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/ 1521-0537 online DOI: 10.1080/01457630600846372

**Prediction of Evaporation Losses in Wet Cooling Towers
**

BILAL AHMED QURESHI and SYED M. ZUBAIR

Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

The accurate prediction of all aspects of cooling tower behavior is very important. Accurately predicting evaporation losses is signiﬁcant because water in cooling towers is cooled primarily through the evaporation of a portion of the circulating water, which causes the concentration of dissolved solids and other impurities to increase. An empirical relation is developed on the basis of ASHRAE’s rule of thumb that is simple and accurate with a wide range of applicability. The predicted values are in good agreement with experimental data as well as predictions made by an accurate mathematical model.

INTRODUCTION Water is commonly used as a heat transfer medium to remove heat; however, water purchased from utilities for use has become expensive in certain areas where it is scarce. Cooling towers are designed to cool a warm water stream mainly through the evaporation of some of the water into an air stream. The water consumption rate of a wet cooling tower system is only about 5% that of a once-through system, making it the least expensive system to operate with purchased water supplies. Furthermore, the ecological effect is reduced because the blowdown is very small [1]. A schematic of a counter-ﬂow wet cooling tower is shown in Figure 1. There are three ways water is lost in a cooling tower: drift, blowdown (also called bleed off ), and evaporation, which is the most signiﬁcant of the three. Generally, an efﬁcient eliminator can reduce drift loss to a range of 0.002–0.2% of the water circulation rate [1], and blowdown is typically taken to be 0.5–1% of the water circulation rate to maintain the allowed level of concentration. Cooling tower users are interested to know the amount of water lost under the changing operational conditions, but charts for calculating the makeup water for a wide range of operational conditions are not commonly used. Furthermore, only a few references or standards (e.g., British Standard 4485) contain charts or data that make such predictions possible. According to ASHRAE [1], the rule of thumb is that evaporation loss averages approximately 1% for each 7◦ C (12.6◦ F) drop in water temperature. Gosi [2] constructed a chart that can be used

to estimate this loss. It is accurate as well as simple, as no difﬁcult calculations are required, though it is difﬁcult to use on site as it is in the form of a chart. Furthermore, being in graphical form, it requires some time to carry out the calculation, as there are chances of error. The objective of this paper is to obtain an empirical equation that would enable users of wet cooling towers to predict evaporation loss more accurately, as compared to ASHRAE’s rule of thumb, but which is also simple enough to avoid the use of tables or charts.

WET COOLING TOWER MODEL A mathematical model for wet cooling towers presented here will be used to establish limitations of the proposed empirical equation. The control volume of a counter-ﬂow cooling tower showing the important states is presented in Figure 2. The major assumptions, which are used to derive the basic modeling equations, are summarized in [3, 4]. From steady-state energy and mass balances on an incremental control volume (see Figure 2), one gets [4] ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ m a dh = −[m w − m a (Wo − W )]dh f,w + m a d W h f,w (1) The water energy balance can also be written in terms of the heat- and mass-transfer coefﬁcients, h c and h D , respectively, as ˙ −m w dh f,w = h c A V d V (tw − tdb ) + h D A V d V(Ws,w − W )h f g,w (2)

86

Address correspondence to Dr. Syed M. Zubair, Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, KFUPM Box # 1474, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: smzubair@kfupm.edu.sa

.w − W )h f g. These are obtained from the built-in functions provided in EES.13 and n = −0.612 were used. one gets (after some simpliﬁcation) ˙ −m w dh f. ZUBAIR 87 It should be noted that the Lewis factor is similar to what is used by Braun et al. (1).. mass transfer data are typically correlated in the form ASHRAE [6]: ˙ h D AV V m w. 9 2006 Figure 2 Mass and energy balance of a counter-ﬂow wet cooling-tower. [5].i ˙ ma n+1 (7) The coefﬁcients c and n of the above equation were ﬁt to the measurements of Simpson and Sherwood [7] for four different tower designs over a range of performance conditions given by Braun et al.i ) and the third is the maximum possible temperature difference observed in a cooling tower (i. ASHRAE [1]. [5] and Kuehn et al.i =c ˙ ˙ m w.i − twb. Combining Eqs. A. The correlations for heat and mass transfer of cooling towers in terms of physical parameters are not easily available. it is understood that there are three important quantities involved in evaporation loss within wet cooling towers: the ﬁrst is the range (i. In the present calculations. and the experience of engineers. and the air-side water-vapor mass balance as ˙ m a d W = h D A V d V (Ws. and (5). after some simpliﬁcation [4] dh (h s.i ). (7) is used to calculate the NTU from which the mass transfer coefﬁcient (h D A V ) is determined for the tower speciﬁcations. and mass ﬂow rates. A computer program is written in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) for solving Eqs. 8].w ] (4) (6) where c and n are empirical constants speciﬁc to a particular tower design. QURESHI AND S.w = h D A V d V [Le c pa (tw − tdb ) + (Ws. tw. It is typical to correlate the tower performance data for speciﬁc tower designs.i ma n By substituting the Lewis factor as Le = h c / h D c pa in Eq.e. (1–4). and (5) may be solved numerically for exit conditions of both the air and water streams. the properties of the air-water vapor mixture are needed at each step of the numerical calculation. For given water temperatures (tw. [3]. tmax = tw.i − twb. (2). Eq.o ).w − W ) (5) Figure 1 Schematic of a counter-ﬂow wet cooling-tower.e. It is important in this regard to understand that evaporation occurs as vol. Multiplying both sides of the above equation by ˙ ˙ (m w.w − h) = Le + h g. In this program.i . (3). inlet condition of air.i − tw.w − h 0 Le g dW (Ws..B.o ). In this regard. M. (1). the correlation coefﬁcients for the tower with c = 1. EMPIRICAL EQUATION From cooling tower theory [3. tw = tw. the Lewis factor (Le). the second is the potential of the air to absorb water (i. one gets.w − W ) (3) Equation (5) describes the condition line on the psychrometric chart for the changes in state for moist air passing through the tower. wet-bulb temperature.i /m a ) and considering the deﬁnition for NTU gives the empirical value of NTU as NTU em = h D AV V ˙ ma =c em ˙ m w. ta = tdb.e. For instance. 27 no. The program gives the drybulb temperature. heat transfer engineering . Eqs. starting from air-inlet to air-outlet values. and humidity ratio of the air as well as the water temperature at each step of the calculation. (3).

which ﬁts 99. From the physics of the problem. which is currently governed by the inlet dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity. the good agreement between predicted and measured values. gives a maximum possible potential that is never completely utilized because of the operating air condition. equation.62% of the experimental data. in contrast to the former.6%. A. Using Poppe’s [9] experimental data of percentage evaporation loss. It can be seen from the table that predictions of the empirical relation are almost always more accurate than ASHRAE’s rule of thumb. the term in brackets acts as a correction factor to ASHRAE’s rule of thumb [1]. Gosi’s chart [2]. The theoretical and laboratory modeling of wet cooling towers performed by Poppe [9] is considered to be one of the most comprehensive works on this topic. which gives a maximum vol. it is evident that ta is more important compared to tmax . Similarly. The lowest possible temperature that the water can achieve is the inlet wet-bulb temperature.009501 ta (8) It can be seen from Figure 3 that the regression equation provides excellent agreement with the experimental data.i − twb. the 2nd term (on the right hand side) closely represents ASHRAE’s rule of thumb. (8).00849 + 0. In the above regression equation. noting that it should be accurate as well as simple so that it can be used by engineers without having to use tables or charts: E= 7− tw 1. QURESHI AND S.1665 tw − 0. (9). Furthermore. which represents the maximum potential for evaporation. on examining the coefﬁcients. In his experiments.1 ta / tmax (10) Figure 3 Measured [9] versus predicted values using Eq. The regression Figure 4 Measured [9] versus predicted values using Eq. the latter. from Figure 4. and Eq.88 B. the evaporation loss was determined by measuring the change of water volume over a long period of time precisely using a special laboratory counterﬂow device.1544 tw (9) The small difference of the coefﬁcient of the determination (R 2 ) value in Figures 3 and 4 assert our understanding that ASHRAE’s rule of thumb provides a sound basis for any empirical relation that should be developed to predict percentage evaporation loss. the term associated with each potential indicates that it is also the most important quantity involved. Table 1 quantiﬁes the error in ASHRAE’s rule of thumb [1]. It should be emphasized that in the denominator of Eq. Again. (8). the following empirical relation was developed.i ).02982 + 0.84% of the experimental data. 27 no. is given by E = −0. the maximum potential for evaporation lies in the difference between the inlet water and inlet wet-bulb temperatures(tw. it is apparent that ta has greater signiﬁcance because it represents the potential of the air to absorb water compared to tmax . (10). which clearly indicates a smaller potential for evaporation. ZUBAIR the water cools from the inlet water temperature to the outlet water temperature. The linear regression equation. we can see. Now. Therefore. thus verifying the validity of the rule of thumb as well as its importance in evaporation loss prediction. 9 2006 heat transfer engineering . a regression equation is obtained as a function of the above-mentioned three quantities.1% was found. For any ﬁxed value of the relative humidity. is given by: E = −0. (10) when compared to measurements carried out by Poppe [9]. Figure 6 illustrates the accuracy of Gosi’s chart [2] where a maximum error of 6. M. Thus. a higher dry-bulb temperature yields a higher wetbulb temperature. Comparing the coefﬁcients of Eq.006334 tmax + 0. Figure 5 shows that the above empirical relation provides a good prediction of experimental measurements [9] of percentage evaporation loss with a maximum error of 6. Keeping this in mind. which ﬁts 99. a regression equation based on the “range” alone is obtained.

104 0.7). it is found that the predictions of Eq. These were then compared to predictions made by ASHRAE’s rule of thumb and Eqs.61 5. ˙ V = 203.78 0.95 0.85 0.17 0. It is noted from Figures 7a to 7d that the investigated cooling range is 5–29◦ C. It should be emphasized that the experimental data [9] involved a mass ﬂow ratio not greater than ∼0. the relative humidity of the incoming air is varied from 0.08 −1.736 0. Furthermore.58 0. (10) are in good agreement with those of the mathematical model. when Eq.13 3.14 Gosi [2] 0. It is seen from these ﬁgures that Eq.08 0.1 0. Similarly.786 0. high relative humidity. ZUBAIR Table 1 Experimental [9] and predicted values of percentage evaporation loss Serial # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Poppe [9] 0.72 −3.941 0.95 2.7 to ascertain the limitation of Eq.79 ErrorA (%) 7.45 0.92 0. the error is much less. (10).80 Error10 (%) −3.54 1.99 kga /s.43 1.8 2.89 3.831 1. Thus.69 −1.726 Eq. where the maximum calculated error is 15% for the same vol.56 6.94 −0.02 9.84 5. the calculations are performed for two different ﬂow ratios.79 12.679 0.61 7.11 0.006 0.12 −1.487 0.98 0. M.59 0.i = 50◦ C.844 0.594 0.06 2.53 5.36 6.69 −1.068 1. but in a great number of cases.698 0. 0.542 0.028 1. predictions made by Eq. 9 2006 heat transfer engineering . In general.72 −4.84 0.829 2.626 0.47 2.836 1. (10).523 0.624 1.954 2.69 6. Furthermore.096 0.697 0. Therefore.41 −2.88 2.19 4.72 −0.52 0. Thus.63 0.05 1.443 0.986 0.834 1.833 2.851 2.563 0.12 1.01 −1.612 2.51 −3.436 1.85 9.761 0. (8–10). (10) 0.1 to 0. (10) is consistently more accurate compared to ASHRAE’s rule of thumb in predicting water loss due to evaporation.2 m3 .468 0.5 and 1.13 0.090 0.84 7.889 0. (10) are more accurate than Gosi’s chart in half of the values that have been compared.32 8.85 5.22 1. However.223 0.55.84 −5. the condition of the ambient air can vary from very dry to moist. Now.594 0.252 0.703 0.40 11. it is seen from these ﬁgures that Eq.64 3. and low mass ﬂow ratio).821 0.6 2. Le = 0.991 0.17 5.187 0.76 ErrorG (%) −3. Also. error of 12.76 0.585 1.52 0.623 2.453 0. in all of these extreme cases. 27 no.B.58 0. presented in the previous section.36 1. the cooling tower model. [3]: tw. Figures 7a to 7d are drawn for the following set of input data for a medium-sized tower given in Kuehn et al.653 0.454 0.96 4.9 and m a = 93. was used to generate evaporation loss values. (8).24 3.72 7. the error of ASHRAE’s rule of thumb is calculated to be around 30%. A.85%. (10) seems to offer an overall advantage compared to other methods.25 −0. and moderate dry-bulb temperatures (18.600 1. it can be considered to be as good as Gosi’s chart but with the added advantages of requiring only a calculator and a very small amount of time. The water to air mass ﬂow ratio is an important factor as it affects all aspects of the tower performance.514 0. Therefore.02 1.064 0.46 0.67 12.793 0.67 2.42 3.94 3.759 0. QURESHI AND S.97 89 ASHRAE 0. where low Figure 5 Measured [9] versus predicted values using Eq.914 1.756 0.386 0. it seems that the former predicts better than the latter except for when the inlet dry-bulb temperature is 40◦ C.74 −6.774 Figure 6 Measured [9] versus predicted values from Gosi’s chart [2].373 0.429 0. (10) is almost always more accurate compared to Eq. (9).83 1.65–26.577 2.45 5.00 10.64 0.24 0.945 2. (10) is compared to Eq.134 1.69 0. in which the latter gave a maximum error of 25% for extreme cases.85 −2.74 −0.36 0.44 0. Eq. The degree of greatest error is found to be 15% in some extreme cases (combination of high dry-bulb temperature.74 4. it is seen that for the case of incoming moist air (φ = 0.33◦ C) were involved. depending on the location.013 1.660 0. to further ascertain its validity as well as to establish its limitations at higher dry-bulb temperatures (40–50◦ C range) and different mass ﬂow ratios.445 0.59 1.

For accurate prediction. the empirical relation developed is comparatively more accurate as well as simpler. M. (c) mass ﬂow ratio of 0. It is also very convenient because it only requires the use of a calculator at the site. the error is much less. In both cases. 27 no. In general. the suggested formula produces a very good approximation. including the range that is important for heat transfer engineering the estimation of evaporative loss.5 and dry-bulb temperatures of 50 and 30◦ C. and is valid for a wide range of operating conditions. the range of application should be limited so that the smallest cooling range is greater than 5◦ C. The predicted values obtained from this relation are compared with experimental data as well as with numerical values calculated from an accurate model of cooling towers. Eq. which is solved by using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) program to predict evaporation losses in a medium-sized tower. the dry-bulb temperature of the incoming air is between 20 and 50◦ C. the predictions are in excellent agreement. QURESHI AND S. Also. the maximum value of the inlet air relative humidity is 0. (d) mass ﬂow ratio of 0. extreme cases previously discussed. and the water to air mass ﬂow ratio is between 0. (10) did not predict better than ASHRAE’s rule of thumb in the case of cooler drybulb temperatures. It is important to note that if the dry-bulb temperature of the entering air is in the above range. (b) mass ﬂow ratio of 1 and dry-bulb temperatures of 40 and 20◦ C. CONCLUDING REMARKS Based on ASHRAE’s rule of thumb. ZUBAIR Figure 7 Comparison of evaporation prediction for different operating conditions: (a) mass ﬂow ratio of 1 and dry-bulb temperatures of 50 and 30◦ C. A. takes little time.5 and dry-bulb temperatures of 40 and 20◦ C. The degree of greatest error is found vol.90 B. the relative error in some cases is found to be higher than 20%.7. 9 2006 . For 5–10◦ C dry-bulb temperature of the entering air (which is not presented in these ﬁgures).5 and 1.

further investigation is required. 6. kW/m2 K convective mass transfer coefﬁcient. 3rd ed. M.w φ ta surface area of water droplets per unit volume of the tower. kgw /m2 s speciﬁc enthalpy of water evaluated at tw . 38. w i max o pred s. kgw /kga humidity ratio of saturated moist air evaluated at tw . On the other hand. An Improved Design and Rating Analyses of Counter Flow Wet Cooling Towers. [4] Khan. pp. kga /s empirical constant speciﬁc to a particular tower design (Eq.w h0 g h s... kJ/kgw speciﬁc enthalpy of saturated water vapor evaluated at 0◦ C. 1989. 2001.i ). kJ/kgw speciﬁc enthalpy of saturated moist air evaluated at tw . He obtained his bachelor’s degree from National University of Sciences and Technology. 123–128. Therefore. tmax tw maximum temperature difference in a cooling tower (= tw.i ). and Mitchell. 1979. Method and Chart for the Determination of Evaporation Loss of Wet Cooling Towers.. in mechanical engineering from King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. vol.. Ramsey. 95.und Stoff¨ bertragung bei der a u Verdunstungsk¨ hlung im Gegen. % percentage error between Poppe’s data [9] and ASHRAE’s rule of thumb. Refrigerating. W. P. [6] ASHRAE Equipment Guide. Zeitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure (V.w Le m ratio ˙ m n NTU q R2 t V W Ws. [7] Simpson. Refrigerating Engineering. In the case of higher values of the mass ﬂow rate ratio and cooler dry-bulb temperatures of the incoming air. W. ◦ C cooling range (= tw... Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers..o ). USA. T. the error is much less. T. pp. His general research interest is in thermo-ﬂuid sciences with special interest in cooling towers. no. E. and refrigeration systems. M. Verdunstungshuhlung.w h g. kJ/kgw Lewis factor (Le = h c / h D c p. ◦ C Subscripts a db em exp g. 1946..a ) ˙ ˙ mass ﬂow ratio (= m w. S. A. pp. H. 52. vol.. ZUBAIR 91 to be 15% in some extreme operating conditions. no. 27 no. American Society of Heating. J. the relative error in some cases.). in 2000. ASME Journal of Heat Transfer.. W. 21. S. Thermal Environmental Engineering. L. 770–778. w w wb air dry-bulb empirical experimental value vapor at water temperature inlet maximum outlet predicted value saturated moist air at water temperature water wet-bulb NOMENCLATURE AV c cp E ErrorA ErrorG Error10 h hc hD h f. 164–174. Ga. and Air-Conditioning Engineers. J.. He has published 10 papers in reputed refereed international journals. pp. kJ/kg K percentage of water evaporated.B. and Sherwood. evaporative ﬂuid coolers. M. Atlanta. Effectiveness Models for Cooling Towers and Cooling Coils. m3 humidity ratio of moist air. Performance of Small Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers. American Society of Heating. (10). and Threlkeld. evaporative condensers. Inc. 1973. 123. Chap. Saudi Arabia. 560. 70. ◦ C volume of tower. K.1–44. ◦ C heat transfer engineering REFERENCES [1] ASHRAE Handbook and Product Directory—Equipment. vol. kJ/kgw speciﬁc enthalpy of saturated water vapor evaluated at tw . for 5–10◦ C dry-bulb temperature of the entering air.w h f g. 1989. 10. [2] Gosi. but in a great number of cases. vol. 1983.D.i − tw. J.. in all these extreme cases.. ASHRAE Transactions. Prentice-Hall Inc. W¨ rme. Klein.Sc. 2. 4.w − h f. M.. kJ/kgw change-of-phase enthalpy (h f g.. QURESHI AND S.I. 1925. Ga. Atlanta.. % percentage error between Poppe’s data [9] and Gosi [2].i − twb.w = h g. New Jersey. 7) ˙ number of transfer units (= h D A V V /m a ) heat transfer rate. kW coefﬁcient of determination temperature. vol. % speciﬁc enthalpy of moist air.. vol. % percentage error between Poppe’s data [9] and Eq. [5] Braun. 1998. Bilal Ahmed Qureshi recently completed his M. Chapter 3. is found to be higher than 20%.i /m a ) mass ﬂow rate. kJ/kga convective heat transfer coefﬁcient of air. vol. 525–543. the error of ASHRAE’s rule of thumb is calculated to be around 30%. J. Dhahran. R.w ). [8] Merkel.i − twb. A. pp. Inc. no. In fact.. 44–49. [9] Poppe. USA. Pakistan. by using the proposed equation. pp. no. the authors believe that it is best to exclude this from the range of application. as this will add to the general application of the empirical equation. 9 2006 . kgw /kga relative humidity potential of the air to absorb water (= tdb. no. VDI – u Forschungsheft.. and Zubair.und Kreuzstrom. [3] Kuehn. 4. 574–576. Heat Transfer Engineering. m2 /m3 empirical constant speciﬁc to a particular tower design (Eq. F. J. 7) speciﬁc heat at constant pressure.

92 B. In addition. U. During the past twenty years.S. ZUBAIR Syed M. heat transfer engineering vol.D. in 1985. Due to his various activities in teaching and research. QURESHI AND S. he has taught several courses related to heat transfer and thermodynamics at both graduate and undergraduate level and has participated in several externally and internally funded research projects at KFUPM.A. he received best Applied Research Project award on Electrical and Physical Properties of Soils in Saudi Arabia. Zubair is a Professor in Mechanical Engineering Department at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM). M. Atlanta. A. 27 no. and 2005–2006 as well as Distinguished Teacher award in academic years 1992–1993 and 2002–2003. He is active in both teaching and research in the area of thermal sciences. from GCC-CIGRE group in 1993. 9 2006 . degree from Georgia Institute of Technology. 1997–1998.. he was awarded Distinguished Researcher award by the university in academic years 1993–1994. Georgia. which has resulted in over 100 research papers in internationally referred journals. He earned his Ph.

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