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Structural developments in

tall buildings
(Review of literature)

Presented By:
Pavan Patchigolla, Mtech (computer aided structural engineering).
Structural design engineer, METEY Engineering and consultancy, Hyderabad
Contents of presentation:

• Introduction
• Tall building statistics
• Brief history
• Classification of tall buildings
• Recent developments

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“IT IS ALWAYS GOOD TO KNOW ABOUT THE HISTORY PRIOR
ADVANCEMENTS”.

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TALL STRUCTURES IN INDIA

• Though they are not used for residential purposes,


India also has the knowledge of tallest
monuments constructed.
• One of the tallest and oldest temple structure
known to Indians is locted in Tiruvannamalai,
Tamilnadu.
• Indian temples will basically have two major tall
structures called “GOPURAS” and “VIMANAS”.
• The gopura in this temple is 11 storyed and 66
meters tall.
• This gopura was built during Chola dynasty in 9th
century.

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INTRODUCTION
Rank Building City Height Floors Year
1 Burj khalifa Dubai 828 163 2010

2 Shanghai tower Shanghai 632 128 2015

3 Abraj Al-Bait clock tower Mecca 601 120 2012

4 One world trade center Newyork 541 104 2014

5 CTF Finance center Guangzhou 530 111 2016

6 Taipei 101 Taipei 509 101 2004

7 Shanghai world financial center Shanghai 492 101 2008

8 International commerce center Hong kong 484 118 2010

9 Petronas towers 1 Kuala lumpur 452 88 1998

10 Petronas towers 2 Kuala lumpur 452 88 1998

TOP TEN TALL BUILDINGS


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BURJ KHALIFA SHANGHAI TOWER ABRAZ AL BAIT CLOCK TOWER

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ONE WORLD TRADE CENTER CTF FINANCE TOWER TAIPEI 101

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SHANGHAI WORLD FINANCE CENTER INTERNATIONAL PETRONAS TOWERS
COMMERCE CENTER

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INTRODUCTION

• Tall buildings emerged in the late nineteenth century in USA. They constituted a so-called
“American building type”.
• Based on the data published in 1980’s, about 49% of world’s tall buildings were located in North
America.
• Tall buildings evolved as a world wide phenomenon.
• The distribution has radically changed and now Asia countries has the largest share.
• Traditionally, function of tall buildings has been commercial buildings.
• Tall building development involves various complex factors, such as economics, aesthetics,
technology, municipal regulations and politics.

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TALL BUILDING STATS
TALL BUILDING STATS IN 1980'S TALL BUILDING STATS IN 2006**

REGION COUNTRIES PERCENT BUILDINGS


REGION COUNTRIES PERCENT BUILDINGS
North America 4 48.9 1701

Asia 20 32.2 35016


Europe 35 21.3 742

Asia 35 20.2 702 North America 18 23.9 26053

South America 13 5.2 181


Europe 20 23.7 25809
Australia 2 1.6 54

South America 10 16.6 18129


Middle east 15 1.5 51

Africa 41 1.3 47 Ocenia 7 2.6 2839

Mid-America 20 0.1 4 Africa 20 1 1078

** Based on most active cities in the region reported in Emporis.com


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BRIEF HISTORY..

• Tall buildings are based on economic


equations.
“Increase rentable area by
stacking office spaces vertically and
maximizing rents”.
• The result was the steel frame structure
which minimized the dimensions of
structural members.
• The tall building trend started with Park
row building in New York, which is 30
storeyed tall in 1899 and it culminated
with the completion of 102 story tall
Empire state building in 1931.
Park Row building, 1899 Empire state building, 1931

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BRIEF HISTORY..

• By the time, there had not been much


conspicuous technological evolution.
• Most buildings are steel MRF with wind
bracing. Eg.,Woolworth Building (57S, 241m)
of 1931, Chrysler building(77S, 282m) of 1930.
• Their heights were accomplished not through
technology but through excessive use of
structural materials.
• Due to absence of advanced structural
analysis techniques, they were quite over
designed.
• The technological evolution like different
structural systems and artificially damped
systems started in 1960’s.
Woolworth building Chrysler building

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PREMIUM FOR HEIGHT..

• The primary skeleton of a tall building can be visualized as a


vertical cantilever with its base fixed in the ground.
• The structure has to carry gravity and lateral wind/earthquake
loads.
• The building must be capable of developing adequate shear
and bending resistance due to loads and must not lose its
vertical load carrying capability.
• Fazlur khan realized for the first time that as buildings became
taller, there is a “premium for height” due to lateral loads.
“If there are no lateral loads, high-rise building could just
be designed for gravity loads”.

Fazlur Rahman Khan, FRK

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PREMIUM FOR HEIGHT..

• Based on his observations, As the building becomes taller, the building’s sway due to lateral
forces becomes critical and there is greater demand on the girders and columns that make up
the rigid frame.
• Hence the material consumption gets even more increased and would begin to exceed other
structural costs if a rigid frame system is used for very tall buildings, which leads to the
innovation in the structural systems.
• Based on Khan’s investigations, he argued that as the height increases beyond 10 stories, the
lateral drifts start controlling the design, the stiffness rather than the strength becomes the
dominant factor, and the premium for height increases rapidly with number of stories.

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CLASSIFICATION OF TALL BUILDINGS..

• In 1969, Khan classified structural systems for tall buildings relating to their heights the efficacy of
the buildings.

Structural systems (Steel) with height, - Fazlur R Khan


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CLASSIFICATION OF TALL BUILDINGS..

• Because of better understanding of the mechanics, he reasoned the structure could be treated in
holistic manner, that is, the building could be analyzed in three dimensions by computer
simulations.

Structural systems (Concrete) with height, - Fazlur R Khan


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CLASSIFICATION OF TALL BUILDINGS..

• Recognizing the importance of the premium for heights for tall buildings, the classification of
structural systems is based on lateral load resisting capabilities.
• Structural systems are classified in to two broad categories: Interior structures and exterior
structures.
• A system is categorized as an interior structure when the major part of the lateral load resisting
system is located within the interior of the buildings (Cores, Stair case wells etc..)
• When the lateral load resisting system is located at the perimeter of the building, such systems
can be categorized as an exterior structure (tube in tube, framed tube etc..).

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CLASSIFICATION OF TALL BUILDINGS..

Classification of interior structures - Fazlur R Khan

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CLASSIFICATION OF TALL BUILDINGS..

Classification of exterior
structures - Fazlur R Khan

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CLASSIFICATION OF TALL BUILDINGS..
CATEGORY SUB-CATEGORY MATERIAL/CONFIGURATION EFFICIENT HEIGHT LIMIT ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES BUILDING EXAMPLES

860 & 880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments


(Chicago, USA, 26 stories, 82 m), Business
Provide flexibility in floor planning. Fast Expensive moment connections. Men's Assurance Tower (Kansas City,
Steel 30
construction Expensive fire proofing. USA, 19 stories), Seagram Building, 30th
Rigid frames -
to the top floor (New York, USA, 38
stories, 157 m).

Provide flexibility in floor planning Easily Ingalls Building (Cincinnati, USA, 16


Concrete 20 Expensive form work. Slow construction.
moldable. stories, 65 m).

Efficiently resist lateral loads by axial forces in


Interior planning limitations due to
Steel shear trusses+Steel hinged the shear truss members. Allows shallower
Braced hinged frames - 10 diagonals in the shear trusses. Expensive Low rise buildings.
frames beams compared with the rigid frames
diagonal connections.
without diagonals.

77 West Wacker Drive (Chicago, USA, 50


Concrete shear wall + steel Effectively resists lateral shear by concrete Interior planning limitations due to shear
Shear wall/Hinged frames - 35 stories, 203.6 m), Casselden Place
hinged frame walls. walls.
(Melbourne, Australia, 43 stories, 160 m).

Empire State Building (New York, USA,


Steel shear trusses + rigid Effectively resists lateral loads by producing Interior planning limitations due to shear 102 stories, 381 m), Seagram Building,
Braced rigid frames 40
frames shear truss - frame interacting system. trusses. 17th to 29th floor (New York, USA, 38
stories, 157 m).

Concrete Shear Wall + Steel Effectively resists lateral loads by producing Interior planning limitations due to shear Seagram Building, up to the 17th floor
Shear wall(or shear truss) - 60
Rigid Frame shear wall - frame interacting system. walls. (New York, USA, 38 stories, 157 m).
Frame interaction
311 South Wacker Drive (Chicago, USA,
Shear wall/ Rigid frames
75 stories, 284 m), Cook County
Concrete Shear Wall + Concrete
70 " " Administration Building, former
Frame
Brunswick Building (Chicago, USA, 38
stories, 145 m).

Shear Cores (Steel Trusses or


Concrete Shear Walls) +
Effectively resists bending by exterior columns Taipei 101 (Taipei, Taiwan, 101 stories,
Outriggers (Steel Trusses or Outrigger structure does not add shear
Outrigger structures - 150 connected to outriggers extended from the 509 m), Jin Mao Building (Shanghai,
Concrete Walls) + (Belt Trusses) resistance.
core. China, 88 stories, 421 m).
+ Steel or Concrete Composite
(Super) Columns

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CLASSIFICATION OF TALL BUILDINGS..
MATERIAL/CONFIGUR
CATEGORY SUB-CATEGORY EFFICIENT HEIGHT LIMIT ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES BUILDING EXAMPLES
ATION
Shear lag hinders true tubular behavior.
Efficiently resists lateral loads by locating
Steel 80 Narrow column spacing obstructs the Aon Center (Chicago, USA, 83 stories, 346 m)
lateral systems at the building perimeter.
Framed tube view.

Concrete 60 " " Water Tower Place (Chicago, USA, 74 stories, 262 m)

Efficiently resists lateral shear by axial forces in


100 (With Interior Columns) –
the diagonal members. Wider column spacing John Hancock Center (Chicago, USA, 100 stories 344
Steel 150 (Without Interior Bracings obstruct the view.
possible compared with framed tubes. Reduced m)
Columns)
Braced tube shear lag.

Tube
Onterie Center (Chicago, 58 stories, 174 m), 780
Concrete 100 " "
Third Avenue (New York, USA, 50 stories, 174 m)

Interior planning limitations due to the


Steel 110 Reduced shear lag. Sears Tower (Chicago, USA, 108 stories, 442 m)
bundled tube configuration.
Bundled tube
Carnegie Hall Tower (New York, USA, 62 stories,
Concrete 110 " "
230.7 m)

Ext. Framed Tube (Steel or Effectively resists lateral loads by producing


Interior planning limitations due to shear 181 West Madison Street (Chicago, USA, 50 stories,
Tube in tube Concrete) + Int. Core Tube 80 interior shear core - exterior framed tube
core. 207 m)
(Steel or Concrete) interacting system.

Hearst Building (New York, USA, 42 stories, 182 m),


Efficiently resists lateral shear by axial forces in
- Steel 100 Complicated joints. 30 St Mary Axe, also known as Swiss Re Building
the diagonal members.
Dia grid (London, UK, 41 stories, 181 m)

- Concrete 60 " Expensive formwork. Slow construction. O-14 Building (Dubai)

Efficiently resists lateral shear by axial forces in Obstruct the view. May obstruct the
Space truss structures - Steel 150 Bank of China (Hong Kong, China, 72 stories, 367 m)
the space truss members. view.
Building form depends to a great degree Chicago World Trade Center (Chicago, USA, 168
- Steel 160 Could produce supertall buildings.
on the structural system. stories, Unbuilt)
Super frames
Parque Central Tower (Caracas, Venezuela, 56
- Concrete 100 " "
stories, 221 m)
Interior floor is never obstructed by perimeter Thermal expansion / contraction. Hotel de las Artes (Barcelona, Spain, 43 stories, 137
Exo-Skeleton - Steel 100
columns. Systemic thermal bridges. m)

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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS.. JOHN HANCOCK CENTER, FIRST WINCOSIN CENTER,
CHICAGO MILWAUKEE

• Structural evolution and


architectural expression:
• Some structural systems evolved
have had a major impact on the
aesthetics or architectural
expression of the building.

EXTERIOR BRACED BELT TRUSSES


TUBULAR STRUCTURE
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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS.. TAIPEI 101

• Regional expression:
• Expression of building exterior in the way that it
reflects the regional heritage and cultural
traditions.
• Taipei 101 represents ancient Chinese pagodas
which means “STUPAS” in Indian sub continent.

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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS.. KINGDOM CENTER, RIYADH

• Aerodynamic forms:
• This trend has in tall buildings has started to improve
the aerodynamic properties to reduce the wind
forces carried by them.
• Examples: chamfered or rounded corners, openings
and notches, streamlined forms, tapered forms.

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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS.. PHARE TOWER, PARIS

• Emergence of twisted forms:


• Twisted forms employ for today’s tall buildings can be
understood as a reaction to boxed forms of modern
architecture.
• Twisted forms are effective in reducing the vortex
shedding induced dynamic response of tall buildings.

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STRUCTURAL FORM..

• The system that resists the gravity loading in addition to lateral loading
is called “STRUCTURAL FORM”.
• Factors influencing selection of structural form:
• Internal planning,
• Material and method of construction,
• External architectural treatment,
• Routing of service systems,
• Nature and magnitude of horizontal loading,
• Height and proportions of the building.

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EFFICIENCY OF STRUCTURAL FORM..

• Efficiency of structural form depends on proper selection based and height


and proportions of building (to fit for the requirements).
• Choice of structural form becomes vital because the wind resistance
increases non-linearly with height.
• The efficiency of the structures can be compared by their weight per unit
area.
• The floor framing weight is influenced mainly by floor span and is
independent of the building height.
• Weight of vertical elements will increase proportionally with height.
• It is observed that buildings up to 10 stories designed for gravity loading can usually
accommodate wind loading without increase in column sizes.

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EFFICIENCY OF STRUCTURAL FORM..

• Usually, placing the vertical components around the perimeter of the


building leaves open floor areas that can be subdivided by partition
walls. In these cases, floor framing systems also become
predominant in lateral load resistance.
• With regard to horizontal loading, the high-rise structure essentially
behaves as a cantilever.
• This vertical cantilever may also have number of columns or walls that
are mobilized to act compositely to some extent because of braces or
beams.

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MAJOR STRUCTURAL FORMS..
• There are 12 major structural forms that are suitable either for concrete or
for steel or for both,
• Braced frame structures,
• Rigid frame structures,
• Infilled frame structures,
• Flat plate or flat slab structures,
• Shear wall structures,
• Wall frame structures,
• Framed tube structures,
• Out-triggered braced structures,
• Suspended structures,
• Core structures,
• Space structures,
• Hybrid structures.

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BRACED FRAME STRUCTURES..
• The lateral resistance of the structures is provided by vertical trusses where in the diagonals together with
girders that form the web and columns act as chords.
• Lateral loads were resisted by bracing system of web members and then transfer to the columns.
• Bracing is usually a steel system because it is inevitably subjected to tension and compression. Concrete
bracing can sometimes be used in double diagonal system.
• Advantages:
• Able to produce a laterally stiff structure with a minimum additional material.
• Bracings usually have very high stiffness to weight ration hence suitable up to any height of building.
• More recently, however external larger scale bracing, extending over many stories and bays, has been
used to produce not only highly efficient structures, but aesthetically attractive building.
• Disadvantages:
• A major disadvantage of diagonal bracing is that it obstructs the internal planning and the location of
windows and doors.
• Diagonal connections are expensive to fabricate and erect.

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RIGID FRAME STRUCTURES..
• This system consists of columns and girders joined by moment resisting connections.
• The lateral stiffness of rigid frames depends on the bending stiffness of columns, girders and joints.
• Rigid frame construction can be used for concrete and steel buildings as well.
• The sizes of columns and girders at any level of a rigid frame are influenced by magnitude of lateral force.
• Advantages:
• Principal advantage is its open rectangular arrangement which allows freedom of planning.
• In structures that are dictated by gravity load design, economies in member sizes that arise rigid joint
action tend to be offset by the higher cost of rigid joints itself.
• Disadvantages:
• Above 25 stories, the relatively high lateral flexibility calls for uneconomically larger members in order
to control drift.
• Because of higher girder depth in lower floors, sometimes, it is not possible to accommodate the
required girder depth within the normal ceiling space.
• Moment resistant connection in steel becomes very expensive.

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INFILLED FRAME STRUCTURES..

• This is most usual form of construction of tall buildings up to 30 stories.


• Basic frame (moment frame) can be of concrete column-girder or in steel, which is filled in with
brick work, block work or cast-in-place concrete.
• Infill behaves as a compressive strut under lateral loading action to brace the frame that makes
the system economical because it adds to the stiffness of frame.
• The strength and stiffness of infill in a frame cannot be predicted accurately because of complex
interaction of infill with frame and random quality of masonry.
• The fear of the removal of bracing infills at sometime in the life of structure, the infill action
could be considered in design or not is left with designers’ discretion.
• Approximate behavior of infill can be modelled by “Equivalent diagonal strut method”.

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