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‫ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻙ ﺷﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﭘﺮﺗﺎﺑﻲ‪:‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺑﺮﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ) ‪ (h‬ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺳـﻄﺢ ﺯﻣـﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣـﺪﻭﺩ ‪2km‬‬

‫ﺍﺳــﺖ‪ .‬ﺑــﺎ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟــﻪ ﺳــﻘﻮﻁ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﺟــﺴﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻈــﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻳــﻢ ﻛــﻪ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻗﻄــﺮﻩﻫــﺎ ﺑــﺎ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ، v = 2 gh ≈ 200m / s‬ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 440 mi / h‬ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﭘﺮﺗﺎﺑﻪﺍﻱ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﺎ ﺁﺩﻣﻴﺰﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻲ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺮﺗﺎﺑﻪ ﻗﻄﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﮒﺁﻭﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﭘﺲ ﻗﻄﺮﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻛﻨـﺪﺗﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺧﻄﺎ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻳﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﺮ ﻗﻄﺮﻩ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺎﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪﺍﻳﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ‬

‫ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻙ ﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺟﺴﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫـﺎﻳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻣـﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬

‫ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻣﻬﻤﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ؛ ﻣﺜﻼﹰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﺗﻮﭖ ﺑﻴﺴﺒﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻣـﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻳـﺪﻩﺁﻝ‬

‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻙ ﻣﻨﺤﺮﻑ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﺳﻜﻲﺑﺎﺯ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺳﻜﻲﺑﺎﺯ ﺑﺪﻥ ﺧﻮﺩﺵ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﭼﻨﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻢ ﻛﻨﺪ؛ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﻭ ﻛﺸﺘﻲ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫـﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﺪ ﺍﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻗﻄﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺗﺎ ﭼﺘﺮﺑﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻙ ﺷﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎ ﻧﻤﻲﮔـﺬﺍﺭﺩ ﻛـﻪ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﻧﺎﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﻴﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ‬

‫ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻨﺪﺗﺮ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻴﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻙ ﺷﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ :‬ﻫﺮ‬

‫ﭼﻪ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻙ ﻫﻢ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻨـﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺤﻠﻴـﻞ ﺳـﻴﻨﻤﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﮕﺮﺍﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗـﺪﺭﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﻴـﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ‪ a = dv / dt‬ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ‪ a‬ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ) ‪ a (v‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬

‫‪dv‬‬
‫= ) ‪a (v‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫‪dv‬‬
‫‪= dt‬‬
‫) ‪a (v‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﹰ ﺍﻧﺘﮕﺮﺍﻝ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪:‬‬

‫‪v‬‬ ‫‪t‬‬
‫‪dv‬‬
‫∫‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪∫ dt = t‬‬ ‫)‪(1‬‬
‫) ‪v a (v‬‬
‫‪o‬‬ ‫‪o‬‬

‫ﻃﺮﻑ ﭼﭗ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻪ ) ‪ (1‬ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﺍﺯ ‪ v‬ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﭘﺲ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻪ ) ‪ (1‬ﻋﻤـﻼﹰ ‪ t‬ﺭﺍ ﺑـﻪ ﺻـﻮﺭﺕ ﺗـﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﺍﺯ ‪، t (v) ، v‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺭﺍ "ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ" ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻭ ) ‪ v(t‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺑﻴﺎﻭﺭﻳﻢ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻤﻮﻣـﺎﹰ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﺮﺽ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺟﺴﻤﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺮﻡ ‪ m‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ‪ D‬ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺑـﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻄـﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺧﻄﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪D = bv‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪ b‬ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺟﺴﻢ )ﻣﺜﻼﹰ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻭ ﺷﻜﻞ‬

‫ﺁﻥ( ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺷﺎﺭﻩ )ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺁﻥ( ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻛﻪ ﺟﺮﻡ ‪ m‬ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ‬

‫ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺣﺴﺐ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ) ‪ v(t‬ﺭﺍ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﻞ‪ .‬ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ A‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺟﺴﻢ ‪ -‬ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ؛ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺬﺷﺖ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻋﻮﺽ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﺯﻳـﺮﺍ‬

‫‪ D‬ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ‪ v‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻲﺷـﻮﺩ ‪ D‬ﺻـﻔﺮ ﺍﺳـﺖ )ﺯﻳـﺮﺍ ‪ v‬ﺻـﻔﺮ ﺍﺳـﺖ(؛ ﺑـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ‪ D, v‬ﻫﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻛﻪ ‪ D = mg‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺧﺎﻟﺼﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﺛـﺮ‬

‫ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ )ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ A‬ﺝ(‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻲﻣﺎﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻢ‬

‫‪D‬‬

‫‪D‬‬

‫) ﺍﻟﻒ(‬ ‫) ﺏ(‬ ‫)ﺝ (‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ → ‪ . A‬ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺟﺴﻤﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪) .‬ﺍﻟﻒ( ﺩﺭ ﻟﺤﻈﻪﺍﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ v = o ،‬ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﻭ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻛﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪) .‬ﺏ( ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻙ ﻫﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪) .‬ﺝ( ﺳﺮﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻙ ﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﭘﺲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻧﻴﻮﺗﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ‬

‫‪∑ F = D + mg = ma‬‬

‫ﻣﺤﻮﺭ ‪ y‬ﺭﺍ ﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﻳﻢ؛ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫‪∑ F y = mg − bv = ma‬‬

‫ﻳﺎ‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫‪a=g−‬‬ ‫‪v‬‬
‫‪m‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ‪ ، v‬ﺳﺮﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﻴﻢ ﻛـﻪ ﻃـﺮﻑ ﺭﺍﺳـﺖ ﺻـﻔﺮ‬

‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﻳﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ‪ bv / m = g‬ﺑﺸﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ‪ a = o‬ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﭘﺲ ﻫـﻢ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﻲﻣﺎﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻲﻣﺎﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺣﺪ‪ vT = mg / b ،‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ) ‪ ، v(t‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻪ ) ‪ (1‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ‪ vo = o‬ﺑﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺑﺮﻳﻢ‪:‬‬

‫‪v‬‬ ‫‪dv‬‬
‫‪∫ g − (b / m)v = t‬‬
‫‪o‬‬

‫‪m v − bdv‬‬
‫‪−‬‬ ‫∫‬
‫‪b o mg − bv‬‬

‫‪m‬‬ ‫‪m‬‬ ‫‪m  mg − bv‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪=−‬‬ ‫‪ln (mg − bv ) + ln (mg ) = − ln ‬‬ ‫‪ =t‬‬
‫‪b‬‬ ‫‪b‬‬ ‫‪b  mg‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫‪m v −bdv‬‬ ‫‪m‬‬
‫∫ ‪−‬‬ ‫) ‪= − ln ( mg − bv‬‬
‫‪b o mg − bv‬‬ ‫‪b‬‬
‫‪o‬‬

‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪﺍﻱ ﻛﺎﻣﻼﹰ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ v‬ﻭ ‪ t‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﺳﺎﻧﺘﺮ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺁﻥ‪،‬‬

‫‪ mg − bv‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪bt‬‬

‫‪ln ‬‬ ‫‪=−‬‬
‫‪ mg‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪m‬‬

‫‪mg − bv‬‬
‫‪= e −bt / m‬‬
‫‪mg‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬

‫‪mg‬‬
‫= ) ‪v (t‬‬ ‫) ‪(1 − e −bt / m‬‬ ‫)‪(2‬‬
‫‪b‬‬

‫‪x‬‬
‫ﺍﮔﺮ ‪ t‬ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻳﻲ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺟﺴﻢ(‪ ،‬ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ‪e ≈ 1 + x‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ‪ x‬ﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ )‪ ( x << 1‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪،‬‬

‫‪mg   bt ‬‬
‫)ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ‪ t‬ﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ(‬ ‫≈ ) ‪v(t‬‬ ‫‪1 − 1 −  = gt‬‬
‫‪b   m ‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻱ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻙ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻛـﺖ ﺟـﺴﻢ ﻛـﺎﻣﻼﹰ‬

‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ‪ g‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪−x‬‬
‫‪ .( e‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ‪ t‬ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺍﻳﺪ )ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪ ∞ → ‪→ o ، x‬‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺪﻳﺶ ‪ ، vT‬ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺍﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪mg‬‬
‫= ‪vT‬‬ ‫) ‪(3‬‬
‫‪b‬‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ) ‪ ، v(t‬ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ﻭ ) ‪ a (t‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﮕﺮﺍﻝ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﻭ ) ‪ g (t‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ B‬ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ‪ v, a‬ﻭ ‪ y‬ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﺭﻫﻴﺎﻓﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻙ ﺷﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﻫﻴﺎﻓﺘﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ D ،‬ﺭﺍ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻱ ‪ ، v‬ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ‪ v 2‬ﻓﺮﺽ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻫﻢ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻜـﺎﺭ ﺑـﺮﺩﻳﻢ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬

‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﻱ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺣﺪ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﻲﺁﻳـﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﮔـﺮ ﭼـﻪ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﻗﺒﻼﹰ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻳﻢ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪2m g‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫)‪y(t‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪mg‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪b‬‬

‫‪vT‬‬

‫‪v=gt‬‬
‫)‪v(t‬‬
‫‪1v‬‬
‫‪2 T‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪a‬‬
‫‪1g‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬

‫)ﻣﺜﺎﻝ(‪ .‬ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻭ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﻳﻚ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﺯ‪ G‬ﺷﺮﻭﻉ‬

‫ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺍﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ‪ vT‬ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺍﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ .1‬ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺣﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺖ‪(m ) %95‬‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺣﺪ ) ‪(m / s‬‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬

‫‪2500‬‬ ‫‪145‬‬ ‫ﮔﻠﻮﻟﻪ ‪ 16‬ﭘﺎﻭﻧﺪﻱ‬

‫‪430‬‬ ‫‪60‬‬
‫ﭼﺘﺮﺑﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ )ﻧﻮﻋﻲ(‬
‫‪210‬‬ ‫‪42‬‬

‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﭖ ﺑﺴﻜﺘﺒﺎﻝ‬
‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻥ )ﺑﻪ ﺷﻌﺎﻉ ‪( 1 / 5mm‬‬

‫ﭼﺘﺮﺑﺎﺯ )ﻧﻮﻋﻲ(‬

‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺘﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ‪ %95‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺣﺪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.1‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ 1‬ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺘﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺣﺪ ﺍﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺍﻧـﺪﺍﺯﻩﮔﻴـﺮﻱ‬

‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬