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School of Graduate Studies

J.S. Alano St., Zamboanga City

Mid-Term Exam in Trends,Issues & Problems in Education

Julieta D. Francisco, Ed.D.

Professor 1


1. How will you employ Localization and Contextualization in your classroom teaching?
Localization is an approach in teaching that is realistic in nature . This approach supports the
dynamic approach of using the available resources within the area and also a systematic approach
of teaching based on the culture or values of the the people within the community .

This approach of teaching has been supported by our institution since the start . DepEd also has
embedded this in their mission . It means that every teacher should adapt and pattern its
curriculum in teaching utilizing the local condition , environment and resources. And
contextualization is the process of presenting lessons in relevant context based on previous
experiences and real life situations. This makes learning flexible

Localization is the process of adapting and relating the content of the curriculum and the process
of teaching and learning to local condition, environment, and resources. Meanwhile,
contextualization is the process of presenting lesson in meaningful and relevant context based on
previous experiences and real-life situations. In commonality, both adhere in making the lesson
flexible, fit, creative, relevant, meaningful, and adaptive to students’ level of understanding and
instructional needs.

The concept of localization and contextualization falls on the idea that students learned best when
experiences in the classroom have meanings and relevance in their lives. Things students do and
associated with them are the learning that last forever.

As a classroom teacher, the rule for learning by doing, applied learning, and manipulative learning
is also a must in executing localization and contextualization in teaching.

If students were put in an actual learning environment letting them to manipulate, relate, and adapt
to various learning opportunities and resources available within the locality or community, profound
learning will be assured and realized. It helps teachers and students comprehend concepts by
relating and presenting lesson on the context of prevailing local environment, culture, and
resources. Hence, lessons are becoming more real-life, customized, and appropriate.

2. Give at least 5 advantages and disadvantages about virtual university. Explain comprehensively.
1. It provides the opportunity to study more subjects and reach out to programs that are not
available in the immiate area.
2. It is much more flexible than traditional styles of classroom education. Students who need to
take other classes or work can do classwork whenever those have a free moment instead of
being restricted to a rigid schedule.
3. It enables students to make connection with more diverse range of people because students
who enroll in classes with online education obtain a wider range of networking opportunities.
4. It enables the students to work at their own place in many circumstances. The requirements
are not strict and typically give a range of due dates when the work needs to be submitted.
5. The schedules are more open and allow for students, parents and professionals to take the
cases whenever it fits into their schedule.


1. Lack of student customization.

2. The lack of face to face communication and no real experience to going to college. Distance
learning is good for working people who cannot attend the regular classes. Face to face
communication with teachers and students can make students self-confidence and they can
communicate confidently anywhere in their practical field.
3. Lack of personal community and connection, and lot of downtime and play issues.
4. Students cannot get practical experience. So the students who got online education feel less
confidence in any field of work.
5. There are technological limitations and when one is offline or the system fails, it cannot be

3. How important is parent-teacher relationship? Explain thoroughly. Give real life examples.

Both parents and teachers have an important role to play; their roles do not replace but rather
compliment and reinforce the other’s role, thus providing the student with a consistent message
about reading and learning. Thinking of parents and teachers as “partners” refers to this mutual
effort toward a shared goal. It also implies shared responsibility of parents and teachers for
supporting students as learners (Christenson & Sheridan, 2001)

Parents and teachers need to be supportive of each other. We need to have a mutual respect for
one another. We should all have one common focus and goal, and that is the success of each
child. All parents have a genuine desire for their children to be successful at whatever they’re
doing. Teachers have that same desire. I’ve learned that assumptions are dangerous and that
perceptions are often inaccurate. Seeking to understand one another by communicating
expectations is key in having a powerful synergistic relationship. When both a child and a parent
feel supported by the teacher and vice versa, students will have a greater advantage in their ability
to be successful.

As the principal of Ferndale International School, I have just recently experienced going to the
house of one of our struggling students. We went to Sta. Catalina together with the adviser of
Kreemson Tabar (10th Grade Student) who almost were not able to experience being part of the
completers of moving up ceremony this year but after we laid down the status of Kreemson and
what we could do in partnership with them, he was able to make it to the moving up ceremony and
he was one of the completers. As the saying goes “it takes two to tango”, here comes the parent-
teacher relationship. Parents must be involved in the child’s progress as well as the teachers.
Have you ever heard that communication is a two-way street? What does communication have to
do with the success of your child’s learning? How often would you like feedback about your child?
What kind of feedback do you wish you would get from your child’s teacher? school? Whose job is
it to see that information is given? Are you, as the parent, waiting for your child’s teacher to initiate
communication? Are you, as the teacher, waiting for the parent to initiate communication? Why
wait? You be the one to make the first step. Aren’t you both trying to achieve the same thing?
Have you heard that actions speak louder than words? In the case of your child’s education, some
actions are perceived by teachers as “involved.” For example, if parents attend students’
performances, school and class activities, parent-teacher conferences, and PTA meetings and
volunteers their time in the classroom, those parents are seen as involved. When a child comes to
school and they are well groomed and well rested and their homework is completed, a teacher
presumes that the parent was involved in the process of helping that child be successful and
prepared. So, if parents don’t do all of those things, are they not involved in their child’s learning?
Do they not care about their child’s education? It may appear so. Here’s where communication
plays a huge role. Are you unable to attend meetings because of conflicting work schedules,
illness, or other family struggles? Are you unable to volunteer because of language barriers, lack of
transportation, childcare needs, or other issues? Do you understand the school culture? Does the
teacher understand your culture and your feelings about how you can give support? If you haven’t
communicated these concerns or challenges to your child’s teacher, how would she know? If you
are the teacher, how would you know if you hadn’t asked the questions? Communication is a two-
way street. Have you crossed that street? Any teacher who have crossed that street is said to be a
great teacher.

4. Differentiate formative and summative assessment. Discuss comprehensively.


Meaning Formative Assessment refers to a variety Summative Assessment is defined as a

of assessment procedures that provides standard for evaluating learning of
the required information, to adjust students.
teaching, during the learning process.

Nature Diagnostic Evaluative

What is it? It is an assessment for learning. It is an assessment of learning.

Frequency Monthly or quarterly Term end

Aims at Enhancing learning Measuring student's competency.

Goal Monitor student learning. Evaluate student learning.

Weight of grades Low High


Formative assessment is a teaching tool used on a daily basis to determine how much students
have learned and how much they still have to learn. This can be determined through assignments
and homework, quizzes and class discussions.

They are given more frequently but carry lesser grading weight, because they are only used to
determine which areas in the teacher’s instructions are not understood by the students and how
much a teacher still have to teach them.

Formative assessments allow teachers to know the effectiveness of learning tools and help them
change their methods and find which ones are more effective in helping the students understand
what is being discussed in class.

As what Dr. Anicia Alvarez said that formative assessment is given to deepen the furrow of
learning of the students.

Summative assessment is a teaching tool that evaluates students basing on their performance and
is the basis of determining the progress made by the student for the unit that has been discussed
and for the school year as a whole.

It is used to evaluate whether the students are ready to take statewide tests and to
provide information on the progress made by public schools, its administrators, and public or local
agencies in relation to policies in education.

Summative assessments are conducted formally and can be in the form of quizzes, essays, tests
or projects. They are given at the end of a unit to determine how much the student has learned
about the whole lesson and if they have met academic standards. They can also help the teacher
find better teaching methods to use, if the summative assessment results are not satisfactory.

5. Discuss thoroughly RA 10627 or the Anti-Bullying Act of 2013 and how it will aid helpless
children/students in school.

On September 12, 2013, Republic Act No. 10627, entitled “An Act Requiring All Elementary And
Secondary Schools To Adopt Policies To Prevent And Address The Acts Of Bullying In Their
Institutions” was signed by President Aquino, officially placing executive imprimatur on the Bill
passed by the 15th Congress.

Also referred to as the “Anti-Bullying Act of 2013”, the law defines the act of bullying as “any
severe or repeated use by one or more students of a written, verbal or electronic expression, or a
physical act or gesture, or any combination thereof” that is “directed at another student.”
Furthermore, such use must have the effect of “actually causing or placing the latter in reasonable
fear of physical or emotional harm or damage to his property; creating a hostile environment at
school for the other student; infringing on the rights of the other student at school; or materially and
substantially disrupting the education process or the orderly operation of a school.”

The law includes a non-exclusive enumeration of such acts of bullying, thus:

 Any unwanted physical contact between the bully and the victim like punching, pushing, etc.
and the use of available objects as weapons;
 Any act that causes damage to a victim’s psyche and/or emotional well-being;
 Any slanderous statement or accusation that causes the victim undue emotional distress like
directing foul language or profanity at the target, name-calling, etc.; and
 Cyber-bullying or any bullying done through the use of technology or any electronic means.

Under the law, all elementary and secondary schools are required “to adopt policies to address
the existence of bullying in their respective institutions.” Such policies shall be regularly
updated and must include certain provisions as a minimum. One such provision is a prohibition
on bullying in both school premises and in non school-related locations, if the act/s in question
create a “hostile environment” at school for the victim, infringe on his rights or disrupt the
educational process. A provision prohibiting retaliation against those who report bullying and
through a system of anonymously reporting bullying acts is also required.

Every person has the right to be protected against violence and abuse, and your children are no
exception. As parents, you do all that you can to shelter and keep your children safe from harm.
But it is only a matter of time before these children grow, and you will no longer be able to keep a
watchful eye on them all day. Such is the case when they begin to go to school. It is for this reason
that the Anti Bullying Act has been established by the Philippine Government.
Among the biggest fears of parents, and one of the reasons why many consider home- schooling,
is that their children might be bullied while within school premises. Sadly, such cases do occur,
both in the elementary and high school levels, and even in college. As of 2013, with the
implementation of the Anti Bullying Act, schools have become better able to protect their students
against acts of abuse from their peers.

Submitted by:

Ms. Rosemarie R. Cabandera