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This article is about the city. For other uses, see Cusco (disambiguation).


Cuzco (Spanish)
Qusqu / Qosqo (Quechua)

Top: Plaza de Armas, Middle left: Qurikancha, Middle

right: Sacsayhuamán, Bottom left: Museum, Bottom right: View of
the colonial houses, Bottom: Aerial view of Cusco.


Coat of arms

La Ciudad Imperial (The Imperial City)

Districts of Cusco


Location within Peru

Coordinates: 13°31′30″S 71°58′20″WCoordinates:

13°31′30″S 71°58′20″W

Country Peru
Region Cusco
Province Cusco

Founded 1100

• Mayor Víctor G. Boluarte Medina

• Total 385.1 km2 (148.7 sq mi)

Elevation 3,399 m (11,152 ft)

• Total 428,450
• Estimate 427,218
• Density 1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)

Demonym(s) cuzqueño/a

Time zone UTC-5 (PET)

• Summer (DST) UTC-5 (PET)

Area code(s) 84


UNESCO World Heritage Site

Criteria Cultural: iii, iv

Reference 273

Inscription 1983 (7th Session)

Cusco (Spanish: Cuzco [ˈkusko]; Quechua: Qusqu, Qosqo [ˈqʊsqʊ], [ˈqɔsqɔ]), often
spelled Cuzco (/ˈkuːskoʊ/), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of
the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region and of the Cusco Province.
In 2017, the city had a population of 428,450. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of
Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft).
The site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire from the 13th until the 16th-century
Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO with
the title "City of Cuzco". It has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million
visitors a year. The Constitution of Peru designates it as the Historical Capital of Peru.[2]


 1Spelling and etymology

 2History
o 2.1Killke culture
o 2.2Inca history
o 2.3After the Spanish invasion
o 2.4Republican era
o 2.5Present
o 2.6Honors
 3Geography and climate
 4Tourism
 5Main sights
o 5.1Architectural heritage
o 5.2Museums
 6Population
 7Cuisine
 8Industry
 9International relations
o 9.1Twin towns and sister cities
o 9.2Partnerships
 10In modern culture
 11See also
 12References
 13External links

Spelling and etymology[edit]

The indigenous name of this city is Qusqu. Although the name was used in Quechua, its
origin is found in the Aymara language. The word is derived from the phrase qusqu
wanka ('Rock of the owl'), related to the city's foundation myth of the Ayar Siblings.
According to this legend, Ayar Awqa (Ayar Auca) acquired wings and flew to the site of the
future city; there he was transformed into a rock to mark the possession of the land by
his ayllu ("lineage"):[3]
Then Ayar Oche stood up, displayed a pair of large wings, and said he should be the one to
stay at Guanacaure as an idol in order to speak with their father the Sun. Then they went
up on top of the hill. Now at the site where he was to remain as an idol, Ayar Oche raised
up in flight toward the heavens so high that they could not see him. He returned and told
Ayar Manco that from then on he was to be named Manco Capac. Ayar Oche came from
where the Sun was and the Sun had ordered that Ayar Manco take that name and go to the
town that they had seen. After this had been stated by the idol, Ayar Oche turned into a
stone, just as he was, with his wings. Later Manco Capac went down with Ayar Auca to
their settlement...he liked the place now occupied in this city Cuzco. Manco Capac and his
companion, with the help of the four women, made a house. Having done this, Manco
Capac and his companion, with the four women, planted some land with maize. It is said
that they took the maize from the cave, which this lord Manco Capac named Pacaritambo,
which means those of origin because...they came out of that cave.[4]:15–16

The Spanish conquistadors adopted the local name, transliterating it into Spanish phonetics
as Cuzco or, less often, Cozco. Cuzco was the standard spelling on official documents and
chronicles in colonial times,[5]though Cusco was also used. Cuzco, pronounced as in 16th-
century Spanish, seems to have been a close approximation to the Cusco Quechua
pronunciation of the name at the time.[6] As both Spanish and Quechuan pronunciation
have evolved since then, the Spanish pronunciation of 'z' is no longer close to the
Quechuan pronunciation of the consonant represented by 'z' in "Cuzco". In 1976, the city
mayor signed an ordinance banning the traditional spelling and ordering the use of a new
one, Cusco, in municipality publications. Nineteen years later, on 23 June 1990, the local
authorities formalized a new spelling related more closely to Quechan: Qosqo.
There is no international, official spelling of the city's name. In English-language
publications both "s"[7][8] and "z"[9][10] can be found. However, the Oxford Dictionary of
English recognizes "Cuzco" but not "Cusco";[11] the Merriam-Webster Dictionary has
"Cuzco", with "Cusco" only as a "variant";[12] and in scholarly writings "Cuzco" is employed
more often than "Cusco".[13] The city's international airport code is still CUZ, reflecting the
earlier Spanish spelling.

Killke culture[edit]
The Killke people occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the Inca in
the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco,
established that Killke constructed the fortress about 1100. The Inca later expanded and
occupied the complex in the 13th century. In March 2008, archaeologists discovered the
ruins of an ancient temple, roadway and aqueduct system at Saksaywaman.[14]The temple
covers some 2,700 square feet (250 square metres) and contains 11 rooms thought to
have held idols and mummies,[14] establishing its religious purpose. Together with the
results of excavations in 2007, when another temple was found at the edge of the fortress,
this indicates a longtime religious as well as military use of the facility.[15]
Inca history[edit]
See also: Kingdom of Cusco and Inca Empire

Digital recreation of the original interior of the Qurikancha (The main Temple of the Sun of the Inca
Empire) according to the description of Garcilaso de la Vega; and the current Qoricancha's wall
remains below the Convento de Santo Domingo

Sacsayhuamán is an Inca ceremonial fortress located two kilometers north from Cusco, is the
greatest architectural work done by the Incas during its apogee.

Cusco was long an important center of indigenous people. It was the capital of the Inca
Empire (13th century–1532). Many believe that the city was planned as an effigy in the
shape of a puma, a sacred animal.[16] How Cusco was specifically built, or how its large
stones were quarried and transported to the site remain undetermined. Under the Inca, the
city had two sectors: the urin and hanan. Each was divided to encompass two of the four
provinces, Chinchasuyu (NW), Antisuyu (NE), Kuntisuyu (SW) and Qullasuyu (SE). A road
led from each quarter to the corresponding quarter of the empire.
Each local leader was required to build a house in the city and live part of the year in
Cusco, restricted to the quarter that corresponded to the quarter in which he held territory.
After the rule of Pachacuti, when an Incadied, his title went to one son and his property was
given to a corporation controlled by his other relatives (split inheritance). Each title holder
had to build a new house and add new lands to the empire, in order to own land for his
family to keep after his death.
According to Inca legend, the city was rebuilt by Sapa Inca Pachacuti, the man who
transformed the Kingdom of Cuzco from a sleepy city-state into the vast empire
of Tawantinsuyu.[17]:66–69 Archaeological evidence, however, points to a slower, more organic
growth of the city beginning before Pachacuti. The city was constructed according to a
definite plan in which two rivers were channeled around the city. Archaeologists have
suggested that this city plan was replicated at other sites.
The city fell to the sphere of Huáscar during the Inca Civil War after the death of Huayna
Capac in 1527. It was captured by the generals of Atahualpa in April 1532 in the Battle of
Quipaipan. Nineteen months later, Spanish explorers invaded the city after kidnapping and
murdering Atahualpa (see battle of Cuzco), and gained control because of their arms and
horses, employing superior military technology.
After the Spanish invasion[edit]

The first image of Cusco in Europe. Pedro Cieza de León. Crónica del Perú, 1553.

The first three Spaniards arrived in the city in May 1533, after the Battle of Cajamarca,
collecting for Atahualpa's Ransom Room. On 15 November 1533 Francisco
Pizarro officially arrived in Cusco. "The capital of the Incas...astonished the Spaniards by
the beauty of its edifices, the length and regularity of its streets." The great square was
surrounded by several palaces, since "each sovereign built a new palace for himself." "The
delicacy of the stone work excelled" that of the Spaniards'. The fortress had
three parapets and was composed of "heavy masses of rock." "Through the heart of the
capital ran a river...faced with stone." "The most sumptuous edifice in Cuzco...was
undoubtedly the great temple dedicated to the Sun...studded with gold plates...surrounded
by convents and dormitories for the priests." "The palaces were numerous and the troops
lost no time in plundering them of their contents, as well as despoiling the religious
edifices," including the royal mummies in the Coricancha.[18]:186–187, 192–193, 216–219
Pizarro ceremoniously gave Manco Inca the Incan fringe as the new Peruvian
leader.[18]:221 Pizarro encouraged some of his men to stay and settle in the city, giving
out repartimientos to do so.[19]:46 Alcaldeswere established and regidores on 24 March 1534,
which included the brothers Gonzalo Pizarro and Juan Pizarro. Pizarro left a garrison of 90
men and then departed for Jauja with Manco Inca.[18]:222, 227
Cusco and its city walls in 1565.

An Inca wall along Hatunrumiyoc, Cusco

Pizarro renamed it the "Very noble and great city of Cuzco". Buildings constructed after the
Spanish invasion have a mixture of Spanish influence with Inca indigenous architecture,
including the Santa Clara and San Blas neighborhoods. The Spanish destroyed many Inca
buildings, temples and palaces. They used the remaining walls as bases for the
construction of a new city.
Father Vincente de Valverde became the Bishop of Cusco and built his cathedral facing the
plaza. He placed a St. Dominic monastery on the ruins of the House of the Sun and a
nunnery where the House of the Virgins of the Sun was stood.[18]:222
The city was retaken from the Spanish during the Siege of Cuzco of 1536 by Manco Inca
Yupanqui, a leader of the Sapa Inca. Although the siege lasted 10 months, it was ultimately
unsuccessful. Manco's forces were able to reclaim the city for only a few days. He
eventually retreated to Vilcabamba, the capital of the newly established small Neo-Inca
State, which lasted for another 36 years but he was never able to return to Cuzco.
Throughout the conflict and years of the Spanish colonization of the Americas, many Incas
died of smallpox.
Cusco stands on layers of cultures, with the Tawantinsuyu (old Inca Empire) built
on Killke structures and the Spanish replacing indigenous temples with Catholic churches
and palaces with mansions for the invaders.
Cusco was the center for the Spanish colonization and spread of Christianity in
the Andean world. It became very prosperous thanks to agriculture, cattle raising and
mining, as well as its trade with Spain. The Spanish colonists constructed many churches
and convents, as well as a cathedral, university and Archbishopric.

Old streets in the city center

A view of the Colonial Balconies of Cusco

Republican era[edit]
After Peru declared its independence in 1821, Cusco maintained its importance within
Peru's administrative structure. Upon independence, the government created
the Department of Cuzco, maintaining authority over territory extending to the Brazilian
border. Cusco was made capital of the department; subsequently it became the most
important city in the south-eastern Andean region.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the city's urban sprawl spread to the neighboring
districts of Santiago and Wanchaq.
In 1911, explorer Hiram Bingham used the city as a base for the expedition in which he
rediscovered the ruins of Machu Picchu.
A major earthquake on 21 May 1950 caused the destruction of more than one third of the
city's structures. The Dominican Priory and Church of Santo Domingo, which were built on
top of the impressive Qurikancha (Temple of the Sun), were among the affected colonial
era buildings. Inca architecture withstood the earthquake. Many of the old Inca walls were
at first thought to have been lost after the earthquake, but the granite retaining walls of
the Qurikancha were exposed, as well as those of other ancient structures throughout the
city. Restoration work at the Santo Domingo complex exposed the Inca masonry formerly
obscured by the superstructure without compromising the integrity of the colonial
heritage.[20] Many of the buildings damaged in 1950 had been impacted by an earthquake
only nine years previously.[21]
Since the 1990s, tourism has increased. Currently, Cusco is the most important tourist
destination in Peru. Under the administration of mayor Daniel Estrada Pérez, a staunch
supporter of the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, between 1983 and 1995
the Quechua name Qosqo was officially adopted for the city.

 In 1933, the Congress of Americanists met in La Plata, Argentina, and declared the city
as the Archeological Capital of the Americas.
 In 1978, the 7th Convention of Mayors of Great World Cities met in Milan, Italy, and
declared Cusco a Cultural Heritage of the World.
 In 1983, UNESCO, in Paris, France, declared the city a World Heritage Site.
The Peruvian government declared it the Tourism Capital of Peru and Cultural Heritage
of the Nation.
 In 2007, the New7Wonders Foundation designated Machu Picchu one of the New
Seven Wonders of the World, following a worldwide poll.[22]

Geography and climate[edit]

Colonial houses

Cusco extends throughout the Huatanay (or Watanay) river valley. Located on the eastern
end of the Knot of Cusco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). To its north is
the Vilcabamba mountain range with 4,000–6,000-metre-high (13,000–20,000-foot)
mountains. The highest peak is Salcantay (6,271 metres or 20,574 feet) about 60
kilometres (37 miles) northwest of Cusco.[23]
Cusco has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb). It is generally dry and temperate,
with two defined seasons. Winter occurs between April to September, with abundant
sunshine and occasional nighttime freezes; July is the coolest month with an average of
9.7 °C (49.5 °F). Summer occurs between October and March, when the weather turns
cloudy and wet; November is the warmest month which averages 13.3 °C (55.9 °F).
Although frost and hail are common, the last reported snowfall was in June 1911.
Temperatures usually range from 0.2 to 20.9 °C (32.4 to 69.6 °F), but the all-time
temperature range is between −8.9 and 30 °C (16.0 and 86.0 °F). Sunshine hours peak in
July; the equivalent of January in the Northern Hemisphere. In contrast, February, the
equivalent of August in the Northern Hemisphere, has the least amount of sunshine.
Cusco was found in 2006 to be the spot on Earth with the highest average ultraviolet light

hideClimate data for Cusco (Alejandro Velasco Ast

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr
27.8 26.7 25.3 26.9
Record high °C (°F)
(82.0) (80.1) (77.5) (80.4
18.8 18.8 19.1 19.7
Average high °C (°F)
(65.8) (65.8) (66.4) (67.5
12.9 12.7 12.8 12.7
Daily mean °C (°F)
(55.2) (54.9) (55.0) (54.9
6.6 6.6 6.3 5.1
Average low °C (°F)
(43.9) (43.9) (43.3) (41.2
0.0 0.0 0.0 −2.0
Record low °C (°F)
(32.0) (32.0) (32.0) (28.4
160.0 132.9 108.4 44.4
Average precipitation mm (inches)
(6.30) (5.23) (4.27) (1.75
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 19 15 13 9
Average relative humidity (%) 66 67 66 63
Mean monthly sunshine hours 143 121 170 210
Source #1: NOAA,[25] Me
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (mean temperatures 1961–1990, precipitation da

Tourism has been the backbone to the economy starting in the early 2000s, bringing in
more than 1.2 million tourists per year.[29] In 2002, the income Cusco received from tourism
was $837 million USD. In 2009, that number increased to $2.47 billion USD.[citation needed]

Main sights[edit]

Ruins of Sacsayhuamán
The indigenous Killke culture built the walled complex of Sacsayhuamán about 1100. The
Killke built a major temple near Saksaywaman, as well as an aqueduct (Pukyus) and
roadway connecting prehistoric structures. Saksaywaman was expanded by the Inca.

Templo de la Sagrada Familia

The Spanish explorer Pizarro sacked much of the Inca city in 1535. Remains of the palace
of the Incas, Qurikancha (the Temple of the Sun) and the Temple of the Virgins of the Sun
still stand. Inca buildings and foundations in some cases proved to be stronger than the
foundations built in present-day Peru. Among the most noteworthy Spanish colonial
buildings of the city is the Cathedral of Santo Domingo, Cusco.
The major nearby Inca sites are Pachacuti's presumed winter home, Machu Picchu, which
can be reached on foot by the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu or by train; and the "fortress"
at Ollantaytambo.
Less-visited ruins include: Incahuasi, the highest of all Inca sites at 3,980 m
(13,060 ft);[30] Vilcabamba, the capital of the Inca after the capture of Cusco; the sculpture
garden at Ñusta Hisp'ana (aka Chuqip'allta, Yuraq Rumi); Tipónwith working water
channels in wide terraces; as well as Willkaraqay, Patallaqta, Chuqik'iraw, Moray, Vitos and
many others.
The surrounding area, located in the Watanay Valley, is strong in gold mining and
agriculture, including corn, barley, quinoa, tea and coffee.
Arco del Barrio de Santa Ana

Cusco's main stadium Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega was one of seven stadiums used when
Peru hosted South America's continental soccer championship, the Copa América, in 2004.
The stadium is home to one of the country's most successful soccer clubs, Cienciano.
The city is served by Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport.
Architectural heritage[edit]

Arco de Santa Clara

Colonial civil building

Because of its antiquity and importance, the city center retains many buildings, plazas,
streets and churches from colonial times, and even some pre-Columbian structures, which
led to its declaration as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1983. Among the main sights
of the city are:
Barrio de San Blas[edit]
This neighborhood houses artisans, workshops and craft shops. It is one of the most
picturesque sites in the city. Its streets are steep and narrow with old houses built by the
Spanish over important Inca foundations. It has an attractive square and the oldest parish
church in Cusco, built in 1563, which has a carved wooden pulpit considered the epitome of
Colonial era woodwork in Cusco.
The Quechua name of this neighborhood is Tuq'ukachi, which means the opening of the
Hatun Rumiyuq[edit]
This street is the most visited by tourists. On the street Hatun Rumiyoq ("the one with the
big stone") was the palace of Inca Roca, which was converted to the Archbishop's
Along this street that runs from the Plaza de Armas to the Barrio de San Blas, one can see
the Stone of Twelve Angles, which is viewed as a marvel of ancient stonework and has
become emblematic of the city's history.

View of the bell tower of the Iglesia y Convento de La Merced.

Convento e Iglesia de la Merced[edit]

Its foundation dates from 1536. The first complex was destroyed by the earthquake of
1650. Its rebuilding was completed in 1675.
Its cloisters of Baroque Renaissance style, choir stalls, colonial paintings and wood
carvings are highlights, now a popular museum.
Also on view is an elaborate monstrance made of gold and gemstones that weighs 22 kg
(49 lb) and is 130 cm (51.18 in) in height.
Main article: Cathedral of Santo Domingo, Cusco
The first cathedral built in Cusco is the Iglesia del Triunfo, built in 1539 on the foundations
of the Palace of Viracocha Inca. Today, this church is an auxiliary chapel of the Cathedral.
The main basilica cathedral of the city was built between 1560 and 1664. The main material
used was stone, which was extracted from nearby quarries, although some blocks of red
granite were taken from the fortress of Saksaywaman.
This great cathedral presents late-Gothic, Baroque and plateresque interiors and has one
of the most outstanding examples of colonial goldwork. Its carved wooden altars are also
The city developed a distinctive style of painting known as the "Cuzco School" and the
cathedral houses a major collection of local artists of the time. The cathedral is known for a
Cusco School painting of the Last Supper depicting Jesus and the twelve apostles feasting
on guinea pig, a traditional Andean delicacy.
The cathedral is the seat of the Archdiocese of Cuzco.
Plaza de Armas de Cusco[edit]

Plaza de Armas de Cusco

Plaza de Armas de Cusco, Peru, at night

Known as the "Square of the warrior" in the Inca era, this plaza has been the scene of
several important events, such as the proclamation by Francisco Pizarro in the conquest of
Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús

Similarly, the Plaza de Armas was the scene of the death of Túpac Amaru II, considered
the indigenous leader of the resistance.
The Spanish built stone arcades around the plaza which endure to this day. The main
cathedral and the Church of La Compañía both open directly onto the plaza.
Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús[edit]
This church (Church of the Society of Jesus), whose construction was initiated by
the Jesuits in 1576 on the foundations of the Amarucancha or the palace of the Inca
ruler Wayna Qhapaq, is considered one of the best examples of colonial baroque style in
the Americas.
Its façade is carved in stone and its main altar is made of carved wood covered with gold
leaf. It was built over an underground chapel and has a valuable collection of colonial
paintings of the Cusco School.
Qurikancha and Convent of Santo Domingo[edit]
Main article: Qurikancha

Qurikancha, Convento de Santo Domingo and Intipanpa

The Qurikancha ("golden place") was the most important sanctuary dedicated to the Sun
God (Inti) at the time of the Inca Empire. According to ancient chronicles written
by Garcilaso de la Vega (chronicler), Qurikancha was said to have featured a large solid
golden disc that was studded with precious stones and represented the Inca Sun God –
Inti. Spanish chroniclers describe the Sacred Garden in front of the temple as a garden of
golden plants with leaves of beaten gold, stems of silver, solid gold corn-cobs and 20 life-
size llamas and their herders all in solid gold.[31]
The temple was destroyed by its Spanish invaders who, as they plundered, were
determined to rid the city of its wealth, idolaters and shrines. Nowadays, only a curved
outer wall and partial ruins of the inner temple remain at the site.
With this structure as a foundation, colonists built the Convent of Santo Domingo (St.
Dominic) in the Renaissance style. The building, with one baroque tower, exceeds the
height of many other buildings in this city.
Inside is a large collection of paintings from the Cuzco School.
Facade of the Museo de Arte Precolombino

Cusco has the following important museums:[32]

 Museo de Arte Precolombino

 Casa Concha Museum (Machu Picchu Museum)
 Museo Inka
 Museo Histórico Regional de Cuzco
 Centro de Textiles Tradicionales del Cuzco or Center of the Traditional Textiles of
Cusco in English
 Museum of Sacred, Magical and Medicinal Plants (Museo de plantas sagradas,
mágicas y medicinales)[33]
 ChocoMuseo (The Cacao and Chocolate Museum)[34]
There are also some museums located at churches.


Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1500 300000[35][36][better source needed] —

1614 5,000 —

1761 6,600 +32.0%

1812 6,900 +4.5%

1820 9,000 +30.4%

1827 15,000 +66.7%

1850 16,000 +6.7%

1861 15,000 −6.2%

1877 17,000 +13.3%

1890 18,900 +11.2%

1896 20,000 +5.8%

1900 25,000 +25.0%

1908 33,900 +35.6%

1920 30,500 −10.0%

1925 32,000 +4.9%

1927 33,000 +3.1%

1931 35,900 +8.8%

1940 40,600 +13.1%

1945 45,600 +12.3%

1951 50,000 +9.6%

1953 54,000 +8.0%

1961 80,100 +48.3%

1969 115,300 +43.9%

1981 180,227 +56.3%

1993 250,270 +38.9%

1997 275,318 +10.0%

2000 295,530 +7.3%

2005 375,066 +26.9%

2006 382,577 +2.0%

2007 390,059 +2.0%

2008 397,526 +1.9%

2009 405,000 +1.9%

2010 412,495 +1.9%

2011 420,030 +1.8%

2012 427,580 +1.8%

2013 435,114 +1.8%

2015 434,654 −0.1%

The city had a population of about 434,114 people in 2013 and 434,654 people in 2015
according to INEI.

Mercedarian Friars in the Corpus Christ procession at the Main Square of Cusco. 17th
century. Cusco Colonial Painting School. Currently located at the Archbishop's Palace of Cusco

Financial Center of the City, Av. de la Cultura, Cusco

Population by district

Area Population Housing Density Elevation

City district
(km2) 2007 census (hab) (2007) (hab/km2) (amsl)

Cuzco 116.22 108,798* 28,476 936.1 3,399

San Jerónimo 103.34 28,856* 8,942 279.2 3,244

San Sebastián 89.44 85,472* 18,109 955.6 3,244

Santiago 69.72 66,277* 21,168 950.6 3,400

Wanchaq 6.38 54,524* 14,690 8,546.1 3,366

Total 385.1 358,052* 91,385 929.76 —

*Census data conducted by INEI [37]

As capital to the Inca Empire, Cusco was an important agricultural region. It was a natural
reserve for thousands of native Peruvian species, including around 3,000 varieties of potato
cultivated by the people.[38] Fusion and neo-Andean restaurants developed in Cusco, in
which the cuisine is prepared with modern techniques and incorporates a blend of
traditional Andean and international ingredients.[39]

 Cusqueña brewery

International relations[edit]
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Peru
Twin towns and sister cities[edit]
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Cusco is twinned with:[40]

 Athens, Greece  Jersey City, United  Mexico City, Mexico

 Bethlehem, Palestine[41] States  Moscow, Russia
 Baguio, Philippines  Kaesong, North  Potosí, Bolivia

Chartres, France  Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  Kyoto, Japan
Copán, Honduras  Samarkand, Uzbekistan
 La Habana, Cuba
 Cuenca, Ecuador  Tempe, United States
  La Paz, Bolivia
Istanbul, Turkey  Xi'an, China
 Lima, Peru
 Madison, United

 Kraków, Poland[42]

In modern culture[edit]
 In the film The Emperor's New Groove and its spin-off animated television series The
Emperor's New School, the main protagonist is "Kuzco", the young, often immature
fictional emperor of the Incas.
 "Cuzco" was the name of a song on E.S. Posthumus' 2001 album Unearthed. Each
song on the album was named after an ancient city.
 The Anthony Horowitz novel Evil Star takes place partly in Cusco.
 BBC radio 1 DJ John Peel died in Cusco on a working holiday in 2004.

See also[edit]

 Peru portal

 Cusco School
 Governorate of New Castile
 Inca religion in Cusco
 Inca road system
 Iperu, tourist information and assistance
 List of archaeoastronomical sites sorted by country
 PeruRail
 Pikillaqta
 Santurantikuy
 Tampukancha, Inca religious site
 Tourism in Peru
 Wanakawri
 New7Wonders of the World

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por departamento, 2011 y 2015. Perú: Estimaciónes y proyecciones de población total por
sexo de las principales ciudades, 2012–2015 (Report). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e
Informática. March 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
2. ^ "Constitución del Perъ de 1993". Retrieved 22 July 2009.
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de un nombre". Andina. Lima. 44: 143–174. ISSN 0259-9600.
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5. ^ Carrión Ordóñez, Enrique (1990). "Cuzco, con Z". Histórica. Lima. XVII: 267–270.
6. ^ Cerrón-, Rodolfo. "Cuzco: la piedra donde se posó la lechuza. Historia de un
nombre". Lexis. Año 2006, número XXX, volumen 1, pp. 151–52. Consulta: 24 de mayo de
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8. ^ "The World Factbook".
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Retrieved 22 July 2009.
10. ^ "Cuzco Travel Information and Travel Guide – Peru". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 22
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11. ^ Oxford Dictionary of English, 2nd ed, revised, 2009, Oxford University Press, eBook
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Geographic News, 31 March 2008, accessed 12 January 2010
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1–2, New York: Cortes Society,, ISBN 9781235937859
20. ^ "Koricancha Temple and Santo Domingo Convent – Cusco, Peru". Sacred- Retrieved 15 September 2011.
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22. ^ "Opera House snubbed as new Wonders unveiled". 8 July 2007.
23. ^ "Map Of The Andes".
24. ^ Liley, J. Ben and McKenzie, Richard L. (April 2006) "Where on Earth has the highest
UV?" UV Radiation and its Effects: an update NIWA Science, Hamilton, NZ;
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26. ^ "Station Alejandro Velasco" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
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from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
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(1931–1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. p. 209. Archived from the
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29. ^ PERU: New cusco airport will help boost tourism. (2010, Aug 10). Oxford Analytica Daily
Brief Service Retrieved from
30. ^ "Photo map of the sites in Upper Puncuyoc – Inca Wasi, cave group, reflection pond and
abandoned pegs". Retrieved 20 May 2016.
31. ^ "The Inca City of Cusco: A Fascinating Look at the Most Important City in the Inca
Empire". 5 July 2013. Archived from the original on 10 July 2013.
Retrieved 9 July 2013.
32. ^ Museums in Cusco
33. ^ Museum of Sacred, Magical and Medicinal Plants, Cusco
34. ^ Cacao and Chocolate Museum Archived 21 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Cusco
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36. ^ "Cusco Culture – ISA". Retrieved 20 June 2015.
37. ^ Censo 2005 INEI Archived 23 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine
38. ^ "Cusco, Peru Bans GM Products To Protect Diversity Of Native Potatoes".
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