Conditions:

Internal pressure P - Zero vertical displacement at the lower


end of the cylinder
Temperature T = 20oC
- zero horizontal displacement at one
node at the lower end of the cylinder.

Target Solution Quantities Required for Comparison:

N/A

Idealisations:

The torisphere can be modelled using 3D thin shell elements

Further Considerations:

1. Consider varying the mesh density and using lower order elements.
2. The example may also be attempted using an axisymmetric model in order to
understand the importance of capturing non axisymmetric buckling modes.

Useful references:

1. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels, Division 2 – Alternative Rules; American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 2007.
SOLUTION
Page 1 of 5

Number: Title: Date:


WE14_B Torishperical head under internal 20th May 2009
pressure - Buckling check
(ASME VIII Div2 Part 5)
Idealisation:

Type 3 Buckling analysis:

The geometry can be modelled using shell elements. A full 360 degree model is used to avoid
missing any unsymmetrical buckling modes.

Using a model having

-a linear elastic-ideal plastic constitutive law


-pre-deformations according to fabrication tolerances
-non linear geometry

Mesh:

System and Element(s) Used:

8-noded thin shell elements, as implemented in Ansys v11.


SOLUTION
Page 2 of 5

Results for Comparative Target Solution Quantities:

N/A

Relevant Codes of Practice, Industry Standard and/or Statement of Assessment Criteria:

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Pressure
Vessels, Division 2 – Alternative Rules; American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2007.

Description of Results Post-processing (where relevant):

Analysis data

Loading

In this example the applied internal pressure is not given. The analysis will be carried out to
determine the maximum allowable internal pressure. Buckles in the toroid region can occur
under the action of internal pressure because of compressive hoop stresses that occur due to
the geometry of the head.

Material parameters

The following material parameters are used for analysis (given in the example description).

Young’s Modulus, E=212000Nmm-2

Yield strength, σy=265Nmm-2

Poisson’s ratio, ν=0.3

Analysis steps

Type 3 Buckling analysis

The analysis is performed in two steps.

- Linear solution

The linear solution corresponds to the classical / bifurcation solution in order to determine the
first deformation shapes. It is convenient that the results from the linear solution are such that
the maximum deviation from the perfect shape is unity.
SOLUTION
Page 3 of 5

- Non-Linear solution

The non-linear solution corresponds to taking the deviations obtained from the linear solution
and applying them as pre-deformations on the design model. In this case the pre-
deformations are scaled (scaling is done on the deviations from the perfect shape) to
correspond to the allowed tolerances for formed shell heads (Part 4 of ASME VIII div 2). Some
commercial software provide a means to update the geometry with deformations taken from a
previous analysis. This simplifies the process considerably.

The loading is then applied to the model in gradual increments until solution convergence is no
longer possible. The applied load at the last converged solution is then noted.

The maximum allowable value of the internal pressure is then given by applying a load and
resistance factor design (LRFD) to the applied pressure at the last converged solution.

For elastic plastic analysis and internal pressure (global criteria) the factor is 2.4

Description of Results

Type 3 Buckling analysis

The analysis was done for the first mode. The displacement plot shown below shows the 1st
mode obtained from the linear solution.

Linear solution – buckled mode 1


SOLUTION
Page 4 of 5

- Non-Linear solution

In this procedure, the nodal displacements are extracted from the linear eigenvalue solution
and superimposed on the original shape (as mentioned previously, finite element systems
usually have a facility for adding a scaled version of the eigenvector onto the original
undeformed shape, for the subsequent large deformation analysis). In this case, the pre-
deformed geometry was adjusted such that the inner surface of the shell deviated from the
specified shape by 1.25% of the inner diameter D (refer to Part 4 of ASME VIII div 2).

For an inner diameter of 1980mm, the deviation is 24.75mm.

Therefore the pre-deformed geometry was adjusted such that the maximum inner diameter
difference from the mean value was 24.75mm.

A model with elastic-plastic material and nonlinear geometry was used.

In the non-linear solution the pressure is applied in gradual steps until the solution failed to
converge.

The applied pressure at the last converged solution was 3 Nmm-2.

Adjusting for the LRFD gives;

Nodal displacements at the applied internal pressure of 3 Nmm-2


SOLUTION
Page 5 of 5

Conclusion(s):

From the buckling analysis carried out the maximum internal pressure that can be applied is
1.25Nmm-2. This value compares with ???? for the linear buckling analysis.

It is interesting to note that the linear eigenvalue buckling analysis resulted in a buckling load
of 32 N/sq.mm. Following Type 1 buckling analysis (ASME VIII Div2 Part5) this requires a
design factor of 16.2 (2/βcr = 2/0.124) that should then be applied to the Euler buckling load to
obtain the design pressure. Therefore Type 1 buckling analysis results in an allowable
pressure of 1.98 N/sq.mm. It is interesting to note that in this case the Type 1 (simpler)
buckling analysis results in a larger allowable external pressure than that calculated using
Type 3 (non-linear) – 1.25 N/sq.mm.
5. Pressure Vessel Related Images.

The following are a selection of photographs discovered in the search for


relevant images for the quizzes in the CCOPPS work-based learning modules.
Only a relatively small number of these were used. However we thought it would
be nice to share the wider collection. Only high quality images (unless unusual)
have been included. The variety of pressure vessels and process plant
equipment is large, which reinforces the belief that a grounding in FEA of such
structures and components covers almost all areas of analysis … beams, plates,
shells, thin, thick, cylinder, sphere, cone, torus, intersections, deflections,
stresses, strains, buckling, collapse, small displacements, large displacements,
membranes, dynamics, thermal, plasticity, ratchetting, creep, FSI, optimisation,
stochastics, fatigue, welds, bolts, flanges, steel, aluminium, plastic, composite etc
etc.

If anyone would like to add to this collection of images, please send any images,
with information relating to what it is and the image source to:

jim@wood-home.myzen.co.uk.

Enjoy!
Cockenzie Power Station, Scotland, drum failure. Right-hand end of steam drum.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Cockenzie Power Station, Scotland, drum failure. Fractures at nozzles.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Cockenzie Power Station, Scotland, drum failure. Crack on nozzle.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Dounreay Nuclear Power Station – the sphere under construction.
Image source: unknown.
Dounreay Nuclear Power Station – the finished sphere.
Image source: unknown.
Dounreay Nuclear Power Station – the sphere under construction.
Image source: unknown.
Babcock and Wilcox, Scotland. Injector vessel for proton synchrotron at UKAEA Harwell.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox on site construction of Hinkley power station. B&W 400 ton Goliath crane in action.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
A model of Hinkley power station – not a CAD system in sight!
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Construction of Hinkley power station diagrid.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Construction of blower casing for Hinkley power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Construction of cascade corners for Hinkley power station. I spent too many years of
my life studying mitred pipe bends!
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Construction of course 2 for the reactor vessel for Hinkley power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Construction of course 5 for the reactor vessel for Hinkley power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Construction of internal skirt for Hinkley power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Welding a section of a steam raising unit head for Hinkley power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox Drum Shop, Renfrew, Scotland. Hinkley power station steam raising units under construction.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox Fabrication Shop, Renfrew, Scotland. Electro-slag welding of Ferrybridge power station course 1.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Ammonia converter vessel for ICI plant at Severnside.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox tube shop. Reheater panels for Kincardine coal-fired power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox tube shop. Front wall panels for Kincardine coal-fired power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox tube shop. Membrane wall welding machine in action.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox tube shop. Reheater panels for Kincardine coal-fired power station, in shipping frames.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox tube shop. Side wall panels for Kincardine coal-fired power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Accumulator vessel for RTB Newport.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Stainless steel vessels for Lummus.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Stainless steel gas drier for Lummus.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Gas inlet nozzle for Sizewell nuclear power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Gas inlet nozzle for Sizewell nuclear power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Reactor vessel course assembly for Sizewell nuclear power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Steam raising unit, course 1, for Sizewell nuclear power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Steam raising unit heads, for Sizewell nuclear power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Sizewell nuclear power station - heat exchanger failure.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Repair in process at Sizewell “A” nuclear power station. What do you think this guy is doing?
Image source: unknown.
Repair in process at Sizewell “A” nuclear power station. What is happening above and below the weld?
Image source: unknown.
Babcock and Wilcox drum shop. Steam drum for Thorpe Marsh power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Reactor vessel – assembly of course 4, for Trawsfynydd nuclear power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Diagrid for Trawsfynydd nuclear power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Unusual spherical corners used in the ducting for Trawsfynydd nuclear power
station. No - he isn’t trying to create an initiation site for a fatigue crack with his centre punch … its simply part of the
method used to remove a large hole for a horizontal duct nozzle to be welded on.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox on site construction of Trawsfynydd nuclear power station. B&W 400 ton Goliath crane in action.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox tube shop.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox – transport by rail of the steam drum for West Burton power station. This number of nozzles would
have kept the welders busy on site for a while!
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox tube shop. Burner walls for West Thurrock power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Babcock and Wilcox – transport by rail of the steam drum for West Thurrock power station.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Magnetic particle dry powder inspection of a weld.
Image source: unknown.
Babcock and Wilcox – X-ray machine.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Large Whessoe vessel. Often lamp posts had to be removed when transporting such large vessels from the work or to the
final destination.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
Vessel with external helical heating coils.
Image source: Apollo Engineering, Troon, Scotland.
Oil refinery plant.
Image source: unknown.
Smooth pipe bend undergoing an in-plane bending test. What happens at the centre of the bend and how does this affect
the deformation, end-reactions and the stresses?
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
A collage with a couple of interesting images. The curved tube with nozzles is impressive, as is the number of nozzles on
the lower vessel.
Image source: unknown.
Pipe laying in the North Sea. During this process the pipe is coiled onto a reel and then straightened while being laid from
the back of the vessel.
Image source: unknown.
Motherwell Bridge vessel on a low loader.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Engineering, Motherwell, Scotland.
Motherwell Bridge reactor vessel.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Motherwell Bridge vessel being lifted. Three-point lift is good … but why no “spreader-beam”?
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Large diameter flanged joint.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Nice horizontal vessel with only one nozzle in the knuckle region – which is not bad I suppose.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Another large diameter flanged joint … just look at the thickness of these flanges!
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
No safety harnesses here then!
Image source: unknown.
Wonder why he doesn’t grind the weld while he is at it! What difference would that make to the assessment of the nozzle?
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Nice vessel with impressive flanges and array of small reinforced penetrations. What is that on the knuckle I wonder?
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Unusual vessel.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Large oblique reinforced nozzle on a cylindrical shell.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Looks like another large diameter flanged joint in the making.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Nice view of the inside of a cylindrical skirt.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Large nozzles in a vessel – thick walled?
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
More impressive large diameter flanges.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Construction underway. Is the bracing at the end temporary … a construction loading case perhaps?
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Imagine having this in your back garden! Nice horizontal vessels mind you – not sure about the gasometers though.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Saddles at right angles – unusual.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Four saddles this time! Unusual end detail.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
Nice shot of a vessel being lifted. I do hope the force exerted by his legs doesn’t start the rolls moving! I presume the end
nozzles are designed to be lifted in this way.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
From low-loader to ship on the banks of the Clyde in Scotland. The vessel certainly looks the part.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
A lovely image – used by one of my colleagues as a front sheet for his pressure vessel design notes! Somehow you can
just follow the designer’s thinking for a space-saving layout.
Image source: unknown (what I mean is I don’t think he took the photograph).
Talk about diversity in design! Doesn’t this simply look well-designed? Look at the detail in the saddle support and the
junctions with the small diameter cylinder.
Image source: Motherwell Bridge Fabricators, Motherwell, Scotland.
http://www.johnstonboiler.com/images/new/1800-2500_HP_PFTS-BOILER.jpg
Image source: www.johnstonboiler.com.
Nice Dorman Long vessel on a low-loader. Note the reinforcement around nozzles and leg supports.
Image source: unknown.
Horizontal vessel with saddle supports and large oblique nozzle on torispherical head.
Image source: unknown.
A refinery at night – what a sight!
Image source: unknown.
Close-up of a flange weld.
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Do you think they had a 3D cad system to lay this out?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
US Nuclear submarine “Texas”. An externally pressurized vessel!
Image source: unknown.
Babcock and Wilcox fabrication shop. Stress relieving of nuclear submarine prototype reactor.
Image source: Babcock and Wilcox, Renfrew, Scotland.
A submersible. Interaction effects apparent?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Nut, bolt and a washer … now how do you model pre-load again?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Concrete storage tanks – hydrostatic loading, roof loads, snow, wind … anything else?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
A membrane – tricky analysis. What are the loads? How would you model the seam?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Vessel, pipework and steelwork.
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Nice collection of large diameter bends, T-pieces, valves and reducers. Discontinuity stresses, ovalization, fatigue perhaps?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
More large diameter bends, valves and reducers. Interesting support on the bend – wonder if it is reinforced?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Pumps, valves, reducers and T-pieces.
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
A better view of the supports on the bend – and no they are not reinforced? No lagging, probably water at ambient temperature ..
low stresses anyway perhaps.
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Interesting pipe supports and hangers.
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/
Horizontal rail transportation vessels – supported on longitudinal beams? Sloshing – whats that?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Someone has to design the walk-ways as well!
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Nice reflective image. Strakes visible – therefore steel? Wonder how thick at bottom and top? What size of section around the top
do you think?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Unusual plant – I wonder why it is all under a canopy?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
A flare stack, two spherical vessels on legs and a conventional roofed storage tank … nice! Do you think all these legs are
necessary – or even a good idea?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Cylindrical vessel with a conical discharge at the bottom. Wonder if axial buckling of the cylinder is a possibility with this type of
content?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Not a pressure vessel I know, but a nice photograph non-the-less! A gravity structure subjected to wind loading though. Why are
the metal bands necessary?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
A more modern reinforced concrete chimney – and no metal bands (not visible at least)?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
More spherical vessels with leg supports – fewer legs? Why is the leg junction at this height? Lobster-back or multi-mitred bends in
the fore-ground.
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Pipe-work looks nice!
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Again, not a pressure vessel, but another lovely image! Symmetrical under what loading cases? Moment or shear connections at
the joints?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Just can’t resist a wonderful structure! This one is in Rostock, Germany outside a conference centre. First year mechanics class –
why no gross bending of the members? Identify the tension and compression members! So that’s what a pin-joint looks like!
Remember Maxwell’s Lemma regarding optimum structures?
Image source: Jim Wood
A process plant in miniature. Why green and yellow colours I wonder?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Nice process plant image.
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
There is something wrong here – can you spot what it is?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Corrosion allowance … why?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Is that a logarithmic spiral? Cant help thinking that modern optimisation tools could shed some weight here – then again it might not
be there for us to admire?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Took this picture as I walked into Oliver Tambo airport in Johannesburg, South Africa – after a wonderful holiday! What shape are
these cooling towers again – and which loading would allow me to use these highly efficient axisymmetric thin shells elements?
Image source: Jim Wood
Is 3 saddle supports a good idea in general? Is there any reinforcement?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Nice package unit on a skid base waiting to be connected up. Cuts down on-site work. Looks like whole thing is lifted by the two
lugs on the vessels (surely not). They do look rather large I suppose. What do you think? Good practice? Wonder if they assumed
lug loads the same?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
A colourful symmetrical construction!
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
A collection of storage tanks of various sizes. If the roof of such a tank collapsed as the tank was being emptied, what would you
first of all suspect?
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/
Locomotive boilers … before the days of welding!
Image source: unknown.
Steam drum being lifted into place during construction of a power station. One of the highlights of my career as a Junior Site
Engineer with Babcock Construction some 30 odd years ago was noticing from the drawings, that such a lift was 180 degrees out.
This was only apparent from slight differences in the nozzle patterns on both sides. The chief rigger never forgave me!
Image source: unknown.
Now isn’t that nice! Wonder how much FEA was required for this? So why do these chimneys have spirals on the outside?
Image source: unknown.
Inside a spherical reactor vessel in a nuclear power station? Is that yellow chap Homer Simpson? Wonder if they considered the
scenario of the crane collapsing onto the core and its effect on the diagrid?
Image source: unknown.
A nice collection of tall shiny vessels. Would one failing affect those adjacent I wonder?
Image source: unknown.
A collection of small vessels.
Image source: unknown.
Go on then … switch it on! Spot the lack of symmetry.
Image source: unknown.
Its amazing where boilers turn up.
Image source: unknown.
Milk transportation – any particular material requirement? The head looks very flat – what form does it have I wonder?
Image source: unknown.
Nice cylindrical skirt. What is the purpose of the big hole in the skirt?
Image source: unknown.
This looks unusual plant?
Image source: unknown.
Nice stainless vessel with all the “action” on the head. Is that some kind of “stirrer” on the top? Flange design rules don’t usually
cover rotating machinery being bolted on directly.
Image source: unknown.
If one of these tanks collapsed, do you think the walls would contain the spill? How might you analyse this?
Image source: unknown.
Pressure … as in pressure vessel!
Image source: unknown.
An old vessel fabrication image … do you think they have a problem … there is a man in a suit after all?
Image source: unknown.
This picture simply exudes quality design … and that’s without seeing any sums!
Image source: unknown.
Plastic storage vessels. What complexities do they bring?
Image source: unknown.
A nice autoclave – the end swings open!
Image source: unknown.
OOPS … this doesn’t look the fault of the vessel designer though!
Image source: unknown.
Two saddles - with reinforcement on saddles and end nozzle. Head and seam welds also visible.
Image source: unknown.
You see … its not just me that thinks there is something nice about old gasometers and big rusting lumps of plant!
Image source: unknown.
The end of a design life.
Image source: http://www.imageafter.com/.
Just a nice photograph!
Image source: unknown.
Another couple of old rusty boilers at the end of their working life. Tubesheet analysis – now there is an interesting problem.
Image source: unknown.
A steam roller or tractor perhaps? Well before the days of FEA!
Image source: unknown.
A vessel “graveyard” shot. What are these wired studs connected to vessel head do you think?
Image source: unknown.
I used to know someone who used to buy old vessels, clean them with a wire brush and sell them again …. before the “art” of
residual life assessment came along!
Image source: unknown.
These legs don’t quite look adequate? ASME III vessel … what do you think?
Image source: unknown.
Is this what is meant by “moth-balled”?
Image source: unknown.
These “constant strength” shells were actually built. Problem is they were difficult to fabricate and were only “constant strength”
when full.
Image source: Jim Wood (collage).
A torus of a very complex shape. The W7-X “stellarator” fusion reactor under construction at the IPP in Greifswald, Germany.
Image source: Jim Wood.
Part of the cryogenic plant at the IPP in Greifswald, Germany. Cryogenics .. what does this requirement imply?
Image source: Jim Wood.
A nice 90 degree single un-reinforced mitred pipe bend at the IPP in Greifswald, Germany.
Image source: Jim Wood.
A vacuum vessel at the IPP in Greifswald, Germany. The top half literally lifts off! The hooks hanging down hold the flanges
together.
Image source: Jim Wood.
A guide for aligning the two halves of the vacuum vessel at the IPP in Greifswald, Germany.
Image source: Jim Wood.
A finished nozzle on the vacuum vessel at the IPP in Greifswald, Germany.
Image source: Jim Wood.
A novel way of creating a pressure “wall”. Two sheets are welded together along the lines shown. The cavity between the sheets is
then plastically “inflated” to form the necessary flow cavity for the wall. Component on display at the IPP in Greifswald, Germany.
Image source: Jim Wood.
.

Spinning a large head.


Image source: unknown.
Rolling plate into a large diameter cylindrical shell.
Image source: unknown.
Pressing plate into a smaller diameter cylindrical shell.
Image source: unknown.
A Scottish vessel to finish with! Made out of copper to boot. I have actually carried out a FEA on one of these whisky stills (many
years ago) … has anyone else I wonder?
Image source: unknown.