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Mistrust Cognitive stage (Piaget): Sensorimotor - infant gains knowledge of the environment through his senses, reflexes and motor activities. Play: Solitary – they play alone & with their own body Appropriate toys: should stimulate all senses and be bright, multi-colored 1-3 months: mobiles, mirrors, music boxes, stuffed animals, rattles 4-6 months: squeeze toys, busy boxes, play gyms 7-9 months: cloth-textures toys, splashing bath toys, large blocks, large balls 10-12 months: durable books w/ large pictures, large building blocks, cups, push-pull toys Greatest Fear: Stranger Anxiety – begins around age 6 months Specific Behaviors:
1. One Month •
Lifts head slightly when on prone & when held against shoulder
• Head lags • Dance reflex disappears
Follows bright, moving objects with eyes, prefers to look at human faces; looks at mobile Follows objects with eyes to midline
• Holds hand in fist • Draws arms and legs to body when crying
Startle and Rooting reflexes are present Comforted with touch
• Responds to sharp sound: bell, loud voice
2. Two Months
o “Social smile” o Closure of posterior fontanel
o Responds to familiar voices by moving arms & legs
vigorously o Holds rattle when placed in hand o Shed tears
Lifts head on prone & supports weight on forearms
o Looks at and plays with own fingers
o Begins to follows moving persons, objects vertically &
horizontally with jerky eye movements
o o o o o o
Moro/Startle reflex fading Can turn from side to back Decrease in head lag when pulled to sitting Makes single vowel sounds such as: “ah”, “eh”, “uh” Turns head to look for voices and sounds Different emotions exhibited by different cries: hunger, pain, discomfort, fatigue
3. Three Months
Grasp reflex fades
• Hands held open
plays with rattle Babbles. and gurgles • Recognizes mother • Smiles spontaneously • Enjoys playing during feeding • Stays awake longer without crying • Turns head to follow familiar person 4. Five Months • Moro/Startle reflex gone . coos. tries to roll over • Grasps toy with whole hand • Brings hands/toys to mouth • Knows/recognizes and imitate mother • Demands attention by fussing • Responds to and enjoys being handled • Reaches objects in front and see with both hands • Very talkative 5.• Brings objects to mouth • Rotates head from side to side • Discovers and stares at own hands • • Briefly holds toy in hand. Four Month • Lifts head and chest off bed • Brings hand together • Laughs aloud • Turns head at sound of familiar voice • Can move from side to side.
enjoys self-recognition • Begins to recognize strangers • Shows fear and anger • Shows anticipation. waves and raises arms to be picked up • Expresses protest/displeasure • Understands name • Introduced teething rings 6. Six Months o Doubles birth weight o Dentition begins o Lifts head spontaneously o Sits with support o Holds bottle with both hands o Grasps foot and plays with toes o Grasps cubes with palms o Bounces when held standing o Makes four or more different sounds o Resist having toy being taken away .• Rolls over • Pull head when pulled to or held in sitting position • Briefly supports most of own weight • Squeals with high voice • Recognizes familiar voices • Coos and stops crying on hearing music • Grasps dangling objects • Smiles at mirror image.
Bounces o Feet in mouth o Cough to get attention o Say “m-m-m” when crying o Begins to fear o Transfer objects from hand to hand o Plays with spoon. with food preferences Eight Months o Sits without support o Eight month anxiety o Height to stranger anxiety o Plantar grasp reflex disappears Nine Months o Begins to creeps o Preference for one hand – hand dominance o Combines 2 syllables: ma-ma. Seven Months o Crawls.o Stretches/extends arms to be taken 7. pulls self to stand . da-da o Cries when scolded o Hold bottle o Introduce balls Ten Months o Moves from prone to sitting.
facial expressions.underdeveloped abdominal muscles Likes an audience and will repeat performance • Finds security in a blanket. uses spoon but spill 8. or thumb sucking • Names familiar objects • Attempts 2 block tower • Enjoys dropping objects to see where the go . sounds • Begins to test parental reaction during feeding and at bedtime • Entertains self for long period of time 9. Eleven Months • • Cruises well. almost ready to walk Puts objects in and out of container • Imitates gestures. Twelve Months • Walks with assistance • Babinski reflex disappear • Triples birth weight • Attempts to speak one to two words • Can follow simple directions • • Has protruding abdomen. favorite toy. pot-a-cake games o Picks up small objects = pincer reflex o Drinks from a cup.o Point at objects o Understands “No” o Responds to own name o Peek-a-boo.
There is a decrease in appetite because of the slower growth rate.set limits and exert control and consistency whenever necessary. Dawdling with meals 2. mobile and curious. C. Shame or Doubt Cognitive stage (Piaget): Preoperational Thought Period (beginning) Play: Parallel – play alongside but. Toddlers are headstrong and negativistic. trucks. wooden/plastic puzzles Toys to ride on: rocking horse. which makes them vulnerable to accidents. Fetish with foods . 1. finger paints. Imitation is common form of play. play clay Play phones. not with others. cloth books Greatest Fear: Separation anxiety – loss of parents Loud noises – vacuum cleaner Going to sleep Large animals Behavior Traits: A. They are very active. Appropriate Toys: Dolls & housekeeping toys Large building blocks. B. Pounding pegs.THE TODDLER Definition: 1 to 3 years of age Psychosexual stage (Freud): Anal Psychosocial stage (Erikson): Autonomy vs. ritualistic.
Fifteen Months • Plateau stage • Walks alone .D.5 Is able to use words or gestures regarding toilet needs 2. Management: Ignore the behavior or direct them to activities that they can master. not around the clock. Since all 20 deciduous teeth are out by 2½ . start teaching brushing of teeth at about this time. E. Age of achievement 2. toddlers go into temper tantrums in order to control self and others. repetitive and stereotype in their behavior. when persons/places are unfamiliar.2 Can walk steadily 1.1 Bowel control – 18 months of age 2.4 Can demonstrate awareness of voiding or defecating 1. Cues to readiness for toilet training 1. 1st dental visit H.3 Can keep self dry for intervals of at least 2 hours 1. When things are rearranged or are strange. F. They are rigid.3 Nighttime bladder control – 3 years of age 10.the great disparity in size between and adult and a toddler can cause fear in the latter.1 Can stand alone 1. Their time schedules revolve around their activities. Adults should talk to very young children at eye level. G.2 Daytime bladder control – 2 ½ years of age 2. 1. Toddlers have very poor sense of time.3 years. Toddler is the critical period for toilet training.
Eighteen Months Anterior fontanel closes • Sits self on a chair • 3 block tower • Uses phrase • Smears stool • • Start towel training Has a favorite toy • 12. Two Years Terrible two • Peak point of temper tantrum • Jumps up and down the stairs with both feet on same step • 5 blocks tower Draws vertical lines • Turns doorknob • • Uses short sentences • Helps undress self • Bladder trained at bedtime • Takes favorite toy to bed 13.• Names familiar objects • Vocalizes wants • Grasps spoon • 11. 2 ½ Years • Has 20 temporary teeth • Tiptoes. stands on 1 foot .
seesaw. Electronic games 9. Tricycles 4. Doctor and nurse kits Greatest Fear: Castration fear/ Body mutilation. 5. slide) 3. puppets 2. dress-up clothes & dolls. play tents. Coloring books/picture 6. Materials for cutting/pasting 7. Playground equipment (swing.• 7 block tower • Throws ball overhead THE PRESCHOOLER Definition: 3 to 6 years of age Psychosexual stage (Freud): Phallic Psychosocial stage (Erikson): Initiative vs Guilt Cognitive stage (Piaget) Preoperational Thought Period (end) Play: Associative or Cooperative Appropriate Toys: 1. They love to watch adults and imitate their behavior . Simple jigsaw puzzles 8. paints. pain Fear of the dark Being left alone. Housekeeping toys. particularly large dogs Ghost Behavior traits A. especially at bedtime Animals. Watercolors. crayons.
Helps dress himself – buttons & unbuttons 7.age 4 is the peak for “why” questions. They love to tell “lies. Knows family name. Questions about sex should be answered honestly at the level of their own understanding H. sings simple songs. They enjoy offensive language F. Feeds self well. Walks backwards 4. Exhibit magical thinking – imaginary playmates are common D. C. They are very creative and curious. They may feel guilty & responsible for “bad thought” which sometimes coincide with a wished-for-event (wishing a sibling was dead & the sibling coincidentally becomes ill & is hospitalized). that is why their favorite word is “WHY” . Physical Development A.B. says 1500 words. just give toys to play with as substitute I. Four years of age . copies circle 6. Masturbation maybe seen in some. Climbs stairs. Age of sibling rivalry’ oedipal complex/electra complex G. Trusting three 2.do not make fuss about it or punish the child.” brag/boast/exaggerate stories to impress others. Rides and pedals a tricycle 3. E. Uses scissors. begins to have food jags B. Three years of age 1. sings simple songs. knows own sex 10. turns doorknob 5. Says 500-900 vocabulary words 8. Speaks fluently with long sentences 9.
Runs and hops well. Knows relatives: aunts. Uses alternate steps when climbing stairs 4. Frustrating five 2. Furious four 2. Five years of age 1. boasts/brags 11. throws ball overhead 5. prints letters.Exaggerates. Skips. Talks constantly 8. Copies square. name colors C. jumps rope 4. draws picture of a man 7.Knows how old he is. dresses alone 6. Catches ball.1. Has color recognition 7. Climbs and jumps well 3. Inferiority . Laces shoes 10. Says 1500 vocabulary words 9. Brushes teeth 6. cousins 9. balances on 1 foot 5. writes his first name 8. “I can and you can’t stage” 3. Imaginary playmates THE SCHOOL AGE CHILD Definition: 6 to 12 years of age Psychosexual stage (Freud): Latency Psychosocial stage (Erikson): Industry vs. Ties shoelaces. uncle. Copies triangle.
TV. skateboards 7. may swear . Trains and models kits 3. Bicycle. May use slang. Recognizes all shapes e.swimming 2. Although the influence of peers is very strong. Year of expansion of physical and psychological changes. Bullies e. Collecting object/sorting objects – caps. records 6.Cognitive stage (Piaget): Concrete Operational Thought Period . Kohlberg: Preconventional Level Play: Competitive Appropriate Toys: 1. Six years of age a. Eruption of first permanent molar d. Fear of death d. dolls. Clumsy movement c. cards. Athletic/team activities . Failure in school b. Board. b. card and table games 2. Books and crafts 5. Music and art 4. eating habits are still set by the examples of parents in the home 2. When they are bored. they are boisterous and hard to control Specific Behavior 1. video. Loss of privacy c. marbles Greatest Fears a. Intimidating teachers General Behaviors: 1.
Seven years of age 2.4 Visual acuity is 20/20 2. Beginning interest in God 2.10 Enjoys teasing. has high standard/regard for family 3.3 Loves writing 3.f. dolls 4.1 Neither a child nor a youth 4.7 Prefer playmates of own sex 3. cards.5 With 10-11 permanent teeth 3.2 Smoother movements 3.3 Appearance of first molars and lateral incisors 2.6 Onset of secondary sexual characteristics 3.2 More interested in friends than in family 4. listening to the radio 2.4 Counts backward 3.3 Lying and stealing are common .9 Copies a diamond 2.8 Card games are indulged in 2. Eight years of age 3. Nine years of age 4.2 Wiggles loose tooth 2.prefers to be alone watching TV.6 Are seldom able to complete a task 2.7 Psychosomatic illness maybe observed 2. pictures.8 Collecting objects – marbles.1 Expansive age with broadening experiences 3.5 Withdrawn and moody. hair clips.1 Quieting down period 2.
7 Are peer-oriented 5.7 Tells time correctly 4.2 Writes legibly 5.8 “Hero worship” is common 4.2 Full of energy.dramatic play 5. constantly active 6. Eleven – Twelve years of age 6.4 Well mannered with adults 5.3 Reasons using cause and effect 5.9 Greatly influenced by peer 5.4.6 More cooperative and considerate but critical of adults 5.6 Take care of body needs completely 4.4 With beginning interest in the opposite sex THE ADOLESCENT Definition: 13 to 18 years of age Psychosexual stage (Freud): Genital Psychosocial stage (Erikson): Identity vs.4 Try to be like parent of the same sex 4.9 Companionship is more important than play 6.5 Loves to get involved in group activities. Ten years of age 5.3 Shares secretes with friends 6.5 Worry and complain a great deal 4. math club 5.1 Pre-adolescent 6. Role Confusion .1 Age of special talents 5. science club.8 Joins organization – boy scout.
Develops close relationship with adults other than parents l. Intimate sexual relationship begins. school sports.may become sexually active j. camping. video games. Tries various roles searching for a “fit”. parties. driving. Pubescent changes f. and other items important to them.Cognitive stage (Piaget): Formal Operational Thought Period Kohlberg: Postconventional level General Characteristics a.8 months 9 -10 months 11-12 months 2 years 2 ½ years 3 years - . Start thinking about career choice h. Are bothered by the statement. Recreational activities are school dances. copies a circle 7 . “who am I” b. hairstyles. clothes. Spend money on dates.less dependent on parents k. computer. music and concerts. they want to be “just like” peers i. reading. Tend to rebel against authority c.try new sports. m. g. BULLETS Milestones in Motor Development 5 . movies. drugs. Detaches self from parental supervision. Peer pressure begins. personal telephones.6 months complete roll over sits without support pincer grasp stands without support runs without falling walks up and down the stairs rides a tricycle.
Introduction of Foods: cereals : fruits : vegetables : egg yolk 2. corn Sleeping Pattern Infant: deep sleep Toddler Alert Pre-schooler : 4-5 hrs/day : ave.12 hrs/night with daytime naps light sleep : 12-15 hrs/day : egg white : meat : fish .milk . Foods that cause allergy .chocolate .12 hrs/day : bedtime rituals : ave. Weaning From breast to bottle: 6 months From bottle to cup: 12 months 3.egg white .Developmental Landmarks First social smile First word First teeth 2 months 9-10 months 6 months 2-3 years First dental check up Nutritional Considerations 1.wheat.
firearms. burns Schooler : accidents. loud noises.??? adult role. large animals : lack of control relationships with persons of the opposite sex.bicycle. homosexual tendencies/feelings Play Preschooler : body mutilation/loss of body part Adolescents: . usually 8-9 ½ hrs : variable. team sport Adolescents: accidents: motor. neighbors Pre-schooler: family Adolescents: peers Fears Infants Toddler Schooler : strangers : separation.Alert Schooler Adolescents : nightmares : variable. going to sleep. Common causes of accidents Infants : aspiration Toddler : falls Pre-schooler: poisoning. classmates. usually 8 hrs. swimming Significant Persons Infant : Toddler: Schooler: mother parents teacher. diving. skateboard.
5 4x 5x 2x 6x 7x 10x 3x cheating Changes in Weight/Height 6 months 1 year 2 years 3 years 4 years 5 years 7 years 10 years 13 years Child concept of Death and Dying Infant-Toddler : No understanding of death Pre-schooler : Something that happens to others but won’t happen to them Death is reversible. animals and plants that have .Infants Toddler Schooler : solitary : parallel : competitive Pre-schooler: cooperative Common behavioral problems Infants: Toddler: stranger anxiety Thumb sucking sibling rivalry Temper tantrums Negativism Preschoolers: nightmares Schoolers: lying Stealing Compared to Birth Weight Length 2x 3x 1. not permanent/temporary Curious about death of people.
School age: Death is real. universal. irreversible They may believe that they can avoid death by being good. . final.died They may believe they have caused a death or that death is a punishment or a wish fulfillment. They may personify death: “The boogie man got him” They may respond by feeling sad or lonely Adolescent: They have an adult understanding to death Death is permanent They respond with grief and reactions. They are unable to prioritize their losses: the loss of a friend maybe as debilitating as the loss of a mother.
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