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STAAD Pro

Specifications (DRAFT)

Beam Specifications
These are used to add specific beam behavior to the members. E.g. To define members that
carry only tensile forces, to define cable members, etc.

To add a member specifications go to


General > Spec

Select the members to which you want to add the specification and click “Beam”, go to the
relevant spec tab.

1. Tensile:
If a member is assigned with a tensile specification, then STAAD pro will neglect the member if it
develops compressive forces. And the structure will be reanalyzed until all tensile only members
gets tensile forces only.
This is useful to when modeling with slender members that are meant to carry only tensile
forces.

E.g. Consider the following model:

In general modeling, the top chord will develop a tensile forces and the
bottom chord will develop a compressive force. The compressive force
is developed because STAAD does not consider the buckling effect of
the bottom member.
But practically you may expect both members to be developing tensile
forces depending on the load direction.
In such a situation, a specification should be added in order to notify
STAAD about the expected member behavior.
After adding the tensile only specification to the members

2. Compressive:
This is used to specify a compressive only member. STAAD pro will reanalyze the model until all
members with compressive specification gets compressive forces.

Note: Compressive or tensile only members will not develop bending moments as well.

3. Truss:
This is used to specify truss member behaviour. Then member will not carry any bending
moment but can carry only tensile or compressive forces.

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STAAD Pro

4. Inactive:
This is used to disable the member stiffness during the analysis (i.e. Ignore the member during
analysis). This can be used to detect key members of a model.

5. Cable:
This is used to assign a cable behavior to a member.
Enter a suitable initial tension value.

When adding the analysis condition, use the “perform cable analysis” method.

During analysis, STAAD will gradually load the member as load steps. If the initial cable tension is
not sufficient or too high, the analysis will not converge. Then you need to adjust the initial cable
tension force.

6. Imperfection:
This is used to define the camber and drift for selected members. STAAD.pro will calculate the
additional bending moment induces due to the imperfection of the member.

After adding the specification, in the type of analysis select “perform imperfection analysis”

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STAAD Pro

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STAAD Pro

7. Fire Proofing:
This is used to add the weight of the fireproofing material when deriving the SELFWEIGHT of the
members.

8. Offset:
This is used to displace ( or offset ) the member away from its node-to-node centre line.

This small offset can be specified by the Offset specification.


First note down the member end location ( use “Shift “ + “E” to see it)

To mode the member end side by 0.3m globally downwards,

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STAAD Pro

9. Release:
This is used to define a method on hoe the bending moments and forces are transferred across
the beam ends. i.e. This may be due to connection design requirements as well.
e.g.
When the model is analyzed without any specifications:

For the following connection detail

To model this connection for the member the following spec can be
added.

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STAAD Pro

Then a blue color circle will be displayed at the beam end.


After the specification is added and analyzed,

Notice the high sagging moment at mid span and zero bending moment at the beam end ( as
expected)

10. Partial moment release: (under release spec)


This is used to change the member end stiffness. The member stiffness will be multiplied by (1-
MP) factor, where ‘MP’ will be entered in the specification.

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STAAD Pro

Member Property Reduction Factors

Concrete design specifications recommend the use of cracked section properties for the analysis
and design of concrete sections. Though the methodology to handle cracked section properties is
Nonlinear in nature (i.e., the section capacities should be checked and modified depending upon
the section forces the section is handling). The model should then be re-analyzed with modified
reduced section properties and redesigned. This iteration should be continued until the forces in all
sections designed are below the allowable limit of ultimate strength. In STAAD.Pro, you can
specify a set of reduction factors to be applied on the calculated section properties such as Area,
Moments of Inertia, and Torsional Constant. If you want to adopt this approach to account for
cracking of concrete sections, refer to Section 10.11.1 of ACI 318 for a set of values to use for
these reduction factors depending upon the nature of forces and moments the member is subjected
to. Similarly, the specifications in the AISC 13th edition manual suggest reducing the stiffness of
the member during the analysis. The REDUCEDEI parameter may also be used when the
PERFORM DIRECT ANALYSIS command is used. See "Direct Analysis" on page 686 for
additional information.

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