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yrs.

2017-08
SOLVED
PAPERS

CHAPTERWISE-TOPICWISE
SCIENCE

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Edition : 2017

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PREFACE
W e feel pleased and delighted in presenting the book “CBSE Champion Chapterwise-Topicwise
Science Class 10th”. Special efforts have been put to produce this book in order to equip students
with practice material including previous 10 years’ CBSE Board Examination questions. It will give
them comprehensive knowledge of subject according to the latest syllabus and pattern of CBSE Board
Examination. The book will be helpful in imparting students a clear and vivid understanding of the
subject.
Salient Features
Topicwise Graphical Analysis : Graphical analysis of previous 10 years’ CBSE Board papers’ questions
(VSA, SA I, SA II, LA) provided to let students figure out which chapter and which topic is to be revised
hard and how much is the weightage of that topic.
Comprehensive and Lucid Theory : Well explained theory with important formulae, flowcharts and
tables for quick recap.
Chapterwise-Topicwise Questions and Answers : Theory is followed by chapterwise-topicwise
questions pulled from previous 10 years’ CBSE-DELHI, ALL INDIA, FOREIGN and COMPARTMENT
papers.
Questions till 2010 appeared from entire syllabus but from 2011-2017, only questions from Term-II
syllabus were asked. Again in 2018 CBSE Board Examination, questions from whole syllabus will be
asked.
Answers are given according to the CBSE marking scheme.
Strictly Based on NCERT Pattern : In the previous years’ CBSE papers SA I, SA II or LA type questions
are generally framed by clubbing together questions from different topics of a unit. These questions are
segregated strictly according to NCERT topics. e.g., (1/3, Delhi 2016 ), this question of 1 mark was
asked in SA II type category, (1/5, AI 2015), this question of 1 mark was asked in LA type category,
(1/2, Foreign 2016 ), this question of 1 mark was asked in SA I type category. Topicwise questions
are arranged in descending chronological (2017-2008) order so that latest years’ questions come first in
practice and revision.
Key Concepts Highlighted : Key concepts have been highlighted in the solutions for their reinforcement.
Value Based Questions : Separate section for Value Based Questions has been added.
Practical Skills Questions : A separate section contains previous 10 years’ Practical Based Questions.
Practice Papers as per CBSE Blue Print : Practice Papers strictly based on design and blue print issued
by CBSE Board are also incorporated.
Every possible effort has been made to make this book error free. Useful suggestions by our readers for the
rectification and improvement of the book content would be gracefully acknowledged and incorporated
in further editions.
Readers are welcome to send their suggestions at editor@mtg.in.
All The Best
MTG Editorial Board
CONTENTS
1. Chemical Reactions and Equations ......1

2. Acids, Bases and Salts ......9

3. Metals and Non-metals ......18

4. Carbon and its Compounds ......28

5. Periodic Classification of Elements ......54

6. Life Processes ......79

7. Control and Coordination ......99

8. How do Organisms Reproduce? ......112

9. Heredity and Evolution ......143

10. Light-Reflection and Refraction ......167

11. The Human Eye and the Colourful World ......204

12. Electricity ......219

13. Magnetic Effects of Electric Current ......230

14. Sources of Energy ......237

15. Our Environment ......245

16. Management of Natural Resources ......260

• Value Based Questions ......275

PRACTICAL SKILLS

• Experiment 1-15 287-350

PRACTICE PAPERS

• Practice Paper 1-5 (Solved) ......1-38

• Practice Paper 6-10 (Unsolved) ....39-56


SYLLABUS*

Course Structure Class - X


(Annual Examination)
Marks : 80
Unit No. Unit Marks
I Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour 25
II World of Living 23
III Natural Phenomena 12
IV Effects of Current 13
V Natural Resources 07
Total 80
Internal assessment 20
Grand Total 100
Note : Above weightage includes the weightage of questions based on practical skills.

Theme : Materials
Unit I : Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour (55 Periods)
Chemical reactions : Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implication of a balanced chemical
equation, types of chemical reactions : Combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement,
precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, bases and salts : Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH ions, General properties,

examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in
everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and
Plaster of Paris.
Metals and non-metals : Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and properties of
ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion and its prevention.
Carbon compounds : Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series.
Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes,
alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical
properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and
Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Periodic classification of elements : Need for classification, Early attempts at classification of elements
(Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s Periodic Table), Modern periodic table,
gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.

Theme : The World of the Living


Unit II : World of Living (50 Periods)
Life processes : ‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and
animals.
Control and co-ordination in animals and plants : Topic movements in plants; introduction of plant
hormones; control and co-ordination in animals; nervous system; voluntary, involuntary and reflex action;
chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.
Reproduction : Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual), reproductive health-need and
methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV / AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.
*For latest details refer to www.cbse.nic.in
Heredity and evolution : Heredity; Mendel’s contribution - laws for inheritance of traits : sex determination :
brief introduction; basic concepts of evolution.
Theme : Natural Phenomena
Unit III : Natural Phenomena (23 Periods)
Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis,
principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.
Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index.
Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required);
Magnification. Power of a lens.
Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors
and lenses.
Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.

Theme : How Things Work


Unit IV : Effects of Currect (32 Periods)
Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, resistivity, Factors on which
the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its
applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life.
Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R.
Magnetic effects of current : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due
to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Electric
Motor, Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule,
Electric Generator, Direct Current. Alternating current : frequency of AC.Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic
electric circuits.

Theme : Natural Resources


Unit V : Natural Resources (20 Periods)
Sources of energy : Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy : fossil
fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable
sources of energy.
Our environment : Ecosystem, environmental problems, ozone depletion, waste production and their
solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.
Management of natural resources : Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life;
coal and petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation for conservation of natural resources. Big
dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.

PRACTICALS
Practicals should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Finding the pH of the following samples by using pH paper / universal indicator :
a) Dilute hydrochloric acid
b) Dilute NaOH solution
c) Dilute ethanoic acid solution
d) Lemon juice
e) Water
f) Dilute hydrogen carbonate solution
Studying the properties of acids and bases (HCl & NaOH) by their reaction with :
a) Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
b) Zinc metal
c) Solid sodium carbonate
2. Performing and observing the following reactions and classifying them into :
a) Combination reaction
b) Decomposition reaction
c) Displacement reaction
d) Double displacement reaction
(i) Action of water on quick lime
(ii) Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals
(iii) Iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution
(iv) Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride solutions
OR
3. Observing the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions :
a) ZnSO4(aq.)
b) FeSO4(aq.)
c) CuSO4(aq.)
d) Al2(SO4)3(aq.)
Arranging Zn, Fe, Cu and Al (metals) in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result.
4. Studying the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor on the current (I) passing through it
and determine its resistance. Also plotting a graph between V and I.
5. Determination of the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series and parallel.
6. Preparing a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.
7. Experimentally show that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration.
8. Study of the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid) :
i) odour
ii) solubility in water
iii) effect on litmus
iv) reaction with sodium hydrogen carbonate
9. Study of the comparative cleaning capacity of a sample of soap in soft and hard water.
10. Determination of the focal length of :
i) Concave mirror
ii) Convex lens
by obtaining the image of a distant object.
11. Tracing the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence.
Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result.
12. Studying (a) binary fission in Amoeba, and (b) budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides.
13. Tracing the path of the rays of light through a glass prism.
14. Finding the image distance for varying object distances in case of a convex lens and drawing corresponding
ray diagrams to show the nature of image formed.
15. Identification of the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed (Pea, gram or red kidney bean).
QUESTION PAPER DESIGN FOR SCIENCE (CODE NO. 086/090)
Class - X (2017-18)
Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks : 80
Very
Short Short Long
Typology of Short
S. Answer- I Answer- II Answer Total %
Questions Answer
No. (SA I) (SA II) (LA) Marks Weightage
(VSA)
2 Marks 3 Marks 5 Marks
1 Mark
1. Remembering (Knowledge based
simple recall questions, to know
specific facts, terms, concepts, 2 – 1 1 10 15%
principles, or theories, identify,
define or recite, information)
2. Understanding (Comprehension
- to be familiar with meaning
and to understand conceptually,
– 1 4 2 24 35%
interpret, compare, contrast,
explain, paraphrase, or interpret
information)
3. Application (Use abstract
information in concrete situation, to
apply knowledge to new situations,
– 1 2 2 18 26%
use given content to interpret a
situation, provide an example or
solve a problem)
4. High Order Thinking Skills
(Analysis & Synthesis - Classify,
compare, contrast or differentiate
between different pieces of
information, organize and / – – 1 1 8 12%
or integrate unique pieces of
information from a variety of
sources)
5. Inferential and Evaluative
(Appraise, judge and / or justify
the value or worth of a decision or – 1 1+1** – 8 12%
outcome, or to predict outcomes
based on values)
Total (Theory Based Questions) 2x1=2 3x2=6 10 x 3 = 30 6 x 5 = 30 68(21) 100%
Practical Based Questions (PBQs) 6 x 2 = 12 – – 12(6)
Total 2x1=2 9 x 2 = 18 10 x 3 = 30 6 x 5 = 30 80(27)

1. Question paper will consist of 27 questions.


2. All questions would be compulsory. However, an internal choice will be provided in two questions of
3 marks each and one question of 5 marks.
**One question of 3 marks will be included to assess the values inherent in the texts.
Chapter
Chemical Reactions
1 and Equations
1.1 Chemical Equations 1.3 Have You Observed the Effects of
Oxidation Reactions in Everyday Life?
1.2 Types of Chemical Reactions

Topicwise Analysis of 2010-2008 Years’ CBSE Board Questions

8 Maximum weightage is of Types of Chemical 8 Maximum SA I type questions were asked from
Reactions. Types of Chemical Reactions.
8 Maximum VSA type questions were asked from
Chemical Equations.

QUICK RECAP
8 Physical changes : Those changes which 8 Chemical reactions : The process involving
are accompanied with change in physical a chemical change is known as a chemical
properties of the substances but no new reaction. The chemical substances taken
substance is formed are called physical initially are called reactants and the chemical
changes e.g., melting of ice, boiling of water, substances which are formed during a
etc. chemical reaction are called products. Thus,
8 Chemical changes : Those changes in which chemical reaction is a process in which
the original substances lose their nature and breaking of chemical bonds (present in the
identity to form new chemical substances reactant molecules) and making of new
with different properties are called chemical chemical bonds (in the product molecules)
changes e.g., burning of candle, cooking food, occur e.g., burning of magnesium ribbon in
etc. air.
2 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Mg + O2 MgO of symbols and formulae of the substances


Reactants Product participated is known as chemical equation.
There are two ways to represent a chemical
8 Characteristics of chemical reactions : The
equation :
following observations help us to determine
X In terms of words : When a chemical
whether a chemical reaction has taken place
equation is written in terms of words, it is
or not :
X Change in state : Certain chemical reactions called a word equation. The chemical reaction
are accompanied with the change of state e.g., between granulated zinc and hydrochloric
when a mixture of hydrogen gas and oxygen acid can be written in terms of words as
gas is ignited with an electric spark at room Zinc + Hydrochloric acid
temperature, liquid water is formed. Reactants
electric spark Zinc chloride + Hydrogen
2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l)
room temp.
Hydrogen Oxygen Water Products
X Change in colour : Certain chemical X In terms of symbols and formulae :
reactions are accompanied with the change Chemical reaction between granulated zinc
of colour e.g., when red lead oxide is heated and hydrochloric acid can be written in terms
yellow lead monoxide is formed. of symbols and formulae as
heat
2Pb3O4(s) 6PbO(s) + O2(g) Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2
Lead oxide Lead monoxide Oxygen Products
Reactants
(red colour) (yellow colour)
X Conventions used in chemical equations :
X Evolution of a gas : Some chemical reactions
– The reactants are written on the left hand
are accompanied with the evolution of a
gas e.g., reaction between a metal (like zinc, side along with plus (+) sign between
magnesium or iron) and dilute sulphuric acid them.
produces hydrogen gas. – Similarly, products are written on the
Zn(s) + H2SO4 (dil.) ZnSO4(aq) right hand side along with plus (+) sign
Zinc Sulphuric acid Zinc between them.
sulphate
– An arrow ( ) separates the reactants
+ H2(g) from the products.
Hydrogen
– The arrowhead points towards the
X Change in temperature : Some chemical
products and tells about the direction of
reactions occur with change in heat energy or
the reaction.
with change in temperature.
– Reactions which result in rise in 8 Balanced and unbalanced chemical
temperature i.e. in which heat is evolved equations :
are called exothermic reactions. X Balanced chemical equation : The equation
C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) which contains an equal number of atoms of
6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) + Heat each element on both sides of the arrow is
– Reactions which result in fall in called a balanced chemical equation.
temperature i.e. in which heat is absorbed 2Mg + O2 2MgO
are called endothermic reactions. A balanced chemical equation must obeys the
CaCO3(s) + Heat CaO(s) + CO2(g) law of conservation of mass.
Lime stone Carbon
Quick lime X Unbalanced chemical equation : The equation
or lime dioxide
in which the number of atoms of each element
8 Chemical equation : A method of on both sides of the arrow is not equal.
representing a chemical reaction in terms H2 + O2 H2O
Chemical Reactions and Equations 3

8 Balancing a chemical equation : Balancing which occur at maximum places are balanced
of a chemical equation means to equalise at last.
the number of atoms of each element on To balance H-atoms on both sides :
both sides of the equation. Atoms of In In
Consider the following steps for balancing hydrogen reactants products
the chemical equation : (i) Initial 8 in (4H2O) 2 (in H2)
For example, iron reacts with water (steam)
(ii) To balance 8 2×4
to form iron(II, III) oxide and hydrogen.
Step-I : Write the chemical equation in the Fe + 4H2O Fe3O4 + 4H2
form of a word equation. Keep the reactants To balance Fe-atoms on both sides :
on the left hand side and the products on the
Atoms of In In
right hand side. Separate them by an arrow
iron reactants products
( ) with head pointing from the reactants
to products. (i) Initial 1 (in Fe) 3 (in Fe3O4)
Iron + Steam Iron (II, III) oxide + (ii) To balance 1×3 3
Hydrogen So, the equation would be
Step-II : Write down the symbols and 3Fe + 4H2O Fe3O4 + 4H2
formulae of the various reactants and products Step VI : For checking the correct balanced
which gives skeletal chemical equation.
equation, we count atoms of each element on
Fe + H2O Fe3O4 + H2
both sides of the equation.
Step-III : Listing number of atoms of different
elements. Number of Number of
Elements
Elements Number of Number of atoms on LHS atoms on RHS
atoms on LHS atoms on RHS Fe 3 3
Fe 1 3 H 8 8
H 2 2
O 4 4
O 1 4
As the number of atoms of each element
Step-IV : Select the compound with on both sides of the equation are equal, the
maximum number of atoms to start balancing. equation is balanced.
In that compound, balance the element with
3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g)
maximum number of atoms (e.g., oxygen in
the given equation). It may be a reactant or 8 How can a chemical equation be made more
a product. informative?
A chemical equation can be made
Atoms of In In more informative by adding some extra
oxygen reactants products information to the chemical equation which
(i) Initial 1 (in H2O) 4 (in Fe3O4) may be summarised as :
(ii) To balance 1×4 4 X Write the state symbols for the reactants and
Fe + 4H2O Fe3O4 + H2 products taking part in a chemical reaction.
Step-V : To balance the atoms of an element, Use symbols (g) for gases, (s) for solids, (l) for
put a whole number coefficient before the liquids and (aq) for aqueous solutions.
formula of the compound. If selection of X Indicate the gas evolved in the reaction by (↑).
the biggest formula appears inconvenient, X Indicate the precipitate obtained in the
balance the atoms of that element which reaction by (↓).
occurs at minimum number of places on both X Mention the heat evolved by (+) sign and heat
sides of the equation. Atoms of the element absorbed by (–) sign on the product side.
4 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

X Mention the reaction conditions, temperature – Electrolytic decomposition reactions :


as t°C or K, pressure as atm, catalyst, etc. These reactions occur in presence of
above or below the arrow. electric current.
X When reactants are converted into products 2H2O(l) electric
2H2(g) + O2(g)
and products cannot be converted back current
to reactants then the reaction is called an – Photodecomposition reactions : These
irreversible reaction and is represented by reactions occur in presence of sunlight.
( ). On the other hand, if in a chemical 2AgBr(s) sunlight
2Ag(s) + Br2(g)
reaction, reactants are converted into products Silver bromide Silver Bromine
in forward direction and again products are
X Displacement reactions : Those chemical
converted back into reactants in backward
reactions in which one element takes the
direction then, it is called a reversible reaction
position of another element present in the
and is represented by ( ).
compound.
8 Types of chemical reactions : As we know, in Examples :
chemical reactions, bonds present in reactants Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
break and new bonds form in the products. Pb(s) + CuCl2(aq) PbCl2(aq) + Cu(s)
This exchange of species can take place in a
Note : All displacement reactions are
number of ways resulting in different types of
exothermic reactions.
reactions, which can be explained as follows :
X Double displacement reactions : Those
X Combination reactions : The reactions in
which two or more substances combine reactions in which two compounds react by
to form a single substance under suitable exchange of ions to form two new compounds,
conditions. are called double displacement reactions.
Examples : Example :
– Combustion of coal AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq)
C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) Silver nitrate Sodium chloride
– Combination of nitric oxide with oxygen AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
to form nitrogen dioxide. Silver chloride Sodium nitrate
2NO(g) + O2(g) 2NO2(g) There are two types of double displacement
Nitric oxide Nitrogen dioxide reactions :
(brown gas)
– Precipitation reactions : Those reactions
– Combination of ammonia with hydrogen
in which aqueous solution of two
chloride gas to form a white solid mass of
compounds on mixing react to form
ammonium chloride.
an insoluble compound which further
NH3(g) + HCl(g) NH4Cl(s)
Ammonium chloride separates out as a precipitate are called
(white) precipitation reactions.
X Decomposition reactions : Those reactions Examples :
in which a single substance breaks down FeCl2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq)
to give two or more smaller substances Fe(OH)2(s)↓ + 2NaCl(aq)
under suitable conditions. Three types of Ferrous hydroxide
decomposition reactions are as follows : (dirty green ppt.)
– Thermal decomposition reactions : Na2SO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq)
These reactions occur in presence of heat. BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)
(Barium sulphate)
heat
2FeSO4(s) Fe2O3(s) + SO2(g) + SO3(g) (white ppt.)
Ferrous Ferric Sulphur Sulphur – Neutralisation reactions : Those
sulphate oxide dioxide trioxide reactions of acids and bases in which
(green) (reddish (smell of
brown) burning
product formed is neutral to litmus are
sulphur) known as neutralisation reactions.
Chemical Reactions and Equations 5

Examples : 8 Effect of oxidation reactions in everyday


NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O life : As oxygen is the most essential element
Base Acid Salt for sustaining life, it is involved in variety of
CuO(s) + 2HCl(aq) CuCl2(aq) + H2O reactions which has wide range of effects on
Base Acid Salt
our daily life. The two effects are discussed
X Redox reactions : Reactions in which
below :
oxidation and reduction take place
X Corrosion : It is a process in which metals
simultaneously are called redox reactions.
are decayed gradually by the action of air,
– Oxidation : Those reactions in which
moisture and acids on their surface. Basically,
the addition of oxygen to a substance or
it is caused by oxidation of metals by oxygen
removal of hydrogen from a substance
present in the air.
takes place are called oxidation reactions.
Example : Rusting of iron,
On the other hand, the substance which
4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) + 2xH2O(l) 2Fe2O3·xH2O(s)
either gives oxygen or removes hydrogen in Iron Air Moisture Hydrated
an oxidation reaction is known as an oxidising Iron(III) oxide
agent. 2Cu(s) + CO2(g) + O2(g) + H2O(l)
– Reduction : Those reactions in which Moisture
Air
addition of hydrogen to a substance or
CuCO3·Cu(OH)2
removal of oxygen from a substance
Basic copper carbonate
takes place are called reduction reactions. (green)
On the other hand, the substance which
either gives hydrogen or removes oxygen in Corrosion causes damage to car bodies, iron
a reduction reaction is known as reducing railings, ships and to all objects made up of
agent. metals, specially those of iron.
Examples : – Prevention of corrosion : Corrosion can
be prevented
• by coating the surface by a layer
of another metal which does not
corrode e.g., coating of iron with zinc.
• by coating surface with grease, paint
Here, ZnO : Oxidising agent
or oil, etc.
C : Reducing agent
X Rancidity : The slow oxidation of oils and
fats present in food materials resulting in
compounds with unpleasant smell is known
as rancidity. Vacuum packing, refrigeration
of food materials, placing of food materials
Here, SO2 : Oxidising agent away from direct sunlight will slow down the
H2S : Reducing agent process of rancidity.
6 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Previous Years’ CBSE


PREVIOUS Board
YEARS MCQS Questions

1.1 Chemical Equations SA I (2 marks)

VSA (1 mark) 9. What happens when an aqueous solution


of sodium sulphate reacts with an aqueous
1. Write a balanced chemical equation for the solution of barium chloride? State the physical
reaction between sodium carbonate and conditions of reactants in which the reaction
hydrochloric acid indicating the physical between them will not take place. Write the
state of the reactants and the products. balanced chemical equation for the reaction
(Foreign 2010) and name the type of reaction. (Delhi 2010)
2. Balance the following chemical equation : 10. What is a redox reaction? When a magnesium
heat
Pb(NO3)2(s) PbO(s) + NO2(g) + O2(g) ribbon burns in air with a dazzling flame and
(Delhi 2009) forms a white ash, is magnesium oxidised or
3. Balance the following chemical equation : reduced? Why? (Delhi 2009)
Fe(s) + H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + H2(g) (AI 2008) 11. (a) What is the colour of ferrous sulphate
4. Balance the following chemical equation : crystals? How does this colour change
heat
FeSO4 Fe2O3 + SO2 + SO3 (AI 2008) after heating?
5. Balance the following chemical reaction : (b) Name the products formed on strongly
MnO2 + HCl MnCl2 + Cl2 + H2O heating ferrous sulphate crystals. What
(AI 2008) type of chemical reaction occurs in this
change? (Delhi 2009)
1.2 Types of Chemical Reactions 12. (i) What is observed when a solution of
potassium iodide is added to a solution
VSA (1 mark) of lead nitrate taken in a test tube?
6. In electrolysis of water, why is the volume of (ii) What type of reaction is this?
gas collected over one electrode double than (iii) Write a balanced chemical equation to
that of gas collected over the other electrode? represent the above reaction. (AI 2009)
(AI 2009) 13. What is an oxidation reaction? Identify in the
7. What change in colour is observed when following reaction : ZnO + C Zn + CO
white silver chloride is left exposed to (i) the substance oxidised and
sunlight? What type of chemical reaction is (ii) the substance reduced. (Delhi 2008)
this? (Foreign 2009) 14. Give an example of decomposition reaction.
8. What happens chemically when quick lime is Describe an activity to illustrate such a
added to water? (Delhi 2008) reaction by heating. (AI 2008)
Chemical Reactions and Equations 7

Detailed Solutions

1. Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Here, magnesium is oxidised as addition of oxygen


Sodium Hydrochloric Sodium has taken place.
carbonate acid chloride + CO2 (g) 11. (a) Ferrous sulphate crystals (FeSO4.7H2O)
2. 2Pb(NO3)2(s) heat 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g) are light green in colour.
When it is heated, white colour solid is formed.
3. 3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g)
heat
heat FeSO4 .7H2 O 
→ FeSO4 + 7H2 O
4. 2FeSO4 
→ Fe2 O3 + SO2 + SO3 (Light green) (White)
5. MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O (b) When anhydrous ferrous sulphate is further
6. In electrolysis of water, hydrogen (H2) gas heated strongly, it decomposes to give ferrous
is liberated at cathode while oxygen (O2) gas is oxide (Fe2O3) and oxides of sulphur.
liberated at anode. The overall reaction is
2H2O(l) Electric current 2H2(g) + O2(g)
From the above reaction, it is clear that amount of This type of chemical reaction is known as
H2 liberated is twice that of O2. decomposition reaction.
7. When white silver chloride is left exposed 12. (i) When lead nitrate is added to potassium
to sunlight, its colour changes to grey due to the iodide then yellow precipitate of lead iodide is
formation of silver. formed along with potassium nitrate.
sunlight (ii) This type of reaction is called precipitation
2AgCl(s ) 
→ 2Ag(s ) + Cl 2( g )
White Grey reaction in which one of the products formed is an
This type of reaction is called photodecomposition insoluble substance.
reaction. (iii) Chemical reaction will be as follows :
8. Quick lime reacts vigorously with water to Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) PbI2(s) ↓ + 2KNO3(aq)
(Yellow ppt.)
produce calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) releasing
a large amount of heat (exothermic reaction). 13. The reaction in which oxygen is added or
CaO(s) + H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + heat hydrogen is removed or loss of electrons takes
(Quick lime) (Slaked lime) place is called an oxidation reaction.
In the reaction,
9. When an aqueous solution of sodium sulphate
Reduction
reacts with an aqueous solution of barium chloride
then, white precipitate of barium sulphate (BaSO4)
ZnO + C Zn + CO
is formed.
Na2SO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq) Oxidation
If the reactants are present in solid state then no
(i) Carbon is getting oxidised to carbon monoxide.
reaction will take place between them. This type of
(ii) Zinc oxide is getting reduced to zinc.
reaction is called double displacement reaction or
precipitation reaction. 14. Those reactions in which a compound breaks
down into two or more simpler substances are
10. A reaction in which oxidation and reduction
known as decomposition reactions.
take place simultaneously is called redox reaction.
Aim : To show thermal decomposition reaction of
On heating in oxygen/air, magnesium burns with a
ferrous sulphate.
dazzling white light to give magnesium oxide.
Material required : Ferrous sulphate crystals, dry
heat
2Mg + O2 
→ 2MgO test tube, burner
8 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

3. Heat the crystals of ferrous sulphate over the


Pungent Tongs flame of a burner for some time.
smelling Test Tube 4. Observe the crystals after heating for 5 minutes.
SO2 and SO3 FeSO4.7H2O Heat FeSO4(s) + 7H2O(g)
Ferrous Anhydrous
Ferrous sulphate crystal ferrous sulphate
Residue Fe2O3
sulphate
(Reddish brown) (Pale green) (White)
crystals
2FeSO Heat Fe2O3(s) + SO2(g) + SO3(g)
(Pale green) 4(s)
Burner Ferrous Ferric Sulphur Sulphur
sulphate oxide dioxide trioxide
(white) (Reddish brown) (Colourless) (Colourless)

Observation : The pale green colour of ferrous


Procedure : 1. Take 2 g of ferrous sulphate crystals sulphate crystals changes to reddish brown
in a dry test tube. ferric oxide and smell of burning sulphur is
2. Observe the colour of ferrous sulphate crystals. observed.
Chapter
Acids, Bases and Salts
2
2.1 Understanding the Chemical Properties 2.3 How Strong are Acid or Base Solutions?
of Acids and Bases 2.4 More About Salts
2.2 What do All Acids and All Bases have in
Common?

Topicwise Analysis of 2010-2008 Years’ CBSE Board Questions

8 Maximum weightage is of More About Salts. 8 Maximum SA I type questions were asked from
More About Salts.
8 Maximum VSA type questions were asked from
How Strong are Acid or Base Solutions?

QUICK RECAP

8 Indicator : The chemical substance which is X Olfactory indicators : The substances which
added to the solutions in very small amount give one type of odour in acidic medium and
to detect their acidic or basic nature is known a different odour in basic medium are called
as indicator. olfactory indicators. e.g., vanilla essence,
Depending upon the property of the onion, clove oil, etc.
indicators, they are classified into two types : Acid-base indicators showing different colours
X Acid – base indicators : The indicators which are of two types :
show different colours or odours in acidic and – Natural indicators : Litmus is a natural
basic medium are called acid-base indicators. indicator which is a purple coloured dye.
e.g., litmus, phenolphthalein, methyl orange, Turmeric and red cabbage juice are other
etc. examples of natural indicators.
10 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Natural indicators with their – Monobasic acids : HCl, HNO3,


characteristic colours CH3COOH, etc.
– Dibasic acids : H2SO4, H2CO3, H2SO3,
Indicator Colour in Colour Colour
etc.
neutral in acidic in basic
– Tribasic acids : H3PO4
medium medium medium
8 Dilute acids : A dilute acid is obtained by
Litmus Purple Red Blue
mixing the concentrated acid with water.
Turmeric Yellow Yellow Reddish X The process of mixing the concentrated
brown acid with water is highly exothermic (or heat
Red cabbage Red Red Green producing). So, when a concentrated acid and
leaves extract water are mixed together, a large amount of
heat is evolved.
– Synthetic indicators : Phenolphthalein X The dilution of a concentrated acid should
and methyl orange are synthetic indicators. always be done by adding concentrated acid
Synthetic indicators with their to water gradually with continuous stirring
characteristic colours and not by adding water to concentrated acid.
Indicator Colour in Colour Colour 8 General properties of acids :
neutral in acidic in basic X Physical properties :
medium medium medium – Almost all acidic substances have sour
Phenol- Colourless Colourless Pink taste.
phthalein – Acids turn blue litmus solution to red.
– Most of the acids are corrosive in nature.
Methyl Orange Red Yellow
– The solutions of acids in water conduct
orange
electricity.
8 Acids : The substances which are sour in taste X Chemical properties :
and change the colour of blue litmus to red – Reaction with metals : Acids react with
are acids. active metals such as zinc, magnesium,
According to Arrhenius concept, acids are etc. and hydrogen gas is evolved. e.g.,
substances which dissociate in aqueous Zn(s) + dil. H2SO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g)
solution to furnish hydrogen or hydronium
– Reaction with metal carbonates
ions.
and metal hydrogen carbonates :
8 Classification of acids : Acids react with metal carbonates
X Based on the strength of the acids : and bicarbonates to give carbon
– Strong acids : Acids which undergo dioxide with brisk effervescence.
complete dissociation in aqueous e.g.,
solution producing a high concentration
Na 2CO3 + H2SO4  → Na 2SO4 + H2O + CO2
of H+ ions, are called strong acids.
Sodium Sulphuric Sodium Water Carb
e.g., (HCl), (H2SO4), (HNO3), etc. carbonate acid sulphate diox
– Weak acids : Acids which undergo
Na 2CO3 + H2SO4  → Na 2SO4 + H2O + CO2↑
partial dissociation in aqueous solution Sodium Sulphuric Sodium Water Carbon
+
producing a low concentration of H carbonate acid sulphate dioxide
ions, are called weak acids.
NaHCO3 + HCl 
→ NaCl + H2O + CO
e.g., Carbonic acid H2CO3, phosphoric Hydrochloric Sodium
Sodium Water Ca
acid H3PO4, formic acid HCOOH, etc. bicarbonate acid chloride di
X Based on the basicity of acids : On the basis NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2↑
of basicity (number of replaceable H+ ionsSodium Hydrochloric Sodium Water Carbon
acid chloride dioxide
present in an acid), acids can be classified asbicarbonate
:
Acids, Bases and Salts 11

– Reaction with bases : When an acid X Based on the acidity of bases : On the basis
reacts with a base, it forms salt and water. of acidity (number of replaceable OH– ions
Neu
utralisation
HCl + NaOH  → NaClpresent + in
H2aObase), bases can be classified as :
reaction
Hydrochloric Sodium – Monoacidic
Sodium chloride Water bases : NH4OH, NaOH, etc.
acid hydroxide (Salt)
(Acid) (Base) – Diacidic bases : Ca(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, etc.
Neu
utralisation
HCl + NaOH 
→ NaCl + H2 O 8 General properties of bases :
drochloric Sodium reaction Sodium chloride
acid hydroxide (Salt)
Water X Physical properties :
(Acid) (Base) – They are bitter in taste.
– Reaction with metallic oxides : Metal
– They are soapy to touch.
oxide reacts with acid forming salt and
– Bases turn the colour of red litmus to
water.
blue, methyl orange from orange to
CaO(s ) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + H2O yellow and phenolphthalein from
Calcium Hydrochloric Calcium Water
oxide acid chloride
colourless to pink.
– Like acids, the solutions of bases in water
– Reaction with water : Acids when also conduct electricity.
dissolve in water give H3O+ or H+ ions. X Chemical properties :
HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl– – Reaction with acids : Bases react with
8 Uses of acids : acids to form salts and water.
X Sulphuric acid is used in the manufacture of
2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq)  → Na 2SO4(aq) +
fertilizers, paints, explosives, synthetic fibres,
Sodium hydroxide Sulphuric acid Sodium sulphate
dyes, drugs, etc. and is also used in petroleum (Base) (Acid) (Salt)
refining.
2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq)  → Na 2SO4(aq) +2H2O(l )
X Nitric acid is used in the manufacture of
Sodium hydroxide Sulphuric acid Sodium sulphate Water
fertilizers like ammonium nitrate, explosives(Base) (Acid) (Salt)
like TNT, artificial silk, dyes and plastics.
– Reaction with metals : Some bases such
X Hydrochloric acid is used in textile, food,
leather and dye industries. as NaOH, KOH react with active metals
to liberate hydrogen gas along with the
8 Bases : The substances which have bitter formation of salts.
taste, soapy touch and turn red litmus to blue
are bases. 2NaOH(aq) + Zn(s )  → Na 2 ZnO2(aq) + H2(g )
According to Arrhenius concept, bases are Sodium Zinc Sodium zincate Hydroge
hydroxide (Metal) (Salt) (Gas)
substances which when dissolved in water (Base)

furnish hydroxyl (OH ) ions. 2NaOH(aq) + Zn(s )  → Na 2 ZnO2(aq) + H2(g )
Sodium Zinc Sodium zincate Hydrogen
8 Classification of bases : hydroxide (Metal) (Salt) (Gas)
(Base)
X Based on the strength of bases : – Reaction with non-metal oxides :
– Strong bases : Bases which completely Bases react with non-metallic oxides to
ionise in aqueous solution to furnish
produce salts and water.
high concentration of OH– ions, are
2NaOH(aq) + CO2(g) Na2CO3(aq) +
called strong bases. e.g., Sodium
H2O(l)
hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide
– Reaction with heavy metal salts : Metal
(KOH), etc.
– Weak bases : Bases which partially salts react with aqueous solution of bases
ionise in aqueous solution to furnish to produce precipitates of insoluble
low concentration of OH– ions, are metallic hydroxides.
called weak bases. e.g., Ammonium ZnSO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2SO4(aq)
hydroxide (NH4OH), calcium hydroxide + Zn(OH)2↓
[Ca(OH)2], etc. White ppt.
12 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

– Reaction with water : Bases when alkalinity of an aqueous solution. So, pH scale
dissolved in water produce OH– ions. is used to measure the strength of acids and
H O
2 → Na + − bases.
NaOH(s )  (aq ) + OH(aq )
X In pH scale :
Note : A base which dissolves in water – All substances having pH values between
is called an alkali. Thus, all alkalies are
0 and 7 are acidic in nature.
bases but all bases are not alkalies.
– All substances having pH values between
8 Uses of bases : 7 and 14 are basic in nature.
X Potassium hydroxide (caustic potash) is used – All substances having pH value equal to
in alkaline batteries and soft soaps. 7 are neutral.
X Calcium hydroxide is used in manufacture X pH of salt :
of bleaching powder, softening of hard water, – Salt of a strong acid and a strong base is
etc. neutral with pH value equal to 7.
X Ammonium hydroxide is used for removing – Salt of a strong acid and a weak base is
grease stains from clothes. acidic with pH value less than 7.
8 Salts : Salts are the ionic compounds which – Salt of a strong base and a weak acid is
contain a positive ion (or cation) other than basic with pH value more than 7.
H+ ion and negative ion (or anion) other than X Importance of pH in everyday life : pH plays
OH– ion. e.g., K2SO4, NaCl, NaNO3, etc. an important role in everyday life as :
8 Classification of salts : – In humans and plants : Most of the
X Normal salts : These salts are formed when all reactions taking place in our body are
replaceable hydrogens of an acid are replaced in the pH range of 7.0 to 7.8. If pH falls
by metal ions thus, they do not generally below 7.0 or rises above 7.8, the survival
contain any replaceable hydrogen atom. of living organisms becomes difficult. For
e.g., NaCl, Na2SO4, etc. healthy growth of plants, the soil should
X Acidic salts : These salts are formed when have a specific pH which is neither highly
a polybasic acid is partially neutralised by a alkaline nor highly acidic.
base and salts still have some acidic H+ ions. – In digestive system : Hydrochloric
e.g., NaHCO3, NaHSO3, etc. acid is produced in our stomach which
X Basic salts : These salts are formed by partial helps in the digestion of food. But if
neutralisation of polyacidic bases with acids the amount of acid produced is beyond
and salts still have some basic OH– ions. e.g., the required limit, it causes pain and
Mg(OH)Cl, etc. irritation in the stomach. This pain can
X Families of salts : The salts are classified into be cured by antacids containing weak
different families either on the basis of the bases (like magnesium hydroxide). This
acid or on the basis of the base from which base neutralises the excess acid produced.
they have been obtained. – Tooth decay caused by acids : If the
– Sulphate family : Na2SO4, K2SO4, pH in our mouth falls below 5.5, the
MgSO4, CaSO4, etc. dissolution of calcium phosphate (tooth
– Nitrate family : NaNO3, KNO3, enamel) starts i.e., tooth decay begins.
Cu(NO3)2, etc. – Self defence of animals and plants
– Chloride family : KCl, NaCl, CaCl2, through chemical warfare : Sting of
AlCl3, etc. honey-bee or yellow ant injects methanoic
+
8 Concept of pH : The concentration of H ion acid (or formic acid) due to which we feel
+
i.e., [H ] in aqueous solution is very small, pain. To get relief, a solution of mild base,
so it is very difficult to express the acidity or such as baking soda is used. Stinging hair
Acids, Bases and Salts 13

of nettle leaves inject methanoic acid, of brine. Manufacturing of bleaching powder,


causing burning pain. is generally carried out in ‘Hasenclever plant’.
X Uses : It is used
8 Common salt (Sodium chloride, NaCl) : Sea
– in textile industry for bleaching cotton
water is one of the main source of common
and linen.
salt. To extract the salt from sea water, it is
– in paper industry for bleaching wood
allowed to evaporate in shallow tanks under
pulp.
the influence of sun and wind.
– in laundry for bleaching washed clothes.
X Properties of common salt :
– for disinfecting drinking water.
– It is a colourless crystalline substance
with melting point 820°C. 8 Baking soda (NaHCO3) : When an aqueous
– At low temperature (0 to –20°C), it exists solution of sodium chloride (brine) saturated
as a dihydrate, NaCl 2H2O. with ammonia is allowed to react with carbon
– It is slightly hygroscopic in nature. dioxide, baking soda is produced along with
– It is soluble in water. ammonium chloride.
X Uses of common salt : NaCl + H2 O + CO2 + NH3 
→ NH 4 Cl
– It is essential constituent of our diet. + NaHCO3
– It is used to make freezing mixture Baking soda
(when mixed with ice) e.g., in making This process is known as ‘Solvay process’.
ice-creams. X Uses : It is used
– It is used as raw material for caustic – as an antacid.
soda, bleaching powder, baking soda and – as an additive in food and drinks.
washing soda. – in fire - extinguishers.
8 Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) : Sodium 8 Washing soda (Na2CO3 . 10H2O) : The
hydroxide is prepared by electrolysis of an preparation of washing soda is carried out
aqueous solution of sodium chloride (brine). through following steps :
This method is called ‘chlor-alkali’ process. Step-I : Manufacture of sodium hydrogen
The complete reaction can be represented as, carbonate :
On passing NaCl + H2O + NH3 + CO2  → NaHCO3
2NaCl(aq) + 2H2O(l ) 

electricity Sodium
2NaOH(aq) + Cl 2( g ) + H2( g ) bicarbonate

The sodium hydroxide solution is formed + NH4Cl


near the cathode. Step-II : Thermal decomposition of sodium
X Uses : It is used hydrogen carbonate : When dry crystals
– for making soaps and detergents. of sodium hydrogen carbonate are heated
– for degreasing metals. strongly, they decompose to form anhydrous
– in making of artificial fibres. sodium carbonate (soda ash).
Heat
– in petroleum refining. 2NaHCO3(s ) 
→ Na 2CO3(s ) + CO2( g )
– as a laboratory reagent. + H2O( g )
8 Bleaching powder (CaOCl2) : It is prepared Step-III : Recrystallisation of sodium
by the action of chlorine gas on dry slaked
carbonate : Sodium carbonate thus obtained
lime Ca(OH)2. is recrystallised to form crystals of washing
Ca(OH)2 + Cl 2 
→ CaOCl 2 + H2O soda.
Slaked lime Bleaching
powder Na 2CO3(s ) + 10H2O(l ) 
→ Na 2CO3 .10H2O(s )
Anhydrous Washing soda
The chlorine used in the above reaction is the sodium
by-product produced during the electrolysis carbonate
14 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

X Uses : It is used X Uses : It is used


– for softening of hard water. – for making moulds for toys, pottery,
– for washing purposes in laundry and as ceramics, etc.
cleaning agent for domestic purposes. – for making statues, models and other
– in textile industries and also in petroleum
decorative materials.
refining.
– as fire proofing materials.
– in the manufacturing of borax.
– in medical science as plasters for setting
8 Plaster of Paris : It is prepared by heating broken and fractured bones.
gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) at 373 K in a kiln.
Heat 1 8 Water of crystallisation : It is the fixed
CaSO4 .2H2O → CaSO4 . H2O
Gypsum
373 K 2 number of water molecules present in
Plaster of Paris
one formula unit of a salt. e.g., Gypsum
1
+ 1 H2 O (CaSO4.2H2O) has two molecules of water of
2
The temperature during the heating should crystallisation.
not be allowed to rise above 373 K. Otherwise, In hydrated copper sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O),
whole of its water is lost and anhydrous there are five molecules of water of
calcium sulphate (CaSO4) is obtained. crystallisation.
Acids, Bases and Salts 15

Previous Years’ CBSE


PREVIOUS Board
YEARS MCQS Questions

2.3 How Strong are Acid or Base with a proper quantity of water. Identify the
compound. Write the chemical equation for
Solutions? its preparation. For what purpose is it used in
hospitals? (Delhi 2009)
VSA (1 mark)
6. (i) Name the products formed when sodium
1. Fresh milk has a pH of 6. When it changes
hydrogen carbonate is heated.
into curd (yogurt), will its pH value increase
(ii) Write the chemical equation for the
or decrease? Why? (Delhi 2009)
reaction involved in the above. (AI 2009)
2. What effect does an increase in concentration
7. What is meant by ‘water of crystallisation’ of
of H+(aq) in a solution have on the pH of
a substance? Describe an activity to show that
solution? (AI 2009)
blue copper sulphate crystals contain water of
crystallisation. (Foreign 2009, Delhi 2008)
2.4 More About Salts
8. Write the chemical formula for washing soda.
VSA (1 mark) How may it be obtained from baking soda?
3. Name the gas evolved when dilute HCl reacts Name an industrial use of washing soda other
with sodium hydrogen carbonate. How is it than washing clothes. (AI 2008)
recognised? (Delhi 2008) 9. Write the chemical formula for bleaching
powder. How is bleaching powder prepared?
SA I (2 marks)
For what purpose is it used in paper factories?
4. What happens when chlorine is passed over (AI 2008)
slaked lime at 313 K? Write chemical equation 10. What is the chemical formula for Plaster of
of the reaction involved and state two uses of Paris? How is it prepared? State the common
the product obtained. (Foreign 2010) and chemical names of the compound formed
5. A compound which is prepared from gypsum when Plaster of Paris is mixed with water.
has the property of hardening when mixed (AI 2008)
16 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Detailed Solutions
1. Fresh milk has pH value equal to 6 but when 7. Crystals of some salts contain certain amount
it changes into curd (yogurt) then there is a slight of associated water. The water associated with the
decrease in pH value as curd contains lactic acid crystal (or molecule) of any salt is called water of
which is more acidic than milk. More acidic is a crystallisation. e.g., CuSO4.5H2O, FeSO4.7H2O,
substance, lesser will be its pH. etc.
2. As the concentration of H+(aq) ions increases, Aim : To test the presence of water of crystallisation
the pH of the solution decreases. in copper sulphate crystals following activity is
3. When sodium hydrogen carbonate reacts performed.
with dilute HCl then carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is Materials required : Copper sulphate crystals, test
released. tube holder, boiling tube, water, burner.
NaHCO3(s) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) +
CO2(g)
This gas is recognised by passing it through lime
water which turns milky due to the formation of
calcium carbonate.

4. When chlorine is passed over slaked lime at


313 K then bleaching powder is formed.
Ca(OH)2(s ) + Cl 2( g ) 
→ CaOCl 2(s ) + H2O(l )
Slaked lime Chlorine Bleaching Water
powder Procedure :
Bleaching powder is used : 1. Take a few crystals of copper sulphate in a dry
(i) for bleaching cotton fibres/fabrics in textile boiling tube. These have blue colour.
industries and wood pulp in paper industries. 2. Heat the boiling tube by holding it with a test
(ii) as disinfectant and germicide. tube holder on the flame of the burner.
5. Plaster of Paris (CaSO4.1/2H2O) has the Observations : You will observe that the colour of
property of hardening when mixed with a proper copper sulphate after heating becomes white. You
quantity of water. may also notice water droplets in the boiling tube
Plaster of Paris is obtained by heating gypsum at which are obtained from water of crystallisation.
373 K. After adding 2-3 drops of water on the white
1 3 sample of copper sulphate (obtained after heating)
373 K
CaSO4 .2H2O(s ) → CaSO4 . H2O + H2O you will observe that the blue colour of copper
heat 2 2
Gypsum Plaster of Paris sulphate is restored.
Heat
In hospitals, it is used as plaster for setting the CuSO4 5H2O CuSO4 + 5H2O
fractured bones in the right position. (Blue) (White)
6. (i) On heating sodium hydrogen carbonate CuSO4 + 5H2O CuSO4 5H2O
(NaHCO3), it decomposes to give sodium (White) (Blue)
carbonate and carbon dioxide. 8. The chemical formula of washing soda is
Na2CO3.10H2O (sodium carbonate decahydrate).
It can be obtained by heating baking soda followed
by recrystallisation from its aqueous solution.
Acids, Bases and Salts 17

10. The chemical formula for Plaster of Paris is


2NaHCO3 heat → Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
Na2CO3 + 10H2O Na2CO3.10H2O CaSO4. 1 H2O (calcium sulphate hemihydrate).
2
The most important use of washing soda is in the It is prepared by heating gypsum at 373 K.
manufacturing of glass.
9. Chemical formula for bleaching powder is 373 K 1 3
CaSO4 .2H2O → CaSO4 . H2O + H2O
CaOCl2 (calcium oxychloride). It is prepared by Gypsum 2 2
Plaster of Paris (POP)
reaction of slaked lime Ca(OH)2 with dry chlorine
gas. When Plaster of Paris is mixed with water the
Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 CaOCl2 + H2O compound formed is gypsum (common name).
Bleaching powder is used for bleaching the wood The chemical name of gypsum is calcium sulphate
pulp in paper factories. dihydrate.
Chapter
Metals and Non-metals
3
3.1 Physical Properties 3.4 Occurrence of Metals

3.2 Chemical Properties of Metals 3.5 Corrosion

3.3 How do Metals and Non-Metals React?

Topicwise Analysis of 2010-2008 Years’ CBSE Board Questions

8 Maximum weightage is of Chemical Properties of 8 Maximum SA I and SA II type questions were


Metals and Occurrence of Metals. asked from Chemical Properties of Metals and
Corrosion respectively.
8 Maximum VSA type questions were asked from
Chemical Properties of Metals. 8 Maximum LA type questions were asked from
Occurrence of Metals.

QUICK RECAP
8 Elements : An element is a substance that is those elements which lose electrons and form
made entirely from one type of atoms. positive ions. Thus, metals are electropositive
Examples : Hydrogen (H), Helium (He), elements.
Oxygen (O), etc. Examples : Sodium (Na), Potassium (K),
Calcium (Ca), etc.
Based on their properties they are classified
X Non-metals : Those elements which do not
into two categories called metals and non-metals.
possess lustre and are neither good conductors
X Metals : Those elements which possess lustre of heat and electricity nor malleable and
when freshly cut, are malleable, ductile and ductile but are brittle, are known as non-metals.
good conductors of heat and electricity are They may also be defined as elements which
known as metals. They may also be defined as gain electrons and form negative ions. Thus,
Metals and Non-metals 19

non-metals are electronegative elements. allotropic form of carbon and is a non-metal


Examples : Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), but good conductor of electricity.
Nitrogen (N), Chlorine (Cl), etc. X They are non-sonorous, i.e., they do not
8 Physical properties of metals : produce any sound when hit with a hard object.
X Metals in their pure state have shining surface X They have low melting and boiling points
i.e., possess metallic lustre. except diamond and graphite which have
X Metals are generally hard. The hardness varies high melting points.
from metal to metal. Stronger the metallic X They have low densities.
bond, harder is the metal. X They have low tensile strength i.e., these are
X Metals are generally malleable. The ability of easily broken.
metals to be beaten into thin sheets is called X They may be solids, liquids or gases at room
malleability. temperature.
X Metals are generally ductile. The ability – Carbon, sulphur, phosphorous and
of metals to be drawn into wires is called iodine are solid non-metals.
ductility. Gold is the most ductile metal. – Bromine is a liquid non-metal.
X Metals are good conductors of heat and – Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine,
possess high melting points. But some helium and neon are gaseous non-metals.
exceptions are there e.g., lithium, sodium,
8 Chemical properties of metals :
potassium, caesium and gallium are metals
X Reaction with oxygen : Almost all the metals
with low melting points. Infact, gallium and
react with oxygen or air to form metal oxides
caesium have so low melting points that they
which are basic in nature.
melt even on keeping them on the palm.
Metal + Oxygen Metal oxide
X Metals are good conductors of electricity.
– When copper is heated in air, it combines
The order of electrical conductivity of some
with oxygen to form copper (II) oxide
metals is found to be as follows :
which is a black in colour.
Ag > Cu > Au > Al > W > Hg
Silver Copper Gold Aluminium Tungsten Mercury
2Cu + O2 2CuO
– Iron reacts with oxygen to give a mixture
X Metals are sonorous i.e., they produce sound
of FeO and Fe2O3.
by striking on hard surface.
X Metals have high density due to closely packed 3Fe + 2O2 
Heat
→ FeO.Fe2O3 or Fe3O4
atoms. But lithium, sodium, potassium are Iron (II, III) Ferrosoferric
metals with low densities. oxide oxide
X They have high tensile strength. Due to this X Reaction with water : Highly reactive metals
property, iron is used in the construction of such as sodium and potassium (placed at the
bridges, buildings, railway lines, etc. top of the reactivity series) react violently
X All metals are solids except mercury which is even with cold water with formation of
liquid.
hydrogen gas and energy is released.
8 Physical properties of non-metals : 2K(s) + 2H2O(l) 2KOH(aq) + H2(g)
X Non-metals do not possess any lustre, but + heat energy
iodine is a non-metallic solid with lustre. Calcium reacts with water less violently while
X They are soft and brittle. The only exception is magnesium reacts with water only on heating.
diamond, an allotropic form of carbon, which Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
is a non-metal but is the hardest substance Heat
known. Mg(s) + 2H2O(l) 
→ Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
X They are neither malleable nor ductile. X Reaction with acids : Metals placed above
X They are bad conductors of heat and hydrogen in the reactivity series react with
electricity. Exception is graphite which is an dilute acids such as HCl and H2SO4 to displace
20 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

hydrogen from acids forming corresponding X Characteristics of the reactivity series :


metal salt with the evolution of hydrogen gas. – Metals are arranged in this series on the
Metal + Acid(dil.) Metal salt + basis of the ease with which atoms of
Hydrogen gas these metals give up their electrons to
2Na(s) + 2HCl(dil.) 2NaCl(aq) + H2(g) form ions.
Mg(s) + H2SO4(dil.) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g) – Higher the metal in the series, greater is
– Hydrogen gas is not evolved when a its tendency to form ions in solution.
metal reacts with nitric acid because – Metals are placed in a decreasing order
nitric acid is a strong oxidising agent. of reactivity, i.e., the most reactive metals
– Gold and platinum are noble metals are placed at the top and as we move
which do not react with any strong acid down, the reactivity of metals decreases.
like HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4, but these
– The series also shows which metal will
can be dissolved in aqua regia (a mixture
displace the other in a solution. Metals
of conc. HCl and conc. HNO3 in the ratio
placed above will displace the metals
of 3 : 1) due to the formation of nascent
chlorine which reacts with these metals placed below in the series.
to form metal chlorides. 8 Ionic compounds : A chemical bond formed
3HCl + HNO3 NOCl + 2H2O + 2Cl between two atoms by complete transfer of

 Nitrosyl Nascent electrons from one atom to another so as
Aqua regia chloride chlorine
to complete their octets and hence, acquire
Au + 3Cl AuCl3 ; Pt + 4Cl PtCl4
the stable nearest noble gas configuration,
Aqua regia is highly corrosive and fuming
liquid. is called ionic bond. The compounds thus
X Reaction with salt solutions : More reactive formed are known as ionic compounds.
metals can displace less reactive metals from X Formation of ionic compounds : During
the aqueous solutions of their salts. These formation of ionic compounds, metal atom
reactions are known as metal displacement looses electrons and these electrons are
reactions. Generally, accepted by non-metal atom. In this way,
Metal A + Salt solution of B Salt solution cations and anions are formed which are held
of A + Metal B together by ionic bonds.
Examples : This can be understood by taking an example
Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s) of formation of sodium chloride.
Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq) FeSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
8 Reactivity series : It is the series in which
metals are arranged in the order of their The transfer of electrons may be represented as:
decreasing reactivity as shown :
Potassium (K) Most reactive
Sodium (Na)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Reactivity decreases

Aluminium (Al)
Zinc (Zn)
Iron (Fe)
Lead (Pb)
[Hydrogen (H)] 8 Properties of ionic compounds :
Copper (Cu) X Physical state : Ionic compounds are generally
Mercury (Hg) solids and exist in the form of crystals as ions
Silver (Ag) are bonded by strong attractive forces. These
Gold (Au) Least reactive crystals differ in their shapes and lustre.
Metals and Non-metals 21

X Melting and boiling points : Their melting The three major steps involved in the
and boiling points are very high as they have extraction of a metal from its ore are :
strong forces of attraction. (i) concentration or enrichment of ore
X Solubility : Ionic compounds are generally (ii) conversion of concentrated ore into
soluble in water and insoluble in solvents metal
such as kerosene, petrol, etc. (iii) refining of impure metal.
X Electrical conductivity : Ionic compounds X Concentration or enrichment of ore :
conduct electricity in the aqueous solution as It is done by removing gangue. The methods
well as in the molten state but not in the solid for removing gangue are gravity separation,
state. froth floatation process, electromagnetic
8 Occurrence of metals : The major source separation and chemical separation.
of metals (whether in the free state or in the X Conversion of concentrated ore into metal :
combined state) is the earth’s crust. Some – Extraction of highly reactive metals :
metals are found in the sea water in the form The highly reactive metals like Na, Mg,
of their soluble salts. Percentage of some Ca, etc. are extracted by electrolytic
metals in earth’s crust is as follows : reduction of their molten chlorides or
Al(7%), Fe(4%), Ca(3%), Na(2.7%), K(2.5%),
oxides. Electrolytic reduction is brought
Mg(2%) and Ti(0.6%).
about by passing electric current through
X Minerals and Ores : The elementary state
the molten state. Metal gets deposited at
or the compounds, in the form of which the
the cathode.
metals occur in nature are called minerals. The
earthy, sandy and rocky impurities associated At cathode : Na+ + e– Na
with the mineral are called gangue or matrix. At anode : 2Cl– Cl2 + 2e–
Also, the mineral from which the metal can – Extraction of metals of medium
be extracted conveniently and economically reactivity : The metals with moderate
is called an ore. reactivity like zinc, iron, lead, copper, etc.
are generally present as oxides, sulphides
8 Extraction of metals : Getting a metal out of
its ore is called extraction of the metal. or carbonates. These sulphides and
carbonates first need to get converted
8 Metallurgy : Various steps involved in the
to oxides as it is easier to get metal from
extraction of a metal from its ore followed by
their oxides.
refining of the metal is called ‘metallurgy’. The
steps involved are summarised as follows : This can be done by two processes :
• Roasting : In this process, the
sulphide ores are converted into
oxides by heating strongly in presence
of excess of air.
Roasting
2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g) 2ZnO(s)
Zinc sulphide + 2SO2(g)
(Zinc blende ore)
• Calcination : In this process, the
carbonate ores are converted into
oxides by heating strongly in the
absence or limited supply of air.
Heat
ZnCO3(s) 2ZnO(s) + CO2(g)
Zinc carbonate
(Calamine ore)
The metal oxides are then reduced
to corresponding metals by using
22 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

reducing agents like carbon or by using electrolyte. On passing the current through
displacement reactions with highly the electrolyte, the impure metal from the
reactive metals such as aluminium, anode dissolves into the electrolyte and pure
sodium, calcium, etc. metal from the electrolyte is deposited on the
Heat cathode. The soluble impurities go into the
ZnO(s) + C (s) Zn(s) + CO(g)
solution, whereas, the insoluble impurities
Heat
3MnO2(s) + 4Al(s) 3Mn(l) + settle down at the bottom of the anode as
such in the form of anode mud.
2Al2O3(s)
The reduction of metal oxides to metal 8 Corrosion : The process of slowly eating up
using aluminium as the reducing agent of metals due to their conversion into oxides,
is called aluminothermy. The reaction is carbonates, sulphides, sulphates, etc. by the
highly exothermic. The heat evolved is action of atmospheric gases and moisture is
so high that the metal is obtained in the called ‘corrosion’. In general, more reactive
molten state. the metal, more easily it gets corrode. Metals
Ignited like potassium, magnesium, aluminium,
Fe2O3(s) + 2Al(s) 2Fe(l) + Al2O3(s) zinc, iron, etc. undergo corrosion easily while
This reaction is known as thermite noble metals like gold and platinum do not
reaction and used for welding the broken get corroded easily. Corrosion of iron is
parts of iron machinery, railway tracks, known as rusting which causes a big loss to
girders, etc. the economy of the country.
– Extraction of metals with low reactivity : X Prevention of corrosion : Rusting of iron can
The oxides of these metals can be reduced be prevented by painting, oiling, greasing,
to metals by heating alone. galvanising, chrome plating, anodising or
Heat making alloys.
2HgS(s) + 3O2(g) 2HgO(s) +
Mercury sulphide 2SO2(g) – A thin layer of tin metal or chromium
(Cinnabar ore) metal is deposited on iron objects by
Heat electroplating to prevent rusting.
2HgO(s) 2Hg(l) + O2(g)
– Galvanisation is a method of protecting
X Refining of impure metal : The process of iron from rusting by coating them with a
purifying impure metals is called refining thin layer of zinc.
of metals. The most widely used method – Alloying : An alloy is a homogeneous
is electrolytic refining. In this process, the mixture of two or more metals or a metal
impure metal is made the anode and a thin and a non-metal. e.g.,
strip of pure metal is made the cathode. stainless steel (Fe + Cr + Ni),
A solution of the metal salt is used as an brass (Cu + Zn), bronze (Cu + Sn), etc.
Metals and Non-metals 23

Previous Years’ CBSE


PREVIOUS Board
YEARS MCQS Questions

3.2 Chemical Properties of Metals (b) Why is it that non-metals do not displace
hydrogen from dilute acids? (AI 2008)
VSA (1 mark)
LA (5 marks)
1. What changes in the colour of iron nails and
copper sulphate solution do you observe 8. Give reason why
after keeping the iron nails dipped in copper (i) metals are good conductors, whereas
sulphate solution for about 30 minutes? non-metals are bad conductors of
(Delhi 2010) electricity.
2. Which gas is generally liberated when a dilute (ii) metals replace hydrogen from acids
solution of hydrochloric acid reacts with an whereas non-metals do not.
active metal? (Foreign 2009) (iii) an iron knife dipped in a blue copper
3. Arrange the following metals in a decreasing sulphate solution turns the blue solution
order of activity : light green.
Na, K, Cu, Ag (Foreign 2009) (iv) sodium is kept under kerosene.
4. From amongst the metals sodium, calcium, (v) carbon cannot reduce the oxides of
aluminium, copper and magnesium, name sodium or aluminium. (Foreign 2010)
the metal
(i) which reacts with water only on boiling
3.3 How do Metals and
and Non-metals React?
(ii) another which does not react even with
steam. (Delhi 2008) VSA (1 mark)

SA I (2 marks) 9. Give reason for the following observation :


ionic compounds in general have high
5. Name two metals which react violently with melting and boiling points.
cold water. Write any three observations you (1/5, Foreign 2009)
would make when such a metal is dropped
into water. How would you identify the gas SA II (3 marks)
evolved, if any, during the reaction? (AI 2008) 10. (a) Show the formation of Na2O by the
6. (a) Name a metal for each case : transfer of electrons between the
(i) It does not react with cold as well as combining atoms.
hot water but reacts with steam. (b) Why are ionic compounds usually hard?
(ii) It does not react with any physical (c) How is it that ionic compounds in the
state of water. solid state do not conduct electricity and
(b) When calcium metal is added to water they do so when in molten state?
the gas evolved does not catch fire but (Delhi 2008)
the same gas evolved on adding sodium
metal to water catches fire. Why is it so?
LA (5 marks)
(AI 2008) 11. Write the names and symbols of two most
reactive metals belonging to group I of the
SA II (3 marks) periodic table. Explain by drawing electronic
7. (a) What are amphoteric oxides? Choose structure how either one of the two metals
the amphoteric oxides from amongst the reacts with a halogen. With which name is
following oxides : the bond formed between these elements
Na2O, ZnO, Al2O3, CO2, H2O known and what is the class of the compound
24 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

so formed known? State any four physical a chemical equation for the chemical
properties of such compounds. (Delhi 2010) reaction indicating the conditions of
reaction, physical state of reactants and
3.4 Occurrence of Metals products and thermal status of reaction.
(ii) Mention any two types of reactions under
VSA (1 mark)
which above chemical reaction can be
12. Name a reducing agent that may be used to classified. (Delhi 2010)
obtain manganese from manganese dioxide.
(Delhi 2009) LA (5 marks)
13. Give reason for the following observation : 16. What is meant by refining of metals? Name
highly reactive metals cannot be obtained the most widely used method of refining
from their oxides by heating them with impure metals produced by various reduction
carbon. (1/5, Foreign 2009) processes. Describe with the help of a labelled
diagram how this method may be used for
SA I (2 marks)
refining of copper. (Delhi 2010)
14. Explain how the following metals are obtained 17. (a) Distinguish between ‘roasting’ and
from their compounds by the reduction
‘calcination’. Which of these two is used
process :
for sulphide ores and why?
(i) Metal M which is in the middle of the
(b) Write a chemical equation to illustrate
reactivity series.
the use of aluminium for joining cracked
(ii) Metal N which is high up in the reactivity
railway lines.
series.
(c) Name the anode, the cathode and the
Give one example of each type. (AI 2009)
electrolyte used in the electrolytic
SA II (3 marks) refining of impure copper. (AI 2009)
15. No chemical reaction takes place when
granules of a solid, A, are mixed with the
3.5 Corrosion
powder of another solid, B. However when SA II (3 marks)
the mixture is heated, a reaction takes place
between its components. One of the products, 18. What is meant by ‘rusting’? With labelled
C, is a metal and settles down in the molten diagrams describe an activity to find out the
state while the other product, D, floats over conditions under which iron rusts.
it. It was observed that the reaction is highly (Delhi 2009)
exothermic. 19. Give reason for the following observation :
(i) Based on the given information make Copper vessels get a green coat when left
an assumption about A and B and write exposed to air in rainy season. (Foreign 2009)
Metals and Non-metals 25

Detailed Solutions

1. As iron (Fe) is more reactive than copper (Cu) 7. (a) Those oxides which react with both acids
so, iron displaces copper from its salt solution. as well as bases to produce salts and water are
Thus, blue coloured CuSO4 gets converted into called amphoteric oxides.
pale green coloured FeSO4 after keeping iron nails Among the given oxides, Al2O3 and ZnO are
in CuSO4 solution. amphoteric in nature.
CuSO4 + Fe 
→ FeSO4 + Cu (b) Non-metals do not displace hydrogen from
Blue Pale green dilute acids because non-metals do not provide
electrons to change H+ ions into hydrogen gas.
2. Generally, hydrogen gas is liberated when
dilute solution of hydrochloric acid reacts with 8. (i) Metals are good conductors of electricity
active metals. because they have free electrons or ions while
non-metals do not contain free electrons or ions.
3. The decreasing order of activity is
K > Na > Cu > Ag (ii) When a metal (which is more electropositive
than hydrogen) is placed in an acid solution, it
4. (i) Aluminium is the metal which reacts
loses electrons. These electrons are gained by H+
with water only on boiling (i.e., it reacts with
ions to produce hydrogen gas.
steam).
(ii) Copper metal does not react even with steam e.g.,
2–
due to its low reactivity. H2SO4 2H+ + SO4
5. Sodium and potassium react with cold water Loss of e– by zinc : Zn Zn2+ + 2e–
violently. Gain of e– by H+ : 2H+ + 2e– H2
When these metals are dropped into water then Overall reaction : Zn + 2H +
Zn2+ + H2
following changes are observed :
(i) Bubbles come out of water due to the evolution Non-metals do not have tendency to lose electrons.
of a gas. (iii) As iron is more reactive than copper so,
(ii) This gas catches fire immediately. iron will displace copper from copper sulphate
(iii) The beaker becomes hot as the reaction is solution.
highly exothermic.
When a burning matchstick is brought near this Fe + CuSO4 
→ FeSO4 + Cu
Blue Pale green
gas (hydrogen) then it burns explosively with a
‘pop’ sound. Thus, blue coloured copper sulphate gets converted
6. (a) (i) Iron metal does not react with cold as into light green iron sulphate.
well as hot water but it reacts with steam. (iv) Sodium catches fire vigorously on reaction
3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g)↑ with oxygen at room temperature if kept in open.
(ii) Gold does not react with cold water, hot water Therefore, sodium is kept under kerosene.
and not even with steam. (v) Carbon cannot reduce the oxides of sodium
(b) When calcium metal is added to water or aluminium because sodium and aluminium are
the hydrogen gas evolved, does not catch fire placed at the top of the reactivity series and are
because the reaction of calcium with water is less highly reactive. They have more affinity for oxygen
violent and the heat evolved is not sufficient for than carbon.
the hydrogen gas to catch fire. But the same gas
evolved on adding sodium metal to water, catches 9. Due to strong forces of attraction, the ions are
fire because the reaction is very violent and highly bound to each other very firmly. As a result, the
exothermic and the heat evolved is sufficient for electrovalent or ionic solids have high melting and
hydrogen gas to catch fire. boiling points.
26 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

10. (a) The formation of Na2O can be represented 12. Aluminium reduces manganese dioxide
as : (MnO2) to manganese (Mn). The reaction is highly
exothermic.
heat
3MnO2(s) + 4Al(s) 
→ 3Mn(l) + 2Al2O3(s)
13. The oxides of the most reactive metals such
(b) Ionic compounds are usually hard due to
as sodium, potassium, magnesium, aluminium,
strong forces of attraction between oppositely
etc. cannot be reduced by reducing agents such as
charged ions.
carbon or aluminium. This is because these metals
(c) Ionic compounds in the solid state do not
have more affinity for oxygen than carbon or
conduct electricity because movement of ions in
aluminium hence, cannot be reduced by common
solid state is not possible due to the rigid structure.
reducing agents.
But they conduct electricity in the molten state
as the electrostatic forces of attraction between 14. (i) Those metals (M) which have moderate
oppositely charged ions are overcome by heat and reactivity such as zinc, lead, iron, copper, etc.
ions become free to move. are obtained by the reduction of their oxides by
reducing agents such as carbon or aluminium.
11. Rubidium (Rb) and Caesium (Cs) are the two
e.g.,
most reactive metals belonging to group-I of the
periodic table. ∆
PbO + C 
→ Pb + CO
Caesium (Cs) reacts with halogen say chlorine (Cl) Lead oxide Lead
heat
to form caesium chloride as follows : Fe2O3(s ) + 2Al(s ) 
→ 2Fe(l ) + Al 2O3(s )
Ferric oxide Iron

(ii) Those metals (N) which are high up in the


This bond formed by complete transfer of reactivity series are extracted by electrolytic
electrons between two elements is called ionic reduction method.
bond and the compound so formed is known as e.g., sodium is obtained by the electrolysis of its
ionic compound. molten chloride. The sodium metal is deposited
Physical properties of ionic compounds are : at the cathode, whereas chlorine is liberated at the
(i) Physical nature : Ionic compounds are solids anode.
and are somewhat hard because of the strong At cathode : Na+ + e– Na
forces of attraction between the positive and At anode : 2Cl– Cl2 + 2e–
negative ions.
(ii) Melting and boiling points : Ionic 15. From the given information it is clear that
compounds have high melting and boiling points. A is Fe2O3 and B is Al.
This is because a considerable amount of energy is (i) When A (Fe2O3) and B (Al) are heated then
required to break the strong inter-ionic forces of C (Fe) metal is formed which settles down in the
attraction. molten state while D (Al2O3) floats over it. This
(iii) Solubility : They are soluble in water and reaction is exothermic in nature.
insoluble in solvents such as kerosene, petrol, etc. heat
Fe2O3(s) + 2Al(s) 
→ 2Fe(l) + Al2O3(s)
(iv) Conduction of electricity : A solution of an
ionic compound in water contains ions which (ii) This reaction can be classified under
move to the opposite electrodes when electricity displacement reaction and redox reaction.
is passed through the solution. They conduct 16. The process of purifying the impure (crude)
electricity in molten state as well as in aqueous metal is called refining of metals.
solution but not in solid state because movement The most widely used method of refining impure
of ions in the solid state is not possible due to their metals produced by various reduction processes is
rigid structures. electrolytic refining.
Metals and Non-metals 27

In electrolytic refining, a thick block of impure (c) For electrolytic refining of impure copper,
metal acts as anode. It is connected to the positive impure copper is used as anode, pure copper is
terminal of the battery. A thin sheet of pure metal used as cathode and copper sulphate solution is
acts as cathode. It is connected to the negative used as the electrolyte.
terminal of the battery. An aqueous solution of a 18. Iron when exposed to moist air for a long
suitable salt of the metal is used as the electrolyte. time acquires a coating of a brown flaky substance
On passing current through the electrolyte, known as rust and this process is called rusting.
pure metal gets deposited on the cathode and Following activity can be performed to find out the
the impure metal of the anode dissolves into the conditions under which iron rusts :
elctrolyte. The impurities either dissolve in the Materials required : Iron nails, distilled water,
solution or settle down at the bottom of the anode turpentine oil, anhydrous calcium chloride.
as anode mud. Procedure :
1. Take three test tubes and put one clean nail in
each of them. Label them as A, B and C.
2. Pour some water in test tube A. In test tube
B, pour some boiled distilled water along with
some turpentine oil. In test tube C, add some
anhydrous calcium chloride.
3. Leave these test tubes undisturbed for a few
days.

17. (a) The process of heating an ore (generally


a sulphide ore) strongly below its melting point in
the presence of an excess of air is called roasting.
Calcination is the process of heating an ore
Observations : Only in test tube A, iron nails get
(generally a carbonate ore) strongly in the absence
rusted since the nails in this test tube are exposed
of air or very limited supply of air.
to both air and water.
Roasting process is used for sulphide ores because
Conclusion : Both air and water are required for
sulphur gets oxidised to SO2 which can be easily
rusting of iron.
removed leaving behind the metal oxide.
(b) Aluminium displaces iron from iron oxide on 19. Copper vessels get a green coat when left
heating. exposed to air in rainy season due to the formation
heat of CuCO3 .Cu(OH)2.
Fe2O3(s) + 2Al(s) 
→ Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(l) + Heat
2Cu(s) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) + O2(g)
This reaction produces lots of heat which results 


in the melting of railway track lines. After cooling, From moist air Cu(OH)2 CuCO3



iron again forms a hard solid and hence, cracked Basic copper
railway lines can be joined. carbonate (Green)
Chapter
Carbon and its
4 Compounds
4.1 Bonding in Carbon - The Covalent Bond 4.4 Some Important Carbon Compounds -
Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid
4.2 Versatile Nature of Carbon
4.5 Soaps and Detergents
4.3 Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

Topicwise Analysis of Last 10 Years’ CBSE Board Questions (2017-2008)

8 Maximum weightage is of Some Important 8 Maximum SA II type questions were asked


Carbon Compounds - Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid. from Some Important Carbon Compounds -
Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid.
8 Maximum VSA type questions were asked from
Versatile Nature of Carbon. 8 Maximum LA type questions were asked from
Soaps and Detergents.

QUICK RECAP
8 Covalent bond : A chemical bond formed 8 Formation of covalent bonds :
between two atoms by mutual sharing X Formation of hydrogen molecule :
of valence electrons, so that each atom
acquires the stable electronic configuration
of the nearest noble gas, is known as covalent
bond.
Carbon and its Compounds 29

X Formation of chlorine molecule : X Carbon overcomes this problem by sharing


its valence electrons with other atoms, i.e., by
forming covalent bonds.
8 Allotropes of carbon : Carbon occurs in
different forms in nature :
X Diamond : Each carbon atom is bonded to
X Formation of ammonia molecule :
four other carbon atoms, forming a rigid
three-dimensional structure.
X Graphite : In graphite, each carbon atom
is bonded to three other carbon atoms in
the same plane giving a hexagonal array.
These hexagonal arrays are placed in layers
X Formation of oxygen molecule : one above the other. Graphite is smooth
.. .. .. .. and slippery and very good conductor of
O : + :O
.. O
.. : : O
.. or O O electricity.
..
X Fullerenes : Fullerenes are another class of
Two shared carbon allotropes. They are spheroidal in
electron pairs
shape and contain even number of carbon
X Formation of nitrogen molecule : atoms ranging from 60-350 or above.
8 Versatile nature of carbon : Carbon is
.. .. .. ..
: N:. + :. N: N :. :. N or N N
versatile element because it shows following
r ee shared
characteristics :
electron pairs X Catenation : The unique property of self-
8 Characteristics of covalent compounds : linking of carbon atoms through covalent
X Covalently bonded molecules are seen to bonds to form long straight or branched
have strong bonds within the molecules, but chains or rings of different sizes is, called
intermolecular forces are small, resulting the catenation. Due to this property, carbon
low melting and boiling points. forms a large number of organic compounds.
X Covalent compounds are generally poor X Tetra-covalency of carbon : Carbon has a
conductors of heat and electricity. covalency of four. It is capable of forming
bonds with four other atoms of carbon or
8 Covalency : The number of electrons
contributed by each atom for sharing is, atoms of other monovalent elements. Due
known as covalency. to small size of carbon, these compounds are
exceptionally stable.
8 Covalent bonding in carbon : It is difficult for
carbon to lose or gain four electrons because X Tendency to form multiple bonds : Due
of the following reasons : to small size of carbon atom, it can form
X It cannot gain four electrons to form C4– ion multiple bonds with carbon, oxygen, sulphur
having neon gas (2, 8) configuration because and nitrogen atoms.
this anion would be highly unstable due to the X Isomerism : If a molecular formula
large amount of energy required to overcome represents two or more structures having
the forces of repulsion between the four different properties, the phenomenon is
electrons being added and the six electrons called isomerisms. Isomerism also leads to
already present in carbon atom. huge number of carbon compounds.
X It cannot lose four electrons to form C4+ ion 8 Hydrocarbons : The compounds which
having helium gas (2) configuration because contain only carbon and hydrogen are called
this cation would be highly unstable due hydrocarbons. These are categorised as :
to the large amount of energy required to X Saturated hydrocarbons : The compounds
remove four electrons from the carbon atom. in which carbon atoms are linked together
30 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

with only single covalent bonds, are called Hetero Name of Formula of
saturated hydrocarbons. atom Functional functional
Example : groups group
H H H H H Cl/Br Halo –Cl, –Br
(chloro/ Substitutes for
H — C — C — H , H — C —C —C —H
bromo) hydrogen atom
H H H H H O 1. Hydroxyl —OH
Ethane Propane
H
H H 2. Aldehydic —C
H—C—C—H O
H 3. Ketonic —C—
H—C C
H O
H C
4. Carboxylic — C — OH
H H
Cyclopentane O
Since carbon – carbon single bonds are very 8 Homologous series : A homologous series
strong therefore, saturated hydrocarbons is defined as a group of compounds having
are usually not very reactive. Also, saturated the same functional group, similar chemical
hydrocarbons contain the maximum number properties in which the successive members
of hydrogen atoms. Saturated hydrocarbons differ by a —CH2 group or 14 mass unit.
are called alkanes. X Characteristics of homologous series :
X Unsaturated hydrocarbons : The compounds – All compounds in the series can be
in which one or more double or triple bonds represented by a general formula. e.g.,
are present between carbon atoms are called for alcohol it is CnH2n+1OH, for alkane
unsaturated hydrocarbons. Unsaturated CnH2n+2, for alkene CnH2n, and for
hydrocarbons with double bonds, are called alkynes CnH2n–2, where, n = 1, 2, 3.... .
alkenes while with triple bonds, are called – Two successive members of homologous
alkynes. series differ by —CH2 unit.
Examples : n CnH2n+1OH
1 CH3OH
H H —CH2
2 C2H5OH
H—C C — H , H —C C—H
3 C3H7OH
—CH2
Ethene Ethyne
4 C4H9OH —CH2
– All compounds in the series have similar
chemical properties.
– All members of the series, show a gradual
change in their physical properties.
– Physical properties generally increase as
the molecular mass increases.
8 Nomenclature of carbon compounds :
Naming a carbon compound can be done by
Unsaturated hydrocarbons are more reactive following rules :
than saturated hydrocarbons. X Select the longest possible chain of carbon
8 Functional group : A functional group and number them.
can be defined as an atom or a group of X The functional group present in the organic
atoms present in a molecule which largely compound is indicated either by a prefix or
determines its chemical properties. a suffix.
Carbon and its Compounds 31

Prefix The word comes before the name O


of the compound. 5 4 3 2 1
CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — CH2 — C — OH
Suffix The word comes after the name
Pentanoic acid
of the compound. 8 Chemical properties of carbon compounds :
Functional group Prefix Suffix X Combustion : On combustion, all the
allotropic forms of carbon and organic
Chlorine Chloro — compounds are oxidised to carbon dioxide
Bromine Bromo — with release of a large amount of heat and
light. e.g., C + O2 CO2 + heat
Alcohol — ol
CH3CH2OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O + heat
Aldehyde — al Saturated hydrocarbons burn in excess of
Ketone — one air with a clean blue flame but unsaturated
hydrocarbons burn with yellow flame with
Carboxylic acid — oic acid lots of black smoke.
Double bond — ene X Oxidation : The process in which oxygen
Triple bond — yne is added and hydrogen is removed form a
substance is called oxidation. The substances
X If a suffix is to be added, the final ‘e’ from the which are capable of adding oxygen to other
name of the alkane is omitted. substances are called oxidising agents.
X If the carbon chain is unsaturated, the final – Oxidation of ethanol to ethanoic acid :
‘ane’ from the name of the carbon chain is
replaced by either ‘ene’ (if the carbon chain
contains a double bond) or by ‘yne’ (if the
carbon chain contains a triple bond). CH3COOH
Ethanoic acid
X The position of the functional group on the
carbon chain is given by the lowest possible Here, alkaline KMnO4 or acidified
numerical prefix. potassium dichromate are oxidising agents.
X Examples : – Oxidation of ethene :
1 2 3 4 3 2 1
CH3CH2CH3 , CH3CH2CH CH2 CH2 — CH2
Propane 1-Butene
4 3 2 1 OH OH
CH3 — C C — CH3 Ethylene glycol
2-Butyne Here, alkaline KMnO4 is acting as an
1
oxidising agent.
4 3 2
CH3 — CH2 — CH — CH3 X Addition reactions : Those reactions in
which atoms or group of atoms are simply
Cl added to a double or triple bond without
2-Chlorobutane
the elimination of any atom or molecule, are
4 3 2 1 known as addition reactions.
CH3 — CH2 — CH — CH3
OH
2-Butanol
O
4 3 2 1
CH3 — CH2 — CH2 — C — H
Butanal
O
5 4 3 2 1
CH3 — CH2 — C — CH2 — CH3
3-Pentanone
32 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

X Substitution reactions : The reactions which – It is used as a solvent for resins, fats, oils,
involve the displacement or substitution of etc.
an atom or a group of atoms in an organic – It is used as an antiseptic to sterilise
compound by another atom or group of wounds and syringes in hospitals.
atoms, are known as substitution reactions. – It is used in the manufacture of dyes,
Saturated hydrocarbons are fairly unreactive drugs and detergents.
and inert in the presence of most of the
Ethanoic Acid
reagents. However, in presence of sunlight,
X It is the second member of the homologous
hydrocarbons undergo rapid substitution
series of carboxylic acid with molecular
reactions. e.g.,
Sunlight formula, CH3COOH. A 5-8% solution of
CH 4 + Cl 2 
→ CH3Cl + HCl acetic acid in water is called ‘vinegar’.
Methane Chloromethane
100% acetic acid, obtained by melting glacier
Sunlight
CHCl 3 + Cl 2 
→ CCl 4 + HCl like crystals is called glacial acetic acid.
Chloroform Carbontetra X Physical properties :
chloride
– Ethanoic acid is a colourless, pungent
8 Some important carbon compounds :
smelling liquid.
Ethanol – It has melting point of 290 K and boiling
X It is the most important compound of alcohol point of 391 K.
family with molecular formula, C2H5OH. – It is miscible with water in all proportions.
X Physical properties : X Chemical properties :
– Ethanol is a colourless liquid, having – Ethanoic acid is acidic in nature. It turns
pleasant smell.
blue litmus to red. It is weaker acid than
– It has boiling point of 351 K (or 78°C)
hydrochloric acid (HCl).
and freezing point of 156 K (or –114°C).
– Esterification reaction : Ethanoic acid
– It is lighter than water.
reacts with ethanol in presence of an acid
– Ethanol is neutral towards litmus.
catalyst to form ester. This reaction is
– It is miscible with water in all proportions.
called esterification reaction.
X Chemical properties :
– Reaction with sodium : Ethanol reacts
with sodium resulting in the evolution of
hydrogen gas.
2Na + 2CH3CH2OH
2CH3CH2ONa + H2↑
Sodium ethoxide
– Reaction with conc. sulphuric acid : This ester again in presence of an alkali,
Ethanol reacts with conc. H2SO4 to give give back the alcohol and sodium salt of
corresponding alkene with the removal carboxylic acid. This process is known as
of water molecule. saponification. It is used in making soaps.
NaOH
CH3COOC2H5 C2H5OH +
CH3COONa
– Reaction with a base : Ethanoic acid
Conc. sulphuric acid is considered as a reacts with a base such as sodium
dehydrating agent. hydroxide to yield salt and water.
X Uses : CH3COOH + NaOH  → CH3COONa + H2O
– It is used in making beer, wine, whisky Ethanoic acid Sodium
CH3COOH + NaOH  → CH3COONa + H2 O
and other alcoholic drinks. ethanoate
Ethanoic acid Sodium (Salt)
– It is used in making chloroform, iodoform, ethanoate
ether, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, etc. (Salt)
Carbon and its Compounds 33

– Reaction with carbonates and hydrogen 8 Cleansing action of soaps and detergents :
carbonates : Ethanoic acid reacts with Soaps and detergents consist of a large
carbonates and hydrogen carbonates to hydrocarbon tail with a negatively charged
yield a salt, carbon dioxide and water. head. The hydrocarbon tail is hydrophobic
2CH3COOH + Na 2CO3 
→ (water-hating or water-repelling) and
negatively charged head is hydrophilic
2CH3COONa + H2O + CO2 (water-loving).
(Salt)
In aqueous solution, water molecules being
CH3COOH + NaHCO3 
→ polar in nature, surround the ions and not the
CH3COONa + H2O + CO2 hydrocarbon part of the molecule.
Sodium acetate When a soap or detergent is dissolved in
(Salt)
water, the molecules associate together as
X Uses :
clusters called micelles.
– It is used as vinegar in cooking and as
preservative in pickles.
– It is used in manufacture of dyes,
perfumes, plastics, rubber, etc.
– It is used as a solvent in laboratory and
Oily dirt
industry.
– It is used as a laboratory reagent for Micelle formed by detergent molecules in water.
The hydrocarbon tails stick to the oily dirt.
carrying out chemical reactions.
The tails stick inwards and the heads
8 Differences between soaps and detergents :
outwards.
Soaps Detergents In cleansing, the hydrocarbon tail attaches
These are sodium or These are ammonium itself to oily dirt. When water is agitated
potassium salts of fatty or s u lph on ate or (shaken vigorously), the oily dirt tends to lift
acids e.g., C15H31COOH sulphate salts of long off from the dirty surface and dissociate into
(palmitic acid), chain hydrocarbons fragments. This gives opportunity to other
C 17 H 35 COOH (stearic c ont ai n i ng 1 2 - 1 8 tails to stick to oil. The solution now contains
acid) and oleic acid carbon atoms. small globules of oil surrounded by detergent
(C17H33COOH) molecules. The negatively charged heads
+ present in water prevent the small globules
These have —COONa These have —NR 4 ,
from coming together and form aggregates.
group. —SO3Na or —SO4Na
Thus, the oily dirt is removed.
group.
In the past, detergents caused pollution in
These do not work well These work well with rivers and water bodies. The long carbon
with hard water, acidic hard water, acidic chain present in detergents used earlier,
water and saline water but w at e r a n d s a l i n e contained lots of branching. These branched
work well with soft water. water. chain detergent molecules were degraded
These are Some detergents very slowly by the microorganisms present
biodegradable. having branched in sewage discharge, septic tanks and water
hydrocarbon bodies. Thus, the detergents persisted in
water for long time and made water unfit for
chains are non-
aquatic life. Nowadays, the detergents are
biodegradable.
made up of molecules in which branching is
They take time to dissolve They dissolve faster kept at minimum. These are degraded more
in water. in water. easily than long branched chain detergents.
34 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Previous Years’ CBSE


PREVIOUS Board
YEARS MCQS Questions

4.1 Bonding in Carbon - The 8. State the reason why carbon can neither
form C4+ cations nor C4– anions, but forms
Covalent Bond covalent compounds. Also state reasons to
VSA (1 mark) explain why covalent compounds :
(i) are bad conductors of electricity?
1. Why does carbon form compounds mainly
(ii) have low melting and boiling points?
by covalent bonding? (1/5, Delhi 2008)
(Delhi 2014)
2. Why are covalent compounds generally poor
conductors of electricity? (1/3, AI 2008) 4.2 Versatile Nature of Carbon
SA II (3 marks) VSA (1 mark)
3. What are covalent compounds? Why are they
9. Write the molecular formula of first two
different from ionic compounds? List their
members of homologous series having
three characteristic properties. (Delhi 2016)
functional group —Cl. (Delhi 2017)
4. What are covalent bonds? Show their
formation with the help of electron dot 10. Write the molecular formula of first two
structure of methane. Why are covalent members of homologous series having
compounds generally poor conductors of functional group —OH. (Delhi 2017)
electricity? (Delhi 2013C) 11. Write the molecular formula of the 2nd and
5. Give reasons for the following : 3rd member of the homologous series whose
(i) Element carbon forms compounds first member is ethene. (AI 2017)
mainly by covalent bonding. 12. Write the molecular formula of the 2nd and
(ii) Diamond has high melting point. 3rd member of the homologous series whose
(iii) Graphite is a good conductor of electricity.
first member is methane. (AI 2017)
(3/5, Foreign 2011)
13. Write the next homologue of each of the
6. Distinguish between ionic and covalent
compounds under the following properties : following :
(i) Strength of forces between constituent (i) C2H4
elements. (ii) C4H6 (Delhi 2016)
(ii) Solubility of compounds in water. 14. Name the following compounds :
(iii) Electrical conduction in substances. (a) CH3 — CH2 — OH
(AI 2009)
H
LA (5 marks) (b) CH3 C O (Delhi 2016)
7. Elements forming ionic compounds attain 15. Select saturated hydrocarbons from the
noble gas electronic configuration by either following :
gaining or losing electrons from their valence C3H6; C5H10; C4H10; C6H14; C2H4
shells. Explain giving reason why carbon (Delhi 2016)
cannot attain such a configuration in this
manner to form its compounds. Name the 16. Write the name and structure of an alcohol
type of bonds formed in ionic compounds and with three carbon atoms in its molecule.
in the compounds formed by carbon. Also (AI 2016)
explain with reason why carbon compounds 17. Write the name and structure of an alcohol
are generally poor conductors of electricity. with four carbon atoms in its molecule.
(Foreign 2015, AI 2014) (AI 2016)
Carbon and its Compounds 35

18. Write the name and structure of an aldehyde 32. Write the name and formula of the first
with four carbon atoms in its molecule. member of the series of carbon compounds
(AI 2016) O
19. Which element exhibits the property of having functional group C OH.
catenation to maximum extent and why? (Foreign 2012)
(Foreign 2016) 33. Butanone is a four-carbon per molecule
20. Write the name and molecular formula of the compound. Name the functional group
fourth member of alkane series. present in it. (Foreign 2011)
(Foreign 2016) 34. State two characteristic features of carbon
21. What is homologous series of carbon which when put together give rise to a
compounds? (Foreign 2016) number of carbon compounds.
22. Write the name and formula of the (Delhi 2010)
2nd member of homologous series having 35. Write the structural formula of chloroethane.
general formula CnH2n. (Delhi 2015) (Foreign 2010)
23. Write the name and formula of the 36. Give reasons for the following observation:
2nd member of homologous series having The element carbon forms a very large
general formula CnH2n + 2. (Delhi 2015) number of compounds. (1/3, Delhi 2009)
24. Write the name and formula of the 37. Write the names of the functional groups in :
2nd member of homologous series having
general formula CnH2n – 2. (Delhi 2015) (i) (ii)
25. Write the number of covalent bonds in the (1/3, Foreign 2009)
molecule of ethane. (AI 2015, Delhi 2014) 38. Name the following compound :
26. Write the number of covalent bonds in the H
H
molecule of butane, C4H10. (AI 2015)
27. Write the name of each of the following H C C C H
functional groups : H O H (1/3, AI 2008)
(a) — OH (b) C
O SA I (2 marks)
(Foreign 2015, Delhi 2013) 39. State two properties of carbon which lead to a
28. Write the name and molecular formula of very large number of carbon compounds.
the first member of the homologous series of (2/5, AI 2011, Foreign 2008)
alkynes. (Foreign 2015)
SA II (3 marks)
29. Define the term functional group. Identify
the functional group present in 40. An aldehyde as well as a ketone can be
O H OH represented by the same molecular formula,
say C3H6O. Write their structures and name
(i) H C H (ii) H C C O them. State the relation between the two in
H the language of science. (AI 2016)
(1/3, Foreign 2013) 41. What is meant by isomers? Draw the
30. Name the functional group present in each of structures of two isomers of butane, C4H10.
the following organic compounds : Explain why we cannot have isomers of first
(i) C2H5Cl three members of alkane series.
(ii) C2H5OH (Delhi 2012) (Delhi 2015, Foreign 2014)
31. Write the name and formula of the second 42. Write the molecular formula of the following
member of the carbon compounds having compounds and draw their electron-dot
functional group –OH. (AI 2012) structures :
36 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

(i) Ethane (ii) Ethene 51. What are hydrocarbons? Distinguish alkanes
(iii) Ethyne (Foreign 2015) from alkenes and each of them from alkynes,
43. What is meant by functional group in carbon giving one example of each. Draw the
compounds? Write in tabular form the structure of each compound cited as example
structural formula and the functional group to justify your answer. (Foreign 2014)
present in the following compounds : 52. (a) Define the term ‘isomers’.
(i) Ethanol (b) Draw two possible isomers of the
(ii) Ethanoic acid (Foreign 2015) compound with molecular formula
44. Why is homologous series of carbon C3H6O and write their names.
compounds so called? Write the chemical (c) Give the electron dot structures of the
formula of two consecutive members of any above two compounds. (Delhi 2013)
homologous series and state the part of these
53. Explain isomerism. State any four
compounds that determines their (i) physical
and (ii) chemical properties. characteristics of isomers. Draw the structures
(Foreign 2015, Delhi 2013, AI 2014) of possible isomers of butane, C4H10.
(AI 2011)
45. State the meaning of functional group in a
carbon compound. Write the functional group 4.3 Chemical Properties of
present in (i) ethanol and (ii) ethanoic acid
and also draw their structures. (Delhi 2014) Carbon Compounds
46. State the meaning of the functional group
VSA (1 mark)
in an organic compound. Write the formula
of the functional group present in alcohols, 54. Name the process by which unsaturated fats
aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. are changed to saturated fats. (Foreign 2015)
(Delhi 2014) 55. Write the chemical equation to show what
47. What is meant by homologous series of carbon happen when methane is treated with
compounds? Write the general formula of chlorine in the presence of sunlight ?
(i) alkenes, and (ii) alkynes. Draw the (1/3, Foreign 2014)
structures of the first member of each series 56. Write the respective chemical reaction to
to show the bonding between the two carbon
show what happens when methane is burnt
atoms. (AI 2014)
in presence of oxygen? (1/3, Foreign 2014)
48. Define the term ‘structural isomerism’.
Explain why propane cannot exhibit this 57. Write one chemical equation to represent
property. Draw the structures of possible the following type of reaction of organic
isomers of butane, C4H10. (AI 2014) substances : substitution.
(1/3, Foreign 2014)
49. (a) What is a homologous series of
compounds? List any two of its 58. Give reason for the following : Acetylene
characteristics. burns with a sooty flame. (1/5, Foreign 2011)
(2/5, Delhi 2008, Foreign 2011) 59. Give reason for the following : Kerosene does
(b) What is the next higher homologue of not decolourise bromine water while cooking
C3H7OH? What is its formula and what oils do. (1/5, Foreign 2011)
is it called? (Foreign 2011)
60. Give reasons for the following observation :
LA (5 marks) Air holes of a gas burner have to be adjusted
when the heated vessels get blackened by the
50. Explain why carbon forms compounds
flame. (1/3, Delhi 2009)
mainly by covalent bond. Explain in brief
two main reasons for carbon forming a large 61. (i) What would be observed on adding
number of compounds. Why does carbon a 5% solution of alkaline potassium
form strong bond with most other elements? permanganate solution drop by drop to
(Delhi 2015) some warm ethanol taken in a test tube?
Carbon and its Compounds 37

(ii) Write the name of the compound formed 69. Name the functional groups of organic
during the chemical reaction? compounds that can be hydrogenated. With
(1/5, Delhi 2008) the help of suitable example explain the
process of hydrogenation mentioning the
SA I (2 marks)
conditions of the reaction and any one change
62. What happens when 5% alkaline KMnO4 in physical property with the formation of
solution is added drop by drop to warm the product. Name any one natural source of
ethanol taken in a test tube? State the role of organic compounds that are hydrogenated.
alkaline KMnO4 solution in this reaction. (Delhi 2010)
(2/3, Foreign 2016) LA (5 marks)
63. Write a chemical equation to represent 70. Why are certain compounds called
what happens when hydrogen gas is passed hydrocarbons? Write the general formula for
through an unsaturated hydrocarbon in the homologous series of alkanes, alkenes and
presence of nickel acting as a catalyst. alkynes and also draw the structure of the first
(2/5, Foreign 2009) member of each series. Write the name of the
SA II (3 marks) reaction that converts alkenes into alkanes
and also write a chemical equation to show
64. Two carbon compounds X and Y have the necessary conditions for the reaction to
the molecular formula C4H8 and C5H12 occur. (AI 2017)
respectively. Which one of these is most
likely to show addition reaction? Justify your 71. What are hydrocarbons? Write the name and
answer. Also give the chemical equation to general formula of
explain the process of addition reaction in (i) saturated hydrocarbons
this case. (Delhi 2017) (ii) unsaturated hydrocarbons,
and draw the structure of one hydrocarbon
65. The molecular formula of two carbon
of each type. How can an unsaturated
compounds are C4H8 and C3H8. Which one
hydrocarbon be made saturated? (AI 2012)
of the two is most likely to show addition
reaction? Justify your answer. Also give the 72. (a) With the help of a suitable example,
chemical equation to explain the process of explain the process of hydrogenation
addition reaction in this case. (Delhi 2017) mentioning the conditions of the reaction
and any one change in physical property
66. What is an oxidising agent? What happens
with the formation of the product.
when an oxidising agent is added to propanol?
(Delhi 2015, 2013, Foreign 2012)
Explain with the help of a chemical equation.
(b) How does a saturated hydrocarbon react
(Delhi 2016)
with chlorine? Write chemical equation
67. Draw the electron-dot structure for ethyne. for it. What type of reaction is it called
A mixture of ethyne and oxygen is burnt for and why? (Foreign 2012)
welding. In your opinion, why cannot we use
a mixture of ethyne and air for this purpose? 4.4 Some Important Carbon
(AI 2015)
Compounds - Ethanol and
68. Write the name and general formula of a
chain of hydrocarbons in which an addition Ethanoic acid
reaction with hydrogen is possible. State the VSA (1 mark)
essential condition for an addition reaction.
Stating this condition, write a chemical 73. Draw the structure for ethanoic acid
equation giving the name of the reactant and molecule, CH3COOH. (AI 2011)
the product of the reaction. 74. What happens when a small piece of sodium
(AI 2015, Delhi 2014) is dropped into ethanol? (AI 2009)
38 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

75. Name the gas evolved when ethanoic acid is equation for the reaction stating the role of
added to sodium carbonate. How would you conc. H2SO4 in this reaction.
prove the presence of this gas? (1/3, AI 2008) (AI 2017, Delhi 2015, 2013)
84. What happens when (write chemical equation
SA I (2 marks)
in each case)
76. Write the chemical equations to show what (a) ethanol is burnt in air?
happens when (b) ethanol is heated with excess conc. H2SO4
(i) an ester reacts with a base? at 443 K?
(ii) ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid in the (c) a piece of sodium is dropped into
presence of sulphuric acid? ethanol? (AI 2017)
(2/3, Foreign 2014) 85. Distinguish between esterification and
77. Write the respective chemical equations to saponification reaction with the help of the
show what happens when chemical equations for each. State one use of
(i) ethanol is heated with concentrated each (i) esters, and (ii) saponification process.
sulphuric acid at 443 K ? (AI 2017, Foreign 2012)
(ii) ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid in the 86. Explain esterification reaction with the help
presence of an acid acting as a catalyst?
of a chemical equation. Describe an activity
(2/3, Foreign 2014)
to show esterification. (AI 2017)
78. Write one chemical equation to represent
87. When ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid in
each of the following types of reactions of
the presence of conc. H2SO4, a substance
organic substances :
with fruity smell is produced. Answer the
(i) Esterification
following :
(ii) Saponification (2/3, Delhi 2011)
(i) State the class of compounds to which
79. Describe a chemical test to distinguish the fruity smelling compounds belong.
between ethanol and ethanoic acid. Write the chemical equation for the
(2/5, Foreign 2009) reaction and write the chemical name of
80. How would you distinguish experimentally the product formed.
between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid on (ii) State the role of conc. H2SO4 in this
basis of a chemical property? reaction. (Delhi 2016)
(2/5, Delhi 2008) 88. Name the compound formed when ethanol
is heated in excess of conc. sulphuric acid at
SA II (3 marks) 443 K. Also write the chemical equation of
81. Complete the following chemical equations : the reaction stating the role of conc. sulphuric
(i) CH3COOC 2 H5 + NaOH  → acid in it. What would happen if hydrogen is
(ii) CH3COOH + NaOH  → added to the product of this reaction in the
Conc.H SO presence of catalyst such as palladium or
(iii) C 2 H5OH +CH3COOH  2 4

nickel? (Delhi 2016, Foreign 2015)
(Delhi 2017)
89. Write chemical equation of the reaction of
82. Complete the following chemical equations:
ethanoic acid with the following :
(i) C 2 H5OH + O2 
→ (a) Sodium;
Conc.H SO (b) Sodium hydroxide; (c) Ethanol
(ii) C 2H5OH 
2 4

443 K Write the name of one main product of each
(iii) CH3COOH+NaHCO3 
→ reaction. (AI 2016)
(Delhi 2017) 90. On dropping a small piece of sodium in
83. Write the structural formula of ethanol. a test tube containing carbon compound
What happens when it is heated with excess ‘X’ with molecular formula C2H6O, a brisk
of conc. H2SO4 at 443 K? Write the chemical effervescence is observed and a gas ‘Y’ is
Carbon and its Compounds 39

produced. On bringing a burning splinter at alkaline solution of potassium permanganate.


the mouth of the test tube the gas evolved Mention two physical properties and two
burns with a pop sound. Identify ‘X’ and uses of ethanol. (Foreign 2014)
‘Y’. Also write the chemical equation for the 98. Write chemical equations to describe two
reaction. Write the name and structure of examples of different oxidations of ethanol.
the product formed, when you heat ‘X’ with List two uses of ethanol. (Foreign 2014)
excess conc. sulphuric acid. (AI 2016)
99. Write the chemical equations to show what
91. Write three different chemical reactions happens when
showing the conversion of ethanoic acid to (i) sodium hydroxide is added to ethanoic
sodium ethanoate. Write balanced chemical acid?
equation in each case. Write the name of (ii) solid sodium hydrogen carbonate is
the reactants and the products other than added to ethanoic acid?
ethanoic acid and sodium ethanoate in each (iii) ethanol reacts with sodium?
case. (AI 2016) (Foreign 2014)
92. Write the name and molecular formula of an 100. Write chemical equations for what happens
organic compound having its name suffixed when
with ‘ol’ and having two carbon atoms (i) sodium metal is added to ethanoic acid?
in its molecule. Write balanced chemical (ii) solid sodium carbonate is added to
equation to indicate what happens when this ethanoic acid?
compound is heated with excess conc. H2SO4 (iii) ethanoic acid reacts with a dilute solution
and the name of main product formed. Also of sodium hydroxide? (AI 2011)
state the role of conc. H2SO4 in the reaction. 101. (a) Distinguish between esterification and
(Foreign 2016) saponification reactions of organic
93. An organic compound ‘P’ is a constituent of compounds.
wine. ‘P’ on reacting with acidified K2Cr2O7 (b) With a labelled diagram describe an
forms another compound ‘Q’. When a piece activity to show the formation of an ester.
of sodium is added to ‘Q’, a gas ‘R’ evolves (AI 2009)
which burns with a pop sound. Identify P, Q 102. (a) The structural formula of an ester is
and R and write the chemical equations of the H O H H
reactions involved. (Foreign 2016)
H C C O C C H
94. List two tests for experimentally distinguishing
between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid and H H H
Write the structural formulae of the
describe how these tests are performed.
corresponding alcohol and the acid.
(AI 2015)
(b) (i) Mention experimental conditions
95. What are esters? How are they prepared? List involved in obtaining ethene from
two uses of esters. (Delhi 2014) ethanol.
96. A carboxylic acid (molecular formula, (ii) Write the chemical equation for the
C2H4O2) reacts with an alcohol in the above reaction. (3/5, Foreign 2009)
presence of an acid catalyst to form a 103. An organic acid X is a liquid which often
compound ‘X’. The alcohol on oxidation with freezes during winter time in cold countries,
alkaline KMnO4 followed by acidification has the molecular formula C2H4O2. On
gives the same carboxylic acid C2H4O2. Write warming it with ethanol in the presence of
the name and structure of (i) carboxylic acid, a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid a
(ii) alcohol and (iii) the compound ‘X’. compound Y with a sweet smell is formed.
(AI 2014) (i) Identify X and Y.
97. Write the chemical equation to explain (ii) Write a chemical equation for the
what happens when ethanol is heated with reaction involved. (3/5, Delhi 2008)
40 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

LA (5 marks) 111. What are micelles? Why does it form when


soap is added to water? Will a micelle be
104. A carbon compound ‘P’ on heating with formed in other solvents such as ethanol
excess conc. H2SO4 forms another carbon
also? State briefly how the formation of
compound ‘Q’ which on addition of hydrogen
micelles help to clean the clothes having oily
in the presence of nickel catalyst forms a
spots. (Foreign 2016)
saturated carbon compound ‘R’. One molecule
of ‘R’ on combustion forms two molecules 112. (a) You have three unlabelled test tubes
of carbon dioxide and three molecules of containing ethanol, ethanoic acid and
water. Identify P, Q and R and write chemical soap solution. Explain the method you
equations for the reactions involved. would use to identify the compounds
(AI 2016) in different test tubes by chemical tests
105. List in tabular form three physical and using litmus paper and sodium metal.
two chemical properties on the basis of (b) Give the reason of formation of scum
which ethanol and ethanoic acid can be when soaps are used with hard water.
differentiated. (Delhi 2012) (Foreign 2016)
106. (a) In a tabular form, differentiate between 113. What is the difference between the molecules
ethanol and ethanoic acid under the of soaps and detergents, chemically? Explain
following heads : the cleansing action of soaps. (Delhi 2015)
(i) Physical state (ii) Taste 114. What is the difference between the chemical
(iii) NaHCO3 test (iv) Ester test composition of soaps and detergents? State
(b) Write a chemical reaction to show the in brief the action of soaps in removing an
dehydration of ethanol. (Delhi 2011) oily spot from a shirt. Why are soaps not
considered suitable for washing where water
4.5 Soaps and Detergents is hard? (Delhi 2012)
VSA (1 mark) 115. What are detergents chemically? List two
107. Give reason for the following observation : merits and two demerits of using detergents
Use of synthetic detergents causes pollution for cleansing. State the reason for the
of water. (1/3, Delhi 2009) suitability of detergents for washing, even
in the case of water having calcium and
SA I (2 marks) magnesium ions. (AI 2012)
108. Explain the cleansing action of soap. 116. What are soaps and detergents chemically?
(2/5, Foreign 2009) Explain the action of cleaning by soaps. State
the reason why we can wash our clothes even
SA II (3 marks) in hard water using detergents. (Foreign 2012)
109. Why does micelle formation take place when 117. (a) What is a soap? Why are soaps not
soap is added to water? Why are micelles not suitable for washing clothes when the
formed when soap is added to ethanol? water is hard?
(3/5, AI 2011) (b) Explain the action of soap in removing
LA (5 marks) an oily spot from a piece of cloth.
110. Soaps and detergents are both, types of salts. (Delhi 2011)
State the difference between the two. Write 118. (a) What is a detergent? Name one detergent.
the mechanism of the cleansing action of (b) Write two advantages and two dis-
soaps. Why do soaps not form lather (foam) advantages of using detergents over soaps.
with hard water? Mention any two problems (c) Why, by using a detergent, can we wash
that arise due to the use of detergents instead clothes even in hard water?
of soaps. (Delhi 2017, AI 2015) (Foreign 2011)
Carbon and its Compounds 41

Detailed Solutions
1. As carbon has four valence electrons and it 6. (i) Ionic compounds have strong forces
can neither loose nor gain four electrons thus, it between its constituent elements because they
attains noble gas configuration only by sharing of are held together by strong electrostatic forces of
electrons. Thus, it forms covalent compounds. attraction. On the other hand, covalent compounds
2. Covalent compounds are generally poor have weaker forces of attraction between its
conductors of electricity because they do not have constituent elements as bond is formed by sharing
free electrons or ions. of electrons.
3. Covalent compounds are those compounds (ii) Ionic compounds are highly soluble in
which are formed by sharing of valence electrons water but they are insoluble in non-polar organic
between the atoms e.g., Hydrogen molecule is solvents. On the other hand, covalent compounds
formed by mutual sharing of electrons between are generally insoluble in water but they are soluble
two hydrogen atoms. in non-polar solvents.
They are different from ionic compounds as ionic (iii) Ionic compounds conduct electricity in
compounds are formed by the complete transfer aqueous state or in molten state because they
of electrons from one atom to another e.g., NaCl is produce ions which are good conductors of electric
formed when one valence electron of sodium gets current. On the other hand, covalent compounds
completely transferred to outer shell of chlorine atom. are bad conductors of electricity due to absence of
The characteristic properties of covalent ions.
compounds are : 7. Ionic compounds are formed either by
(i) They are generally insoluble or less soluble in
gaining or losing electrons from the outermost
water but soluble in organic solvents.
shells, but carbon which has four electrons in its
(ii) They have low melting and boiling points.
outermost shell cannot form ionic bonds because
(iii) They do not conduct electricity as they do not
– If carbon forms ionic bonds by gaining four
contain ions.
electrons to attain a noble gas configuration then it
4. Covalent bonds are those would be difficult for six protons in the nucleus to
bonds which are formed by hold ten electrons.
sharing the valence electrons
– If carbon forms ionic bonds by loss of four
between two atoms. Electron
electrons then it would require a lot of energy to
dot structure of methane is
remove these electrons from outermost shell.
shown in the figure.
Due to these reasons carbon forms covalent bonds
Refer to answer 2. by sharing the valence electrons.
5. (i) Refer to answer 1. Type of bonds formed in ionic compounds are
(ii) In diamond, each carbon atom is bonded called electrovalent bonds and the type of bonds
to four other carbon atoms forming a rigid formed in carbon compounds are called covalent
three-dimensional structure. This makes diamond bonds.
the hardest known substance. Thus, it has high
Refer to answer 2.
melting point.
(iii) In graphite, each carbon atom is bonded to 8. Refer to answer 7.
three other carbon atoms by covalent bonds in (i) Refer to answer 2.
the same plane giving a hexagonal array. Thus, (ii) Covalent compounds have low melting and
only three valence electrons are used for bond boiling points because the forces of attraction
formation and hence, the fourth valence electron between molecules of covalent compounds are
is free to move. As a result, graphite is a good very weak. On applying a small amount of heat
conductor of electricity. these molecular forces break.
42 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

9. The molecular formula of first two members 18. An aldehyde with four carbon atoms is
of homologous series having –Cl functional group butanal and its structure is :
are CH3Cl and CH3CH2Cl. H H H H
10. The molecular formula of first two members H—C—C—C—C O
of homologous series having –OH functional H H H
group are CH3OH and CH3CH2OH.
19. Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds
11. Homologous series of alkenes have general with other atoms of carbon, giving rise to large
formula, CnH2n whose first member is ethene. molecules. This property is called catenation.
2nd member of homologous series of alkenes is Carbon shows catenation due to its small size and
C3H6 i.e., propene. stronger carbon-carbon bond strength.
3rd member of homologous series of alkenes is 20. The general formula of the alkane series is
C4H8 i.e., butene. CnH2n+2. For fourth member of alkane series,
12. Methane, CH4 is an alkane. Alkanes have n=4
general formula, CnH2n+2. C4H2 × 4 + 2 = C4H10 i.e., butane.
2nd member of homologous series of alkanes is 21. A homologous series is the family of organic
C2H6 i.e., ethane. compounds having the same functional group,
3rd member of homologous series of alkanes is similar chemical properties but the successive
C3H8 i.e., propane. (adjacent) members of the series are differ by a
13. (i) C2H4 belongs to alkene series having CH2 unit or 14 mass units.
general formula, CnH2n. 22. Refer to answer 11.
Thus, next homologue will be C3H2 × 3 = C3H6 23. Refer to answer 12.
(ii) C4H6 belongs to alkyne series having general 24. General formula, CnH2n–2 belongs to alkyne
formula, CnH2n–2. series. The second member of this series is propyne
Thus, next homologue will be C5H2 × 5 – 2 = C5H8 i.e., (C3H4) or CH3 — C CH.
14. (a) CH3 — CH2 — OH Ethanol 25. The structural formula of ethane (C2H6) is :
(b) H H
H—C—C—H
15. Saturated hydrocarbons have general H H
formula, CnH2n+2. There are total 7 covalent bonds. Six C — H
covalent bonds and one C — C covalent bond.
Among the given compounds only C4H10 and
C6H14 satisfy the above formula. Thus, these are 26. Butane (C4H10) has the following structural
saturated hydrocarbons. formula as :
H H H H
16. An alcohol with three carbon atoms in its
H—C—C—C—C—H
molecule is propanol. The structure of propanol is :
H H H H H H H
Total number of covalent bonds is 13 in which
H — C — C — C — OH 10 C — H and 3 C – C covalent bonds.
H H H 27. (a) —OH : Alcohol
17. An alcohol with four carbon atoms is butanol (b) — C — : Ketone
and its structure is :
O
H H H H
28. General formula for alkyne is CnH2n–2.
H — C — C — C — C — OH First member of homologous series of alkyne has
H H H H the formula, C2H2 × 2–2 C2H2 i.e., ethyne.
Carbon and its Compounds 43

29. An atom or a group of atoms present in a H O H


molecule which largely determines its chemical
38. The IUPAC name of H — C — C — C — H is
properties, is called functional group.
propanone.
O H H
(i) H — C — H contains aldehydic 39. Carbon forms a large number of carbon
compounds like long chains which may be straight
functional group.
or branched chains or ring of different sizes due to
H OH its tetravalency and unique property of catenation.
(ii) H — C — C O contains carboxylic acid Carbon due to its small size forms exceptionally
stable compounds by forming strong bonds.
H
40. The aldehyde and ketone represented by the
molecular formula, C3H6O.
functional group. H H H H H
30. (i) C2H5Cl contains —Cl (chloro) group H—C—C—C O H—C—C—C—H
which belongs to halo functional group.
H H H O H
(ii) C2H5OH contains —OH group which Aldehyde (Propanal) Ketone (Propanone)
belongs to alcoholic functional group. In the language of science, they are called as
31. Those having —OH as functional group isomers because both have same molecular
belong to alcohol family. Second member of this formula but different structural formulae (having
family is ethanol, C2H5OH. different functional groups.)
O
41. Isomers are those molecules which have the
32. Carbon compound containing — C — OH same molecular formula but different structural
group is called carboxylic acid. The first member formular i.e., show different properties.
of this family is methanoic acid (HCOOH). The structures of possible isomers of butane
O (C4H10) are :
H — C — OH
33. Butanone is CH3 — C — C2H5 .
O
The functional group — C — i.e., ketone is present
in butanone.
O
34. Due to catenation and tetravalency, carbon
gives rise to a number of carbon compounds.
35. Structural formula of chloroethane
(CH3CH2Cl) is
H H
H — C — C — Cl
H H
36. Refer to answer 34. The first three members of alkane series are :
R (i) CH4 (methane) (ii) C2H6 (ethane)
37. (i) C O Ketone. (iii) C3H8 (propane)
R In the above members of alkane series, it is not
R possible to have different arrangements of carbon
(ii) C O Aldehyde. atoms. Thus, we cannot have isomers of first three
H members of alkane series.
44 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

42. (i) Molecular formula of ethane is C2H6. aldehydes : group


Its electron dot structure is :

H ketones : group
H

..

..
H .. C . . C .. H
carboxylic acid : group.
..
..

H H 47. Refer to answer 21.


The general formula for alkenes is CnH2n and for
(ii) Molecular formula of ethene is C2H4.
alkynes is CnH2n – 2.
Its electron dot structure is :
First member of alkene is ethene, C2H4 and its
H H structure is
H H
C C
..

..

C C H H
..
..

First member of alkyne is ethyne, C2H2 and its


..
..

H H structure is
(iii) Molecular formula of ethyne is C2H2. H—C C—H
Its electron dot structure is : 48. Two or more organic compounds having the
same molecular formula but different structures,
H .. C C .. H are called structural isomers and the phenomenon
...
...

is known as structural isomerism.


43. Refer to answer 29. There is no possible isomers for propane as it
Compound Structural Functional contains three carbon atoms and it is not possible
formula group to have different arrangements of these carbon
(i) Ethanol H H —OH atoms.
(C2H5OH) (alcoholic) Refer to answer 41.
H — C — C — OH
H H 49. (a) Refer to answer 21.
(ii) Ethanoic H O
O Two characteristics of homologous series :
acid (i) The successive compounds of the homologous
H — C — C — OH — C — OH
(CH3COOH) (carboxylic acid) series differ by —CH2 unit i.e. 14 mass units.
H (ii) Each homologous series belongs to similar
44. Refer to answer 21. class of compounds which shows the same
Consecutive members of the homologous series of properties.
alcohols are : (b) Next higher homologue of C3H7OH is
CH3OH  C4H9OH i.e. butanol.
They differ by − CH2 unit.
C 2 H5OH  50. Refer to answers 7 and 39.
Due to the small size of carbon atom, nucleus
The physical properties are determined by alkyl holds the shared pair of electrons between atoms
group/hydrocarbon part/part other than the strongly. Thus, carbon forms strong covalent
functional group. bonds with elements such as hydrogen, oxygen,
The chemical properties are determined by nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine and other elements.
functional group such as —OH group.
51. Hydrocarbons are the compounds of carbon
45. Refer to answer 43. and hydrogen atoms. Those hydrocarbons which
46. Refer to answer 43. contain only single carbon-carbon bonds are
The formulae for different functional groups are : called alkanes while those having double and triple
alcohols : —OH group bonds are called alkenes and alkynes respectively.
Carbon and its Compounds 45

The phenomenon of existing these isomers are


Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes
called isomerism.
1. General General General Four characteristics of isomers are :
formula formula formula (i) They have same molecular formula but
= CnH2n + 2 = CnH2n = CnH2n – 2 different structures.
2. Contain Contain Contain (ii) Isomers is possible only with hydrocarbons
C — C single C C C C having four or more carbon atoms.
bonds double bonds triple bonds (iii) Due to isomerism, a given molecular formula
can represent two or more different compounds.
3. e.g., methane e.g., ethene e.g., ethyne (iv) Due to isomerism, the different compounds
(CH4) (C2H4) (C2H2) have different properties.
Structures of the above examples are : Refer to answer 41.
54. Hydrogenation is the process in which
unsaturated fats are changed to saturated fats.
CH4 (methane) :
55. When methane is treated with chlorine in
the presence of sunlight then substitution reaction
takes place. In this, chlorine replaces the hydrogen
C2H4 (ethene) : atom of methane.
Sunlight
CH 4 + Cl 2 
→ CH3Cl + HCl
C2H2 (ethyne) :
56. When methane is burnt in presence of oxygen
52. (a) Refer to answer 41. then carbon dioxide will be produced.
(b) Two possible isomers of the compound, CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O + heat + light
C3H6O are :
57. Substitution : In this type of reaction one
H O H H H O
or more hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon is
H—C—C—C—H, H—C—C—C—H replaced by some other atoms.
Sunlight
H H H H CH 4 + Cl 2 CH3Cl + HCl
Propanone Propanal Methane Chloromethane

(c) The electron dot structures of propanone and 58. The formula of acetylene is HC CH. It is
propanal are : an unsaturated hydrocarbon where carbon content
is more than the hydrogen content. Hence, carbon
H O H is not completely burnt and the unburnt carbon
..
..

deposits as a soot.
..
..

..

..
H .. C . . C . . C .. H
59. Cooking oils (unsaturated compounds)
..

..

decolourise bromine water due to formation of


H H
addition products whereas kerosene (saturated
Propanone compound) does not decolourise bromine water.
60. Air holes of a gas burner have to be adjusted
when the heated vessels get blackened by the
flame as to get sufficient supply of oxygen (air) for
complete combustion.
61. (i) Colour of KMnO4 will get discharged.
(ii) The chemical compound formed is ethanoic
acid.
alkaline
53. Isomers are those compounds which have CH3CH2OH + 2[O]  → CH3COOH + H2O
KMnO4
same molecular formula but different structures. Ethanol Ethanoic acid
46 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

62. When 5% alkaline KMnO4 solution is added When propanol is heated with alkaline KMnO4, it
drop by drop to warm ethanol then it gets oxidised gets oxidised to propanoic acid.
to ethanoic acid. ∆
CH3CH2CH2OH → CH3CH2COOH
alkaline alk. KMnO4
CH3CH2OH  → CH3COOH Propanol Propanoic acid
KMnO4
Ethanol Ethanoic acid
67. The formula for ethyne is C2H2 and its
Here, alkaline KMnO4 acts as an oxidising agent electron dot structure is :
i.e., the substance which is capable of adding
oxygen to others. Thus, alkaline KMnO4 provides H C C H

...
...
..
..
oxygen to ethanol to form ethanoic acid.
A mixture of ethyne and oxygen is burnt for
63. welding so that complete oxidation of ethyne takes
place. If in place of oxygen, air is taken which
contains less amount of oxygen then incomplete
combustion of oxygen takes place and temperature
required for welding will not be attained.
64. All unsaturated hydrocarbons (containing 68. Alkene, having general formula as CnH2n and
double or triple bonds) have tendency to get alkyne, having general formula as CnH2n – 2 are the
converted to saturated hydrocarbons (single class of hydrocarbons in which addition reaction is
bonds) by adding small molecules such as possible.
hydrogen (H2), halogens (X2), etc. Such reactions The essential conditions for addition reaction are :
are called addition reactions. (i) Presence of unsaturated hydrocarbon.
Compound X i.e. C4H8 belongs to alkene series (ii) Presence of catalyst such as Ni/Pt/Pd.
(CnH2n) while compound Y i.e. C5H12 belongs to Let us take an example of ethene. It undergoes
alkane series (CnH2n + 2). Thus, compound X will addition reaction with hydrogen when it is heated
undergo addition reaction. in the presence of nickel catalyst to form ethane.
H H The reaction is known as hydrogenation.
H H Ni/Pt Ni
C C + H2(g) CH2 CH2 + H2 CH3 CH3
H3C CH3 250°C H C C H Catalyst
Ethene Ethane
(C4H8) CH3 CH3 69. Refer to answer 68.
(Unsaturated (C4H10)
hydrocarbon) (Saturated Hydrogenation is the addition of hydrogen to an
hydrocarbon) unsaturated hydrocarbon to obtain a saturated
65. Refer to answer 64. hydrocarbon.
C4H8 belongs to alkene series (CnH2n) while C3H8 H H
R R
Ni
belongs to alkane series (CnH2n + 2). Thus, C4H8 C C + H2 R C C R
Catalyst
will undergo addition reaction. R R
(Vegetable oil)
R R
H H (Vegetable ghee)
H H Ni/Pt
C C + H2(g) Here R can be any alkyl group.
H3C (C H ) CH3 250°C H C C H
4 8
There is the change of unsaturated compound
CH3 CH3
(Unsaturated from the liquid state to saturated compound in the
hydrocarbon) (C4H10)
(Saturated
solid state thus, melting point increases.
hydrocarbon) Naturally occurring oils such as groundnut oil,
66. The substance that supply oxygen in a cotton seed oil which contain double bonds can be
reaction for oxidation is called oxidising agent easily hydrogenated.
e.g., potassium permanganate, potassium 70. Refer to answer 51.
dichromate, etc. Refer to answer 68.
Carbon and its Compounds 47

71. Organic compounds containing carbon and


hydrogen are called hydrocarbons.
(i) Name and general formula of saturated
hydrocarbons is (ii) Carboxylic acids react with alcohols in the
presence of a little concentrated sulphuric acid
to form pleasant smelling esters. This reaction is
called esterification reaction.
Conc.
(ii) Name and general formula of unsaturated CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5
Ethanoic acid Ethanol H2SO4 Ethyl ethanoate
hydrocarbons is
+ H2O
Conc.H2SO4
77. (i) C2H5OH CH2 CH2 + H2O
443 K
Ethanol Ethene
(ii) Refer to answer 76(ii).
78. (i) Refer to answer 76(ii).
Unsaturated hydrocarbons can be made to
(ii) Refer to answer 76(i).
saturated hydrocarbons by hydrogenation reaction
using nickel (Ni) as a catalyst. 79. Chemical test for ethanol and ethanoic acid
is :
Ethanoic acid reacts with Na2CO3 or NaHCO3 to
give brisk effervescence of CO2 gas.
2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 2CH3COONa
72. (a) Refer to answer 69. + CO2↑ + H2O
(b) Saturated hydrocarbon reacts with chlorine While ethanol does not react with Na2CO3 or
to form a substituted product. e.g., NaHCO3.
hv
CH 4 + Cl 2 → CH3Cl + HCl 80. Refer to answer 79.
Methane
81. (i) CH3COOC2H5 + NaOH
This reaction is called substitution reaction as here – +
Ethyl ethanoate CH3COO Na + C2H5OH
one hydrogen of methane is substituted by one
Sodium salt Ethanol
chlorine atom. of ethanoic acid
73. Structure of ethanoic acid is (ii) CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + H2O
H O Ethanoic Sodium Sodium
acid hydroxide ethanoate
H—C—C—O—H Conc.
(iii) C2H5OH + CH3COOH H2SO4
CH3COOC2H5
H Ethanol Ethanoic Ethyl ethanoate
acid
74. When a small piece of sodium is dropped + H2O
into ethanol then hydrogen gas is liberated which Combustion
82. (i) C2H5OH + 3O2 (Burning)
2CO2 + 3H2O
burns with a pop sound. + heat + light
2C2H5OH + 2Na 2C2H5O–Na+ + H2↑ Conc.H2SO4
(ii) C2H5OH CH2 CH2 + H2O
443 K
75. When ethanoic acid is added to sodium Ethanol Ethene
carbonate, CO2 gas is evolved which turns lime
(iii) CH3COOH + NaHCO3 CH3COONa
water milky. Ethanoic Sodium Sodium
76. (i) When an ester reacts with the base then acid bicarbonate ethanoate
it gives sodium salt of carboxylic acid and an + CO2 + H2O
alcohol. It is known as saponification reaction. Carbon dioxide
48 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

83. The structural formula of ethanol (C2H5OH) is CH3CH2OH


conc. H2SO4
CH2 = CH2 + H2O
H H 443 K

H C C OH Here conc. H2SO4 acts as a dehydrating agent i.e.,


helps in the removal of water.
H H
84. (a) Refer to answer 82(i).
When ethanol is heated with conc. H2SO4 at 443 K
(b) Refer to answer 82(ii).
then it loose a water molecule to form unsaturated
(c) Refer to answer 74.
alkene (ethene) as a product.
85.
Esterification Saponification
When alcohol is added to carboxylic acid in the Oils or fats when treated with sodium hydroxide
presence of acid catalyst then a fruity smelling solution gets converted into sodium salts of fatty acids
ester is formed. This process is called esterification. and glycerol. This reaction is called saponification.
Chemical reaction : Chemical reaction :
Conc.
CH3CH2OH + CH3COOH H2SO4
CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
Ester

Use of esters : They are used for making perfumes Procedure :


or used as artificial flavouring substances. – Take 2 mL of ethanol in a test tube.
Use of saponification process : This process is – Take 2 mL of ethanoic acid (acetic acid) into it.
used in making soaps. – Add few drops of conc. H2SO4.
86. Refer to answer 76(ii). – Warm it in a beaker containing water.
Aim : To demonstrate esterification process using – Observe the smell of the products formed.
ethanol and acetic acid. Observations : Pleasant fruity smelling compound
Materials required : Beaker, water, test tube, (called ester) is formed.
ethanol, acetic acid, conc. H2SO4, tripod stand,
Chemical reaction :
burner, wire gauze, etc. Conc. H2SO4
CH3COOH(l) + C2H5OH(l)
Ethanoic acid Ethanol CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
Ethyl ethanoate Water
Conclusion : Carboxylic acid reacts with alcohol
in presence of conc. H2SO4 which acts as a
dehydrating agent to form esters.
87. (i) When ethanol reacts with ethanoic
acid in presence of conc. H2SO4 ethyl ethanoate
is formed which belongs to the class of ester
compounds, having fruity smell.
Carbon and its Compounds 49

With sodium hydrogen carbonate it forms sodium


ethanoate.
CH3COOH + NaHCO3 CH3COONa + CO2
Ethanoic Sodium Sodium Carbon
acid bicarbonate ethanoate dioxide
+ H2O
Water
With NaOH it forms sodium ethanoate.

(ii) The above reaction is called esterification


which occurs in presence of conc. H2SO4 which
92. Those organic compounds having suffix ‘ol’
acts as a dehydrating agent and helps in the
are alcohols. As the alcohol having two carbon
removal of water. Conc. H2SO4 also acts as a
atoms in its molecule so, it is ethanol.
catalyst to speed up the reaction.
H H
88. Refer to answer 83.
If hydrogen is added to ethene in presence of CH3 — CH2 — OH or H — C — C — OH
palladium or nickel catalyst then one atom of Ethanol H H
hydrogen adds to each carbon atom of ethene to Refer to answer 83.
form ethane. 93. ‘P’ is ethanol which is a constituent of wine.
Ethanol on reacting with acidified potassium
dichromate (K2Cr2O7) solution gives ethanoic
89. Ethanoic acid reacts with sodium as well as acid ‘Q’.
sodium hydroxide to form sodium ethanoate. acidic K Cr O
2 2 7 → CH COOH
CH3CH2 OH  3
(a) 2CH3COOH + 2Na → 2CH3COONa + H2 ∆

Ethanol (P ) Ethanoic acid (Q )


Ethanoic acid Sodium
ethanoate When a piece of sodium is added to ethanoic acid
(b) Refer to answer 81(ii). then sodium salt of ethanoic acid is formed with
(c) Refer to answer 81(iii). the liberation of hydrogen gas which burns with a
90. Ethanol reacts with sodium to form sodium pop sound.
ethoxide and hydrogen gas is liberated which
burns with a pop sound.
2C2 H5OH + 2Na 2C 2 H5ONa + H2 
Ethanol Sodium Sodium Hydrogen 94. Tests for distinguishing between an alcohol
(X) ethoxide gas and a carboxylic acid are :
(Y) (i) Litmus test : When we place a drop of
Thus, compound X is ethanol and gas Y is hydrogen carboxylic acid on blue litmus paper it turns red
gas. while alcohol will not change the colour of blue
When ethanol is heated with excess of concentrated litmus paper.
sulphuric acid then it gets dehydrated to form (ii) Sodium hydrogen carbonate test/sodium
ethene. carbonate test : If a pinch of NaHCO3 or Na2CO3
is added to two test tubes containing alcohol
and carboxylic acid respectively. Then test tube
91. Ethanoic acid reacts with Na2CO3 to form containing carboxylic acid will show the evolution
sodium ethanoate and CO2 gas is liberated. of colourless gas with brisk effervescence while
2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 2CH3COONa + CO2 test tube containing alcohol does not show any
Ethanoic Sodium Sodium Carbon
acid carbonate ethanoate dioxide reaction.
+ H2O 95. Esters are generally volatile liquids which
Water have pleasant fruity smell.
50 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Esters are prepared when a carboxylic acid reacts 97. When ethanol is heated with alkaline solution
with an alcohol in the presence of small amount of of potassium permanganate then oxidation of
concentrated H2SO4. For example, when ethanoic ethanol takes place to form ethanoic acid.
acid reacts with ethanol it forms an ester (i.e. ethyl alkaline KMnO
4 → CH COOH
CH3CH2OH 
ethanoate). 3
conc. Ethanol Ethanoic acid
CH3COOH + C 2H5OH  → CH3COOC 2H5
H2SO4 Two physical properties of ethanol are :
Ethanoic acid Ethanol Ethyl ethanoate
+ H2 O 1. It is liquid at room temperature.
Uses of ester : 2. It is soluble in water in all proportions.
1. It is used in making perfumes. Two uses of ethanol are :
2. It is used in making artificial flavours and 1. It is used as a liquor for drinking purpose.
essences used in ice-creams, sweets and cold 2. It is a good solvent and hence, it is used in
drinks. medicines such as tincture of iodine, cough syrup
96. The molecular formula of carboxylic acid is and many tonics.
C2H4O2. Thus, it should be acetic acid (ethanoic 98. Addition of oxygen to any substance is called
acid). oxidation.
O
Ethanol gets oxidised to ethanoic acid as :
Ethanoic acid ; CH3 — C — OH
It reacts with alcohol in presence of acid catalyst to
give compound ‘X’.
As alcohol on oxidation with alkaline KMnO4
gives the same acid i.e. ethanoic acid, hence alcohol
must contain two carbon atoms. Thus, formula for
alcohol is CH3CH2OH i.e. ethanol.
Reactions involved are :
alkaline KMnO
4 → CH COOH Refer to answer 97.
CH3CH2 OH  3oxidation 99. (i) Refer to answer 81(ii).
Ethanol Ethanoic acid
2 4→ H SO (ii) When solid sodium hydrogen carbonate is
CH3COOH + CH3CH2 OH 
Ethanoic acid Ethanol
added to ethanoic acid then carbon dioxide gas is
CH3COOCH2 CH3 + H2 O released.
Ethyl ethanoate CH3COOH + NaHCO3 CH3COONa + CO2
(X )
+ H2O
(i) Structure of ethanoic acid :
(iii) Refer to answer 74.
H O
100. (i) Refer to answer 89(a).
H — C — C — OH
(ii) Refer to answer 91.
H
(iii) Refer to answer 81(ii).
(ii) Structure of ethanol :
H H 101. (a) Refer to answer 85.
(b) Refer to answer 86.
H — C — C — OH
102. (a) The structural formula of ester is
H H
H O H H
(iii) Structure of ethyl ethanoate (X) :
H—C—C—O—C—C—H
H O H H
H H H
H — C — C — O — C —C —H
So, the corresponding alcohol and acid from
H H H which it is formed will be :
Carbon and its Compounds 51

H O H H 104. When ethanol is heated with excess of


H — C — C — OH HO — C — C —H concentrated H2SO4 it gets dehydrated to form
ethene.
H H H
Acetic acid Ethanol
(Carboxylic acid) (Alcohol)
(b) Refer to answer 82(ii).
When ethene is heated with hydrogen in presence
103. ‘X’ is CH3COOH (ethanoic acid) which
of nickel catalyst it forms ethane.
freezes during winter time in cold countries.
On warming ethanoic acid with ethanol in
presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric
acid, a fruity smelling ester is formed.
Conc. Ethane on oxidation gives two moles of carbon
CH3COOH + C2H5OH 
→ dioxide and three moles of water.
H2SO4
X
(Ethanoic acid) 7
CH3COOC 2H5 + H2O CH3CH3 + O2 2CO2 + 3H2O + heat +
Y 2
(Ethyl ethanoate) light
105.
Ethanol Ethanoic acid
(Physical properties) (Physical properties)
(i) It has very low melting point (156 K) and (i) It has moderate melting point (290 K) and
low boiling point (351 K). boiling point (391 K).
(ii) It has a burning taste. (ii) It has a sour taste.
(iii) It has a distinct smell. (iii) It has a pungent smell.
Chemical properties Chemical properties
(i) It is neutral in nature and thus, it does not (i) It is acidic in nature and turns blue litmus to
turn blue litmus to red or vice versa. red.
(ii) Ethanol does not react with Na2CO3 or (ii) Ethanoic acid reacts with Na2CO3 or NaHCO3
NaHCO3. to give brisk effervescence of CO2 gas.
C2H5OH + Na2CO3 No reaction 2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 2CH3COONa
+ CO2↑+ H2O
106. (a) Tests Ethanol (C2H5OH) Ethanoic acid (CH3COOH)
(i) Physical state In liquid state In liquid state
(ii) Taste Burning Sour
(iii) NaHCO3 C2H5OH + NaHCO3 No CH3COOH + NaHCO3
reaction CH3COONa + CO2↑ +H2O
(CO2 gas is evolved with a brisk
effervescence.)
(iv) Ester When ethanol is heated with When ethanoic acid is heated with
ethanoic acid in presence of 2-3 ethanol in presence of 2-3 drops of
drops of conc. H2SO4 fruity smelling conc. H2SO4 then fruity smelling
ester is formed. ester is formed.
Conc. Conc.
C2H5OH + CH3COOH H
SO
→ CH3COOH + C2H5OH H
SO

2 4 2 4
CH3COOC2H5 + H2O CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
52 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

(b) Refer to answer 104. ionic group in synthetic detergents is


107. Synthetic detergents causes water pollution –SO3– Na+ or –OSO3–Na+
because they cannot be easily decomposed by Cleansing action of soap :
microorganisms like bacteria. A soap molecule contains a polar part (COO–Na+)
108. Cleansing action of soap : When a dirty called polar end and a non-polar part consisting
cloth is put in water containing dissolved soap of a long chain carbon atoms. This part is called
or detergent then the new polar hydrocarbon hydrocarbon end.
tails of the soap or the detergent dissolve oil or The polar end is water soluble whereas hydrocarbon
grease while the ionic parts of soap or detergent part is water-repellent and oil soluble.
(having negative charge) get attach to the water COO–Na+
molecules. As a result, soap or detergent micelles Non-polar end Polar end
are formed in which the soap or detergent (Water-repellent) (Water soluble)

molecules are arranged radially with hydrocarbon When an oily (dirty) piece of cloth is put into soap
ends directed towards the centre and ionic ends solution, the hydrocarbon part of the molecule
directed outwards. In this way, micelle entraps the attaches itself to the only drop and the –COO– end
oily or greasy dirt by using its hydrocarbon ends. orients itself towards water. Na+ ions in solution
The ionic ends remain attached to water. When arrange themselves around the –COO– ions. The
the surface of the cloth is scrubbed or agitated the negatively charged micelle so formed entraps the
loosened oily dirt particles are removed and cloth oily dirt.
is cleaned. The negatively charged micelle repel each other
due to the electrostatic repulsion. As a result, the
tiny oily dirt particles do not come together and
get washed away in water during rinsing.

+ COO part
Na ions +
– +

+– –+
long carbon chain

+
– –
109. A soap molecule has two ends with different + +

properties, one end is polar i.e., water soluble or +
hydrophilic while other end is non-polar i.e., water Micelle

insoluble or hydrophobic. When soap is added to In hard water, soap does not form lather as hard
water, the polar ends get dissolve in water and water contains Ca2+and Mg2+ ions. Soap reacts
non-polar ends get dissolve in each other and with these ions to form insoluble calcium and
directed towards the centre. As a result, a spherical magnesium salts of fatty acids.
ionic molecule known as micelles, formation takes RCOO–Na+ + Ca2+(aq) (RCOO)2Ca↓ + 2Na+
place. Since, soaps are soluble in ethanol, therefore, Soap Insoluble ppt.
micelles formation does not occur. Two problems which arise due to the use of
110. Soaps are the sodium or potassium salts detergents instead of soaps are :
of higher fatty acids. The ionic group in soaps is (i) Synthetic detergents are non-biodegradable
–COO–Na+. and hence, cause water pollution.
On the other hand, synthetic detergents are the (ii) Synthetic detergents also cause skin related
sodium salts of a long chain alkylbenzenesulphonic problems.
acids or long chain alkyl hydrogen sulphates. The 111. Refer to answers 108 and 109.
Carbon and its Compounds 53

112. (a) The tests may be tabulated as below : Merits of using detergents :
(i) Detergents are very strong cleansing agents.
S. Solution Blue Red Sodium
(ii) They can form lather well even in hard
No. litmus litmus Metal
water as they do not form insoluble calcium or
paper paper
magnesium salts.
1. Ethanol No No change Hydrogen Demerits of using detergents :
change gas (i) As detergents are sodium salts of long chain
2. Ethanoic Turns No change Hydrogen alkyl benzene sulphonic acids which are very bulky
acid red gas molecules, are not easily degraded by bacteria and
3. Soap No Turns blue No hence, they are non-biodegradable.
solution change reaction (ii) They are highly basic in nature and cause
damage to skin.
(b) Hard water contains hydrogen carbonates,
116. Refer to answer 110.
chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium.
Detergents can be used to wash clothes even in
When soap is added to hard water it reacts with hard water because they do not form insoluble
these salts to form scum which is insoluble in calcium and magnesium salts.
water and floats on the top of the water surface. The
117. (a) Refer to answer 110 and 112(b).
scum is formed due to the formation of insoluble
(b) Refer to answer 110.
calcium or magnesium salts of fatty acids.
118. (a) Detergents are ammonium or sulphonate
2C17H35COONa + Ca2+ (C17H35COO)2Ca
Sodium stearate (From Calcium stearate or sulphate salts of long chain hydrocarbons
(soap) hard water) (ppt. or scum) + 2Na+ containing 12-18 carbon atoms e.g., dodecyl
benzene sulphonate.
113. Refer to answer 110.
(b) Refer to answer 115.
114. Refer to answer 110 and 112(b).
(c) Synthetic detergents can be used even in hard
115. Detergents are generally ammonium or water because they do not react with Ca2+and
sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids. Mg2+ions present in hard water. They do not form
They are sodium salts of long chain alkyl benzene curdy white precipitates (scum) of calcium and
sulphonic acids. magnesium salts of fatty acids.
Chapter
Periodic Classification
5 of Elements
5.1 Making Order Out of Chaos-Early 5.3 Making Order Out of Chaos-The Modern
Attempts at the Classification of Elements Periodic Table
5.2 Making Order Out of Chaos-Mendeleev’s
Periodic Table

Topicwise Analysis of Last 10 Years’ CBSE Board Questions (2017-2008)

8 Maximum weightage is of Making Order Out of Chaos-The Modern Periodic Table .


Chaos-The Modern Periodic Table. 8 Maximum LA type questions were asked from
8 Maximum VSA, SA I and SA II type questions Mendeleev’s Periodic Table.
were asked from Making Order Out of

QUICK RECAP

8 Need for classification : It is very difficult to 8 Early attempts at the classification of


study each and every element individually elements :
and also very difficult to know its properties X Dobereiner’s triads : According to this law,
and uses. Therefore, they have been classified “when the elements are arranged in groups
into groups on the basis of their similarities in of three in increasing order of atomic masses,
properties. the middle element of a group has the atomic
Periodic Classification of Elements 55

mass and properties roughly the average of properties of the first element like the eighth
the other two elements.” These elements show note on a musical scale. Therefore, Li, Na and
similarity in their properties. K resemble each other.
e.g., : – Limitations : All the elements discovered
Elements : Li Na K at that time could not be classified into
Atomic mass : 7 23 39 octaves. This law worked well with lighter
Average atomic mass elements only.
7 + 39
of 1st and 3rd elements = = 23
2 8 Mendeleev’s periodic table : This table had
– Limitations : Only a limited number been designed on the basis of a law called
of elements could be arranged in such Mendeleev’s periodic law which states that
triads. the properties of elements are periodic
X Newland’s law of octaves : It states that function of their atomic masses.
when elements are arranged in the order of X Groups : The vertical columns of the periodic
increasing atomic masses, the properties of table are called ‘groups’. There are eight groups
the eighth element are the repetition of the in this table.

Group I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Oxide R 2O RO R2O3 RO2 R2O5 RO3 R2O7 RO4


Hydride RH RH2 RH3 RH4 RH3 RH2 RH
Periods A B A B A B A B A B A B A B Transition series

1 H
1.008
2 Li Be B C N O F
6.939 9.012 10.81 12.011 14.007 15.999 18.998
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
22.99 24.31 29.98 28.09 30.974 32.06 35.453
4 First K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni
series 39.102 40.08 44.96 47.90 50.94 50.20 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.71
Second Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br
series 63.54 65.37 69.72 72.59 74.92 78.96 79.909
5 First Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd
series 85.47 87.62 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 99 101.07 102.91 106.4
Second Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
series 107.87 112.40 114.82 118.69 121.75 127.60 126.90
6 First Ca Ba La Hf Ta W Os Ir Pt
series 132.90 137.34 138.91 178.49 180.95 183.85 190.2 192.2 195.09
Second Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
196.97 200.59 204.37 207.19 208.98
series
56 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

X Periods : The horizontal rows of the periodic 8 Modern periodic table : In the modern
table are called ‘periods’. There are six periods periodic table, the elements are arranged in
in this table. increasing order of their atomic numbers.
X Achievements of Mendeleev’s periodic
This table was prepared on the basis of
table :
electronic configurations of elements.
– He classified all the 63 elements
discovered at that time on the basis of X Position of elements in modern periodic
similarities in their properties. table : Modern periodic table consists of
– He left gaps for yet to be discovered eighteen columns called ‘groups’ and seven
elements. horizontal rows called ‘periods’. These groups
– He predicted the properties of are numbered from 1-18 and periods are
undiscovered elements and thus, helped numbered from 1-7.
in the discovery of these elements later on.
X Description of groups :
– He named them by prefixing a Sanskrit
numeral eka (one), divi (two), tri (three), Family of Elements Group
etc. to the name of the preceding similar Normal or representative 1 and 2 (left)
element in the same group, e.g., eka-boron, elements 13 - 18 (right)
eka-aluminium, etc.
Alkali metals 1
X Limitations :
– Increasing order of atomic masses Alkaline earth metals 2
could not be maintained in all cases e.g., Boron family 13
cobalt with higher atomic mass was placed
before nickel. Similarly, tellurium with Carbon family 14
higher atomic mass was placed before Nitrogen family or
15
iodine. pnicogens
– This table did not provide place for noble
Oxygen family or
gases which were discovered later. 16
chalcogens
– There was no separate place for isotopes
in Mendeleev’s periodic table, although Halogens 17
they differ in atomic masses. Inert gases or noble gases 18
– He could not assign a correct position to
Transition elements 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
hydrogen.
9, 10, 11, 12
8 Modern periodic law : This law states that
the properties of elements are a periodic X Description of periods : The number
function of their atomic numbers. This of elements in any period is fixed by the
means that when elements are arranged in maximum number of electrons that can be
increasing order of their atomic numbers accommodated in that particular shell which
the properties of elements are repeated after is given by the formula, ‘2n2’ where ‘n’ is the
certain regular intervals. This repetition of number of the given shell starting from the
properties of elements after certain regular nucleus.
interval is known as ‘periodicity in properties’.
This periodicity in properties of elements is Shell ‘n’ Period No. of Elements
due to periodicity in their outer electronic K 1 First 2[1H, 2He]
configurations. Infact, elements having
L 2 Second 8[3Li, 4Be, 5B, 6C,
similar outer-electronic configurations show
7N, 8O, 9F, 10Ne]
similar chemical properties.
Periodic Classification of Elements 57
58 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

M 3 Third 8[11Na, 12Mg, 13Al, Cl + e −


→ Cl −
14Si, 15P, 16S, 17Cl, 2, 8, 7 2, 8,8 (Valency = 8 – 7 = 1)
18Ar]
In other words, in a period, the valency of
N 4 Fourth 18[19K to 36Kr] an element is either equal to the number
O 5 Fifth 18[37Rb to 54Xe] of electrons in the valence shell or eight
minus the number of electrons in the
P 6 Sixth 32[55Cs to 86Rn] valence shell.
Q 7 Seventh 32[87Fr to 118Og] – Variation of valency in a group : All the
elements in a group have same number of
X In order to avoid the periodic table becoming valence electrons. Therefore, the valency
too lengthy, two series of 14-elements each, of all the elements in a group is fixed.
have been placed at the bottom of the periodic e.g., : group 1 elements have valency 1,
table. group 17 elements have valency 1,
– First series contains elements of atomic group 18 elements have valency 0.
numbers 58–71 called ‘Lanthanide series’. X Atomic size : If an atom is considered to
– Second series contains elements of be a sphere, the atomic size is given by the
atomic numbers 90–103 called ‘Actinide
radius of the sphere, known as atomic radius.
series’.
The atomic radius is defined as the distance
8 Trends in the Modern periodic table : The between the centre of the nucleus and the
physical and chemical properties of an outermost shell which contains electrons, in
element mainly depend upon its outer an isolated atom. It is expressed in angstrom
electronic configuration. Since the outer (Å) or in picometers (pm).
electronic configuration changes as we – Variation of atomic radii in a period :
go from left to right in a period therefore, On moving from left to right in a
within the same period, elements show a period, the atomic radius decreases
gradation both in their physical as well as due to increase in nuclear charge which
chemical properties. tends to pull the electrons closer to the
These properties which show a regular nucleus and reduces the size of the atom.
gradation on moving from top to bottom Example :
within the same group or from left to right
Li Be B C N O F Ne
along a period are called ‘atomic properties’. Atomic
e.g., valency, atomic size, metallic or non- radius (pm) : 152 111 88 77 75 74 72 160
metallic character, etc. Biggest
X Valency : Valency is defined as the combining (van der Waals radius)
capacity of an element. It depends upon – Variation of atomic radii in a group :
the number of valence electrons (electrons On moving down the group, the atomic
present in outermost shell of the atom). radii of elements increase gradually
– Variation of valency in a period : On because new shells are being added. This
moving from left to right in a period, the increases the distance between outermost
number of valence electrons increases shell and the nucleus so that the atomic
from 1 to 8 although in the first period, it size increases in spite of the increase in
increases from 1 to 2. e.g., nuclear charge. Example :
Na  → Na + + e − (Valency = 1) Li Na K Rb Cs
2, 8, 1 2, 8
Atomic radius (pm) : 152 186 231 246 262
→ Mg 2+ + 2e − (Valency = 2)
Mg  X Metallic and non-metallic character :
2, 8, 2 2, 8
Group 1 to group 12 are metals. Group 13
Periodic Classification of Elements 59

to 18 consists of non-metals, metalloids Example :


and metals.
Li Be B C N O F
– Metals tend to lose electrons while  
Metals Non-metals
forming bonds hence, they are
Metallic character decreases
electropositive in nature.   →
Non-metallic character increases
– Non-metals tend to form bonds by
– Variation in a group : On moving
gaining electrons hence, they are
down in a group, the metallic character
electronegative in nature.
increases.
– Metalloids : Those elements which Reversely, on moving down a group, the
resemble both metals and non-metals non-metallic character decreases.
i.e., border line elements are called
metalloids or semi-metals e.g., boron, Li Least metallic F Most non-metallic
silicon, germanium, arsenic, tellurium Na

character decreases
Metallic character
Cl

Non-metallic
and polonium.

increases
K
– Variation in a period : On moving Br
Rb
from left to right in a period, the
Cs I
metallic character decreases whereas the
non-metallic character increases. Fr Most metallic At Least non-metallic
60 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Previous Years’ CBSE


PREVIOUS Board
YEARS MCQS Questions

5.2 Making Order Out of Chaos- (c) Why could no fixed position be given to
hydrogen in Mendeleev’s periodic table?
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table (3/5, Delhi 2009)
VSA (1 mark) 3. State any three limitations of Mendeleev’s
classification.
1. Why did Mendeleev have gaps in his periodic
(3/5, Delhi 2009)
table? (1/5, Delhi 2009)
4. What physical and chemical properties of
SA II (3 marks) elements were used by Mendeleef in creating
2. (a) Which two criteria did Mendeleev use to his periodic table? List two observations
classify the elements in his periodic table? which posed a challenge to Mendeleef ’s
(b) State Mendeleev’s periodic law. Periodic law. (Delhi 2008)

LA (5 marks)
5. On the basis of Mendeleev’s periodic table given below, answer the questions that follow the table :
Group I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Oxide R2O RO R2O3 RO2 R2O5 RO3 R2O7 RO4


Hydride RH RH2 RH3 RH4 RH3 RH2 RH
Periods A B A B A B A B A B A B A B Transition series

1 H
1.008
2 Li Be B C N O F
6.939 9.012 10.81 12.011 14.007 15.999 18.998
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
22.99 24.31 29.98 28.09 30.974 32.06 35.453
4 First K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni
series 39.102 40.08 44.96 47.90 50.94 50.20 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.71
Second Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br
series 63.54 65.37 69.72 72.59 74.92 78.96 79.909
5 First Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd
series 85.47 87.62 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 99 101.07 102.91 106.4
Second Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I
series 107.87 112.40 114.82 118.69 121.75 127.60 126.90
6 First Ca Ba La Hf Ta W Os Ir Pt
series 132.90 137.34 138.91 178.49 180.95 183.85 190.2 192.2 195.09
Second Au Hg Tl Pb Bi
196.97 200.59 204.37 207.19 208.98
series
Periodic Classification of Elements 61

(a) Name the element which is in 11. Write the atomic numbers of two elements ‘X’
(i) 1st group and 3rd period and ‘Y’ having electronic configurations 2, 8, 2
(ii) VIIth group and 2nd period. and 2, 8, 6 respectively. (AI 2014)
(b) Suggest the formula for the following : 12. The atomic numbers of three elements A, B
(i) oxide of nitrogen and C are 12, 18 and 20 respectively. State
(ii) hydride of oxygen
giving reason, which two elements will show
(c) In group VIII of the periodic table, why
similar properties. (AI 2014)
does cobalt with atomic mass 58.93 appear
before nickel having atomic mass 58.71? 13. State the Modern periodic law of classification
(d) Besides gallium, which two other elements of elements. (Foreign 2014)
have since been discovered for which 14. Out of the three elements P, Q and R having
Mendeleev had left gaps in his Periodic atomic numbers 11, 17 and 19 respectively,
Table? which two elements will show similar
(e) Using atomic masses of Li, Na and K, properties and why? (Foreign 2014)
find the average atomic mass of Li and K
15. Write the formula used to determine the
and compare it with the atomic mass of
maximum number of electrons which a shell
Na. State the conclusion drawn from this
activity. (AI 2008) in an atom can accommodate. (Foreign 2014)
6. (a) Why do we classify elements? 16. What is the valency of silicon with atomic
(b) What were the two criteria used by number 14? (Foreign 2010)
Mendeleev in creating his Periodic Table? 17. How does electronic configuration of atoms
(c) Why did Mendeleev leave some gaps in change in a period with increase in atomic
his Periodic Table? number? (1/5, Delhi 2009)
(d) In Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, why was
there no mention of noble gases like SA I (2 marks)
helium, neon and argon? 18. An element ‘X’ has atomic number 13 :
(e) Would you place the two isotopes of (a) Write its electronic configuration.
chlorine, Cl-35 and Cl-37 in different (b) State the group to which ‘X’ belongs?
slots because of their different atomic (c) Is ‘X’ a metal or a non-metal?
masses or in the same slot because their
(d) Write the formula of its bromide.
chemical properties are the same? Justify
(Delhi 2012)
your answer. (AI 2008)
19. How can the valency of an element be
5.3 Making Order Out of Chaos- determined if its electronic configuration
The Modern Periodic Table is known? What will be the valency of an
element of atomic number 9(nine)?
VSA (1 mark) (Delhi 2012, 2011)
7. Write the number of vertical columns in 20. Choose from the following :
the Modern Periodic Table. What are these 6C, 8O, 10Ne, 11Na, 14Si
columns called? (Delhi 2014, 2013) (i) Elements that should be in the same
8. Write the number of horizontal rows in the period.
Modern Periodic Table. What are these rows (ii) Elements that should be in the same
called? (Delhi 2014) group.
9. Write any one difference in the electronic State reason for your selection in each case.
configurations of group 1 and group 2 (AI 2012)
elements. (Delhi 2014) 21. An element ‘X’ belongs to 3rd period and
10. List any two properties of the elements group 17 of the periodic table. State its
belonging to the first group of the Modern (i) electronic configuration, (ii) valency.
Periodic Table. (AI 2014) Justify your answer with reason. (AI 2012)
62 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

22. Choose from the following : SA II (3 marks)


4Be, 9F, 19K, 20Ca
31. Write the names given to the vertical columns
(i) The element having one electron in the
and horizontal rows in the Modern Periodic
outermost shell. Table. How does the metallic character of
(ii) Two elements of the same group. elements vary on moving down a vertical
(Foreign 2012) column? How does the size of atomic radius
23. An element has atomic number 13. vary on moving left to right in a horizontal
(a) What is the group and period number to row? Give reason in support of your answer
which this element belongs? in the above two cases. (Delhi 2017)
(b) Is this element a metal or a non-metal? 32. An element P (atomic number 20) reacts with
Justify your answer. (Foreign 2012) an element Q (atomic number 17) to form a
24. How does the electronic configuration of an compound. Answer the following questions
atom of an element relate to its position in giving reason :
the Modern Periodic Table? Explain with one Write the position of P and Q in the Modern
example. (Delhi 2011) Periodic Table and the molecular formula of
25. How does the valency of elements vary (i) in the compound formed when P reacts with Q.
going down a group, and (ii) in going from (Delhi 2017)
left to right in a period of the periodic table? 33. Write the number of periods and groups
(AI 2011) in the Modern Periodic Table. How does
the metallic character of elements vary on
26. In the Modern Periodic Table, the element
moving (i) from left to right in a period, and
calcium (atomic number = 20) is surrounded
(ii) down a group? Give reason to justify
by elements with atomic numbers 12, 19, 21 your answer. (AI 2017)
and 38. Which of these elements has physical
and chemical properties resembling those of 34. Na, Mg and Al are the elements of the
3rd periods of the Modern Periodic Table
calcium and why? (AI 2011)
having group number 1, 2 and 13 respectively.
27. In the periodic table, how does the tendency Which one of these elements has the
of atoms to loose electrons change on going (a) highest valency, (b) largest atomic radius,
from and (c) maximum chemical reactivity? Justify
(i) left to right across a period? your answer stating the reason for each.
(ii) top to bottom in a group? (AI 2017)
(Foreign 2011) 35. Calcium is an element with atomic number
28. What is meant by periodicity of properties of 20. Stating reason answer each of the
elements? Why are the properties of elements following questions :
placed in the same group of the periodic table (i) Is calcium a metal or non-metal?
similar? (Foreign 2011) (ii) Will its atomic radius be larger or smaller
29. Elements magnesium and oxygen than that of potassium with atomic
respectively belong to group 2 and group 16 number 19?
of the Modern Periodic Table. If the atomic (iii) Write the formula of its oxide.
numbers of magnesium and oxygen are 12 (Delhi 2016)
and 8 respectively, draw their electronic 36. An element M with electronic configuration
configuration and show the process of (2, 8, 2) combines separately with (NO3)–,
formation of their compound by transfer of (SO4)2– and (PO4)3– radicals. Write the
electrons. (Foreign 2010) formula of the three compounds so formed.
To which group and period of the Modern
30. How and why does the atomic size vary as Periodic Table does the element M belong?
you go : Will M form covalent or ionic compounds?
(i) from left to right along a period? Give reason to justify your answer.
(ii) down a group? (2/5, Delhi 2009) (Delhi 2016)
Periodic Classification of Elements 63

37. Name any two elements of group one and Period No.
write their electronic configurations. What 2 Li (3) Be (4)
similarity do you observe in their electronic
3 Na (11) Mg (12)
configurations? Write the formula of oxide of
any of the aforesaid element. 4 K (19) Ca (20)
(Delhi 2016) 5 Rb (37) Sr (38)
38. Two elements A and B belong to the 3rd (i) Write the electronic configuration of Ca.
period of Modern Periodic Table and are in (ii) Predict the number of valence electrons
group 2 and 13 respectively. Compare their in Rb.
following characteristics in tabular form. (iii) What is the number of shells in Sr?
(a) Number of electrons in their atoms (iv) Predict whether K is a metal or a non-
(b) Size of their atoms metal?
(c) Their tendencies to loose electrons (v) Which one of these elements has the
(d) The formula of their oxides largest atom in size?
(vi) Arrange Be, Ca, Mg and Rb in the
(e) Their metallic characters
increasing order of the size of their
(f) The formula of their chlorides
respective atoms. (AI 2016)
(Delhi 2016) rd
43. An element ‘X’ belongs to 3 period and
39. An element ‘X’ belongs to 3rd period and
group 13 of the Modern Periodic Table.
group 16 of the Modern Periodic Table. (a) Determine the valence electrons and the
(a) Determine the number of valence valency of ‘X’.
electrons and the valency of ‘X’. (b) Molecular formula of the compound
(b) Molecular formula of the compound formed when ‘X’ reacts with an element
when ‘X’ reacts with hydrogen and write ‘Y’ (atomic number = 8)
its electron dot structure. (c) Write the name and formula of the
(c) Name the element ‘X’ and state whether compound formed when ‘X’ combines
it is metallic or non-metallic. with chlorine. (AI 2016)
(AI 2016) 44. State the main aim of classifying elements.
40. An element ‘X’ has mass number 35 and Which is the more fundamental property of
number of neutrons 18. Write atomic number elements that is used in the development of
and electronic configuration of ‘X’. Also write Modern Periodic Table? Name and state the
group number, period number and valency law based on this fundamental property. On
of ‘X’. (AI 2016) which side of the periodic table one can find
metals, non-metals and metalloids?
41. Three elements ‘X’, ‘Y’ and ‘Z’ have atomic
(Foreign 2016)
numbers 7, 8 and 9 respectively.
(a) State their positions (group number and 45. An element ‘X’ (atomic number 20) burns in
period number both) in the Modern the presence of oxygen to form a basic oxide.
Periodic Table. (a) Identify the element and write its
(b) Arrange these elements in the decreasing electronic configuration.
(b) State its group number and period
order of their atomic radii.
number in the Modern Periodic Table.
(c) Write the formula of the compound
(c) Write a balanced chemical equation for
formed when ‘X’ combines with ‘Z’.
the reaction when this oxide is dissolved
(AI 2016)
in water. (Foreign 2016)
42. The position of eight elements in the Modern 46. An element ‘X’ belongs to third period and
Periodic Table is given below where atomic second group of the Modern Periodic Table.
numbers of elements are given in the (a) Write its electronic configuration.
parenthesis. (b) Is it a metal or non-metal? Why?
64 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

(c) Write the formula of the compound 53. Two elements ‘P’ and ‘Q’ belong to the same
formed when ‘X’ reacts with an element period of the Modern Periodic Table and
(i) Y of electronic configuration 2, 6 and are in Group-1 and Group-2 respectively.
(ii) Z of electronic configuration 2, 8, 7. Compare their following characteristics in
(Foreign 2016) tabular form :
47. The atomic number of an element X is 19. (a) The number of electrons in their atoms.
(a) Write its electronic configuration. (b) The sizes of their atoms.
(b) To which period of the Modern Periodic (c) Their metallic character.
Table does it belong and what is its (d) Their tendencies to loose electrons.
valency? (e) The formula of their oxides.
(c) If ‘X’ burns in oxygen to form its oxide, (f) The formula of their chlorides. (AI 2015)
what will be its nature - acidic, basic or 54. Taking the example of an element of atomic
neutral? number 16, explain how the electronic
(d) Write balanced chemical equation for the configuration of the atom of an element
reaction when this oxide is dissolved in relates to its position in the Modern Periodic
water. (Foreign 2016) Table and how valency of an element is
48. How does the tendency of the elements to calculated on the basis of its atomic number.
loose electrons change in the Modern Periodic (AI 2015)
Table in (i) a group, (ii) a period and why? 55. Given below are some elements of the
(Foreign 2016) Modern Periodic Table. Atomic number of
49. How many groups and periods are there in the the element is given in the parentheses :
Modern Periodic Table? How do the atomic A(4), B(9), C(14), D(19), E(20)
(a) Select the element that has one electron
size and metallic character of elements vary
in the outermost shell. Also write the
as we move :
electronic configuration of this element.
(a) down a group and
(b) Which two elements amongst these
(b) from left to right in a period?
belong to the same group? Give reason
(Delhi 2015)
for your answer.
50. Na, Mg and Al are the elements of the same (c) Which two elements amongst these
period of Modern Periodic Table having one, belong to the same period? Which one of
two and three valence electrons respectively. the two has bigger atomic radius?
Which of these elements (i) has the largest (AI 2015)
atomic radius, (ii) is least reactive? Justify
56. The atomic number of an element ‘X’ is 20.
your answer stating reason for each case.
(i) Determine the position of the element ‘X’
(Delhi 2015, AI 2012)
in the periodic table.
51. From the following elements : (ii) Write the formula of the compound
4Be; 9F; 19K; 20Ca formed when ‘X’ reacts/combines with
(i) Select the element having one electron in another elements ‘Y’ (atomic number 8).
the outermost shell. (iii) What would be the nature (acidic or
(ii) Two elements of the same group. basic) of the compound formed? Justify
Write the formula and mention the nature your answer. (Foreign 2015)
of the compound formed by the union of 19K 57. An element ‘X’ is placed in the 3rd group
and element X (2, 8, 7). (Delhi 2015) and 3rd period of the Modern Periodic Table.
52. Write the number of periods the Modern Answer the following questions stating
Periodic Table has. State the changes in reason for your answer in each case :
valency and metallic character of elements as (a) Write the electronic configuration of the
we move from left to right in a period. Also element ‘X’.
state the changes, if any, in the valency and (b) Write the formula of the compound
atomic size of elements as we move down a formed when the element ‘X’ reacts with
group. (Delhi 2015, 2013) another element ‘Y’ of atomic number 17.
Periodic Classification of Elements 65

(c) Will the oxide of this element be acidic or 62. Consider two elements X (atomic number 17)
basic ? (Foreign 2015) and Y (atomic number 20).
58. Four elements P, Q, R and S belong to the (i) Write the positions of these elements
third period of the Modern Periodic Table in the Modern Periodic Table giving
justification.
and have respectively 1, 3, 5 and 7 electrons
(ii) Write the formula of the compound
in their outermost shells. Write the electronic
formed by the combination of X and Y.
configurations of Q and R and determine their
(iii) Draw the electron-dot structure of the
valencies. Write the molecular formula of the compound formed and state the nature
compound formed when P and S combine. of the bond formed between the two
(Foreign 2015) elements. (Delhi 2014)
59. In the following table, the positions of six 63. Consider two elements ‘A’ (Atomic number 17)
elements A, B, C, D, E and F are given as they and ‘B’ (Atomic number 19).
are in the Modern Periodic Table : (i) Write the positions of these elements
Group 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18 in the Modern Periodic Table giving
justification.
Period (ii) Write the formula of the compound
↓ formed when ‘A’ combines with ‘B’.
2 A B C D (iii) Draw the electron dot structure of the
3 E F compound and state the nature of the
On the basis of the above table, answer the bond formed between the two elements.
following questions : (Delhi 2014)
(i) Name the element which forms only 64. The electrons in the atoms of four elements
covalent compounds. A, B, C and D are distributed in the three
(ii) Name the element which is a metal with shells having 1, 3, 5 and 7 electrons in the
valency three. outermost shell respectively. State the period
(iii) Name the element which is a non-metal in which these elements can be placed in the
with valency three. Modern Periodic Table. Write the electronic
configuration of the atoms of A and D and the
(iv) Out of B and C, whose atomic radius is
molecular formula of the compound formed
bigger and why?
when A and D combine. (AI 2014)
(v) Write the common name for the family
to which the elements D and F belong. 65. Study the following table in which positions
of six elements A, B, C, D, E and F are shown
(Foreign 2015)
as they are in the Modern Periodic Table :
60. Based on the group valency of elements On the basis of the above table, answer the
state the formula for the following giving following questions :
justification for each : Group 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
(i) Oxides of 1st group elements,
(ii) Halides of the elements of group-13, and Period
(iii) Compounds formed when an element ↓
of group-2 combines with an element of 2 A B C
group-16. (Delhi 2014) 3 D E F
61. (a) Define the following terms : (i) Name the element which forms only
(i) Valency; (ii) Atomic size covalent compounds.
(b) How do the valency and the atomic size (ii) Name the element which is a metal with
of the elements vary while going from valency three.
left to right along a period in the Modern (iii) Name the element which is a non-metal
Periodic Table? (Delhi 2014) with valency three.
66 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

(iv) Out of D and E, which is bigger in size On the basis of the above table, answer the
and why? following questions :
(v) Write the common name for the family (i) Name the element which will form only
to which the elements C and F belong. covalent compounds.
(AI 2014) (ii) Which element is a metal with valency
66. What is meant by ‘group’ in the Modern one?
Periodic Table? How do the following change (iii) Which element is a non-metal with
on moving from top to bottom in a group? valency two?
(i) Number of valence electrons. (iv) Out of D and E, which has a bigger atomic
(ii) Number of occupied shells. radius and why?
(iii) Size of atoms. (v) Write the formula of the compound
(iv) Metallic character of elements. formed when B combines with D.
(v) Effective nuclear charge experienced by (Foreign 2014)
valence electrons. (AI 2014)
71. The electronic configuration of an element is
67. The elements Be, Mg and Ca each having
2, 8, 8, 1.
two electrons in their outermost shells are
(i) State its group number and period
in periods 2, 3 and 4 respectively of the
number in the Modern Periodic Table.
Modern Periodic Table. Answer the following
questions, giving justification in each case : (ii) State whether this element is a metal or a
(i) Write the group to which these elements non-metal.
belong. Give reason for the justification of your
(ii) Name the least reactive element. answer in each case. (Foreign 2014)
(iii) Name the element having largest atomic 72. Given below are some elements of the
radius. (AI 2014) Modern Periodic Table :
68. What are groups and periods in the periodic 4Be, 9F, 14Si, 19K, 20Ca
table? Two elements X and Y belong to group (i) Select the element that has one electron
1 and 2 respectively and are in the same
in the outermost shell and write its
period of the periodic table. How do the
electronic configuration.
following properties of X and Y vary?
(i) Size of their atoms. (ii) Select two elements that belong to the
(ii) Their metallic character. same group. Give reasons for your
(iii) Their valencies in forming oxides. answer.
(iv) Molecular formula of their chlorides. (iii) Select two elements that belong to the
(Foreign 2014) same period. Which one of the two has
69. Write the number of groups and periods in bigger atomic size? (Delhi 2013)
the Modern Periodic Table. Mention the 73. An element ‘X’ belongs to the third period
criteria of placing elements in the (i) same and group one of the Modern Periodic Table.
group and (ii) same period. Illustrate your Find (i) the number of its valence electrons
answer with an example for each case. (ii) its valency, and (iii) whether X is a metal
(Foreign 2014, Delhi 2013C) or a non-metal. State reasons to justify your
70. Study the following table in which positions answer in each case. (Delhi 2013C)
of six elements A, B, C, D, E and F are shown 74. F, Cl and Br are the elements each having
as they are in the Modern Periodic Table :
seven valence electrons. Which of these
Group 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18 (i) has the largest atomic radius, (ii) is most
reactive? Justify your answer stating reason
Period
for each. (Delhi 2012)

2 A B C 75. (a) How many periods are there in the
3 D E F Modern Periodic Table of elements?
Periodic Classification of Elements 67

(b) How do atomic radius, valency and (iii) Which two of these elements could
metallic character vary down a group? definitely be metals?
(c) How do the atomic size and metallic (iv) Which one of the eight elements is most
character of elements vary as we move likely to be found in gaseous state at
from left to right in a period? room temperature?
(Foreign 2012) (v) If the number of electrons in the
76. The atomic number of an element is 16. outermost shell of elements C and
Predict G be 3 and 7 respectively, write the
(i) the number of valence electrons in its formula of the compound formed by the
atom combination of C and G. (Delhi 2010)
(ii) its valency 79. In the following table six elements A, B, C, D,
(iii) its group number E and F (here letters are not the usual symbols
(iv) whether it is a metal or a non-metal of the elements) of the Modern Periodic Table
(v) the nature of oxide formed by it with atomic number 3 to 18 are given :
(vi) the formula of its chloride. (AI 2011)
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
77. The positions of three elements A, B and C in
the periodic table are indicated below : A E G
Group 16 Group 17 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
– – (First period) B C D F
– A (Second period)
– – (Third period) (a) Which of these (i) a noble gas,
B C (Fourth period) (ii) a halogen?
(a) State whether element C would be a (b) If B combines with F, what would be the
metal or a non-metal? Why? formula of the compound formed?
(b) Which is the more active element A or C? (c) Write the electronic configurations of C
Why? and E. (Foreign 2010)
(c) Which type of ion (cation or anion) will 80. (a) What is meant by periodicity in
be formed by the element C? Why? properties of elements with reference to
(Foreign 2011) the periodic table?
78. Atoms of eight elements A, B, C, D, E, F, G (b) Why do all the elements of the same
and H have the same number of electronic group have similar properties?
shells but different number of electrons
(c) How will the tendency to gain electrons
in their outermost shell. It was found that
change as we go from left to right across a
elements A and G combine to form an ionic
period? Why? (AI 2009)
compound. This compound is added in a
small amount to almost all vegetable dishes 81. (a) What are ‘groups’ and ‘periods’ in the
during cooking. Oxides of elements A and ‘periodic table’?
B are basic in nature while those of E and F (b) Two elements M and N belong to groups
are acidic. The oxide of D is almost neutral. I and II respectively and are in the same
Based on the above information answer the period of the periodic table. How do the
following questions : following properties of M and N vary?
(i) To which group or period of the periodic (i) Sizes of their atoms.
table do the listed elements belong? (ii) Their metallic characters.
(ii) What would be the nature of compound (iii) Their valencies in forming oxides.
formed by a combination of elements B (iv) Molecular formula of their chlorides.
and F? (Foreign 2009)
68 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Detailed Solutions

1. Mendeleev placed elements with similar The two observations that posed a challenge in
properties one below the other leaving gaps for Mendeleef periodic law are :
elements which could match with other elements (i) Increasing order of atomic weights could not
of that group but had not been discovered by that be maintained while matching chemical properties.
time. (ii) Isotopes have different atomic masses but
have similar chemical properties.
2. (a) Two criteria used by Mendeleev to classify
5. (a) (i) Sodium (Na) belongs to 1st group and
elements are :
3rd period.
(i) Atomic mass (ii) Fluorine (F) belongs to VIIth group and 2nd
(ii) Similarity in chemical properties period.
(b) Mendeleev’s periodic law states that the (b) (i) Oxide of nitrogen will have the formula
properties of elements are the periodic function of N2O5.
their atomic masses. (ii) Hydride of oxygen will have the formula H2O.
(c) There is no fixed position given to hydrogen (c) In the Mendeleev’s periodic table (which
in Mendeleev’s periodic table because properties is based on the increasing atomic masses)
of hydrogen resemble both to alkali metals and to cobalt (atomic wt. 58.93) appears before nickel
halogens. (atomic wt. 58.71) because cobalt resembles with
rhodium (Rh) and iridium (Ir) whereas nickel (Ni)
3. Three limitations of Mendeleev’s classification
resembles with palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt)
are :
in properties.
(i) The position of isotopes could not be (d) Besides gallium, germanium and scandium
explained. are the two elements which have been discovered
Isotopes are the atoms of the same element having for which Mendeleev had left gaps in his periodic
similar chemical properties but different atomic table.
masses. If the elements are arranged according to (e) Atomic mass of Li = 6.939
their atomic masses, the isotopes should be placed Atomic mass of Na = 22.99
in different groups. But isotopes were not given Atomic mass of K = 39.102
separate places in Mendeleev’s periodic table. 6.939 + 39.102
Average atomic mass of Li and K =
(ii) Wrong order of atomic masses of some 2
elements could not be explained. = 23.0205 ( at. mass of Na i.e., 22.99)
When certain elements were put in their correct Thus, the atomic mass of Na is average of the
groups on the basis of their chemical properties, atomic masses of Li and K and these elements
it was found in some cases that the element with resemble each other. The calculated average mass
higher atomic mass comes first and the element of Na is close to its actual mass.
with lower atomic mass comes later. 6. (a) We classify elements so as to study the
e.g., cobalt (at. wt. = 58.9) comes before nickel properties of elements conveniently.
(at. wt. = 58.7). (b) Refer to answer 2 (a).
(iii) There is no fixed position given to hydrogen (c) Refer to answer 1.
in Mendeleev’s periodic table because properties (d) In Mendeleev’s periodic table, there was no
mention of noble gases like helium, neon and
of hydrogen resemble both to alkali metals and to
argon because they were not discovered at that
halogens.
time.
4. Atomic masses and similarity in physical (e) Two isotopes of chlorine Cl-35 and Cl-37
and chemical properties are the points used by should be kept in the same slot as they have same
Mendeleef in creating his periodic table. chemical properties.
Periodic Classification of Elements 69

7. There are 18 vertical columns in the Modern in the period. Due to this increase in valence
periodic table which are called groups. electrons, the electronic configuration of atoms
8. There are seven horizontal rows of elements changes with increase in atomic number.
in the Modern periodic table which are known as 18. X has atomic number = 13
periods. (a) Electronic configuration of X = 2, 8, 3
9. Group 1 elements have one electron in their (b) As X contains 3 valence electrons in its
outermost shell while group 2 elements have two outermost shell, it belongs to group 13.
electrons in their outermost shell. (c) X is a metal as it contains 3 valence electrons
10. Two properties of the elements belonging to which can be lost easily.
the first group : (d) Formula of X with bromine will be
(i) As the elements belong to group 1, so they
have one electron in their outermost shell hence,
valency of these elements is one.
(ii) Alkali metals (group 1 elements) are 19. Valency of an element is determined by the
electropositive in nature. number of electrons present in its outermost
11. Electronic configuration of X = 2, 8, 2 shell. For elements having outermost electrons
Atomic number = 2 + 8 + 2 = 12 1 to 4, valencies are equivalent to their respective
Similarly, valence electrons.
Electronic configuration of Y = 2, 8, 6 For elements having outermost electrons
Atomic number = 2 + 8 + 6 = 16 5 to 8, valency is calculated as;
12. Atomic number of A = 12 Valency = 8 – (Number of valence electrons)
Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 2 For element having atomic number = 9
Similarly, for B(18) = 2, 8, 8 Electronic configuration = 2, 7
for C(20) = 2, 8, 8, 2 Valency = 8 – 7 = 1
As elements A and C contain two valence electrons 20. The electronic configurations of the given
in their outermost shell (group-2) they will show elements are :
similar properties. 6C = 2, 4
13. Modern periodic law states that the physical 8O = 2, 6
and chemical properties of elements are the 10 Ne = 2, 8
periodic function of their atomic numbers. 11Na = 2, 8, 1
14. Atomic number of P = 11 14Si = 2, 8, 4
Electronic configuration of P = 2, 8, 1 (i) 6C, 8O, 10Ne, all contain two shells hence, they
Electronic configuration of Q(17) = 2, 8, 7 belong to same period i.e., second period.
and for R(19) = 2, 8, 8, 1 11Na, 14Si both contain three shells hence, they
Thus, from electronic configurations of P and R, belong to third period.
it is observed that they belong to group 1 as both (6C, 8O, 10Ne) period number 2
have one valence electron and have valency equal (11Na, 14Si) period number 3
to 1. Thus, P and R will have similar properties.
(ii) 6C and 14Si belong to the same group as they
15. The maximum number of electrons that can be both contain 4 electrons in their outermost shell.
accommodated in a shell, is given by the formula Thus, 6C and 14Si belong to group 14.
2n2, where ‘n’ is the number of the shell.
21. As element X belongs to group 17, it will have
16. Atomic number of silicon = 14 7 electrons in its outermost shell. Moreover, X
Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 4 belongs to period number 3 so, it will have 3 shells.
As silicon (Si) contains four electrons in its (i) Electronic configuration of X = 2, 8, 7
outermost shell, its valency will be four. (ii) Valency of element X
17. One electron each is added successively to the = 8 – (Number of valence electrons)
same valence shell as we move from left to right =8–7=1
70 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

22. The electronic configurations of the given Element with atomic number 21 = 2, 8, 8, 3
elements are : Element with atomic number 38 = 2, 8, 18, 8, 2
4Be = 2, 2 It can be easily seen that elements with atomic
9F = 2, 7 numbers 12 and 38 have two electrons in their
19K = 2, 8, 8, 1 outermost shell thus, they belong to same group as
20Ca = 2, 8, 8, 2
that of calcium. So, they will show the physical and
(i) Potassium (K) has one electron in its chemical properties resembling those of calcium.
outermost shell. 27. (i) Tendency of atoms to loose electrons
(ii) Be and Ca have two electrons in their decreases from left to right in a period due to
outermost shells hence, they belong to same group. increase in effective nuclear charge.
23. Atomic number of element = 13 (ii) Tendency of atoms to loose electrons increases
Thus, its electronic configuration = 2, 8, 3 down the group due to increase in atomic radii.
(a) From the electronic configuration, it can 28. When elements are arranged in increasing
be easily seen that there are 3 electrons in the order of their atomic numbers, elements with
outermost shell which indicates that it belongs to similar chemical properties are repeated at definite
group number 10 + 3 = 13. intervals. This is known as periodicity of properties
Moreover, the element has 3 shells in which of elements.
electrons are filled thus, it belongs to period Elements placed in the same group of the periodic
number 3. table have similar properties because they have
(b) As the element contains 3 valence electrons same number of outermost electrons and hence,
which can be easily lost thus, it is a metal. show same valency. Thus, they all will form similar
type of compounds.
24. Electronic configuration of an element decides
its position in Modern periodic table. 29. Atomic number of magnesium = 12
Lets take an example of sodium (Na). Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 2
Atomic number of sodium = 11 Valency of magnesium (Mg) = 2
Thus, electronic configuration of Na = 2, 8, 1 Similarly, for oxygen (O) atomic number = 8
As Na contains 1 electron in its outermost shell, it Electronic configuration = 2, 6
belongs to group 1. Sodium contains 3 shells so, it Valency of oxygen = 8 – 6 = 2
belongs to period number 3. Formation of their compound will be as follows :
Thus, we can conclude that
Group number = Number of valence electrons
(When valence electrons are 1 and 2) 30. (i) As we go from left to right across the
and group number = 10 + valence electrons period, the atomic size of the elements decreases.
(When valence electrons are 3 and above) At each successive element, there is addition of
Period number = Number of shells in which one electron in the same shell due to which there
electrons are filled. is an increase in nuclear charge. Thus, there is
25. (i) When we go down the group the valency an increase in attraction between nucleus and
of elements remains same. the valence electrons which results in decreasing
(ii) When we move along the period from left to atomic size.
right, the valency of elements first increases and (ii) On moving down the group, the atomic size
then decreases. increases due to addition of new shell at each
successive element.
26. From the given data, the electronic
configuration of different elements can be 31. In Modern periodic table, there are 18 vertical
written as : columns called groups and 7 horizontal rows
Calcium (20) = 2, 8, 8, 2 called periods.
Element with atomic number 12 = 2, 8, 2 The elements which have a greater tendency to
Element with atomic number 19 = 2, 8, 8, 1 loose electrons are more metallic thus, the metallic
Periodic Classification of Elements 71

character of elements increases down the group as (a) Aluminium (Al) will show highest valency
their tendency to loose electrons increases. of +3 as it belongs to group number 13 (valency
Atomic radius decreases as we move from left = 13 – 10 = 3). Moreover, along the period from left
to right in a horizontal row. At each successive to right valency first increases to maximum (+4)
element, the electron enters to the same shell due and then decreases.
to which there is increase in nuclear charge and (b) Sodium (Na) will have the largest atomic
the electrons are pulled with greater attractive radius because as we move along the period from
force. Hence, the atomic size decreases. left to right, the atomic radius decreases.
32. Atomic number of P = 20 (c) Sodium (Na) will have maximum chemical
Electronic configuration of P = 2, 8, 8, 2 reactivity because as we move along the period
Atomic number of Q = 17 from left to right, chemical reactivity decreases.
Electronic configuration of Q = 2, 8, 7
35. Given that, atomic number of calcium is 20.
As P contains 4 shells, it belongs to 4th period and
So, its electronic configuration = 2, 8, 8, 2
due to presence of two valence electrons, it belongs
(i) As, it has 2 valence electrons in the outermost
to 2nd group.
Similarly, Q contains 3 shells and 7 valence shell which can be easily lost, so it is a metal.
electrons thus, it belongs to 3rd period and (ii) Atomic number of K (potassium) is 19 so, it is
17th (10 + 7) group. placed before Ca(20) in the same period.
The molecular formula of compound formed On moving from left to right in a period, the
when P reacts with Q will be : atomic radius decreases.
P Q Hence, atomic radius of Ca(20) will be smaller
PQ2 than that of K(19).
Valency 2 1 (iii) The valency of calcium as well as oxygen is 2
33. In the Modern periodic table, there are 18 thus, the formula of the oxide will be CaO.
vertical columns called groups and 7 horizontal 36. Electronic configuration of M is 2, 8, 2 which
rows called periods.
shows that it belongs to group 2 and period 3 of the
Trend of metallic character :
Modern periodic table.
(i) Along the period from left to right : Metallic
As it has 2 valence electrons, so the valency of
character of elements decreases as we move from
element M will be 2.
left to right in a period. Metallic character depends
on the electropositive character (tendency to loose The chemical formulae of the compounds formed
electrons) of the elements. As we go across the will be
period from left to right, one electron is added M(NO3)2, MSO4, M3(PO4)2
to same shell at every stage which increases As M has two valence electrons, it can easily loose
the effective nuclear charge and hence, valence these electrons to attain a noble gas configuration.
electrons becomes more and more closer to the Hence, M will form ionic compounds.
nucleus. Due to this, the tendency of atoms to loose 37. Two elements of group 1 are sodium (Na) and
valence electrons and form positive ions decreases. potassium (K).
Hence, electropositive character decreases Electronic configuration of Na (11) = 2, 8, 1
resulting in decrease of metallic character. Electronic configuration of K (19) = 2, 8, 8, 1
(ii) Down the group : Metallic character of
From the electronic configuration, we observe that
elements increases on moving down the group as
both (Na and K) have one electron in outermost
the electropositive character increases down the
group. shell due to which they have valency equal to one.
Thus, formula of their oxides are, Na2O and K2O.
34. Period number of Na, Mg and Al = 3
Group number of Na, Mg and Al are 1, 2 and 13 38. Electronic configuration of A = 2, 8, 2 i.e., Mg
respectively. Electronic configuration of B = 2, 8, 3 i.e., Al
72 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Characteristics A B (b) As size of the atoms decreases on moving from


left to right in a period so, the order of atomic radii
(a) No. of electrons in 12 13
will be : X > Y > Z
their atoms
(c) Formula of the compound when X combines
(b) Size of their atoms Bigger Smaller with Z :
(c) Tendency to loose More Less
electrons
(d) Formula of their AO B2O3
42. (i) Atomic number of Ca = 20
oxides
Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 8, 2
(e) Metallic character More Less (ii) Rb (37), electronic configuration = 2, 8, 18, 8, 1
(f) Formula of their ACl2 BCl3 Thus, number of valence electrons = 1
chlorides (iii) As Sr (38) belongs to period number 5 so, it
39. (a) As the element ‘X’ belongs to 3rd period so, will have 5 shells.
it will have three energy shells. Moreover, it belongs (iv) As K(19) = 2, 8, 8, 1
to 16th group, so it will have six valence electrons. So, it has 1 valence electron which can be easily
Electronic configuration of X = 2, 8, 6 lost to attain the noble gas configuration. Hence,
Thus, valence electrons = 6 potassium (K) is a metal.
and valency = 8 – 6 = 2 (v) Size of the atom increases down the group
(b) Molecular formula of the compound formed and decreases from left to right along a period.
when X reacts with hydrogen = H2X Thus, Rb (37) will be the largest atom among given
The electron dot structure is as : elements.
.. .. (vi) Increasing order of atomic size is
H ×. X .
.. × H or H—X
.. — H Be < Mg < Ca < Rb
43. (a) As X belongs to group 13 so, it will have
(c) The element X is sulphur and it is a non-metal. three valence electrons and valency of X will be 3.
40. Mass number of X = 35 (b) Atomic number of Y = 8
Number of neutrons = 18 Electronic configuration = 2, 6
Number of electrons = Number of protons Valency of Y = 8 – 6 = 2
= (Mass number Molecular formula of the compound when X
– Number of neutrons) reacts with element Y :
= 35 – 18 = 17
Number of electrons of X = Atomic number of X = 17
Thus, electronic configuration of X = 2, 8, 7
As it has 7 electrons in the outermost shell, so it
belongs to 17th group. Moreover the electrons are (c) As X belongs to 3rd period and group number
present in three shells, so it belongs to 3rd period. 13, so it will be aluminium (Al).
Valency of X = 8 – 7 = 1 For chlorine (17), electronic configuration = 2, 8, 7
41. (a) For element X of atomic number 7, the Valency of Cl = 8 – 7 = 1
electronic configuration is 2, 5 so it has 5 valence Formula of the compound :
electrons and hence, it belongs to group 15. As
seven electrons are filled in two shells so, it belongs
to 2nd period. Aluminium
Similarly, for Y(8), electronic configuration = 2, 6 chloride

Period number = 2, Group number = 16 44. The main aim of classifying elements is the
and for Z(9) = 2, 7 prediction of their properties with more precision
Period number = 2, Group number = 17 (systematic study of known elements).
Periodic Classification of Elements 73

– When the elements are arranged on the basis (ii) Electronic configuration of Z = 2, 8, 7
of increasing atomic number then it is easier Hence, valency of Z = 8 – 7 = 1
to predict their properties. This led to the Formula of compound formed when X reacts with
development of Modern periodic table. Z is
– Modern periodic law states that the properties
of elements are periodic function of their
atomic numbers.
– In Modern periodic table, the metals like 47. Atomic number of X = 19
sodium and magnesium are towards left hand (a) Electronic configuration of X = 2, 8, 8, 1
side while the non-metals like sulphur and (b) X has four shells so, the period number of
chlorine are found on the right hand side. X = 4. Moreover, it has one electron in its outermost
Elements like silicon, germanium, etc. which shell, so the valency of X will be equal to one.
lie along the border line (group 13 to group16)
(c) Electronic configuration of X shows that it is a
are semi-metals or metalloids because they
metal and metals form basic oxides.
exhibit some properties of both metals and
(d) When oxide of X is dissolved in water then its
non-metals.
hydroxide will be formed.
45. (a) Atomic number of element X is 20 so, it is
X2O + H2O 2XOH
calcium (Ca).
Electronic configuration of Ca = 2, 8, 8, 2 48. (i) Tendency of the elements to loose
(b) As calcium has two valence electrons in its electrons increases down the group. The reason
outermost shell, so it belongs to group 2. being that at each succeeding element down a
Moreover, it has four shells which indicates that it group, the number of shells increases. So, the
belongs to period number 4. distance of the valence shell from the nucleus
(c) Calcium forms a basic oxide having the increases due to which the effective nuclear charge
formula : decreases on the last shell of electrons. So, it
becomes easier for the atom to loose electrons.
(ii) Tendency of the elements to loose electrons
decreases in a period from left to right. The reason
When calcium oxide is treated with water then being that as the electron enters to the same shell
calcium hydroxide is formed. at each successive element so, the effective nuclear
CaO + H2 O 
→ Ca(OH)2 charge on the valence shell electron increases,
Calcium hydroxide the attraction between the valence electrons and
46. Third period indicates that it has three shells nucleus increases so, it becomes difficult to loose
while group 2 indicates that it has two valence electrons.
electrons in its outermost shell. 49. There are 18 groups and 7 periods in the
Thus, X must be magnesium (Mg). Modern periodic table.
(a) Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 2 – Atomic size increases down the group, while
(b) As X has two valence electrons in its outermost
moving from left to right in a period it
shell which can be easily lost to form a noble gas
decreases.
configuration, so it will be a metal.
– Metallic character of elements increases down
(c) (i) Electronic configuration of Y = 2, 6
the group while moving from left to right in a
Hence, valency of Y = 8 – 6 = 2
period it decreases.
Formula of compound formed when X reacts with
Y is 50. Na, Mg and Al belong to same period of
Modern periodic table.
Na Mg Al
Valence electrons 1 2 3
74 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

(i) Sodium (Na) will have the largest atomic (d) Tendency to lose More Less
radius because as we move from left to right in a electrons
period, atomic size decreases due to increase in (e) Formula of their P2O QO
effective nuclear charge which pulls the outermost oxides
electrons more closer to the nucleus. (f) Formula of their PCl QCl2
(ii) Aluminium (Al) is least reactive because on chlorides
moving from left to right in the periodic table the
54. Atomic number of the element = 16
nuclear charge increases, so the valence electrons
Thus, electronic configuration = 2, 8, 6
are pulled more closer to the nucleus. Therefore,
Since, this element contains 3 shells hence, it
the tendency to loose electrons decreases and
belongs to period number 3.
hence, reactivity decreases.
As the element has 6 valence electrons, group
51. Refer to answer 22. number = 10 + 6 = 16
Thus, formula of compound when K combines The valency of an element is determined by the
with X is number of electrons present in the outermost shell.
KX Valency of the element = 8 – valence electrons
=8–6=2
As K has one electron in its outermost shell, so it 55. The electronic configuration of the given
transfers this electron to outermost shell of X and elements will be as follows :
hence, an ionic compound is formed. A(4) = 2, 2
B(9) = 2, 7
× C(14) = 2, 8, 4
K+[×X ]
D(19) = 2, 8, 8, 1
52. There are 7 periods in the Modern periodic E(20) = 2, 8, 8, 2
table. (a) Element D will have one electron in its
As we move along the period from left to right outermost shell.
then valency of the elements first increases from (b) Elements A and E will belong to same group
1 to 4 and then decreases to 0. as both of them have same electrons in their
On moving from left to right in a period the outermost shells.
metallic character of elements decreases as the (c) A and B belong to period number 2 (two
electropositive character of elements decreases shells).
across the period. D and E belong to period number 4 (four shells).
On moving down the group, the valency of the
56. Refer to answer 45.
elements remains the same while atomic size
increases. This is due to addition of new shell of 57. X is placed in 3rd group (IIIA) and 3rd period
electrons at every successive step. of the Modern periodic table then it must be
aluminium (Al).
53. The given characteristics can be tabulated as
As it belongs to 3rd group so it will have 3 electrons
follows :
in its outermost shell.
Characteristics Group 1 Group 2 Also it belongs to 3rd period, so it will have 3 shells.
P Q (a) Electronic configuration of X = 2, 8, 3
(a) No. of electrons 3 4 (b) Atomic number of Y = 17
in their atoms 11 12 it can Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 7
19 20 be any Valency of Y = 8 – 7 = 1
37 38 pair Formula of compound formed when X reacts
55 56 with Y :
X Y
(b) Sizes of atoms Bigger Smaller  XY3
(c) Metallic character More Less Valency 3 1
Periodic Classification of Elements 75

(c) Al2O3 is amphoteric in nature i.e., acidic as So, chemical formula will be
well as basic oxide. D X
⇒ DX3
58. P, Q, R and S all belong to 3rd period so, all of
them will have 3 shells and the number of electrons Valency 3 1
in their outermost shell is 1, 3, 5 and 7 respectively. (iii) Compounds formed when element of group-2
Electronic configuration of Q = 2, 8, 3 and its combines with an element of group-16 :
valency = 3 Let the group-2 element be X and group-16 element
Similarly, electronic configuration of R = 2, 8, 5 be Y.
Valency of X = 2
and its valency = 8 – 5 = 3
Valency of Y = 2
Electronic configuration of P = 2, 8, 1
Chemical formula of the compound will be
Thus, valency of P = 1
X
Electronic configuration of S = 2, 8, 7
Y
= X2Y2 ⇒ XY
Thus, valency of S = 8 – 7 = 1
Valency 2 2
Molecular formula of the compound :
P S 61. (a) (i) Valency : It is defined as the combining
 PS capacity of the element which is determined by
Valency 1 1 the number of valence electrons present in the
outermost shell of its atom.
59. (i) Element E will form only covalent (ii) Atomic size : It is defined as the distance
compounds because it has 4 electrons in the between the centre of the nucleus and the
outermost shell so, it can neither loose nor gain 4 outermost shell of an isolated atom.
electrons, hence E forms compounds by sharing of (b) On moving from left to right in the period, the
electrons. valency of elements increases from 1 to 4 and then
(ii) Element B is a metal having valency 3 as it decreases to 0.
belongs to group 13. This is because the elements in a period do not
(iii) C is a non-metal with valency (8 – 5 =) 3. have the same number of valence electrons hence,
(iv) Out of B and C, B will be bigger in size they do not show same valency.
The atomic size decreases on moving from left
because as we move along the period from left to
to right along a period due to increase in nuclear
right, the atomic radius decreases due to addition
charge which tends to pull the electrons closer to
of electrons in the same shell at each successive the nucleus and reduces the size of the atom.
element. Hence, nucleus pulls electrons more
62. Atomic number of X = 17
towards the centre.
Electronic configuration of X = 2, 8, 7
(v) D and F belong to group 18 and are called Atomic number of Y = 20
noble gases. Electronic configuration of Y = 2, 8, 8, 2
60. (i) Oxides of group 1 elements : (i) From the electronic configurations, we can
Let the element be A. easily observe that X contains 3 shells so, it belongs
As A belongs to group 1 of the periodic table, it to period 3 and it contains 7 electrons in the
will have valency = 1. outermost shell so, it belongs to group-17. Similarly
So, chemical formula of its oxide will be for Y, it has 4 shells which implies that it belongs
to period 4 and Y contains two electrons in the
A O outermost shell so, it belongs to group-2.
= A2O
(ii) Valency of X = 1
Valency 1 2 Valency of Y = 2
(ii) Halides of the element of group-13 : Thus, formula of the compound formed will be
Let the element be D. X Y
As D belongs to group 13, it will have valency = 3 = YX2
Halide X has the valency = 1 Valency 1 2
76 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

(iii) Electron dot structure of the compound will be due to which electrons are pulled more closer to
.. .. – the nucleus.
.. ×X
..

..
.
X
(v) C and F belong to group 18 and are called

..
.
Y ×× .. Y 2+ × .. – noble gases.
..

..
X
..

.
..
.X
66. The vertical columns in the Modern periodic
As two electrons present in the outermost shell table are called groups. There are total 18 groups in
of Y are donated to two different atoms of X thus, the Modern periodic table.
it will be an ionic bond (formed by the complete
(i) In a particular group, the number of valence
transfer of electrons).
electrons remains the same.
63. Atomic number of A = 17 (ii) On moving down the group, there is addition
Electronic configuration of A = 2, 8, 7 of an extra shell successively. Hence, number of
Atomic number of B = 19 occupied shells increases.
Electronic configuration of B = 2, 8, 8, 1
(iii) Due to addition of extra shells down the group,
(i) From the electronic configuration of A, it
the size of the atoms i.e., the distance between
can be easily observed that A contains three
nucleus and the outermost shell also increases.
shells which indicates that it belongs to period 3.
Moreover, it has seven valence electrons in its (iv) Down the group as atomic size increases, the
outermost shell which indicates that it belongs to outermost electron is pulled by nucleus to lesser
group 17. extent and hence, tendency to loose electrons
Similarly for B, it has 4 shells so, it belongs to increases i.e., metallic character increases.
period 4 and it has one electron in outermost (v) Effective nuclear charge experienced by
shell so, it belongs to group 1. valence electrons decreases down the group due to
(ii) The molecular formula of the compound increase in size of atoms.
when A combines with B will be 67. (i) As Be, Mg and Ca have two electrons in
B A their outermost shell so, they all belong to group 2.
⇒ BA (ii) Be will be least reactive element, as down the
Valency 1 1 group the reactivity of the elements increases.
Be being smaller in size as compared to others will
As A contains 7 electrons in the outermost shell
have less tendency to loose electrons and hence, is
so, it is an electronegative element that is why A is
less reactive.
placed after B. (iii) As we move down the group, atomic radius
(iii) The electron dot structure will be
increases hence, calcium will have the largest
.. atomic radius.
B+[×A
...

..A ×B
.. ]
..

..
.

The one electron present in the outermost shell of 68. The horizontal rows of elements in the
B gets transferred to the outermost shell of A and periodic table are called periods. There are seven
hence, ionic bond is formed. periods in the long form of periodic table.
64. Refer to answer 58. The vertical columns in a periodic table are called
groups. There are 18 groups in the long form of
65. (i) Element E will form only covalent
periodic table.
compounds because it has 4 electrons in the
X belongs to group-1 while Y belongs to group-2
outermost shell so, it can neither loose nor gain 4
of the same period hence, valency of X will be 1
electrons, hence E forms compounds by sharing of
and valency of Y will be 2.
electrons.
(ii) Element D is a metal having valency 3 as it (i) As we move along the period from left to right
belongs to group 13. the size of the atoms decreases. Hence, X will be
(iii) B is a non-metal with valency (8 – 5 =) 3. bigger than Y.
(iv) Out of D and E, D will be bigger in size (ii) Across the period from left to right, the
because as we move from left to right in a period metallic character decreases. Hence, X is more
there is addition of extra electron in the same shell metallic than Y.
Periodic Classification of Elements 77

(iii) The valency of X in its oxide will be 1 and that 73. As element X belongs to group 1, thus it will
of Y in its oxide will be 2. have one electron in its outermost shell. Moreover,
(iv) Molecular formula of their chlorides will be it belongs to period 3 which implies that X has
X Cl Y Cl 3 shells.
⇒ XCl ⇒ YCl2 (i) Electronic configuration of X will be 2, 8, 1
Valency 1 1 2 1 Hence, number of valence electrons = 1
(ii) Valency of X will be 1.
69. There are 18 groups and 7 periods in the (iii) As X contains 1 valence electron which can be
Modern periodic table. easily lost hence, it is a metal.
(i) For elements to be in the same group, they
74. (i) F, Cl and Br all have seven valence
should have same number of electrons in their
electrons so, they belong to the same group. On
outermost shells. For example, sodium and
moving down the group, the atomic size of the
potassium have one electron in their outermost
elements increases due to addition of extra shell
shells, so they belong to same group i.e., group 1.
at each successive element. Due to this the average
(ii) For elements to be in the same period, they
distance between nucleus and outermost electrons
should have same number of shells.
increases. Thus, Br is largest in size among F, Cl
For example, magnesium (12) and aluminium (13)
and Br.
contain three shells so, they belong to period 3.
(ii) Fluorine is the most reactive element because
Mg (12) = 2, 8, 2 the chemical reactivity of non-metals decreases on
Both have three shells
Al (13) = 2, 8, 3  going down a group as the size of the atoms goes
70. (i) Element E will form only covalent on increasing. Hence, the attraction of incoming
compounds. electrons decreases. Therefore, the tendency of
(ii) Element D is a metal with valency one as it atoms to gain electrons decreases due to which
belongs to group 1. their reactivity decreases.
(iii) Element B is a non-metal with valency 2 as it 75. Refer to answer 49.
belongs to group 16 (valency = 8 – 6 = 2). Valency remains the same in a group, as the
(iv) Out of D and E, D will have bigger atomic number of valence electrons are same. Valency
radius because as we move along the period from first increases from 1 to 4 in a period and then
left to right there is decrease in atomic radius. decreases to 0.
(v) Valency of B = 2 76. Atomic number of element (E) = 16
Valency of D = 1 Electronic configuration = 2, 8, 6
D B (i) Number of valence electrons in the atom = 6
= D2B (ii) Valency = 8 – 6 = 2
1 2 (iii) As there are 6 valence electrons thus, its group
71. Electronic configuration of element = 2, 8, 8, 1 number is 10 + 6 = 16
(i) It contains one electron in its outermost shell (iv) This element is a non-metal.
thus, it belongs to group 1. Moreover, the element (v) The nature of oxide formed by this element is
has 4 shells, so it belongs to period 4. acidic.
(ii) As the element contains one electron in its (vi) The formula of the chloride of non-metal ‘E’
outermost shell which can be easily lost hence, it will be
E Cl
acts as a metal. = ECl2
72. (i), (ii) Refer to answer 22. Valency 2 1
(iii) Be and F belong to the same period (period 2). 77. (a) C belongs to group 17 and hence, it
K and Ca belong to the same period (period 4). will have 7 valence electrons in the outermost shell
Among Be and F, Be will be bigger in size and and has a tendency to gain electrons thus, it is a
among K and Ca, K will be bigger in size. non-metal.
78 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

(b) Among A and C, A will be more reactive as 79. (a) (i) Noble gas = G
the reactivity decreases down the group. So, A has (ii) Halogen = F
more tendency to gain electrons. (b) B(11) = 2, 8, 1
(c) C will form negatively charged ion which is F(17) = 2, 8, 7
known as anion because group 17 elements have Valency of B = 1
seven electrons in their outermost shell so, they Valency of F = 8 – 7 = 1
have strong tendency to gain an electron to attain Formula of the compound formed :
the noble gas configuration.
B F
78. Eight elements A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H have = BF
same number of electronic shells. So, they belong Valency 1 1
to the same period.
(c) Electronic configuration of C(12) = 2, 8, 2
The biggest hint in the question is that the
Electronic configuration of E(8) = 2, 6
compound formed when A and G combine is used
in almost all vegetable dishes which is NaCl. 80. (a), (b) Refer to answer 28.
Thus, A = Na and B = Cl (c) endency to gain electrons increases as we go
(i) These elements belongs to period number 3. from left to right in a period due to addition of
Group : extra electron in the same shell at each successive
1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 element. Hence, tendency to attain a noble gas
A B C D E F G H configuration also increases. Moreover, as the
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar number of electrons increases in outermost shell
(ii) The compound formed by the combination of there is an increase in effective nuclear charge due
B and F i.e., Mg and S will be ionic in nature as to which tendency to gain electrons increases.
the bond will be formed by complete transfer of 81. (a) Refer to answer 68.
electrons. (b)
Properties M (Group I) N (group II)

(i) Sizes Bigger Smaller


(iii) A and B i.e., sodium and magnesium will
definitely be metals. (ii) Metallic More Less
(iv) G i.e., Cl (chlorine) is found as gaseous character
diatomic (Cl2) molecule at room temperature.
(v) Number of electrons in outermost shell of C = 3 (iii) Valencies +1 +2
Number of electrons in outermost shell of G = 7 in forming (M2O) (NO)
Valency of C = 3 oxides
Valency of G = 8 – 7 = 1
(iv) Molecular Cl Cl
Thus, the formula of the compound will be
M N
formula of
G
C chlorides 1 1 2 1
 CG 3 (i.e. AlCl3)
Valency 3 MCl NCl2
1
Chapter
Life Processes
6
6.1 What are Life Processes? 6.4 Transportation

6.2 Nutrition 6.5 Excretion

6.3 Respiration

Topicwise Analysis of 2010-2008 Years’ CBSE Board Questions

8 Maximum weightage is of Nutrition. 8 Maximum SA I type questions were asked from


Transportation.
8 Maximum VSA and LA type questions were
asked from Nutrition. 8 Maximum SA II type questions were asked
from Respiration.

QUICK RECAP
8 Living organisms : All the plants and animals (including human beings) are alive or living organisms.
All living organisms have some common characteristics which make them different from non-living
things.
Characteristics of Living Organisms
They can move by themselves.
They respire (release energy from food).
They need food, air and water.
They excrete (get rid of waste materials from their
body).
They can grow.
They can respond to changes around them and they
They can reproduce and can have young ones. are sensitive.
80 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

8 Nutrition: It is defined as the process of intake of nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, etc.,
and their utilisation by an organism in various biological activities.
Modes of nutrition

Autotrophic Heterotrophic
• A kind of nutrition in which the organisms • A kind of nutrition in which the organisms
prepare (or synthesise) their own organic food derive energy from the intake and digestion
utilising only the inorganic raw materials present of the organic substances prepared by
in their surroundings.
• It is found in green plants. autotrophs and other organic sources.

Saprotrophic
• A kind of nutrition in which the organisms derive their nutrients from dead and decaying
organic matter (such as rotten leaves, rotten bread, dead animals, household wastes, non-living
organic matter present in the soil, etc.).
Parasitic
• A type of nutrition in which the organisms (or parasites) derive their nutrients or food from
other living organisms without killing them.
• Parasitic mode of nutrition is observed in several fungi, bacteria, a few plants like Cuscuta and
some animals like Plasmodium and roundworms.
Holozoic
• In this type of nutrition, an organism takes the complex organic food materials into its body by
the process of ingestion. The ingested food is digested and then absorbed into the body cells of
the organisms.
• Human beings and most of the animals have holozoic mode of nutrition.
Flow chart: Modes of nutrition
8 Nutrition in Plants: The process by which X The food prepared by the green leaves of a
green plants make their own food (like glucose) plant is in the form of a simple sugar called
from carbon dioxide and water by using glucose. It is then sent to different parts of
sunlight energy in the presence of chlorophyll, the plants. The extra glucose is changed into
is called photosynthesis. The process of another food called starch. This starch is
photosynthesis can be represented as: stored in the leaves of the plant. Glucose and
starch belong to a category of foods called
6CO2 + 6H2O Light energy +
carbohydrates.
Carbon Water Chlorophyll
(Photosynthesis) X The plants take carbon dioxide required for
dioxide (From
(From air) soil) photosynthesis from air through tiny pores
called stomata present on the surface of
C6H12O6 + 6O2 leaves.
Glucose Oxygen
X Water required for photosynthesis is absorbed
X The process of photosynthesis takes place in from soil by the roots of plants.
the green leaves of a plant because they contain X Mechanism of photosynthesis: The first step
green pigment called chlorophyll in special of photosynthesis initiates when light falls on
cell organelles called chloroplasts. Hence, site green leaves. The pigment chlorophyll present
of photosynthesis in the leaves of green plants in the chloroplasts absorbs visible light and
is chloroplast.They have green coloured grana after absorption creates such condition that
embedded in liquid hyaline stroma. water breaks into hydrogen protons (H+),
Life Processes 81

electrons (e–) and evolves molecular oxygen – Absorption : The process in which
(O2). This is called photolysis. This O2 goes the digested food passes through the
into the atmosphere. The electrons and intestinal wall into blood stream is called
protons released by the photolysis of water absorption.
are used up in the production of assimilatory – Assimilation : The process in which the
power in the form of NADPH and ATP. absorbed food is taken in by body cells
Photolysis of water, evolution of molecular and used for energy, growth and repair, is
oxygen (O2) and synthesis of assimilatory called assimilation.
power has been assigned as the light reaction – Egestion : The process in which the
of photosynthesis. This step occurs in the undigested food is removed from the
granum part of the chloroplast. body is called egestion.
X The assimilatory power, generated in the light X Nutrition in Amoeba: Amoeba shows
reaction of photosynthesis, is used up in the holozoic mode of nutrition and obtains
next step where carbon dioxide (CO2) of its food through phagocytosis. It engulfs
atmosphere is utilised in the production of the microscopic food particle by forming
carbohydrate. pseudopodia (temporary protoplasmic
X This step was discovered in detail by processes.) The food particle gets surrounded
Calvin, Benson and Bassam. It is a cyclic by pseudopodia to form food vacuole.
process, which occurs in the stroma part of X Nutrition in human beings : Human beings
chlorophyll, that is totally enzymatic process are heterotrophic, holozoic, omnivorous
and has been termed as the dark reaction of organisms. The human digestive system
photosynthesis. consists of an alimentary canal and many
X The important factors which affect the process digestive glands. The alimentary canal of
of photosynthesis are : light, temperature, human beings consists of following parts:
carbon dioxide and water. – Mouth : Mouth gives passage for
8 Nutrition in animals : Depending upon the ingestion of food. It is guarded by two soft
food habit, holozoic animals are classified movable lips and opens into a chamber
into 3 categories : or cavity called buccal cavity.
X Herbivores: These animals eat only algae or – Buccal (or Oral) cavity : It is a large space
plant materials. The common herbivorous bounded above by the palate, below by
animals are cow, rabbit, goat, camel, deer, etc. the throat and on the sides by the jaws.
X Carnivores : These animals eat only flesh The throat supports the muscular tongue
of other animals. The common carnivorous which forms the floor of this cavity and
animals are lion, tiger, frog, snake, etc. helps in ingestion of food. Both upper
X Omnivores : These animals eat both plants and lower jaws are provided with teeth.
and other animals as food. The common Each jaw has two pairs of incisors, one
omnivorous animals are man, sparrow, crow, pair of canines, two pairs of premolars
bear, etc. and three pairs of molars. Thus, each
X There are five steps in the process of nutrition jaw possesses total 16 teeth and a human
in animals. These are : adult has 32 permanent teeth. The full
– Ingestion : The process of taking food dental formula (arrangements of teeth)
into the body is called ingestion. of humans is represented as – I 2/2, C 1/1,
– Digestion : The process in which the food Pm 2/2, M 3/3. The incisors are sharp
containing large, insoluble molecules is and have cutting edges. The canines are
broken down into small, water soluble pointed and occur next to the incisors.
molecules (which can be absorbed by the The premolars and molars are called
body) is called digestion. the grinding teeth. Teeth cut the food
82 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

into small pieces. The buccal cavity has tube of about 6 metres which lies coiled
three pairs of salivary glands located at in the abdomen. Partially digested and
different locations. The parotid glands churned food from the stomach enters
lie on the sides of the face, sublingual into the small intestine which receives
glands lie under the front part of the secretions from the liver and pancreas,
tongue and submaxillary glands lie at through a common duct. The bile duct
the angles of the lower jaw. These salivary carries bile secreted by liver and stored
glands secrete saliva through their ducts. in the gall gladder. Bile contains bile
Saliva contains water, salts, mucin and salts (sodium glycocholate and sodium
an enzyme ptyalin. Ptyalin is salivary taurocholate) which bring about the
amylase which splits starch and glycogen emulsification of fat. Pancreatic duct
into maltose. comes from the pancreas which is
– Pharynx: It is about 12 cm long funnel- both an endocrine as well as exocrine
shaped vertical canal which serves as a gland. The exocrine region secretes
passage way for the food from the buccal sodium bicarbonate and many digestive
cavity to the oesophagus. enzymes whereas the endocrine region of
– Oesophagus: This is a long and tubular pancreas secretes hormones, insulin and
structure which serves to carry the food glucagon. The bicarbonate ions make the
from pharynx to the stomach. The wall of medium alkaline which is favourable for
oesophagus is highly muscular. It exhibits the action of pancreatic enzymes. The
peristaltic movement, i.e., contraction pancreatic amylase causes breakdown
and expansion movement of walls, so of starch, pancreatic lipase breaks down
that the partially digested food is pushed lipids and trypsin causes digestion of
forward in the tract. protein. The small intestine also secretes
– Stomach: This is a wide C-shaped or digestive juice which contains a mixture
J-shaped muscular sac present on the left of several enzymes. All these enzymes act
side of the abdomen. Partially digested upon different types of food. Internally,
food reaches the stomach from the buccal the wall of small intestine is raised into
cavity through pharynx and oesophagus. numerous projections called the villi.
– The food is stored in the stomach The villi greatly increase the absorptive
for variable duration. Wall of the surface area of the inner lining of
stomach undergoes periodic muscular intestine. Presence of villi and blood
contraction so that the food gets churned capillaries in the absorptive surface
and mixes thoroughly with the gastric enhance the capacity of absorption by the
juice. Stomach possesses three types of wall of the intestine. The absorbed food
glands which secrete hydrochloric acid, goes into the blood and moves along
protein digestive enzyme and mucus. with the blood stream. This food reaches
All these secretions are collectively to the cells where it is utilised. Utilisation
called gastric juice. The hydrochloric of food is also a part of nutrition and is
acid makes the medium acidic. Protein- termed as assimilation.
digesting enzyme pepsin acts in acidic – Large intestine: It is arranged around the
medium which breaks down proteins mass of small intestine in the form of a
into peptones. Gastric juice also contains question mark. The greater part of large
some gastric lipase which partially intestine is colon which is followed by
breaks down lipids. rectum. The undigested food is collected
– Small intestine: This is the longest part as faeces in the rectum which leads to the
of the alimentary canal. It is a narrow anus.
Life Processes 83

– The wall of large intestine absorbs most


of the water from the undigested food
making it almost solid. This undigested
food is passed out from our body through
anus as faeces. This act of expelling the – Anaerobic respiration: Oxidation of
faeces is called egestion or defecation. respiratory substrates in absence of
oxygen is termed as anaerobic respiration.
8 Respiration: Most living organisms need
It involves incomplete breakdown of
oxygen (of air) to obtain energy from food.
respiratory substrates in which the
This oxygen reacts with the food molecules end products like ethanol or lactic
(like glucose) present in the body cells and acid are formed and CO2 is released.
burns them slowly to release energy. The This respiration occurs in certain
process of releasing energy from food is microorganisms such as bacteria and
called respiration. Respiration is essential for yeast. The overall equation is as follows:
life because it provides energy for carrying
out all the life processes.
X Breathing is the process by which air rich
in oxygen is taken inside the body of an
organism and air rich in carbon dioxide 8 Respiratory system in human beings : The
is expelled from the body (with the help of
respiratory system in human beings includes
breathing organs). external nostrils, nasal cavities, internal
X Cellular respiration is much more complex nostrils, pharynx, larynx, trachea and a pair
process that occurs inside the living cells. It is of lungs which provide the surface for the
the oxidation of respiratory substrate (mainly exchange of gases.
glucose) in the cells resulting in the release X The air enters through the nostrils and reaches
of carbon dioxide and energy (in the form into a pair of nasal cavities, separated from
of ATP). Cellular respiration may be of two the oral cavity by a bony palate and separated
types: from each other by a nasal septum. The nasal
– Aerobic respiration : The oxidative cavities are lined with ciliated pseudostraified
breakdown of respiratory substrates with columnar epithelium rich in gland cells so
the help of atmospheric O2 is known as that the inspired air gets warmed, moistened
aerobic respiration. During this process, and becomes dust free. It is also lined with
the respiratory substrate is completely olfactory epithelium which acts as organ of
broken down into carbon dioxide and smell. The nasal chambers open into pharynx
water by the process of oxidation. In most through internal nares.
of the eukaryotic organisms, some part of X The pharynx is a short vertical tube located at
aerobic respiration (glycolysis) occurs in the back of the buccal cavity which provides
the cytoplasm and the major part (Krebs’ passage into which the internal nares and
cycle) occurs inside the mitochondrium. buccal cavity both open to pass the air into it.
In cytoplasm, the glucose is broken The pharynx provides passage into trachea or
down to pyruvic acid (a three carbon wind pipe through a slit-like aperture, called
compound) by the process called glottis. The glottis always remains open
glycolysis. In presence of oxygen this except during swallowing when the epiglottis
pyruvic acid enters into mitochondrium (leaf like cartilagenous flap) closes it to check
where it is completely broken down the entry of food into it.
resulting in the production of energy rich X The trachea or wind pipe is a thin-walled tube
compound, ATP. The equation of aerobic that extends downward through the neck and
breakdown of glucose is : divides into two major bronchi. One enters
84 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

the right lung, and the other, the left lung. bronchiole divides into alveolar ducts which
Trachea has cartilaginous rings to prevent it enter the alveolar sacs. The alveolar sacs are
from collapsing in between breathes. also called alveoli. Alveoli have very thin
X Lungs provide the surface for the exchange of walls composed of simple moist non-ciliated
gases. Each individual has a pair of lungs. The squamous epithelium. It is closely surrounded
lungs lie in the thoracic cavity. The thoracic by a network of blood capillaries.
cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity X The pathway of air into lungs is as follows:
by a muscular portion called diaphragm. External nares → Nasal cavities → Internal
Each lung is enclosed in two membranes, the nares → Pharynx → Glottis → Larynx
pleura. Within the lungs, the major bronchi → Trachea → Bronchi → Bronchioles →
further divide into secondary bronchi which Alveolar ducts → Alveoli.
sub divide into smaller tertiary bronchi and X Breathing in humans involves the movements of
finally into still smaller bronchioles. Each rib cage and diaphragm. This happens as follows:
Mechanism of Breathing

Breathing in: When we breathe in (or inhale), then Breathing out: When we breathe out (or
(i)the muscles between the ribs contract causing exhale), then (i) the muscles between the ribs
the rib cage to move upward and outward, and (ii) relax causing the rib cage to move downward
the diaphragm contracts and moves downward. and inward, and (ii) the diaphragm relaxes
The upward and outward movement of rib cage, and moves upward. The downward and inward
as well as the downward movement of diaphragm, movement of rib cage as well as the upward
both increase the space in the chest cavity and make movement of diaphragm, both decrease the
it larger. As the chest cavity becomes larger, air is space in our chest cavity and make it smaller.
sucked in from outside into the lungs. The lungs get As the chest cavity becomes smaller, air is
filled up with air and expand. pushed out from the lungs.
Flow chart : Mechanism of breathing
X Exchange of gases between alveoli and more in tissues and less in the blood. So, the
blood: In this exchange, the blood takes up CO2 moves from tissues to the blood. This
oxygen from the alveolar air and releases process is called internal respiration.
CO2 to the alveolar air. Such an exchange 8 Respiration in Fish : The fish has special organs
occurs because the concentration of O2 is of breathing called ‘gills’. The fish uses the
more in alveolar air. The blood has higher oxygen which is dissolved in water. It breathes by
concentration of CO2 as compared to taking in water through its mouth and sending
alveolar air. Thus, the CO2 moves from blood it over the gills. When water passes over the
to alveolar air due to simple diffusion. This gills, the gills extract dissolved oxygen from it.
exchange of gases results in the oxygenation The extracted oxygen is absorbed by the blood
of blood. The oxygenated blood then returns and carried to all the parts of the fish. Carbon
from the lung by pulmonary veins to the dioxide produced by respiration is brought back
left side of the heart. The heart supplies the by the blood into the gills for expelling into the
oxygenated blood to the body tissues. surrounding water.
X In tissues, the exchange of gases occurs between
the oxygenated blood and the tissue cells. The 8 Respiration in other organisms : Earthworm
concentration of O2 is more in the blood and absorbs oxygen needed for respiration through
less in the tissue cells. So, the O2 moves from its moist skin as it has good blood supply.
blood to the tissues by the physical process 8 Amoeba and Paramecium breathe through
of diffusion. Similarly, CO2 concentration is their cell membranes.
Life Processes 85

8 In insects like grasshopper, cockroach, through which the materials are transported
housefly and mosquito, the tiny holes called to relevant organs and tissues. They are: Blood
spiracles on their body and the air tubes vascular system and lymphatic system.
called tracheae are the respiratory organs. 8 Blood vascular system : A vascular system
8 Respiration in plants : Plants use oxygen of is that which has tubes full of fluid to be
air for respiration and release carbon dioxide. transported from one place to another. This
system comprises of heart, the organ which
Respiration in plants differs from pumps and receives the blood, and blood
that in animals in three respects: vessels, which are tubes through which the
All the parts of a plant (like root, stem and blood flows.
leaves) perform respiration individually. X Blood : Blood is a red coloured liquid
On the other hand, an animal performs (connective tissue) because it contains a red
respiration as a single unit. pigment called haemoglobin.
During respiration in plants, there is a little Main components of blood
transport of respiratory gases from one part
of the plant to the other. On the other hand, Plasma
respiratory gases are usually transported The liquid part of blood is called plasma.
over long distances inside an animal during Plasma contains about 90 percent water and
respiration.
dissolved substances such as proteins, digested
The respiration in plants occurs at a slow rate. food, common salt, waste products (like
On the other hand, the respiration in animals carbon dioxide and urea) and hormones. Red
occurs at a much faster rate. blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are
X Plants have a branching shape, so they have immersed in this liquid.
quite a large surface area in comparison to Red blood cells
their volume. Therefore, diffusion alone can Red blood cells are red in colour due to the
supply all the cells of the plants with as much presence of a red pigment called haemoglobin
oxygen as they need for respiration. inside them. These cells carry oxygen from the
lungs to all the cells of the body. It is actually
Diffusion in plants the haemoglobin present in red blood cells
Stem which carries oxygen in the body. Red blood
The stems of herbaceous plants have stomata cells are circular in shape and lack nuclei.
where the exchange of respiratory gases takes place. White blood cells
Leaves White blood cells fight infection and protect
The leaves of plants have tiny pores called us from diseases hence, they are called soldiers
stomata. The exchange of respiratory gases of the body. Some white blood cells can eat up
in the leaves takes place by the process of
the germs (like bacteria) which cause diseases.
diffusion through stomata.
Other white blood cells make chemicals known
Roots as ‘antibodies’ to fight against infection. These
The roots of plants take the oxygen required cells are irregular in shape. All the white blood
for respiration from the air present in between cells have a nucleus though the shape of nucleus
the soil particles by the process of diffusion.
is different in different types of white blood cell.
8 Transportation : It is a life process in which a Platelets
substance synthesised or absorbed in one part of Platelets are the tiny fragments of special cells
the organism is carried to other parts of its body. formed in the bone marrow. They do not have
8 Transportation in human beings : In human nuclei. Platelets help in the coagulation of blood
(or clotting of blood) in case of cut or wound.
beings, there are two circulatory systems
86 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

– Blood clotting: In the region of injury, the passing through narrow lumen of arteries
platelets rupture and release a substance is aerated and has a considerable pressure.
called thromboplastin. It converts (ii) Veins are thin walled blood vessels
protein prothrombin into thrombin. which bring blood from the body back
Vitamin K is essential for the formation to the heart. They are larger and hold
of prothrombin in liver. Thrombin then more blood than the arteries. The blood
changes soluble fibrinogen protein passing through wide lumen of veins is
into fibrin. The latter undergoes rapid non-aerated (except in pulmonary veins)
polymerisation to form long fibres. The and has low pressure.
fibres form a network over the damaged (iii) Capillaries are thin walled and extremely
(injured) region, entrap blood corpuscles narrow blood vessels which occur at the
and form a blood clot. terminals of artery and vein. The wall of
Functions of blood capillaries are permeable to water and
dissolved substances so that the exchange
Circulation of blood is responsible for of materials between the blood and body
transportation of soluble digested food from cells can take place.
the small intestine to various parts of the body X Human heart: The heart is a hollow,
where they are stored or assimilated. muscular organ, that contracts regularly and
continuously pumps blood to various parts of
Blood carries soluble excretory materials,
the body. Its average weight is about 300 gm
such as urea to organs of excretion.
in males and about 250 gm in females. It is
Blood carries hormones from the endocrine situated between the two lungs in the middle
glands to target organs. of the thoracic cavity. It is surrounded by a two
layered sac, the pericardium. The pericardial
Circulation of blood helps to maintain a
fluid is secreted in the pericardial cavity
constant body temperature by distributing the between the pericardium and heart which
excess heat from the deeply seated organs. reduces the friction between the heart wall and
Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to all surrounding tissues when the heart is beating.
parts of the body. – Structure of the heart: The heart is
divided by septa into two halves: the right
Blood carries carbon dioxide produced by the and the left. Each half consists of two
tissues to the lungs for breathing out. communicating chambers upper smaller
Blood has a property of clotting which or atrium and lower larger ventricle.
prevents excessive blood loss. Thus, the heart has four chambers: The
two upper chambers, called atria and
The white blood cells act as soldiers of the two lower chambers, called left and right
body by killing the bacteria and other germs. ventricles. There are valves between left
The blood acts as a buffer and maintains a atrium and left ventricle and between
right atrium and right ventricle. These
constant solute potential and pH.
valves provide one-way passage and
– Blood vessels : There are three kinds of prevent the return of blood. The walls of
blood vessels in human body – arteries, heart are composed of special muscles
veins and capillaries. called cardiac muscles.
(i) Arteries are the blood vessels which carry – One complete contraction (systole) and
blood away from the heart for distribution relaxation (diastole) of the heart is called
to the body. The walls of arteries are a heart beat.
thick that enables them to dilate but not – The sequence of events which takes place
rupture when the heart contracts and during the completion of one heart beat
forces blood into them. Thus, the blood is called the cardiac cycle.
Life Processes 87

Steps of cardiac cycle blood is pumped around the body by the


heart is called blood pressure. The blood
Joint Diastole pressure of a person is always expressed
During the time when the muscles of all four in the form of two values called ‘systolic
chambers of the heart are relaxed, the blood pressure’ and ‘diastolic pressure’. The
return to the heart under low pressure and maximum pressure at which the blood
enters the two atria. Blood from large veins, leaves the heart through the main artery
called vena cava, pours into right atrium. (aorta) during contraction phase, is
This blood comes from head, upper body called the systolic pressure. The minium
parts and lower body parts where oxygen pressure in the arteries during the
has been used up and the blood is free from relaxation phase of heart is called the
oxygen, i.e., deoxygenated. At the same diastolic pressure. The normal blood
time, the pulmonary vein from lungs pours pressure values are : Systolic pressure :
oxygenated blood into the left atrium. Thus, 120 mm Hg6, Diastolic pressure : 80 mm
the oxygenated blood enters the left atrium. Hg. This is usually written as 120/80.
Atrial Systole – The blood circulation in human heart
is double circulation. One circulation
As the right and left atria fill with blood,
involves the entry of blood into the
pressure in them rises so that the valves
heart from all body parts. This blood is
between left atrium and left ventricle
deoxygenated which goes to lungs for
(bicuspid valve) and between right atrium
oxygenation. The second circulation
and right ventricle (tricuspid valve) open
involves entry of oxygenated blood
and the atria contract. Atrial contraction
from lungs into the heart and then its
forces pumping of deoxygenated blood from
distribution to all parts of the body.
right atrium into the right ventricle through
Double circulation is made possible
tricuspid valve and oxygenated blood
because the human heart is divided
from left atrium into left ventricle through
into two halves. One half pumps
bicuspid valve.
deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the
Ventricular Systole other half pumps oxygenated blood to
Almost immediately the ventricles contract. the rest of the body.
This is called ventricular systole. During 8 Lymphatic system : A system of tiny tubes
contraction of ventricles, the deoxygenated called lymph vessels (or lymphatics) and lymph
blood from right ventricle flows to the nodes (or lymph glands) in the human body
lungs through pulmonary artery and the which transport the liquid called lymph from
oxygenated blood from left ventricle is the body tissues to the blood circulatory system
distributed to all the parts of the body is called lymphatic system. The lymphatic
through the largest artery, called aorta. system consists of the following parts: (i) lymph
capillaries, (ii) lymph vessels, (iii) lymph nodes
– Pulse: Every time the heart beats, blood
(or lymph glands), and (iv) lymph.
is forced into arteries. This blood makes X Lymph capillaries are tiny tubes which are
the arteries expand a little. The expansion present in the whole body (just like blood
of an artery each time the blood is forced capillaries). Lymph capillaries are closed
into it, is called pulse. Each heartbeat ended. Since the pores in the walls of the
generates one pulse in the arteries, so lymph capillaries are somewhat bigger, so
the pulse rate of a person is equal to even large protein molecules present in the
the number of heartbeats per minute. tissue fluid can enter lymph capillaries. The
The pulse rate of an adult person while lymph capillaries join to form larger lymph
resting is 70 to 72 per minute. vessel. The lymph vessels have lymph nodes
– Blood pressure: The pressure at which at intervals. The lymph nodes contain special
88 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

type of cells called lymphocytes. These cells Tracheids are dead cells with lignified walls
are involved in the cleaning of lymph and but they do not have open ends. They have
protecting the body from disease. The lymph pits in their thick cell walls. Pits are thin areas
vessels are connected to large veins of the of the cell wall where no lignin has been
blood circulatory system. Lymph is a light deposited. Water flows from one tracheid to
yellow liquid which is somewhat similar another through pits.
in composition to blood plasma. It flows in
only one direction - from body tissues to the 3 interconnected processes for
heart. Since lymph is derived from the tissue transportation of water and minerals
fluid which remains outside the cells of the
body, so it is also called extracellular fluid. Absorption of water and minerals
The water and minerals are absorbed by land
Functions of lymphatic system plants from the soil where they are present
Lymph takes part in the nutritive process of in the form of soil solution. The main water
the body. For example, it puts into circulation absorbing organs are root hairs and mineral
large protein molecules by carrying them absorbing organs are root epidermal cells
from the tissues into the blood stream (which at root apex. The water is absorbed actively
could not be absorbed by blood capillaries by water potential difference between soil
due to their large size). Lymph also carries solution and root hairs. Water molecules move
digested fat for the nutritive process. from higher water potential to lower water
potential and then migrate from cell to cell
Lymphatic system protects the body by killing passing from epidermis to cortex, from cortex
the germs drained out of the body tissues to endodermis and from endodermis to xylem
with the help of lymphocytes contained in vessels and tracheids from where they move
the lymph nodes and by making antibodies. upward by the process called ascent of sap.
Lymph helps in removing the waste products Ascent of sap
like fragments of dead cells, etc. According to root pressure theory, the roots
8 Transportation in plants : Transport absorb water and exert a pressure, the root
system in plants is less elaborate as compared pressure which pushes the water upward. The
root pressure develops in the tracheary element
to animals. It is because plants are less
of xylem as a result of metabolic activities of
active and require less supply of materials roots. The root pressure theory is applicable in
either from outside or synthesised by the small herbs but not in tall trees.
plants themselves. There are two kinds of
transportation in plants- Transpiration
(i) Transportation of water and minerals The loss of water in the form of vapours from
(ii) Transportation of food and other substances. the living tissues of aerial parts of the plant is
X Transportation of water and minerals. termed as transpiration. It mainly occurs by
The main water conducting tissue in higher the process of diffusion through stomata. The
plants is xylem. Xylem consists of vessels and stomata are tiny pores present on the surface
of leaf. Each stoma has two small, green-
tracheids. A xylem vessel is made of many
coloured, kidney-shaped guard cells which
hollow, dead cells (called vessel elements), regulate the opening and closing of stomatal
joined end to end. The end walls of the apertures. Loss of water through transpiration
cells are dissolved so that a long, open tube generates a transpirational pull. Transpiration
is formed. These vessels run from the roots pull and cohesion-tension theory explain
of the plant right up through the stem and the upward movement of water in tall trees.
reach the leaves. These vessels do not contain According to this theory, the main force
cytoplasm or nuclei. Their walls are made of responsible for upward movement of water
cellulose and lignin (a very hard and strong is transpiration pull generated in the leaves
substance), so they also provide strength to which pulls the water column filled in the
the stems and help to keep the plant upright. xylem tracheids and vessels.
Life Processes 89

X Transportation of food and other the water content and solute concentration of
substances : The main food conducting body fluids, particularly of sodium, potassium
tissue in plants is phloem. It is a complex and chloride ions.
permanent tissue, running parallel to the 8 Excretion in animals: The protozoans, lose
xylem strands. It consists of sieve tube waste matter by simple diffusion through the
elements and companion cells. cell membrane into the surrounding water.
– Sieve tubes are living cells which contain Some excretion and osmoregulation occurs
cytoplasm but no nucleus. The sieve tube by way of contractile vacuoles.
cells do not have lignin in their walls. X In earthworm, the excretion and
Each sieve tube cell has a companion osmoregulation occurs through tubular
cell next to it. The companion cell has structures constituting nephridia.
a nucleus and many other organelles. X The insects, centipedes, arachnids and millipedes
Companion cells supply the sieve tubes have malpighian tubules for excretion.
with some of their requirements. X The molluscs and vertebrates have kidneys
– The sugars and other metabolites are for excretion and osmoregulation.
transported through phloem. The
8 Excretion in human beings : Excretory
phloem elements remain in close contact
with the mesophyll cells of leaves. Soluble system in human beings consists of a pair of
kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder
carbohydrates (food molecules) enter the
and a urethra. The two kidneys are located
phloem elements from mesophyll cells of
towards the back of the lower part of the
the leaf. Once the food molecules enter
abdominal cavity, one on either side of the
the phloem, they are transported upward,
backbone. Left kidney is slightly larger and
downward in lateral directions.
placed a little higher than the right kidney. The
– The upward movement of organic solutes
blood from aorta enters into kidneys via renal
takes place from the leaves to developing
arteries and returns to the posterior vena cava
buds, flowers and fruits for consumption
via renal veins. Urine formed in the kidneys
and storage. The upward movement
passes by a pair of ureters to the bladder where
also occurs during the germination of
it is stored until it is released via urethra.
seeds. The food materials, stored mainly
X Each kidney is made up of a large number of
in the cotyledons and endosperm, are
excretory units called nephrons. The nephron
translocated upward to the growing
has a cup-shaped bag at its upper end which
apex. The nutrients are transported in
is called Bowman’s capsule. The lower end
sieve tubes in a dilute aqueous solution.
of Bowman’s capsule is tube-shaped and it is
Such a transport of food from leaves
called tubule. The Bowman’s capsule and the
to other parts of the plant is termed
tubule taken together make a nephron. One
as translocation which takes place by
end of the tubule is connected to the Bowman’s
utilising energy. capsule and its other end is connected to a
8 Excretion : The two important homeostatic urine-collecting duct of the kidney.
processes occurring in organisms which X The Bowman’s capsule contains bundle of
help to maintain the steady state are: blood capillaries which is called glomerulus
excretion and osmoregulation. The biological (plural glomeruli). One end of the glomerulus
process of removal of toxic wastes from the is attached to the renal artery which brings
body of an organism is called excretion. the dirty blood containing waste into it.
Osmoregulation is a process that maintains The other end of glomerulus comes out
the amount of water and proper ionic balance of Bowman’s capsule as a blood capillary,
in the body fluids. It maintains a constant surrounds the tubule of nephron and finally
osmotic condition in the body by regulating joins a renal vein.
90 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

X The function of glomerulus is to filter the cellulose tubes into the dialysing solution.
blood passing through it. Only the small The clean blood is pumped back into a vein of
molecules of substances present in blood like the patient’s arm.
glucose, amino acids, salts, urea and water 8 Excretion in plants : The plants remove their
,etc., pass through the glomerulus and collect waste products by different methods. The
as filtrate in the Bowman’s capsule. The large
main waste products of plants are carbon
molecules like proteins and blood cells cannot
dioxide, water vapour and oxygen. Carbon
pass out through the glomerulus capillaries
dioxide and water vapour are produced as
and hence remain behind in the blood.
wastes during respiration whereas oxygen is
X The function of tubule of nephron is to
produced as a waste during photosynthesis.
allow the selective reabsorption of the useful
The gaseous wastes of respiration and
substances like glucose, amino acids, salts
and water into the blood capillaries. But the photosynthesis in plants (carbon dioxide,
waste material like urea remains behind in water vapour and oxygen) are removed
the tubule. It does not get reabsorbed into through the ‘stomata’ in leaves and ‘lenticels’
blood capillaries. in stems and released in air.
X The condition when a person’s kidneys stop Methods of disposal of plant wastes
working is called kidney or renal failure.
Complete failure of the kidneys allows the urea Excess salt is removed through hydathodes
and other waste products to build up in the along with guttation water.
blood. Even the amount of water in the body
is not regulated. The best long term solution Many breakdown products are recycled in
for kidney failure is the kidney transplant. If a the synthesis of new metabolic products.
kidney transplant is not possible due to some
reasons, then the patient with kidney failure Most of the toxic waste products are stored
within dead permanent tissues such as
is treated periodically on a kidney machine
heartwood (non functional part of xylem
by a procedure called dialysis.
in the trunk and branches), leaves or bark
X Dialysis is used for cleaning the blood of a
which are removed periodically.
person by separating the waste substance
(urea) from blood. The blood from an artery Some waste substances are eliminated
in the patient’s arm is made to flow into the through petals, fruits and seeds.
dialyser of a dialysis machine made of long
tubes of selectively permeable membrane Some excretory products such as latex, gums,
(like cellulose) which are coiled in a tank essential oils, etc., are stored in special type of
containing dialysing solution. This solution tissues and glands. For example, laticiferous
contains water, glucose and salts in similar tissue collects latex (which is the source
concentrations to those in normal blood. of natural rubber), resin ducts store resin
As the patient’s blood passes through the (the resin of pine trees yields turpentine),
dialysing solution, most of the wastes present mucilaginous ducts store mucilage, oil glands
in it pass through the selectively permeable store essential oils, etc.
Life Processes 91

Previous Years’ CBSE


PREVIOUS Board
YEARS MCQS Questions

6.2 Nutrition 9. Name the intermediate and the end products


of glucose breakdown in aerobic respiration.
VSA (1 mark) (Foreign 2010)
1. Name the green dot like structures in some SA II (3 marks)
cells observed by a student when a leaf peel
was viewed under a microscope. What is this 10. How are oxygen and carbon dioxide
green colour due to? (Delhi 2010) transported in human beings? How are lungs
designed to maximise the area for exchange
2. Where does digestion of fats take place in our
of gases? (AI 2008)
body? (AI 2009)
11. Write any three differences between aerobic
3. How do autotrophs obtain CO2 and N2 to
and anaerobic respiration. (AI 2008)
make their food? (AI 2008)
12. (a) What are two different ways in which
LA (5 marks) glucose is oxidised to provide energy in
4. Explain the process of digestion of food in various organisms?
mouth, stomach and small intestine in human (b) Write any two differences between the
body. (Delhi 2010) two ways of oxidation of glucose in
5. (a) List the three events that occur during organisms. (AI 2008)
the process of photosynthesis. Explain LA (5 marks)
the role of stomata in this process. 13. Draw a neat and labelled diagram of human
(b) Describe an experiment to show that respiratory system. Explain in brief the role of
“sunlight is essential for photosynthesis.” lungs in the exchange of gases.
(Delhi 2010) (Foreign 2010)
6. (a) Draw a diagram of human alimentary 14. (a) Draw a diagram of the human respiratory
canal and label on it: oesophagus, gall system and label on it: alveolar sac,
bladder, liver and pancreas. bronchioles, larynx and trachea.
(b) How are the lungs designed in human
(b) Explain the statement, ‘bile does not
beings to maximise the area of exchange
contain any enzyme but it is essential for
of gases? (Foreign 2009)
digestion.’ (Delhi 2009)
7. (a) Draw a diagram depicting human 6.4 Transportation
alimentary canal and label on it: gall
bladder, liver and pancreas. VSA (1 mark)
(b) State the role of liver and pancreas. 15. What will happen to a plant if its xylem is
(c) Name the organ which performs the removed? (Delhi 2009)
following function in human. 16. Name the tissue which transports soluble
(i) Absorption of digested food products of photosynthesis in a plant.
(ii) Absorption of water (Delhi 2008) (Delhi 2008)
SA I (2 marks)
6.3 Respiration
17. Write one function of each of the following
VSA (1 mark) components of the transport system in
8. State the basic difference between the process human beings.
of respiration and photosynthesis. (a) Blood vessels (b) Blood platelets
(Foreign 2010) (c) Lymph (d) Heart (AI 2008)
92 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

LA (5 marks) (b) State the functions of the following


components of transport system.
18. (a) Draw a sectional view of the human heart (i) Blood (ii) Lymph
and label on it: pulmonary arteries, vena
(Delhi 2008)
cava, left ventricle.
(b) Why is double circulation of blood 6.5 Excretion
necessary in human beings? LA (5 marks)
(AI 2009)
21. Draw a neat and labelled diagram of human
19. (a) Draw a schematic representation of excretory system. Describe in brief the
transport and exchange of oxygen and function of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder
carbon dioxide during transportation of and urethra. (Foreign 2010)
blood in human beings and label on it:
22. (a) Draw a diagram of excretory system in
lung capillaries, pulmonary artery to
human beings and label on it : aorta, vena
lungs, aorta to body, pulmonary veins
cava, urinary bladder and urethra.
from lungs.
(b) What is the advantage of separate (b) List two vital functions of the kidney.
channels in mammals and birds for (Delhi 2009)
oxygenated and deoxygenated blood? 23. (a) Draw the structure of a nephron and label
(Foreign 2009) the following on it: glomerulus, Bowman’s
20. (a) Draw a sectional view of the human heart capsule, renal artery, collecting duct.
and label in it, aorta, right ventricle and (b) What happens to glucose that enters the
pulmonary veins. nephron along with filtrate? (AI 2009)
Life Processes 93

Detailed Solutions

1. The green colour of the leaves of the plant juice of pancreas and intestinal juice of intestinal
is due to the presence of tiny green coloured glands. Bile juice neutralises the acidity of the food
organelles called chloroplasts which contain green coming from the stomach and provides alkaline
pigment chlorophyll. medium and emulsifies (breaks down with the
2. Digestion of fats takes place in small intestine. help of bile salts) larger fat globules into smaller fat
droplets but is a non-enzymatic digestive juice so
3. Green plants take carbon dioxide (for
has no chemical action on food.
carbohydrates) required for photosynthesis
Pancreatic juice contains a number of enzymes
directly from atmospheric air and nitrogen
like trypsin, pancreatic amylase and pancreatic
(for proteins) in the form of soluble nitrogen
lipase, which digest the peptones, starch and fats
compounds present in the soil.
into peptides, maltose, isomaltose and fatty acids
4. The process of digestion of food in mouth, respectively.
stomach and small intestine in human body is as Lipase
Fats Fatty acids + Glycerol
follows :
Intestinal juice also contains number of enzymes
(i) Mouth : Food is chewed with the help of
like aminopeptidase, intestinal amylase, maltase,
premolars and molars which increases the rate
isomaltase and lipase enzymes which hydrolyse
of action of salivary amylase. Food is mixed
peptides to amino acids, starch to maltose, maltose
with saliva of salivary glands. Salivary amylase
to two glucose, isomaltose to two glucose and fats
hydrolyses about 30-40% of starch into maltose
and isomaltose at pH 6.8. to fatty acids and glycerol.
So, small intestine is the site of the complete
Salivary amylase
Starch Maltose + Isomaltose digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
pH 6.8
5. (a) The three events that occur during the
(ii) Stomach : Food is mixed with gastric juice process of photosynthesis are :
which contains mucus, hydrochloric acid, (i) Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll : It
pepsin, rennin and a weak lipase enzyme. Mucus takes place in grana region of chloroplast. During
lubricates the food and protects the inner lining of light reaction, radiant energy of sun is trapped
the stomach from the action of acid. Hydrochloric by photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll
acid stops the action of saliva in stomach, kills the and accessory pigments. When exposed to light,
bacteria present in the food and provides acidic chlorophyll molecule is excited and emits electrons.
medium (pH 1-2) of gastric juice so that pepsin (ii) Conversion of light energy to chemical energy
gets active for protein digestion. and splitting of water molecule into hydrogen and
Pepsin hydrolyses proteins into proteoses and oxygen : Emitted electrons from chlorophyll are
channeled through electron transport chain in
peptones, while gastric lipase enzymes hydrolyses
chloroplast. The energy absorbed by chlorophyll
small amounts of fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
is responsible for carrying out three functions:
Curdling of milk is done by the enzyme rennin,
(i) formation of ATP, (ii) photolysis of water and
which increases the period of action of pepsin on
(iii) synthesis of NADPH (Reduced nicotinamide
milk proteins.
Pepsin adenine dinucleotide phosphate).
Proteins Proteoses + Peptones (iii) Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate:
pH 1-2
In addition to chemical digestion, food also Carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose
undergoes mechanical churning inside the stomach. (carbohydrate) by the hydrogen in NADPH and
(iii) Small intestine : Food is mixed with three by utilising the chemical energy stored in ATP.
digestive juices : bile juice of liver; pancreatic Stomata play an important role in photosynthesis,
94 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

as gaseous exchange in plants take place through (ix) Place the colourless leaf in petri-dish. Drop
the stomata. Stomata are tiny pores present on the iodine solution over the decolourised leaf with the
surface of the leaves (also on other green parts like help of a dropper. Observe the change in colour of
stem). Carbon dioxide required for photosynthesis leaf.
enters the leaves of the plant through stomata. A (x) The middle part of leaf which was covered with
large amount of water is also lost through stomatal aluminium foil does not turn blue-black on adding
pores and oxygen released as by product of iodine solution showing that no starch is present in
photosynthesis goes out through stomatal pores of this middle part of the leaf. This is because sunlight
leaves. could not reach the covered ‘middle part’ of the leaf
(b) Experiment to show that sunlight is necessary due to which the covered ‘middle part’ of leaf could
for photosynthesis. not do photosynthesis to make starch.
(i) Take a potted plant having green leaves and (xi) The uncovered part of leaf which was exposed
place it in a completely dark place for about three to sunlight turns blue-black on adding iodine
days to destarch its leaves. solution showing that starch is present in this part
(ii) Take a thin strip of aluminium foil (or black of leaf.
paper) and wrap it in the centre of one leaf on (xii) Since the part of leaf which was covered and
both the sides (while the leaf is still attached to the hidden from sunlight does not contain starch but the
plant). The aluminium foil should be fixed tightly part of leaf which was exposed to sunlight contains
to the leaf by using paper clips so that sunlight may starch, therefore, we conclude that sunlight is necessary
not enter it from the sides. The aluminium foil for photosynthesis (to make food like starch).
should cover only a small part of the leaf so that
the remaining part of the leaf remains uncovered 6. (a) The diagram labelled of human alimentary
and exposed to sunlight. canal is as follows:
(iii) Keep this potted plant (with partially covered
leaf) in bright sunshine for three to four days.
(iv) Pluck the partially covered leaf from the plant
and remove its aluminium foil. Immerse this leaf Oesophagus
in boiling water for a few minutes. This will break
down the cell membranes of leaf cells and make
Liver
the leaf more permeable to iodine solution. This Gall bladder
leaf is now to be tested for the presence of starch. Pancreas
But before testing for starch, chlorophyll has to be
removed from the leaf.
(v) Now put the leaf in a beaker containing some
alcohol. Place the beaker containing alcohol and
leaf in a water bath. (b) Bile is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid
(vi) Heat the water in the bigger beaker. Then the secreted by liver and stored as well as concentrated
alcohol in the smaller beaker will also get heated in the gall bladder. Bile does not contain any
and start boiling soon. This boiling alcohol will digestive enzymes like other secretions from
extract (or remove) chlorophyll from the green leaf. gastrointestinal tract instead has salts which
(vii) Boil the green leaf in alcohol till all its green emulsify fats (that are in the form of complicated
pigment ‘chlorophyll’ is removed. The leaf will now triglycerol) and breaks it down into small fat
become almost colourless or pale (and the alcohol droplets that can easily be acted upon by fat
will turn green). digesting enzymes. This is actually a detergent
(viii) Remove the colourless leaf from alcohol and like action of bile. Therefore, bile is essential for
wash it thoroughly with hot water to soften it and digestion though it does not contain any digestive
remove any chlorophyll which may be sticking to it. enzyme.
Life Processes 95

7. (a) Refer to answer 6(a). to the tissues and CO2 moves from tissues to the
(b) Liver is the largest gland of the body that blood. The blood now becomes deoxygenated.
secretes bile juice. Bile juice neutralises acidity Heart receives this oxygen rich blood from lungs
of food coming from stomach and provides through pulmonary vein and distributes it to all
alkaline medium and helps in digestion of body parts through arteries and collect carbon
fats in small intestine by bringing about fat dioxide rich blood from all body parts through veins
emulsification (conversion of large fat droplets and takes it to lungs through pulmonary artery for
into smaller ones) making it easier for enzymes oxygenation. Deoxygenated carbon dioxide rich air
to act and digest them. Pancreas is a soft, moves out from blood capillaries into the alveoli
lobulated greyish-pink gland which has both and is finally breathed out.
endocrine and exocrine parts. Cells of exocrine Human lungs have a highly branched network of
part secrete pancreatic juice which contains respiratory tubes. A primary bronchus divides into
enzymes like pancreatic amylase, trypsin and secondary bronchus, which in turn forms tertiary
lipase that help in digestion of starch, proteins bronchus. Tertiary bronchus divides repeatedly
and fats, respectively. The cells of endocrine part into bronchioles which finally terminate into
secrete hormones glucagon and insulin that take alveoli. Alveoli are small, rounded polyhedral
part in glucose metabolism. pouches which are extremely thin-walled and
(c) (i) The absorption of digested food takes place possess a network of capillaries. Exchange of gases
in small intestine. takes place in alveoli and hence an alveolus is
(ii) Absorption of most of the water from called a miniature lung.
undigested food takes place in large intestine. The alveoli provide a vast surface area where
8. Respiration involves breakdown of food (like exchange of gases can takes place. Oxygen diffuses
glucose) by using oxygen and releasing carbon from alveoli into pulmonary blood capillaries and
dioxide, water and energy whereas photosynthesis CO2 diffuses out from capillaries into alveoli.
is synthesis of food (like glucose) by using 11. Differences between aerobic and anaerobic
carbon dioxide, water and sunlight and releasing respiration are as follows:
oxygen. Therefore, respiration is just reverse of
photosynthesis. Aerobic Anaerobic
respiration respiration
9. The intermediate product of glucose breakdown
in aerobic respiration is pyruvate whereas the end (i) Aerobic respiration Anaerobic
products are carbon dioxide and water. occurs in presence respiration occurs
of oxygen. in absence of
10. In gaseous exchange, the blood takes up oxygen.
oxygen from the alveolar air and releases CO2 to
the alveolar air. Such an exchange occurs because (ii) Glucose is Glucose is
completely broken incompletely
the concentration of O2 is more in alveolar air
down to release the oxidised to release
and O2 moves from higher concentration to lower
end products in the end products in
concentration due to the process of diffusion. The
the form of carbon the form of ethanol
blood has more concentration of CO2 as compared dioxide and water. or lactic acid.
to alveolar air. Thus, the CO2 moves from blood to
(iii) Energy is released Energy is released
alveolar air due to simple diffusion. This exchange
in larger amount. in lesser amount.
of gases results in the oxygenation of blood.
In times, the exchange of gases occurs between (iv) It takes place in It takes place in
the oxygenated blood and the tissue cells. The cytoplasm and cytoplasm. The
concentration of O2 is more in the blood and less mitochondria. mitochondria is not
in the tissue cells. So, the O2 moves from blood involved.
96 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

12. (a) Oxidation of food (glucose) within cell


may be of two types depending upon the availability Nose Nasal passage
(Nasal cavity)
of atmospheric oxygen : aerobic respiration and Nostril
Pharynx
anaerobic respiration.
(i) Aerobic respiration : The oxidative break- Larynx
Trachea
(Wind pipe)
down of respiratory substrates with the help of (Voice box)
Ring of
atmospheric O2 is known as aerobic respiration. cartilage
Bronchus
During this process, the respiratory substrate
Lung
(glucose) is completely broken down into carbon
dioxide and water by the process of oxidation and
Bronchiole
large amount of energy (38 ATP) is produced.
Alveoli
Aerobic respiration includes glycolysis which is Chest cavity (Air sacs)
common to both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. (Thoracic cavity)
Diaphragm
The pyruvic acid (pyruvate) molecules formed (Sheet of muscle)

during glycolysis are carried to the mitochondria Fig.: Human respiratory system
where they completely break down to CO2 and The primary organs of the respiratory system
are lungs, which function to take in oxygen and
H2O with the evolution of a large amount of
expel carbon dioxide as we breathe. During the
energy.
exchange of gases at the respiratory surface (alveoli)
Glycolysis of the respiratory organs (lungs) and the oxygen
Glucose Pyruvic acid
Cytoplasm Mitochondria enters the blood and combines with haemoglobin
CO2 + H2O + Energy (respiratory pigment) of red blood corpuscles to
form oxyhaemoglobin. The oxygenated blood
(ii) Anaerobic respiration: Oxidation of from the lungs is carried to left atrium of heart by
respiratory substrates in absence of oxygen is pulmonary veins. The heart pumps and distributes
termed as anaerobic respiration. It involves the oxygenated blood to the body tissues by arteries
incomplete breakdown of respiratory substrates where second exchange of gases occurs between
in which the end products, such as ethanol blood and body cells. Blood gives oxygen to the
or lactic acid are formed and small amount body cells and takes carbon dioxide. Inside the cells,
of energy is released. It involves glycolysis, oxygen is utilised for oxidation of simple nutrients
during which glucose is degraded into pyruvate. to produce energy, carbon dioxide and water. Body
Further breakdown of pyruvic acid in absence cells give carbon dioxide to blood and deoxygenated
of oxygen result in the production of ethanol or blood is pumped to right atrium of heart from where
lactic acid. Anaerobic oxidation of glucose in pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to
microorganisms formed ethanol and CO2 and in lungs.
muscle cells of humans, glucose is anaerobically 14. (a) Refer to answer 13.
metabolised into lactic acid. (b) Refer to answer 10.
ce 15. Xylem is the main water conducting tissue
sen
n ab O 2
I of
Lactic acid of plant. If it is removed then water and minerals
+ Energy absorbed by plant roots will not be able to reach
Glycolysis
Glucose Pyruvic different plant parts and plant will wilt and
(in cytosol, no acid In
O2 is required) ab ultimately die.
of senc
O e Ethanol + Co2
2 16. The phloem is a vascular tissue that transports
+ Energy
soluble products of photosynthesis (food or sugar)
(b) Refer to answer 11.
to all the parts of plants.
13. The labelled diagram of human respiratory 17. (a) : The blood vessels are tubes that transport
system is as follows: blood throughout the body. There are three kinds
Life Processes 97

of blood vessels in human body; arteries, veins 19. (a) The schematic representation of transport
and capillaries. and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide is as
(b) Blood platelets are irregular disc shaped follows:
cytoplasmic fragments that assist in formation of
blood clot at the site of injury and prevent excessive Pulmonary artery
to lungs Lung Pulmonary vein
loss of blood. capillaries from lungs
(c) Lymph is a mobile connective tissue and acts
as ‘middle man’. It takes part in nutritive process as it
carries protein molecules from tissue into the blood Vena cava Aorta to body
stream. It also helps in removing waste products like from body
fragments of dead cells, germs, etc. Capillaries in body
Deoxygenated organs apart from Oxygenated
(d) Human heart is a muscular organ that pumps the lungs
blood blood
blood throughout the body via the circulatory
system, supplying oxygen and nutrients to the
Fig.: Schematic representation of transport and
tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other exchange ofand
oxygenbirds
and carbon
(b) In mammals thedioxide
two circulatory
wastes from the same.
system (oxygenated blood and deoxygenated
18. (a) The sectional view of human heart is as blood) become fully separate sending low pressure
follows: pumping to lungs and high pressure flow of blood to
Pulmonary
Vena cava from rest of body. This prevents any mixing of oxygenated
arteries
upper body
and deoxygenated blood ensuring maximum supply
of oxygen to all body parts. This allows optimum
oxidation of glucose to release energy required
by these animal groups to maintain their body
Vena cava from temperature making them homeothermic.
lower body Left
ventricle 20. (a) The sectional view of human heart is as
follows:
(b) The blood passes through human heart twice Aorta
for one supply to the body. One circulation
involves the transport of deoxygenated blood Pulmonary
from all body parts into the heart. This blood is veins
transported to lungs for oxygenation. The second
circulation involves entry of oxygenated blood
from lungs into left side of the heart from where
it is distributed to all parts of the body. Double Right
ventricle
circulation is made possible because the human
heart is divided into two halves. One half pumps
deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the other
half pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the (b) (i) Blood is a mobile connective tissue
body. composed of a fluid, plasma and blood corpuscles.
Double circulation prevent any mixing of Functions of blood are as follows:
oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the body — Blood takes part in transportation of
ensuring maximum supply of oxygen to all body respiratory gases (carbon dioxide and
parts. This is necessary for humans who need oxygen), nutrients and waste material in the
a lot of energy to maintain their constant body body.
temperature against any external temperature — White blood cells help to fight infection and
fluctuations. The rich oxygen supply enables protect from various pathogenic diseases.
optimum oxidation of glucose in body cells to — Lymphocytes of blood produce antibodies and
release the required energy. provide immunity against various diseases.
98 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

— When an injury is caused, the blood platelets which carries the urine from urinary bladder to
release certain chemicals which help in the outside.
clotting of blood. 22. (a)
— Blood plasma helps in maintenance of blood
pH and uniform distribution of heat in the
body.
— Blood carries hormones from endocrine Vena cava Aorta
glands to the target organs.
(ii) Lymph is a mobile connective tissue
comprising of lymph plasma (fluid) and lymph
Urinary bladder
corpuscles (cells).
— Lymph acts as ‘middle man’, takes part in nutritive Urethra
process of body. It transport protein molecules
from tissue into blood stream. (b) Two vital functions of kidneys are:
— Body cells are kept moist by lymph. (i) The most important function of kidneys is
— It absorbs and transports fat and fat soluble filtration of blood to excrete the waste products
vitamins from intestine.
of metabolism. If these waste products, mainly
— Lymph drains excess fluid from extra cellular
spaces back into blood. nitrogenous waste such as urea and uric acid,
are not removed from the blood, they will start
21. The labelled diagram of human excretory
accumulating to unbearable toxic levels.
system is as follows:
Left (ii) Osmoregulation : Kidneys maintain water
Right Kidney balance in the body and removes excess water.
Kidney Hilum
Besides filtering out the waste products, the
Pelvis of kidneys perform other functions such as secretion
ureter
of erythropoietin, enzyme-renin, homeostasis and
Ureters conversion of inactive form of vitamin D to the
active form.
23. (a) The structure of a nephron is as follows:
Urinary Glomerulus
Bladder Bowman’s
Opening capsule
of ureter
Urethra
Functions : Renal artery
(i) Kidneys : These are main or primary excretory
organs present as one pair of large-sized, reddish-
brown coloured and bean shaped structure in the
Collecting duct
upper part of abdomen. The function of kidneys is
to remove the poisonous substance, urea, other waste
salts and excess water from the blood and excrete
them in the form of a yellowish liquid called urine.
(ii) Ureters : These are a pair of long, narrow, thin-
walled and tubular structures which conduct the Fig.: Structure of a nephron
urine from the kidneys to urinary bladder. (b) Glomerular filtrate present in Bowman’s
(iii) Urinary bladder : It is a thin-walled, elastic, capsule contains glucose. This filtrate when enters
pear-shaped and distensible sac which temporarily proximal convoluted tubule of kidney then, much
stores the urine. Its wall is lined with smooth of it is reabsorbed back here (65%). Glucose is
(involuntary) muscles. almost completely reabsorbed in the kidney tubule
(iv) Urethra : It is a muscular and tubular structure and is not excreted out.
Chapter
Control and
7 Coordination
7.1 Animals-Nervous System 7.3 Hormones in Animals

7.2 Coordination in Plants

Topicwise Analysis of 2010-2008 Years’ CBSE Board Questions

7 VSA
6 SA I
SA II
Number of questions

5 LA
4

0
7.1 7.2 7.3
Topic

8 Maximum weightage is of Coordination in Plants. 8 Maximum SA II type questions were asked


8 Maximum VSA type questions were asked from from Coordination in Plants.
Animals-Nervous System and Coordination in Plants. 8 Maximum LA type questions were asked from
8 Maximum SA I type questions were asked from. Animals-Nervous System and Coordination in
Coordination in Plants and Hormones in Animals. Plants.

QUICK RECAP
8 All movements in living organisms occur in towards the source of stimulus is positive
response to changes in the environmental factors. taxis and movement away from stimulus
All living organisms respond and react to is negative taxis. In lower multicellular
environmental factors (stimuli) such as light, organisms, coordination takes place through
heat, cold, sound, smell, taste, pressure, etc., nervous system.
and this response involves coordination of X Coelenterates – diffused nervous system is
many organs in our body.
present which is made up of epidermal and
8 Coordination in animals: Unicellular gastrodermal nerve net of nerve cells.
organisms respond to environmental stimuli X Flatworms – ladder type nervous system is
by moving towards or away from it. Such present which is made up of ganglionated
response is termed as taxis. Movement nerve ring and nerve cords.
100 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

X Annelids – Central nervous system (CNS) is Components of Neuron


present which comprises of circumpharyngeal
nerve ring and a nerve cord.
X Insects - CNS consist of circum-oesophageal Cell body
The cell body of a neuron is also called cyton
nerve ring and nerve cord.
which is broad, rounded, pyriform or stellate part
X In higher animals, control and coordination is
of the neuron. It has abundant cytoplasm, called
provided by nervous and endocrine system.
neuroplasm which contains Nissl’s granules
8 Control and coordination in humans: There and a relatively large, spherical nucleus and is
are two systems of coordination of activities mainly concerned with metabolic maintenance
in humans : nervous system and endocrine and growth. It also receives nerve impulses from
system. dendrites and transmits them to axon.
X Both the systems of coordination, consist of
a number of organs working together in a Dendrites
systematic way. These are several short, tapering, much branched
protoplasmic processes stretching out from the cell
8 Human Nervous System: Human nervous body of a neuron. Here sensation (information) is
system is the most complex system. The main acquired which then travels as an electric impulse
parts of the nervous system are: brain, spinal towards the cell body.
cord and nerves. The sense organs can be
Axon
considered to be other organs of the nervous
It is a single, very long, cylindrical nerve fibre of
system because they help in the functioning
uniform diameter arising from the cell body. At
of the nervous system. We receive a variety of its terminal end, axon is highly branched. Axon
information from the environment around us terminals are often knob-like and these may end
through the sense organs. There are five sense in nerve fibres that form synapses with dendrites
organs in our body : eyes, ears, nose, tongue of other neurons. The axon conducts nerve
and skin. The sense organs contain receptors. impulses away from the cell body.
A receptor is a cell (or a group of cells) in a
sense organ which is sensitive to a particular Types of neuron
type of stimulus. Different sense organs
contain receptors for detecting different
stimuli. Sensory (receptor) : Transmits impulse from
X The common types of receptor are sensory cells to CNS.
photoreceptors (detect light, present in
eyes), phonoreceptors (detect sound, Motor (effector) : Transmits impulse from CNS
present in ears), olfactory receptors detect to muscle cells.
smell, present in nose), gustatory receptors
(detect taste, present in tongue) and Relay or Connector : Serves as link between
sensory and motor neurons.
thermoreceptors (detect heat or cold, present
in skin).
X Neurons are the structural and functional X The classification of human nervous system
into various parts is given in the following
unit of nervous system. Neuron is the longest
chart:
cell in human body.
Control and Coordination 101

Nervous System

Central Nervous Peripheral Nervous


System (CNS) System (PNS)

Brain Spinal Cord Autonomic Nervous Voluntary


System (ANS) Nervous System

Sympathetic Parasympathetic
Nervous System Nervous System
Flow Chart : Main parts of human nervous system
X Central nervous system : The central consists of nerves that arise directly from CNS
nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain connecting different body parts for voluntary
and the spinal cord. (conscious) control of the brain. Autonomic
X Peripheral nervous system : All the nerves nervous system or involuntary peripheral
of the body together make up the peripheral nervous system on the other hand, is not under
nervous system (PNS). Voluntary peripheral the control of human will. It develops from
nervous system is under the control of will. It branches of some cranial and spinal nerves
CNS
Brain
•• Brain is the highest coordinating centre in the body. The brain is located inside the skull of our body (at
the top of the spinal cord). It is protected by a bony box in the skull called cranium. It is surrounded
by three membranes called meninges, which help to protect it . The space between the membranes (or
meninges) is filled with a cerebro-spinal fluid which protects the brain from mechanical shocks. Pairs
of cranial nerves arise from the brain.
•• The brain is broadly divided into three regions: forebrain, midbrain and the hindbrain. The forebrain
consists mainly of cerebrum. The midbrain does not have any further divisions. It consists of two fibre
tracts called crura cerebri which connect hindbrain with forebrain. The hindbrain consists of three
parts called pons, cerebellum and medulla.
•• The cerebrum (or forebrain) is the main thinking part of the brain. It is the site of our faculties such
as learning, reasoning, intelligence, personality and memory. All our thoughts, sensations, actions and
movements are controlled by the cerebrum.
•• The midbrain controls reflex movements of the head, neck and trunk in response to visual and auditory
stimuli. It also controls the reflex movements of the eye muscles, changes in pupil size and shape of
the eye lens.
•• Pons varolii takes part in regulating respiration. Cerebellum helps in maintaining posture and balance
of the body.
•• Medulla oblongata controls various involuntary actions such as heart beat (blood circulation), breathing,
blood pressure and peristaltic movements of alimentary canal. Medulla is also the controlling centre for
reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, sneezing, secretion of saliva and vomiting.
Spinal cord
Spinal cord is a cylindrical structure that begins in continuation with the medulla oblongata of brain and
extends downwards upto early part of lumbar region. It then extends to the end of vertebral column as fibrous
connective called filum terminale.
It is enclosed in a bony cage called vertebral column. Spinal cord is also surrounded by membranes called
meninges. As many as 31 pairs of nerves arise from the spinal cord. The spinal cord is concerned with spinal
reflex actions and the conduction of nerve impulses to and from the brain.
Spinal cord performs two important functions: it conducts sensory and motor impulses to and from the brain
and it acts as a centre for the reflex actions. Thus, it reduces brain’s work.
102 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

called visceral nerves. The autonomic nervous (ii) Parasympathetic nervous system
system (ANS) is subdivided into two parts:
(i) Sympathetic nervous system
Cranial nerves arise from the brain and spread to various parts of the head. They are 12 pairs
in number. Cranial nerves I, II and VIII are sensory nerves; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, XI and
three types of nerve
Peripheral nervous

XII are motor nerves ; and cranial nerves V, VII, IX and X are mixed nerves (containing both
system consists of

sensory and motor nerve fibres).

31 pairs of spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord along most of its length and spread
throughout the body (except, head region). They are all mixed nerves as they carry both sensory
and motor nerve fibres.

Many activities of the internal organs such as heart, kidney, lungs, urinary bladder, blood
vessels, glands etc., are controlled by specific set of nerves called visceral nerves which mostly
arise from spinal cord but a few from the brain also. These form the autonomic nervous system.
X Reflex action and reflex arcs : The simplest 8 Human Endocrine System : Endocrine
form of response in the nervous system system is comprised of endocrine glands and
is reflex action. This is a rapid, automatic the hormones released by them.
response to a stimulus which is not under the X Hormones : These are the chemical substances
voluntary control of the brain. It is described which coordinate the activities of living
as an involuntary action which aims to organisms and also their growth. The various
protect ourselves. A knee jerk, movement of characteristics of hormones are:
X They are secreted in small amounts by the
diaphragm (during respiration), coughing,
endocrine glands.
yawning, blinking of eyes and sneezing are X They are poured directly into the blood and
all reflex actions. Coughing is a reflex action carried throughout the body by circulatory
which clears our windpipe. The pupils of our system.
eyes get smaller in bright light. This protects X They have their effects at the sites different
the retina of our eyes from damage due to too from the sites where they are made. So, they
much light. are also called chemical messengers.
Electrical X They act on specific tissues or organs (called
Stimulus received impulse
by the receptor Spinal cord target organs).
(sensory neurons) (Relay neuron) X They coordinate the activities of the body and
Electrical also its growth.
Electrical impulse X Endocrine glands : A gland is a structure
Effector impulse
Motor neuron (cell, tissue or organ) which secretes certain
(Muscle or gland)
useful chemicals or substances in the body.
Flow chart : Depicting a reflex action
There are two types of gland in the body:
8 The pathway taken by nerve impulses in a exocrine gland and endocrine gland.
reflex action is called the reflex arc. Reflex Exocrine glands are the glands having ducts
arcs allow rapid response. whereas endocrine glands are ductless glands.
Table: Endocrine glands – Their hormones and functions
Endocrine glands Hormones secreted Principal functions

1. Hypothalamus (a) Releasing hormones Stimulate anterior/ intermediate


(RH) pituitary to secrete hormones.
(b) Inhibiting hormones Inhibit the secretion of hormones from
(IH) anterior / intermediate pituitary gland.
Control and Coordination 103

2. Pituitary gland
• It has three lobes. It is attached
to the lower surface of the
brain.
(i) Anterior lobe (a) Growth hormone Controls the overall development or
• It produces six hormones. (GH) or Somatotropic growth of the body, muscles, bones
and tissues. Lack of this hormone
hormone (STH)
(hypoactivity) causes dwarfness. Its
excessive secretion (hyperactivity) causes
excessive growth of bones making the
person very tall (gigantism).
(b) Thyroid stimulating Controls the growth and functioning
hormone (TSH) of the thyroid gland. Stimulates the
thyroid gland to produce thyroxine.
(c) Adrenocorticotropic Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete
hormone (ACTH) cortisol hormone.
(d) Gonadotropic In males, it stimulates the process of
hormone spermatogenesis (sperm formation).
In females, it stimulates the follicle
(i) Follicle stimulating cells in the ovaries to develop into
hormone (FSH) mature eggs.
(ii) Luteinising hormone
In males, it stimulates the secretion
(LH) of male hormone, testosterone (sex
hormone in males). In females, it
stimulates the secretion of oestrogen
and progesterone (sex hormones in
females).
(e) Prolactin hormone Stimulates mammary gland development
(PRL) during pregnancy and milk production
after child birth in females.
(ii) Intermediate lobe Melanocyte stimulating Stimulates the synthesis of melanin
in the skin.
hormone (MSH)
(iii) Posterior lobe (a) Oxytocin Stimulates contraction of smooth
muscles at the time of child birth. It
also helps in milk ejection (lactation)
from the mammary glands.
(b) Vasopressin or Regulates water and electrolyte balance
Antidiuretic in body.
hormone (ADH)
3. Pineal gland
• It lies between the two cerebral Melatonin Regulates circadian rhythm.
hemispheres of the brain.
104 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

4. Thyroid gland (a) Thyroxine or T4 T3 and T4 stimulate the rate of cellular


• It is situated in the neck region and Triiodothyronine oxidation and metabolism.
on the ventral side of the body. or T3
It has two lateral lobes, one
on either side of the trachea.

(b) Calcitonin Calcitonin lowers calcium level by


suppressing release of calcium ions
from the bones, when calcium level is
high in blood.
5. Parathyroid gland
• These are four small oval Parathyroid hormone Regulates calcium and phosphate levels
bodies which lie embedded in (PTH) or parathormone. in the blood. When blood calcium
level is below normal, it mobilises the
the lobes of the thyroid gland.
release of calcium into the blood from
bones. It has an action opposite to that
of calcitonin on calcium metabolism.
6. Thymus gland
• It is situated in the upper Thymosin Stimulates the de velopment and
chest near the front side of differentiation of lymphocytes (white
blood cells).
the heart.
• It undergoes gradual atrophy
in the adult.
7. Adrenal gland
• In human beings, a pair of
adrenal glands are present,
one on top of each kidney, so,
also called suprarenals. Each
adrenal gland has an outer part
called the cortex and an inner
part, medulla.
(i) Adrenal cortex
• It secretes 3 groups of steroid (a) Glucocorticoids Regulate the metabolism of protein,
hormones. fats and carbohydrates in the body
and the level of blood sugar.
(b) Mineralocorticoids Regulate water and mineral balance
(Aldosterone) in body.

(c) Sexcorticoids Stimulate the development of secondary


sexual characters both in males and
females.
(ii) Adrenal medulla Adrenaline Both these hormones together control
• It secretes 2 hormones. (Epinephrine) and emotions, fear, anger, blood pressure,
Noradrenaline (Nor- heart beat, respiration and relaxation
epinephrine) of smooth muscles.
Control and Coordination 105

8. Pancreas
• It is a compound gland in (a) Insulin Regulates the conversion of glucose to
the abdominal region located glycogen, i.e., it lowers blood glucose
posterior to the stomach. Its level.
endocrine part is Islets of
Langerhans, which secretes
2 hormones.
(b) Glucagon Regulates the conversion of glycogen
back to glucose, i.e., it increases blood
glucose level.
9. Ovaries
• These are a pair of glands (a) Oestrogen Plays an important role in ovulation.
present in the lower It is responsible for development of
abdominal region in females. secondary sexual characteristics in
females like mammary glands, voice,
hair pattern, etc.
(b) Progesterone Helps in the preparation of uterus for
the reception of fertilised ovum.
Also helps in the maintenance of
pregnancy.
10. Testes
• These are extra-abdominal Testosterone Stimulates spermatogenesis, regulates
in position. t h e g row t h , d e v e l opm e nt an d
functioning of accessory sex organs
• The interstitial or Leydig's
and controls the secondary sexual
cells present in testes produce characteristics in males, such as
the male hormone. enlargement of penis and scrotum,
growth of facial and pubic hair and
enlargement of larynx that causes
deepening of voice.

X Feedback mechanism: The timing and behaviour by affecting their growth. And
amount of hormones released by various the effect on growth of the plant can result
glands are controlled by the ‘feedback in the movement of its part like shoot (stem)
mechanism’ which is in-built in our body. or root, etc. The plants respond to various
For example, if the sugar level in the blood stimuli very slowly by growing. Hence, in
rises too much, they are detected by the cells most of the cases, the response of a plant to a
of pancreas which respond by producing stimulus cannot be observed immediately. It
and secreting more insulin into blood. usually takes a considerable time to observe
And as the blood sugar falls to a certain the effect of a stimulus on a plant.
X Plant hormones (or Phytohormones): The
level, the secretion of insulin is reduced
plant hormones coordinate the activities
automatically.
of the plant by controlling one or the other
8 Control and coordination in plants: aspect of the growth of the plant. So, they are
Plants coordinate their behaviour against also known as plant growth substances. The
environmental changes by using hormones. growth of a plant can be divided into three
The hormones in plants coordinate their stages: cell division, cell enlargement and
106 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

cell differentiation (or cell specialisation), phytohormone. These phytohormones with


and these stages have particular locations their functions are discussed in the given
in a plant. There are 5 major types of table:

Table: Plant hormones and their functions


Plant Functions
hormones
Auxins These promote cell enlargement and cell differentiation in plants.
These promote stem and fruit growth.
These regulate important plant growth movements, i.e., tropisms.
These induce parthenocarpy (i.e., the formation of seedless fruits without fertilisation)
in number of plants.
Gibberellins These promote cell enlargement and cell differentiation in plants in the presence
of auxins.
These also promote growth in stems and fruits.
Rossette plants (i.e., plants that show profuse leaf development but reduced internode
growth) show bolting and flowering when treated with gibberellins.
These also induce parthenocarpy in many plants.
Cytokinins These promote cell division in plants.
These play vital role in the morphogenesis in plants.
These help in breaking the dormancy of seeds and buds.
These delay the ageing in leaves.
These promote the opening of stomata.
These also promote fruit growth.
Ethylene It promotes growth and ripening of fruits.
It helps in breaking the dormancy in buds and seeds.
It stimulates the formation of separation layer (abscission zone) in leaves, flowers
and fruits.
It promotes yellowing and senescence of leaves.
Abscisic It promotes the dormancy in seeds and buds and thus inhibits growth.
acid (ABA) It also promotes the closing of stomata and thus affects wilting of leaves.
It also promotes the falling of leaves (abscission) and senescence in leaves.

8 Plant movements : Plants do not show touch, etc. These movements of the plant parts
locomotion (movement of the entire body). are usually caused by an unequal growth
However, movements of the individual parts in their two regions by the action of
or organs of a plant (like shoot, root, leaves, plant hormones, under the influence of
etc.) are possible when they are subjected the stimulus. When a plant part shows
to some external stimuli like light, force movement, it remains attached to the main
of gravity, chemical substances, water and body of the plant.
Control and Coordination 107

Types of plant movements

Nastic movements Tropic movements


Movement independent of growth. Movements due to growth.

Phototropism
Phototropism is the directional movement or orientation of the plant part in response to light stimulus.
If the plant part moves towards light, it is called as positive phototropism. Alternatively, if the plant part
moves away from light, it is called as negative phototropism. Example. (i) Stem or shoot of a growing
plant moves towards light and thus shows positive phototropism. (ii) Roots of a plant move away from
light and thus show negative phototropism.
Seismonastic movements
Such movements occur in response to touch (shock). These movements are very quick and are best seen
in ‘touch-me-not’ plant (Mimosa pudica), also called ‘Chhui-mui’ or ‘Lajwanti’ or ‘sensitive plant’.
Geotropism
Geotropism is the directional movement or orientation of the plant part in response to gravity. If the
plant part moves in the direction of gravity, it is called as positive geotropism. Alternatively, if the plant
part moves against the direction of gravity, it is termed as negative geotropism. Example : (i) Roots of
a plant move downward in the soil in the direction of gravity and thus show positive geotropism. (ii)
The stem or shoot of a plant shows movement against the direction of gravity and thus shows negative
geotropism.
Nyctinastic movements
The movements involving the diurnal variations in the position of flowers and leaves of many plants in
day and night are called nyctinastic or sleep movements. Nyctinastic movements include photonastic
movements and thermonastic movements.

Photonastic movements Thermonastic movements


If the diurnal variations in the position of plant If the diurnal variations in the position of
parts (e.g., flowers and leaves) are caused by the plant parts (e.g., flowers and leaves of plants)
light stimulus, such non-directional movements are caused by the change in temperature of the
are called photonastic movements. Example is surroundings, such non-directional movements
dandelion flower. are called thermonastic movements.

Chemotropism
It is the directional movement or orientation of the plant part in response to chemical stimulus. If the plant
part moves towards the chemical stimulus, it is called positive chemotropism. On the other hand, if the
plant part moves away from the chemical stimulus, it is called negative chemotropism. Example: During
the process of fertilisation, growth of pollen tube towards the ovule in the ovary is an example of positive
chemotropism.

Hydrotropism
It is the directional movement or orientation of the plant part in response to water stimulus. If the plant part
moves towards the water stimulus, it is called as positive hydrotropism. On the other hand, if the plant part
moves away from the water stimulus, it is called as negative hydrotropism. Example:Bending of roots of the
plant towards water signifies positive hydrotropism.

Thigmotropism
It is the directional response of plant parts to the touch of an object. It is often seen in plants having tendrils.
Tendrils are positively thigmotropic which means that they grow towards things they happen to touch.
Examples: Bitter gourd, bottle gourd, grape vine, etc.
Flow chart : Types of plant movement
108 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Previous Years’ CBSE


PREVIOUS Board
YEARS MCQS Questions

7.1 Animals-Nervous System SA II (3 marks)


VSA (1 mark) 8. Design an experiment to demonstrate that the
roots bend in the direction of water stimulus.
1. How is the spinal cord protected in the (Foreign 2010)
human body? (Delhi 2010)
9. What is ‘phototropism’? How does it occur in
2. Name two tissues that provide control and plants? Describe an activity to demonstrate
coordination in multicellular animals.
phototropism. (AI 2009)
(Delhi 2009)
LA (5 marks)
SA II (3 marks)
10. (a) What is (i) phototropism and (ii)
3. What is reflex action? Describe the steps geotropism? With labelled diagrams
involved in a reflex action. (Foreign 2009) describe an activity to show that light and
gravity change the direction that plant
LA (5 marks)
parts grow in.
4. (a) Draw the structure of a neuron and label
(b) Mention the role of each of the following
the following on it :
plant hormones:
nucleus, dendrite, cell body and axon.
(i) Auxin (ii) Abscisic acid
(b) Name the part of neuron : (AI 2008)
(i) Where information is acquired
(ii) Through which information travels as an 7.3 Hormones in Animals
electrical impulse. (AI 2008)
VSA (1 mark)
7.2 Coordination in Plants
11. Which endocrine gland secretes the growth
VSA (1 mark) hormone? (Foreign 2009)
5. Name the two types of tropism.
SA I (2 marks)
(Foreign 2010)
6. Which one of the following actions on touch 12. What are hormones? Name the hormone
is an example of chemical control? secreted by thyroid and state its function.
Movement of the touch-sensitive plant (Delhi 2010)
Movement in human leg (Foreign 2009)
SA II (3 marks)
SA I (2 marks) 13. Define “hormones”. Name the hormone
7. What are ‘nastic’ and ‘curvature’ movements? secreted by thyroid. Write its function.
Give one example of each. (Delhi 2009) (Delhi 2008)
Control and Coordination 109

Detailed Solutions

1. In the human body, spinal cord is enclosed if we touch the leaves of Mimosa pudica we find
within bony cage called the vertebral column that its leaves immediately fold up and droop. This
which protects it from injury. occurs due to turgor changes in cells of plant.
2. In multicellular animals, control and coordina- Curvature movements are directional movements
tion, takes place through two types of tissues i.e., that occur in response to external stimuli such
nervous tissue and muscular tissue. as light, force of gravity, etc. This stimuli cause
differential growth in specific plant part via action
3. Reflex action is a spontaneous, automatic of phytohormones. For example, roots of a plant
and mechanical response to a stimulus acting on grow downward in the soil in the direction of
a specific receptor without the will of the animal. gravity showing positive geotropism.
In reflex action, fine tips (dendrites) of receptors
8. The given experiment demonstrates the response
(sensory neurons) quickly relay a message (electric of roots in the direction of water stimulus.
impulse) via sensory nerves to the spinal cord. The Take two glass troughs A and B and fill each one of
spinal cord then sends information (impulse) via them two-third with soil. In trough A, plant a tiny
motor nerves to effectors (muscles or glands) which seedling and water it daily whereas in trough B, plant
show response. The path taken by nerve impulses in a similar seedling and also place a small ‘clay pot’
a reflex action is called as reflex arc. inside the soil. Do not water the soil (in trough B) but
4. (a) : Diagrammatic representation of a neuron put some water in the clay pot and bury it in the soil
is as follows: and leave it for a few days.
Nucleus

Root grows
Dendrites straight
Axon

Cell body
Moist soil Moist soil
(b) (i) Dendrites or dendrons acquires the (A)
information and sets off a chemical reaction that Water
creates an electrical impulse.
(ii) The electrical impulse travels from the Clay pot
dendrite to cell body and then along the axon to its Root grows
nerve ending. At the end of the axon, the electrical towards water
impulse sets off the release of chemicals which
Dry soil Moist soil
cross the synapse (gap) and start a similar electrical
impulse in a dendrite to the next neuron. This is a (B)
general scheme how nervous impulse travel in the Now, dig up the soil carefully from both the
body. troughs without damaging the roots of seedlings.
5. The two types of tropism are phototropism Result : The roots of seedling in trough A will be
and geotropism. straight because it gets water from all sides as soil
is watered uniformly. On the other hand, the roots
6. Movement of the touch-sensitive plant.
of seedling in trough B will be bent towards the
7. Nastic movements are non-directional induced right side because roots get water oozing out from
variation movements that occur due to turgor the clay pot which is kept on the right side.
changes. These are induced by external stimuli This experiment proves that the roots of a plant
such as light, temperature, touch, etc. For example, grow towards water i.e., positively hydrotropic.
110 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

9. Phototropism is the directional movement or The given activity demonstrates geotropism:


orientation of the plant part in response to light Take a potted plant growing in a transparent glass
stimulus. If the plant part moves towards light, it jar. Keep the potted plant growing in a transparent
is called positive phototropism. Alternatively, if glass jar straight on the ground. Observe that its
the plant part moves away from light, it is called stem is growing upward and its roots are growing
negative phototropism. For example, (i) Stem or downward. (Fig. A).
shoot of a growing plant moves towards light and
Now place this potted plant horizontally on its
thus shows positive phototropism. (ii) Roots of a
side on the ground and observe the position of the
plant move away from light thus show negative
phototropism. Phototropic movement in plant growing stem and the root. Keep the plant in this
is caused due to the action of auxin hormone. position for a few days.
Phototropism can be demonstrated by the After few days, you will observe that when the
following activity. potted plant is kept horizontally on its side on the
Take two potted plants and place one plant in the ground, the growing stem and the growing root
open so that it receives the sunlight coming from are parallel to the ground (Fig. B). After few days,
above. On the other hand, place the other plant you will find that the stem of this plant has bended
in a room near the window in such a way that it upward away from earth (negative geotropism)
receives sunlight from one side, i.e., through the and the root of the plant has bended downward
window. After some days, observe both the plants. towards earth, (positive geotropism Fig. C). This
You will notice that the first plant (A) (which was experiment confirms response of plants towards
kept in the open) has grown up straight towards gravity (geotropism).
light. However, the second plant (B) (which was
kept in the room and receiving light from one side)
has grown by bending towards the light. Thus, we Potted plant
can conclude from this experiment that the stem Stem lying horizontally
of plant responds to light by showing growth on its side

movement towards light (positive phototropism).


Root
Sun
Sun
Glass
Light Plant t jar
Plant bends igh A B
grows L
towards
up straight Window
light
towards
light
Room
A B
Stem
10. (a) (i) For definition of phototroprism and its bends Root bends
activity refer to answer 9. upwards downwards
(ii) Geotropism is the directional movement or
orientation of the plant part in response to gravity. C
If the plant part moves in the direction of gravity, (b) (i) Auxin is a phytohormone which is
it is called positive geotropism. Alternatively, if the basically growth promoter. It plays many important
plant part moves against the direction of gravity, roles such as :
it is termed as negative geotropism. For example. (I) Promotes cell enlargement and cell
Roots of a plant move downward in the soil (in the differentiation in plants.
direction of gravity) showing positive geotropism (II) These induces tropism.
whereas the stem of a plant shows movement (III) Induces parthenocarpy, i.e., formation of
against the direction of gravity and thus showing seedless fruits without fertilisation, in number of
negative geotropism. plants.
Control and Coordination 111

(IV) Auxin promotes apical dominance, a processes in living organisms. Thyroid gland secrete
phenomenon in which presence of apical bud three hormones : thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine
does not allow nearby lateral buds to grow. This (T3) and calcitonin.
is because apical bud inhibits the growth of lateral Both thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine are
buds by releasing auxins. iodinated forms of the amino acid tyrosine. These
(ii) Abscisic acid is a phytohormone which is two hormones have four functions:
basically growth inhibitor. It is also called stress
(i) They maintain the basal metabolic rate (BMR)
hormone because its production is stimulated
of the body by regulating the rate of oxidation of
by drought, water logging and other adverse
carbohydrates, fats and proteins and production of
conditions. It performs the following functions:
energy in our body.
(I) It promotes dormancy in seeds and buds and
thus inhibits growth. (ii) They promote growth of body tissues and
(II) It promotes abscision of flower and fruits. development of mental faculties.
(III) It promotes falling and senescence in leaves. (iii) They stimulate tissue differentiation therefore,
(IV) It promotes closing of stomata and thus affects they affect metamorphosis of a tadpole into an
transpiration and wilting in leaves. adult frog.
11. Growth hormone (GH) also called somato- (iv) As they increase heat production, thus they
tropin, is a peptide hormone secreted by anterior maintain body temperature.
lobe of the pituitary gland. Calcitonin regulates the concentration of calcium
12. Hormones are the chemical substances secreted and phosphorus in the blood.
by endocrine glands. They regulate biological 13. Refer to answer 12.
Chapter
How do Organisms
8 Reproduce?
8.1 Do Organisms Create Exact Copies of 8.2 Modes of Reproduction Used by Single
Themselves? Organisms
8.3 Sexual Reproduction

Topicwise Analysis of Last 10 Years’ CBSE Board Questions (2017-2008)

8 Maximum weightage is of Sexual Reproduction. 8 Maximum SA I type questions were asked


from Modes of Reproduction Used by Single
8 Maximum VSA type questions were asked from Organisms and Sexual Reproduction.
Modes of Reproduction Used by Single Organisms
and Sexual Reproduction. 8 Maximum SA II and LA type questions were
asked from Sexual Reproduction.

QUICK RECAP
8 Reproduction is the production of new Types of reproduction : Living organisms
organisms from the existing organism of a reproduce by two ways-asexual reproduction
species that ensures continuity of population and sexual reproduction.
of that species.
How do Organisms Reproduce? 113

Asexual reproduction : It involves the – All the cell divisions during this type of
production of an offspring from a single reproduction are either mitotic or amitotic.
parent without the fusion of gametes. – New individuals produced are genetically
Basic features of asexual reproduction : identical to the parents.
– Only one organism is involved; different sexes – It is a rapid mode of multiplication.
are not involved. – No gametes are formed and hence no
fertilisation takes place.

Asexual reproduction

Fission Fragmentation
A fully grown parent (unicellular organism) Parent body breaks into two or more
divides into two or more daughter cells. fragments and each fragment develops into
a new organism, e.g., sponges, sea anemones,
starfish, etc.
Binary Multiple Regeneration
Division of parent body Many individuals are Formation of whole organism from a small
into two equal and formed from a single body fragment or repair of the damaged cells,
identical daughter cells. parent. Occurs under tissues or replacement of damaged parts of
Occurs under favourable unfavourable conditions. body. E.g., Hydra, Planaria, lizard, etc.
conditions. E.g., Amoeba, E.g., Amoeba, Plasmodium,
Paramecium, etc. Monocystis, etc. Budding
Formation of new individual from small
outgrowth called bud, on the parent body,
Spore formation
e.g., Hydra, yeast, etc.
Spore is microscopic unicellular reproductive
structure that germinates to produce new Vegetative propagation
individuals after detaching from the parent body, Formation of new plant from the parts like
e.g., Rhizopus, Penicillium. stem, root and leaves of an existing plant.

Natural methods Artificial methods


Propagation by roots, e.g., Dalbergia, Dahlia, Cutting
sweet potato, etc. Cutting of small pieces of stem, root or leaf
Propagation by stems: having a bud to grow new plant when put in
Rhizome – Banana, ginger soil, e.g., rose, sugarcane, etc.
Bulb – Onion, garlic
Layering
Tuber – Potato, artichoke
Runner – Oxalis, Cyanodon A branch of plant is lowered and burried into
Corm – Colocasia soil to induce adventitious root formation
and then cut from parent plant, e.g., jasmine,
Propagation by buds on leaves, e.g., Bryophyllum, Hibiscus, etc.
Begonia, etc.
Grafting
Micropropagation/ Tissue culture Method of obtaining superior quality plant
Production of large number of plants by cell from two different plants by taking root
or tissue culture technique, e.g., commercial system of one plant (stock) and shoot system
production of orchids, carnation, Chrysanthemum, of another plant (scion), e.g., mango, apple,
etc. rubber, etc.

Flow chart: Types of asexual reproduction


114 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Sexual Reproduction : It may be defined as After pollination, pollen grain on the


the production of offspring (new individuals) stigma germinates and grows a pollen tube
by the fusion of two gametes (usually one downwards through style to the ovary. Two
from male parent and the other from female non-motile male gametes are formed inside
parent) to form a diploid zygote which the tube during its growth through the style.
develops into a mature organism. After reaching the ovary, pollen tube enters
– Advantages of sexual reproduction over the ovule through the micropyle. The tip of
asexual reproduction are : (i) Fusion of the tube finally pierces the micropylar end of
male and female gametes coming from male the embryo sac and ruptures releasing two
and female organisms. Since the fusing
male gametes into the embryo sac. During
gametes come from two different and sexually
the act of fertilisation, one male gamete fuses
distinct individuals, the offsprings exhibit
diversity of characters, and (ii) Meiosis during with the egg to form the diploid zygote. The
gametogenesis provides opportunities for new process is called syngamy (or generative
combination of genes. It plays a prominent fertilisation). The diploid zygote finally
role in the origin of new species and leads to develops into an embryo. The other male
variation required for evolution. gamete fuses with the two polar nuclei to
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants : The form the triploid (3n) primary endosperm
reproductive part of angiosperms is called nucleus. The process is called triple fusion
flower. (or vegetative fertilisation). This mechanism
– Sepals are green while petals are coloured. They involving two acts of fertilisation in an
form the non-essential parts of flower. embryo sac is called double fertilisation.
– Stamens and carpels are the essential The ovary of flower develops into a fruit. Ovule
reproductive parts of the flower. gets converted into a seed on maturation.
– Stamen (androecium) is the male reproductive Seeds germinate under suitable conditions
part of the plant made up of filament and such as optimum moisture, air and warmth,
anther. Anther produces the pollen grains that etc., into a seedling and eventually into a new
contain male gametes. plant.
– Carpel (gynoecium) is the female reproductive Sexual reproduction in human beings :
part made up of stigma, style and ovary.
Human beings are unisexual and there is a
Stigma is responsible for receiving pollen
distinct sexual dimorphism. The reproductive
during pollination. Style is the middle part
of carpel. It is an elongated tubular structure systems of males and females consist of many
which connects stigma with ovary. The basal organs which are distinguishable into primary
swollen part of carpel is ovary. Each ovule has and secondary sex organs. The primary sex
an embryo sac that bears a haploid egg (female organs are gonads, which produce gametes
gamete). (or sex cells) and secrete sex hormones. The
– The process of transfer of pollen grains from secondary sex organs include the genital
the anther of a flower to the stigma of the ducts and glands which help in transportation
same flower or another flower is known as of gametes and reproductive process.
pollination. It is of two types - self pollination – The period of sexual maturity during
that takes place in same flower (bisexual)or adolescence when reproductive organs become
between two flowers of the same plant and
functional is called puberty.
cross pollination which takes place between
two flowers of different plants of same species. – Puberty is characterised by :
Insects (entomophily), wind (anemophily), – Development of secondary sex organs and
water (hydrophily), birds (ornithophily), etc., secondary sex characters in both male and
are the various pollinating agents. female.
How do Organisms Reproduce? 115

In males : – In female :
– Enlargement of penis and scrotum. – Growth of breasts and external genitalia
– Broadening of the shoulders and increased (vulva).
muscle development. – Growth of pubic hair and extra hair in armpits.
– Enlargement of larynx and thickening of vocal – Hair on beard, moustache and chest are
cords producing deepening of the voice. lacking.
– Growth of pubic hair and extra hair on the face, – Broadening of pelvis.
in the armpits and on the chest. – Initiation of menstruation and ovulation.

Male reproductive system

Testes
• One pair, present outside the abdominal cavity within scrotal sacs which keep the testicular
temperature 2° - 3° C lower than that of normal body temperature. It is the site of production
of male gametes called sperms and also secretes a hormone called testosterone.

Vas deferens
• Long, tubular structure present in pair that carries sperms to the seminal vesicles that
temporarily store sperm. Vas deferens along with seminal vesicle opens into ejaculatory duct
which leads to urethra.

Urethra
• Common pathway for the flow of urine and semen, arises from the urinary bladder and is joined
by ejaculatory duct. Runs through the penis and opens outside through male genital pore.

Penis
• Long, thick muscular organ having erectile tissues. Tip of penis is called glans penis (soft and
highly sensitive), covered by foreskin.
• It is a copulatory organ which transfers semen into vagina of female sexual intercourse.

Accessory reproductive glands


• Seminal vesicles : One pair, sac like, present between rectum and urinary bladder and secrete
mucus and alkaline watery fluid that contains fructose (source of energy for sperms) which
helps in the movement of sperms.
• Prostate gland : Single, large, surrounds urethra, secretes milky fluid into urethra that helps
sperms to swim.
• Bulbourethral or Cowper’s glands : One pair, very small, present at both sides of urethra,
secrete mucus to lubricate the end of penis and secrete alkaline fluid that neutralises the acids
from the urine.
Flow chart : Male reproductive system
116 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Female reproductive system

Ovaries
• Paired, almond shaped, present in the lower abdominal cavity near kidneys, connected by
ligament to the uterus.
• They are primary sex organs and perform two functions – production of female gametes (eggs
or ova) and secretion of female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone). A mature ovary
contains a large number of ova in different stages of development.
• The formation of ova begins in female fetus before birth. At birth, each ovary contains about
2-3 lakhs immature ova.
• One mature ovum is released from either of the ovary (ovulation) at the interval of every 28
days during reproductive phase of a woman.

Fallopian tubes (Oviducts)


• Paired tubes originating from uterus, on either side, extend upto the ovary of their respective
sides.
• Its terminal part is funnel-shaped with finger-like projections called fimbriae lying near ovary.
Fimbriae direct the ovum released from ovary into the Fallopian tube.

Uterus
• Single, inverted pear-shaped, highly muscular, hollow structure present in the pelvic cavity,
lying between urinary bladder and rectum.
• Development of fetus occurs inside it, hence called womb. The narrower lower part of uterus
is called cervix, which leads into vagina.

Vagina
• About 7-10 cm long tube where penis discharges sperms.
• Vagina acts as the passage for menstrual flow and also acts as birth canal during parturition
(child birth).
Flow chart : Female reproductive system

8 Menstrual cycle : Sexual cycle begins in a endometrium. This is called menstruation.


female when she attains puberty. It occurs Menstruation usually occurs 14 days after
under the control of sex hormones and ovulation and lasts for 3-5 days. After
repeats every 28 days. It is marked by bleeding menstruation is over, the endometrium gets
or menstrual flow. A single egg is released repaired and uterus once again becomes
from either of the two ovaries and the inner ready to receive the next embryo.
wall of uterus, endometrium, becomes ready The first menstruation in a female’s life is
to receive it after fertilisation. If the ovum gets called menarche. The sexual cycle in a woman
fertilised by the sperm, a zygote is formed and continues upto the age of 45 to 55 years. The
an embryo starts developing. Till the birth of ovaries do not release any further egg after
the child, neither any egg is released from that and this stage is called menopause.
ovary nor menstruation takes place. 8 Fertilisation : Fertilisation is internal in
In the absence of fertilisation, the egg human beings. The sperms produced in
is expelled through vagina along with testes of male are transferred into the vagina
the bleeding caused by the breaking of of female during the intercourse. The ovum
How do Organisms Reproduce? 117

released from ovary during ovulation is 8 Population control : Continuous increase


swept into the adjacent Fallopian tube where in population may cause scarcity of food,
fertilisation takes place. Only one sperm other natural resources, proper housing
can enter into the ovum. Fusion of nucleus and medical care, etc. Frequent pregnancies
of sperm and nucleus of ovum marks the also deteriorate mother’s health therefore,
completion of fertilisation. It results in the regulation of conception is required.
formation of single-celled zygote. Preventive measures to avoid the pregnancy
8 Post fertilisation changes : The zygote then are called contraception. Some of the
undergoes repeated mitotic divisions to form contraceptive methods are :
a blastula on the 7th day that descends into – Barrier method : Physical devices that
uterus and gets implanted. prevent the entry of sperms into vagina during
Specialised tissues of fetus and uterine wall of copulation. They also protect individuals from
the mother form a structure called placenta. It STDs.
is a mechanical and physiological connection (a) Condoms or Nirodh – Thin rubber tube
between an embryo and uterine wall of the worn over the penis.
mother through which nutrients and other (b) Femidom – Thin rubber tube that fits
useful substances enter fetus from mother’s inside vagina.
blood and waste products are expelled into
(c) Diaphragm or Cervical cap – Rubber
mother’s blood.
cover that fits over the cervix in vagina.
The complete development of fetus, from
– Chemical methods : Spermicide creams and
the initial stage of conception till the birth
jellies are applied in vagina to immobilise or
of the young one, is called gestation. It is
kill the sperms. Oral contraceptive pills contain
completed in about 280 days or 40 weeks
hormones like estrogen and progesterone that
from the first day of the last menstruation.
prevent ovulation.
Gestation is followed by parturition (birth
– Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs)
of child). Parturition is the expulsion of
: These are contraceptive devices made of
fully formed young one from the mother’s
copper, plastic or stainless steel. These include
uterus after the gestation period is over. It
Copper-T(CuT), Lippes loop, etc. A CuT is
starts with contraction of uterine wall under
inserted into uterus by a doctor or a skilled
the influence of oxytocin hormone. Relaxin
nurse. They prevent implantation in uterus.
hormone from the ovary widens the pelvis
– Natural methods : These include rhythm
and vagina for child birth.
method (avoid copulation around the time of
8 Reproductive health : Reproductive ovulation) and coitus interruptus (withdrawal
health is a total well-being in all aspects of of penis before ejaculation).
reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, social – Surgical methods (Sterilisation) :
and behavioural.
(a) Vasectomy : Procedure done on males
Some of its problems and strategies are :
involving removal of a small portion of
– Increasing population and methods to check the vas deferens and ligation of two cut
it ends with threads to prevent the sperms
– Knowledge of reproductive organs, sex from coming out.
education and sexually transmitted diseases
(b) Tubectomy : Procedure done on females
(STDs)
involving removal of a small portion of
– Awareness about birth control devices the Fallopian tubes and ligation of cut
– Care of mother and child ends with threads to prevent the egg
– Prevention of sex abuse and sex-related crimes. (ovum) to enter the uterus.
118 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Female to male ratio is declining due to sex Syphilis is caused by bacterium, Treponema
determination done by amniocentesis or pallidum which affects the mucous
radio imaging techniques that are legally membrane of genital, rectal and oral regions
banned by government. and causes lesions. Infection occurs by
Abortion is the medical termination of sexual intercourse, and occasionally by
pregnancy (MTP) before the fetus becomes kissing or close body contact. Antibiotics
viable. It is suggested by doctor incase of such as penicillin and tetracycline are used
complicated pregnancies which are dangerous to cure it.
for the mother or fetus or both. However, this AIDS (Acquired Immuno-Deficiency
method is widely misused by people who do Syndrome) : The disease AIDS is caused by
not want a female child. HIV virus. It is a fast spreading incurable
8 Sexually Transmitted Diseases : These are disease which weakens the body’s immune
infectious (communicable) diseases caused system. It spreads by unprotected sex, use of
by bacteria, protozoa and viruses which contaminated needles, transfusion of infected
spread from an infected person to a healthy blood, etc. Few drugs like zidovudine or
person by sexual contact. Human beings azidothymidine are used to prolong patients
suffer from over 30 different kinds of sexually life.
transmitted diseases (STDs). The common 8 Healthy Pregnancy : Malnutrition and stress
STDs are: during pregnancy are the major causes of ill
Gonorrhoea is caused by a bacterium health of pregnant women. Therefore it is
Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infection results in advisable that cigarette, LSD, marijuana and
inflammation of the mucous membrane of alcohol should be avoided by the expecting
the urinogenital tract, rectum, throat and eye. mothers as they cause harmful effects on the
The victim feels burning sensation and pain fetus including mental retardation. Proper
during urination. It spreads by sexual contact spacing between subsequent pregnancies
and through infected clothes. Penicillin and should also be maintained for mothers to
ampicillin are used for its cure. regain their health.
How do Organisms Reproduce? 119

Previous Years’ CBSE


PREVIOUS Board
YEARS MCQS Questions

8.1 Do Organisms Create Exact 12. How does Plasmodium reproduce. Is this
method sexual or asexual? (Delhi 2017)
Copies of Themselves? 13. Name the part of Bryophyllum where the buds
VSA (1 mark) are produced for vegetative propagation.
(Delhi 2016)
1. Newly formed DNA copies may not be
identical at times. Give one reason. (AI 2017) 14. What happens when a Planaria gets cut into
two pieces? (Delhi 2016)
2. When a cell reproduces, what happens to its
DNA? (AI 2017) 15. What happens when a mature Spirogyra
filament attains considerable length?
3. What is DNA ? (Delhi 2016, Foreign 2015)
(AI 2016)
4. Name the life process of an organism that
16. Name the method by which Hydra
helps in the growth of its population.
reproduces. Is this method sexual or asexual ?
(AI 2015) (Foreign 2016)
5. Why is DNA copying an essential part of the 17. Name two simple organisms having the
process of reproduction? (AI 2009) ability of regeneration. (AI 2015)
SA II (3 marks) 18. Name the causative agent of the disease ‘‘Kala-
azar’’ and its mode of asexual reproduction.
6. Reproduction is one of the most important (Foreign 2015)
characteristic of living beings. Give three
reasons in support of the statement. SA I (2 marks)
(AI 2017) 19. Write two differences between binary fission
7. Define reproduction. How does it helps and multiple fission in a tabular form.
in providing stability to the population of (Delhi 2015)
species? (AI 2016) 20. List four modes of asexual reproduction other
8. What is DNA copying? State its importance. than fission in the living organisms.
(Delhi 2015) (Delhi 2014)
9. What is the effect of DNA copying, which is 21. List four advantages of vegetative propagation.
not perfectly accurate, on the reproduction (Delhi 2014)
process? How does the amount of DNA 22. List four modes of asexual reproduction.
remain constant through each new generation (Delhi 2014)
is a combination of DNA copies of two
23. Draw labelled diagrams to illustrate budding
individuals? (AI 2014)
in Hydra. (AI 2014)
10. Write the full form of DNA. Name the part of
24. How do Plasmodium and Leishmania
the cell where it is located. Explain its role in
reproduce? Write one difference in their
the process of reproduction of the cell.
mode of reproduction. (Foreign 2014)
(Delhi 2010)
25. Define multiple fission. Give its one example.
8.2 Modes of Reproduction Used (Foreign 2014)
by Single Organisms 26. List two advantages of vegetative reproduction
practised in case of an orange plant.
VSA (1 mark) (Delhi 2012)
11. Name the method by which Spirogyra 27. Name an organism which reproduces by spore
reproduces under favourable conditions. Is formation. List three conditions favourable
this method sexual or asexual. (Delhi 2017) for spores to germinate and grow. (AI 2012)
120 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

28. List two advantages of practising vegetative 39. What happens when
propagation in plants. Select two plants raised (a) Planaria gets cut into two pieces
by this method from the list given below : (b) a mature Spirogyra filament attains
Banana, Gram, Pea, Rose, Tomato, Wheat considerable length
(Foreign 2012) (c) on maturation sporangia burst?
29. Write any two differences between binary (Foreign 2016)
fission and multiple fission in a tabular form 40. What is vegetative propagation? List with brief
as observed in cells of organisms. explanation three advantages of practising
(Delhi 2011) this process for growing some types of plants.
30. List any four reasons for vegetative Select two plants from the following which
propagation being practised in the growth of are grown by this process :
some type of plants. (AI 2011) Banana, Wheat, Mustard, Jasmine, Gram
(Foreign 2016)
31. What is vegetative propagation? Write two of
its advantages. (Foreign 2011) 41. Explain budding in Hydra with the help of
32. With the help of diagrams show the different labelled diagrams only. (Delhi 2015)
stages of binary fission in Amoeba. 42. (a) Name the following:
(Delhi 2010) (i) Thread like non-reproductive structures
present in Rhizopus.
SA II (3 marks) (ii) ‘Blobs’ that develop at the tips of the non-
33. What happens when reproductive threads in Rhizopus.
(a) accidently, Planaria gets cut into many (b) Explain how these structures protect
pieces themselves and what is the function of
(b) Bryophyllum leaf falls on the wet soil the structures released from the ‘blobs’ in
Rhizopus. (Delhi 2015)
(c) on maturation sporangia of Rhizopus
bursts? (Delhi 2017) 43. Explain any three advantages of vegetative
propagation. (Foreign 2015)
34. Describe reproduction by spores in Rhizopus.
44. Explain the process of regeneration in
(AI 2017)
Planaria. How is this process different from
35. What is vegetative propagation? State two reproduction?
advantages and two disadvantages of this (Foreign 2015, AI 2014)
method. (AI 2017)
45. On cutting the body of an organism into
36. What is multiple fission? How does it occur many pieces, it was observed that many of
in an organism? Explain briefly. Name these pieces developed as new individuals.
one organism which exhibits this type of
Name the process and list two organisms in
reproduction.
which this process may be observed. Draw a
(Delhi 2016)
schematic diagram to illustrate the changes
37. Explain the term “regeneration” as used that are likely to be observed during the
in relation to reproduction of organisms. development of new individuals in any one of
Describe briefly how regeneration is carried the organisms named. (Delhi 2014)
out in multicellular organisms like Hydra.
46. Draw diagrams to explain the regeneration
(AI 2016)
that takes place in each of the body parts
38. In the context of reproduction of species of Planaria when its body is cut into three
state the main difference between fission pieces. Name any other organism in which a
and fragmentation. Also give one example of similar process can be observed.
each. (AI 2016) (Delhi 2014)
How do Organisms Reproduce? 121

47. List any two modes of asexual reproduction in 57. Name the parts of a bisexual flower that are
animals. Under which mode of reproduction not directly involved in reproduction.
is vegetative propagation placed and why? List (Foreign 2015)
two advantages of vegetative propagation. 58. No two individuals are absolutely alike in a
(AI 2014) population. Why? (Delhi 2014)
48. What is vegetative propagation? List its two 59. Identify and write the male reproductive
advantages. Select two plants raised by this parts from the list of different parts of a flower
method from the list given below: given below:
Wheat, Tomato, Rose, Pea, Gram, Corn, Banana Stigma, Sepal, Anther, Petal, Ovule, Filament
(Foreign 2014) (Delhi 2013C)
LA (5 marks) 60. Name the largest cell present in human body.
(Delhi 2008)
49. (a) What is fragmentation in organisms?
Name a multicellular organism which SA I (2 marks)
reproduces by this method. 61. What is the main difference between sperms
(b) What is regeneration in organism? and eggs of humans? Write the importance of
Describe regeneration in Planaria with this difference. (AI 2014)
the help of a suitable diagram.
62. “The chromosomal number of the sexually
(Delhi 2011)
producing parents and their offspring is the
50. With the help of suitable diagrams, explain same”. Justify this statement. (AI 2014)
the various steps of budding in Hydra.
63. List two preparations shown every month
(AI 2011)
by the uterus in anticipation of pregnancy in
51. What is binary fission in organisms? With the
humans. (Foreign 2014)
help of suitable diagrams, describe the mode
of reproduction in Amoeba. 64. State one genetically different feature between
(AI 2011) sperms and eggs of humans. What is its
consequence? (Delhi 2012)
52. (a) What is spore formation?
65. State the role of placenta in the development
(b) Draw a diagram showing spore formation of embryo. (AI 2012)
in Rhizopus.
66. List the parts of human male reproductive
(c) List two advantages for organisms to
system which contribute fluid to the semen.
reproduce themselves through spores.
State two advantages semen offers to the
(Foreign 2011) (Foreign 2012)
sperms.
8.3 Sexual Reproduction 67. Explain giving one example of each, the
unisexual and the bisexual flowers.
VSA (1 mark) (Delhi 2011)
53. What are all organisms called which bear 68. Describe the role of Fallopian tubes in the
both the sex organs in the same individual. female reproductive system. (AI 2011)
Give one example of such organism.
69. Explain the terms:
(AI 2016)
(i) Implantation of zygote
54. List two functions of ovary of human female (ii) Placenta (Foreign 2011)
reproductive system. (AI 2016)
70. Describe the role of the following in human
55. List two unisexual flowers. (Foreign 2016) beings.
56. Why is ferilisation not possible without (i) Seminal vesicles
pollination? (Foreign 2016) (ii) Prostate gland (AI 2009)
122 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

71. Draw a diagram of the longitudinal section 81. Suggest three contraceptive methods to
of a flower and label on it (i) stigma and (ii) control the size of human population which
ovary. (Foreign 2009) is essential for the health and prosperity of a
72. List any two differences between pollination country. State the basic principle involved in
and fertilisation. (Delhi 2008) each. (Delhi 2016)
73. Name one sexually transmitted disease each 82. What are the functions of testis in the human
caused due to bacterial infection and viral male reproductive system? Why are these
infection. How can these be prevented? located outside the abdominal cavity? Who
(AI 2008) is responsible for bringing about changes
74. (a) In the human body what is the role of (i) in appearance seen in boys at the time of
seminal vesicles and (ii) prostate gland? puberty? (Delhi 2016)
(b) List two functions performed by testes in 83. What is meant by pollination? Name and
human beings. (AI 2008) differentiate between the two modes of
pollination in flowering plants.
SA II (3 marks) (Delhi 2016)
75. State the basic requirement for sexual 84. (a) List two reasons for the appearance of
reproduction. Write the importance of such variations among the progeny formed by
reproductions in nature. (Delhi 2017) sexual reproduction.
76. State the changes that take place in the uterus (b)
when :
A
(a) Implantation of embryo has occurred. B
(b) Female gamete/egg is not fertilised.
(Delhi 2017)
C
77. List any two steps involved in sexual
reproduction and write its two advantage.
(Delhi 2017)
78. List three techniques that have been
developed to prevent pregnancy. Which one D
of these techniques is not meant for males?
How does the use of these techniques have a
direct impact on the health and prosperity of (i) Name the part marked A in the diagram.
a family? (AI 2017)
(ii) How does A reaches part B?
79. How do organisms, whether reproduced
(iii) State the importance of the part C.
asexually or sexually maintain a constant
chromosome number through several (iv) What happens to the part marked D after
generations? Explain with the help of suitable fertilisation is over? (AI 2016)
example. (Delhi 2016) 85. What is pollination? List its two types and
80. Name the parts A, B and C shown in the following write a distinguishing feature between the
diagram and state one function of each. two. (Foreign 2016)
86. What is sexual reproduction? List its four
significances. (Foreign 2016)
A
B 87. Name the reproductive parts of an
angiosperm. Where are these parts located?
C
Explain in brief the structure of its female
(Delhi 2016) reproductive parts. (Foreign 2016)
How do Organisms Reproduce? 123

88. (a) Mention the role of the following organs 98. Write names of those parts of a flower which
of human male reproductive system. serve the same function as the following do in
(i) Testis (ii) Scrotum (iii) Vas deferens the animals
(i) testis
(iv) Prostate gland
(b) What are the two roles of testosterone? (ii) sperm
(Foreign 2016) (iii) ovary
(iv) egg. (Delhi 2014)
89. List any four methods of contraception used
by humans. How does their use have a direct 99. List four methods of contraception used by
effect on the health and prosperity of a family. humans.
(Delhi 2015, 2014) Justify the following statement.
“The use of contraceptive methods has a
90. What are sexually transmitted diseases? List
direct effect on the health and prosperity of a
two examples each of diseases caused due to
family.” (AI 2014)
(i) bacterial infection and (ii) viral infection.
Which device or devices may be used to 100. Describe in brief the function of the various
prevent the spread of such diseases? parts of the female reproductive part of a
(Delhi 2015) bisexual flower. (Foreign 2014)
91. List six specific characteristics of sexual 101. On the notice board of ultrasound clinics
reproduction. (AI 2015) it is generally stated. “Here prenatal sex
determination and disclosure of sex (boy or
92. List four points of significance of reproductive girl before birth) of fetus is not done. It is
health in a society. Name any two areas related prohibited and punishable under law.”
to reproductive health which have improved (a) List two advantages of imposing ban on
over the past 50 years in our country. prenatal sex determination.
(AI 2015) (b) What can students do to educate the
93. Draw longitudinal section of a bisexual flower society about the following?
and label the following parts on it. (i) The ill-effects of indiscriminate female
(a) Anther (b) Ovary feticide.
(c) Stigma (d) Style (ii) Adopting small family norms.
(Foreign 2015) (Foreign 2014)
94. What is placenta? Explain its function in 102. Name the two reproductive parts of a
humans. (Foreign 2015, AI 2014) bisexual flower which contain the germ cells.
95. Write one main difference between asexual State the location and function of its female
and sexual mode of reproduction. Which reproductive part.
species is likely to have comparatively better (Foreign 2014)
chances of survival - the one reproducing 103. Write two examples each of sexually
asexually or the one reproducing sexually? transmitted diseases causes by (i) virus, (ii)
Justify your answer. bacteria. Explain how the transmission of
(Foreign 2015, AI 2014) such diseases be prevented?
96. Why is DNA copying an essential part of (Delhi 2013)
the process of reproduction? What are the 104. Explain the meaning of sexually transmitted
advantages of sexual reproduction over diseases (STDs). Give two examples of STDs
asexual reproduction? (Foreign 2015) each, caused due to (i) bacterial infection
97. Draw a diagram of the longitudinal section of and (ii) viral infection. State in brief how the
a flower exhibiting germination of pollen on spread of such diseases may be prevented.
stigma and label (i) ovary, (ii) male germ-cell, (Delhi 2012)
(iii) female germ-cell and (iv) ovule on it. 105. List and explain in brief three methods of
(Foreign 2015) contraception. (AI 2012)
124 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

106. What is AIDS? Which microbe is responsible (b) Describe the structure and function of
for AIDS infection? State one mode of placenta. (Delhi 2016)
transmission of this disease. Explain in 114. What is placenta? Describe its structure. State
brief one measure for prevention of AIDS. its functions in case of a pregnant human
(Foreign 2012) female. (AI 2016)
107. (a) List two sexually transmitted diseases in 115. (a) State in brief the functions of the
each of the following cases: following organs in the human female
(i) Bacterial infections reproductive system.
(ii) Viral infections Ovary, Fallopian tube, Uterus
(b) How may the spread of such diseases be (b) What is menstruation? Why does it
prevented? (Delhi 2011) occur? (Foreign 2016)
108. What does HIV stands for? Is AIDS an 116. Write the functions of the following in human
infectious disease? List any four modes of female reproductive system.
spreading AIDS. (AI 2011) Ovary, oviduct, uterus
109. Expand AIDS. List any four methods of How does the embryo get nourishment inside
prevention (control) of AIDS. the mother’s body? Explain in brief.
(Foreign 2011) (Delhi 2015)
110. (a) Explain the terms: 117. (a) Name the human male reproductive
(i) Implantation (ii) Placenta
organ that produce sperms and also
(b) What is the average duration of human
secretes a hormone. Write the functions
pregnancy? (Delhi 2009)
of the secreted hormone.
LA (5 marks) (b) Name the parts of the human female
reproductive system where
111. (a) Name the organ that produces sperms
as well as secretes a hormone in human (i) fertilisation takes place
males. Name the hormone it secretes and (ii) implantation of the fertilised egg occurs.
write its functions. Explain how the embryo gets nourishment
(b) Name the part of the human female inside the mother’s body. (AI 2015)
reproductive system where fertilisation 118. (a) Identify A, B, C and D in the given
occurs. diagram and write their names.
(c) Explain how the developing embryo gets
nourishment inside the mother’s body.
(Delhi 2017)
112. (a) Write the functions of each of the
following parts in a human female
reproductive system.
(i) Ovary
(ii) Uterus
(iii) Fallopian tube
(b) Write the structure and functions of
(b) What is pollination? Explain its signi-
placenta in a human female (AI 2017)
ficance.
113. (a) Write the functions of the following parts (c) Explain the process of fertilisation in
in human female reproductive system : flowers. Name the parts of the flower that
(i) Ovary develop after fertilisation into
(ii) Oviduct (i) seed, (ii) fruit.
(iii) Uterus (Foreign 2015)
How do Organisms Reproduce? 125

119. (a) Give one example each of unisexual and (b) What is pollination? State its significance
bisexual flower. (c) How does fertilisation occur in flowers?
(b) Mention the changes a flower undergoes Name the parts of the flower that
after fertilisation. develop into (i) seed, and (ii) fruit after
(c) How does the amount of DNA remain fertilisation. (AI 2014)
constant though each new generation
124. List in tabular form the two differences
is a combination of DNA copies of two
between asexual and sexual mode of
individuals. (Delhi 2014)
reproduction. Name and explain with the
120. (a) Write the name of the human male help of labelled diagram the process by which
reproductive organ that produces sperms Hydra reproduces asexually.
and secretes a hormone. Name the (Foreign 2014, Delhi 2013C)
hormone secreted and state its function?
(b) Write the site of fertilisation and the part 125. (a) Name the human male reproductive
where the zygote gets implanted in the organ that produces sperms and also
human female. secretes hormones. Write the functions
(c) State, in brief, how an embryo gets its of the hormone secreted.
nourishment inside the mother’s body. (b) Name the parts of the human female
(Delhi 2014) reproductive system where (i) fertilisation
and (ii) implantation occur respectively.
121. (a) Name the respective part of human
Explain how the embryo gets nutrition
female reproductive system :
inside the mother’s body.
(i) that produces egg
(ii) where fusion of egg and sperm takes (Foreign 2014)
place, and 126. (a) List three distinguishing features between
(iii) where zygote gets implanted. sexual and asexual types of reproduction.
(b) Describe in brief what happens to the (b) Explain why variations are observed in
zygote after it gets implanted. the offsprings of sexually reproducing
(Delhi 2014) organisms? (Delhi 2013)
122. (a) Draw a sectional view of human female 127. (a) Identify A, B and C in the given diagram
reproductive system and label that part and write their functions.
where
A
(i) eggs develop
(ii) fertilisation take place
B
(iii) fertilised egg gets implanted
(b) Describe, in brief, the changes that uterus
undergoes
(i) to receive the zygote C
(ii) if zygote is not formed. (AI 2014)
123. (a) Name the parts labelled as A, B, C and D
(b) Mention the role of gamete and zygote in
in the diagram given below :
sexually reproducing organisms.
(Delhi 2013)
128. (a) Give an example of a bisexual flower.
(b) Draw a longitudinal section of a pistil
showing the germination of pollen
grains. Label the following parts:
(i) Stigma (ii) Male germ cell
(iii) Female germ cell (iv) Ovary
(v) Style (vi) Pollen tube
126 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

(c) Mention the site and the product of 133. (a) Explain with the help of a diagram how
fertilisation in a flower. (Delhi 2013C) pollen after landing on the stigma of a
129. Define the terms pollination and fertilisation. flower helps male germ cell to reach the
Draw a diagram of a pistil showing pollen female germ cell. Label the following :
tube growth into the ovule and label the ovary, female germ cell, male germ cell
following: pollen grain, male gamete, female and pollen grain.
gamete, ovary.
(b) State the meaning of pollination and
(Delhi 2012)
mention a distinguishing feature between
130. Describe in brief the role of (i) testes (ii) self-pollination and cross-pollination.
seminal vesicle, (iii) vas deferens, (iv) ureter (Foreign 2012)
and (v) prostate gland in human male
134. State in brief the changes that take place in a
reproductive system.
fertilised egg(zygote) till birth of the child in
(Delhi 2012)
the human female reproductive system. What
131. Distinguish between unisexual and bisexual
happens to the egg when it is not fertilised?
flowers giving one example of each. Draw a
(Foreign 2012)
diagram showing process of germination
of pollen grains on stigma and label the 135. (a) Draw a diagram of the longitudinal
following parts : section of a flower and label on it sepal,
(i) Female germ cell (ii) Male germ cell petal, ovary and stigma.
(iii) Ovary (AI 2012) (b) Write the names of male and female
132. Draw a diagram of human female reproductive parts of a flower.
reproductive system and label the part (Delhi 2011)
(i) that produces eggs 136. (a) Draw a diagram illustrating fertilisation
(ii) where fusion of egg and sperm takes in a flowering plant and label on it:
place male germ cell, ovary, female germ cell
(iii) where zygote is implanted. and pollen grain.
What happens to human egg when it is not (b) Distinguish between self pollination and
fertilised? (AI 2012) cross pollination. (Foreign 2011)
How do Organisms Reproduce? 127

Detailed Solutions

1. When a cell reproduces, DNA replication reproduction through which the organisms pass on
occurs which results in formation of two similar their body features to their offsprings. Moreover,
copies of DNA. The process of copying the DNA minor alternations during the process of DNA
have some variations each time. As a result, the copying result in the production of variations. Such
DNA copies produced are similar to each other but variations are useful for the survival of species over
may not identical sometimes. time.
2. When a cell reproduces, DNA replication 9. In the process of reproduction, if DNA copying
occurs which forms two similar copies of DNA. is not perfectly accurate, variation occurs. These in
turn may allow few individuals of a population to
3. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a polymer
survive in an altered niche and becomes the basis
made up of large number of nucleotide units. It
of evolution and over time. Such variations are
carries genetic information from generation to
useful for the survival of species.
generation.
The combination of DNA copies of two
4. Reproduction is a life process that helps in
individuals (male and female) occurs during
multiplication of an organism and growth of its
sexual reproduction. Reduction division (meiosis)
population.
during gamete formation halves the chromosome
5. The process of reproduction results in the
number in both male and female gametes. Since
production of offsprings which are similar (but not
these two gametes fuse during fertilisation, the
identical) to parents. The exact blue print of body design
original number of chromosomes (as in the
is inherited in the offsprings due to DNA replication
parent) is restored in the offspring. By this way
(copying) in parent cell during reproduction. Thus,
the amount of DNA remains constant in each
DNA copying is an essential part of the process of
new generation.
reproduction.
10. The full form of DNA is deoxyribonucleic
6. Reproduction is one of the most important
acid. It is located in the nucleus of a cell in the
characteristics of living beings because :
form of chromosomes. It contains information
(i) it is essential for existence and continuity of a
for the inheritance of characteristics from the
species. parents to the next generation. Copying of DNA
(ii) it helps to pass genetic information to next is an essential part of the process of reproduction
generation. because its makes possible the transmission of
(iii) it brings variations in next generation which is characteristics of the parents to its offsprings in
the basis for evolution. the next generation. At the time of replication
7. The production of new organisms by the two copies of DNA are formed. DNA copying is
existing organisms of the same species is known as accompanied by creation of additional cellular
reproduction. It is linked to the stability of population apparatus and then DNA copies separate, each
of a species. DNA replication during reproduction with its own cellular apparatus. Thus, a cell divides
ensures transfer of specific characters or body to form two daughter cells.
design features that is essential for an individual of a 11. The method by which Spirogyra reproduces
population to live and use that particular niche. Some under favorable conditions is fragmentation. This
variations present in a few individuals of population is an asexual mode of reproduction.
caused due to reproduction also help in their survival 12. Plasmodium reproduces through multiple
at changing niches. fission method. In this method, the parent
8. DNA copying is the production of similar organism splits to form many new organisms
copies of DNA present in a cell using various at the same time. This is an asexual method of
chemical reactions. DNA copying is essential for reproduction.
128 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

13. Bryophyllum propagates vegetatively by the (iv) It is easier to get rid of pathogen from any part
buds produced at the margins of leaves. of plant by vegetative propagation.
14. When Planaria is cut into two pieces then 22. The four modes of asexual reproduction are :
each piece grows into a complete organism. This is (i) binary fission, (ii) budding
known as regeneration. (iii) regeneration and
15. When a mature Spirogyra filament attains (iv) vegetative propagation.
considerable length it simply breaks into two or 23. The given diagram illustrates budding in
more fragments and each fragment then grows Hydra:
into a new Spirogyra. Mouth

16. Hydra generally reproduces through budding. Tentacles

It is an asexual method of reproduction. Parent


17. Hydra and Planaria are two organisms that Hydra Bud Mature
bud
New Hydra
formed
have the ability to regenerate.
18. Causative agent of the disease Kala-azar is 24. Plasmodium and Leishmania reproduce by
Leishmania. It reproduces asexually by binary fission. the process of fission which is asexual mode of
19. Differences between binary fission and reproduction. Plasmodium reproduces by multiple
multiple fission are as follows: fission. About 1000 daughter cells are produced by
the multiple fission of a Plasmodium. Leishmania
Binary fission Multiple fission reproduces by the process of binary fission. In
1. The parent The parent organism Leishmania, the splitting of parent cell takes place
organism, splits splits to form many in a definite plane (longitudinally) with respect to
to form two new organisms at flagellum at its end to produce two daughter cells.
new organism, the same time, e.g., 25. Multiple fission is an asexual mode of
e.g., Amoeba, Plasmodium. reproduction in which the parent organism splits to
Paramecium. form many new organisms at the same time.
2. The nucleus of The nucleus of Multiple fission occurs in Plasmodium.
the parent body the parent body 26. The two advantages of vegetative propagation
divides only once to divides repeatedly practised in case of an orange plant are :
produce two nuclei. to produce many (i) The new plants produced by vegetative
nuclei. propagation will be exactly like the parent plant.
Therefore, any desirable features of the parent
20. The four modes of asexual reproduction other
plant will be replicated in the new plants.
than fission in living organisms are :
(ii) The orange plants that have lost the capacity to
(i) budding
produce seeds, can also be propagated.
(ii) spore formation
(iii) regeneration and 27. Rhizopus reproduce by the method of spore
(iv) fragmentation. formation.
The three conditions favourable for spores
21. The following are the advantages of vegetative
propagation :
to germinate and grow are moisture, suitable
(i) The characters of the parent plants are temperature and food (nutrition).
preserved hence a good variety produced can be 28. Two advantages of the vegetative propagation
propagated by vegetative means. of plants are :
(ii) The plants, which do not produce viable seeds (i) Any desirable features of the parent plant can
or produce very few seeds, can be reproduced by be replicated in the new plants.
this method, for example, banana, potato, grapes, (ii) Flowers and fruits can be grown in a shorter
sugarcane, rose, orange, etc. time as compared to the plants grown from seeds.
(iii) It is an easier, quicker and cheaper method of The two plants raised by this method are banana
propagation. and rose.
How do Organisms Reproduce? 129

29. Refer to answer 19. (ii) Seedless plants can be grown through this
30. Refer to answer 21. method.
Disadvantages of vegetative propagation :
31. Vegetative propagation is a method of asexual
(i) Plants produced by this method posses less
reproduction in plants in which the parts other than
vigour and are more prone to diseases.
seeds are used as propagules. Also refer to answer 28.
(ii) Plants produced by this method show no
32. Different stages of binary fission in Amoeba genetic variation.
are as follows: 36. Multiple fission refers to the process of
Fully grown asexual reproduction in which many individuals
Amoeba Nucleus Nucleus Nucleus divides
Cytoplasm
lengthens into two parts are formed from a single parent. This method of
reproduction occurs in unfavourable conditions.
The unicellular organism develops a protective
covering called cyst, over the cell. The nucleus of
(a) Parent cell (b) (c) the cell divides repeatedly producing many nuclei.
Two
amoebae Later on, each nucleus is surrounded by small
produced Cytoplasm amount of cytoplasm and many daughter cells are
divides
produced within the cyst.
When conditions are favourable the cyst breaks
and small offsprings are liberated. This type of
reproduction is seen in some protozoans, e.g.,
(e) Two daughter cells (d) malarial parasite (Plasmodium).
33. (a) When Planaria accidently gets cut into 37. The process of formation of entire organism
many pieces then its each piece grows into a from the body parts of a fully differentiated
complete organism. This is known as regeneration. organism is called regeneration. It occurs by
(b) When the Bryophyllum leaf falls on the wet process of growth and development.
soil, the buds present in the notches along the leaf Simple animal like Hydra shows regeneration.
margin develop into new plants. This is known as When a small piece of Hydra breaks off it grows
vegetative propagation. into complete new Hydra.
(c) The sporangia of Rhizopus contain cells During regeneration, the cells of cut body part
or spores that can eventually develop into new of the organism divide rapidly to make a mass of
Rhizopus individuals when it bursts on maturation. cells. The cells here move to their proper places
34. Fungus Rhizopus reproduces by spore within the mass where they have to form different
formation. During the growth of Rhizopus, small types of tissues. In this way complete organism is
rounded, bulb-like structures develop at the top regenerated.
of the erect hyphae. Such structures are called 38. The main differences between fission and
sporangia. Inside each sporangium, nucleus divides fragmentation are as follows:
several times. Each nucleus gets surrounded by
a little amount of cytoplasm to become spore. Fission Fragmentation
Large number of spores are formed inside each (i) Occurs in Occurs in
sporangium. After sometime sporangium bursts unicellular multicellular
and spores are released in the air. When these organisms. organisms.
spores land on food or soil, under favourable
(ii) Body of organism Body of the
conditions, they germinate into new individuals.
divides by mitotic organism splits
35. Vegetative propagation is a type of asexual divisions into two into one or more
reproduction in which the plant parts other than
or more daughter fragments and each
seeds are used as a propagule.
cells. fragment forms a
Advantages of vegetative propagation :
E.g., Leishmania. complete organism.
(i) Desirable character of the plant can be
preserved through generation. E.g., Spirogyra.
130 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

39. (a) When Planaria is cut into two pieces then regenerate into a complete Planaria by growing all
each piece grows into a complete organism. This is the missing parts. This is shown in following figure.
known as regeneration.
(b) When a mature Spirogyra filament attains
a considerable length it breaks into small pieces
called fragments. These fragments grow into new
individuals and this mode of reproduction is called
fragmentation.
(c) When a sporangium burst, large number of Parent Planaria
spores are released in the air. When these spores Fragments of
land on food or soil, under favourable conditions Planaria Daughter
they germinate into new individuals. Planaria

40. Vegetative propagation is an asexual method During the process of reproduction new organism
of reproduction in plants. In this method, new is formed from the complete parent organism
plants are obtained from the parts of old plants however, during fragmentation, a fragment of
(like stems, roots and leaves), without the help of original parent body grows into new individual.
any reproductive organs. 45. On cutting the body of an organism into
Advantages of vegetative propagation are as follows: many pieces, each of these pieces develop as new
(i) Vegetative propagation is usually used for the individuals. This process is known as regeneration.
propagation of those plants which produce either Hydra and Planaria are the organism in which
very few seeds or do not produce viable seeds. this process may be observed. Following is the
(ii) Seedless plants can be obtained by artificial diagram show development of new individuals by
vegetative propagation. regeneration of body parts of a parent Hydra.
(iii) Grafting is a propagation method which Old parts
is very useful for fruit trees and flowering
bushes. It enables to combine the most desirable
characteristics of two plants.
(iv) Plants like rose, sugarcane, cactus, etc., can be

Regenerated
rapidly propagated through stem cuttings as this Regenerated

parts
parts
method produces new plants from just one plant
quickly without waiting for flowers and seeds.
Old parts
Banana and jasmine are generally grown through Parent
vegetative propagation method. Hydra
Old parts
41. Refer to answer 23.
42. (a) (i)Thread like non-reproductive structures 46. Refer to answer 44.
present in Rhizopus are called hyphae. Hydra is the organism in which regeneration is
(ii) Blobs developing at the tip of hyphae are called observed.
sporangia which contain spores. 47. The two modes of asexual reproduction in
(b) The structures called spores are present in animals are : (i) fission (ii) fragmentation.
sporangia which can develop into new Rhizopus Vegetative propagation is placed under asexual
individuals. These spores are covered with thick mode of reproduction because in this mode new
walls that protect them until they come in contact plants are obtained from the parts of old plants
with another moist surface and can begin to grow. (like stems, roots and leaves), without the help of
43. Refer to answer 21. any reproductive organs. Also refer to answer 40.
44. Planaria possesses great power of regeneration. 48. Refer to answer 40 and 28.
If the body of Planaria somehow gets cut into 49. (a) Fragmentation is the mode of reproduc-
a number of pieces, then each body piece can tion in which parent body breaks into two or more
How do Organisms Reproduce? 131

fragments and each fragment develops into a new reproduction found in protistan protozoans i.e.
individual. It is a method of reproduction in many Amoeba, Paramecium, etc.
filamentous algae, mycelial fungi and thalloid Amoeba reproduces by binary fission by dividing
bryophytes, e.g., Spirogyra. its body into two parts. When the Amoeba cell has
The given figure shows the process of fragmentation reached its maximum size of growth, then first the
in Spirogyra. nucleus of Amoeba lengthens and divides into two
parts. After that the cytoplasm of Amoeba divides
to form two smaller Amoeba (called daughter
amoebae).
Diagrammatic representation of binary fission in
Amoeba is as follows :
Daughter
amoebae
Karyokinesis

Cytokinesis

Amoeba

Daughter
(b) Regeneration may be defined as the ability of Fig.: Binary ssion in Amoeba amoebae
an organism to regenerates lost part of the body
which have been removed as by injury or autotomy. 52. (a) Spore formation is the process of
Many fully differentiated organisms use this ability formation of microscopic reproductive structures
as a mode of reproduction and give rise to new called spores. These spores when detaches from the
individual organisms from their body parts. It is parent gives rise to a new individual. Reproduction
common in Hydra, Planaria, etc. by the formation of spores is a common method of
The process of regeneration in Planaria is described asexual reproduction in some bacteria and most of
in the figure given below. the fungi.
(b) Following figure shows the process of spore
tion formation in Rhizopus.
Regenera
1 Sporangium
Planaria gets cut 1
into three pieces Regeneration Spores
2 2
Regenera Columella
tion
3 Apophysis
3
Sporangiophore

One Planaria Planaria cut into r ee Planaria Stolon


three pieces produced
Mycelium

Substrate Hypha

50. In multicellular organisms, such as Hydra,


Rhizoids
a small protuberance arises from one side of the
body. The protuberance grows, and develops adult (c) Two advantages to spore producing organism
like structure. In Hydra it develops a hypostome are as follows:
and tentacles at its free end. It develops a basal (i) Spores help organism to survive harsh
disc at the point of attachment with the parent environmental conditions as spores are covered by
organism and finally gets detached to lead an thick walls which protect them until they come in
independent life. Also refer to answer 23. contact with moist surface and germinate.
51. Binary fission is the division of adult parental (ii) Spores are generally very small and light.
body into two nearly equal daughter cells. It is the Therefore, it ensures easy dispersal by wind, water
simplest and most common method of asexual and animal.
132 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

53. Organisms which bear both male and female 63. The two preparation shown every month by the
sex organs in the same individual are called uterus in anticipation of pregnancy in human are:
bisexual. For example, Hibiscus. (i) the wall of uterus becomes thick to receive the
54. Two functions of ovary of human female are: fertilised egg and
(ii) the uterine wall is richly supplied with blood
(i) production of female gametes i.e., ova
to nourish the growing embryo.
(ii) secretion of female hormones i.e., estrogen
and progesterone. 64. A sperm may have X or Y chromosomes
whereas egg have X chromosomes. The
55. Flowers of papaya and cucumber are consequence of this is that sperm decides the
unisexual. sex of the child because eggs contribute only X
56. The process of pollination (in plants) ensures chromosome while sperms contribute either X or
that male gametes bearing structure called pollen Y chromosomes to the offspring. Therefore, if a
comes in contact with the female reproductive child inherits X chromosome from her father, will
structure of the plant. Once the male and female be a girl and the one that inherit Y chromosome
gametes are in close vicinity, they fuse and will be a boy.
fertilisation is accomplished. Hence, fertilisation 65. Placenta is a physiological connection between
cannot take place without pollination. an embryo and uterine wall of the mother through
57. Calyx and corolla are parts of a flower that are which nutrients and other useful substances enter
not directly involved in reproduction. into fetus from mother’s blood and waste products
58. No two individuals are absolutely alike in a like urea and carbon dioxide are expelled into
population because sexual reproduction promotes mother’s blood from fetus.
diversity of characters in the offsprings by 66. The secretion of male accessory reproductive
providing genetic variation. glands i.e., seminal vesicles, prostate gland and
59. The male reproductive parts that are present Cowper’s glands contribute fluid to the semen.
in a flower from given list are: The two advantages that semen offers to the
(i) anther and (ii) filament. sperms are :
60. Ovum is the largest cell present in human body. (i) it provides nutrition to the sperm and
61. The main difference between sperms and eggs (ii) it also activates the sperms and make their
of humans is that a sperm has X or Y chromosome transport easier into the vagina of female during
whereas egg has X chromosome. This helps in sexual act.
determination of the sex of a person and maintaining 67. (i) Unisexual flowers : These flowers contain
the genetic continuity in the organisms. either stamens (male reproductive part) or carpel
62. In sexual reproduction, two gametes, male (female reproductive part). Example: Papaya,
and female, combines together to form a new cell watermelon.
‘zygote’. The reproductive cells or gametes contain (ii) Bisexual flower : The flower is said to be
only half the amount of DNA as compared to the bisexual when both male and females parts i.e.,
non-reproductive cells of an organism. So, when stamens and carpels, are present on the same
a male gamete combines with a female gamete flower. Example : Hibiscus, mustard.
during sexual reproduction, then the new cell 68. Fallopian tubes are a pair of elongated, ciliated,
‘zygote’ will have the normal amount of DNA. For muscular and tubular structures extending from
example, the human sperm has 23 chromosome close to ovaries to uterus. It is the site of fertilisation
and the human egg has also 23 chromosomes. So and helps in the conduction of ovum or zygote
when a sperm and an egg fuse together during towards uterus by ciliary action and peristalsis.
fertilisation, then the zygote formed will have 23 69. (i) Implantation of zygote refers to the
+ 23 = 46 chromosomes, which is the normal process of attachment of the blastocyst on the
number of chromosomes in humans. inner wall of the uterus. It occurs on 7th day after
How do Organisms Reproduce? 133

fertilisation and is controlled by estrogen and These sexually transmitted disease can be
progesterone hormones. prevented by following monogamy and by using
(ii) Refer to answer 65. male or female condoms during sexual act.
70. (i) Seminal vesicles are one pair of sac like 74. (a) Refer to answer 70.
structures near the base of bladder. Seminal fluid (b) The human male possesses two testes which
is a watery alkaline fluid that contains nutrients are the primary reproductive organs lying outside
(fructose) which serve as a source of energy for the
the abdominal cavity. Testes are the sites where
sperm. Each seminal vesicle releases its contents
male gametes, i.e., sperms are produced. Testes
into the ejaculatory duct during ejaculation.
also produce testosterone (male sex hormone).
(ii) Prostate gland is a single large gland that
surrounds urethra. It secretes a slightly acidic, 75. The basic requirement for sexual reproduc-
milky fluid that forms 25% of volume of semen. tion is involvement of both sexes, i.e., male and
Secretion of prostate gland nourishes the sperms female, to produce an offspring. It takes place by
and helps in its mobility. the combination of gametes which come from two
71. The labelled diagram of L.S. of flower is as different parents.
follows: The importance of sexual reproduction in nature
Stigma
are :
• Fusion of male and female gametes coming from
two different and sexually distinct individuals,
exhibit diversity of characters in offsprings.
• Meiosis during gametogenesis provides
Ovary opportunities for new combination of genes,
which leads to variation required for evolution
and plays a prominent role in the origin of
72. Differences between pollination and new species. Variations lead to the appearance
fertilisation are as follows: of such characters, which fit to the changing
Pollination Fertilisation environment, resulting in the survival of the
(i) Pollination is the Fertilisation is the species.
process wherein fusion of male 76. (a) Implantation is the close attachment of
pollen grains are gamete (sperm) the blastocyst (young multicellular embryo) to
transferred from and female gamete the uterine wall. It is followed by a number of
anther to stigma (egg) to form zygote developmental changes in the thickened wall of
of flowers. that develops into uterus. An intimate connection between the fetal
embryo. membrane and the uterine wall called placenta is
(ii) Pollination takes Fertilisation takes formed. This is a disc which is embedded in the
place externally place internally uterine wall. The placenta serves as the nutritive,
on a flower and within the ovule of respiratory and excretory organ of the fetus.
depends on a flower and does (b) As the ovary releases one egg every month,
agencies like not depend on any the uterus also prepares itself, every month to
wind, water, external agency. receive fertilised egg by making its lining thick
insects, etc. and spongy to nourish the embryo if fertilisation
73. Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease had taken place. When the female gamete/egg is
caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. not fertilised, this lining is not needed any longer.
AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) So, the lining slowly breaks and comes out through
is a sexually transmitted disease caused by HIV vagina as blood and mucus. This cycle takes place
(Human immunodeficiency virus). every month and is known as menstrual cycle.
134 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

77. The two main steps involved in sexual together during fertilisation, then the zygote formed
reproduction are: will have 23 + 23 = 46 chromosomes, which is the
(i) formation of male and female gametes. normal number of chromosomes.
(ii) fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete 80. In the given figure part A is anther, part B is
to form a new cell called zygote by the process of style and part C is ovule.
fertilisation. Anther (A) is a part of male reproductive organ
The two important advantages of sexual of flower called stamen. Large number of pollen
reproduction are: grains are formed inside anther. Style (B) and
(i) It promotes diversity of characters in the offsprings ovule (C) are parts of female reproductive organ of
through genetic variations. flower called carpel / pistil.
(ii) It plays an important role in continuous Style is a long conducting tube which gives the
evolution of better organisms that may lead to the passage to pollen tube carrying male gametes so
origin of new species. that it reaches ovary which contains one or more
78. Methods developed to prevent pregnancy are: ovules. Ovules contain female gamete or egg. On
(i) barrier method, i.e., use of condoms, fertilisation ovary converts into fruit and ovules
give rise to seeds.
diaphragm, etc.
(ii) chemical method, i.e., use of oral pills or 81. Three contraceptive methods which can help
vaginal pills. control human population are:
(iii) surgical method, i.e., vasectomy and tubectomy. (i) Condoms : It is a mechanical barrier which
does not allow sperms and ovum to meet hence
Out of these methods, chemical method is not
prevents fertilisation. Condoms are made of
meant for males.
thin rubber/latex sheath used to cover the
Use of these techniques help to keep control over
penis in the male and vagina/cervix in female
number of children in a family, which directly just before coitus (intercourse) so that the
effects prosperity of a family. One of the most ejaculated semen is not released in the female
common reason for deterioration of women’s reproductive tract.
health is frequent conception and child bearing.
(ii) Intrauterine devices (IUDs) : These are devices
Controlled chilbirth will directly affect women
inserted by doctors or expert nurses in the uterus
health and this will indirectly affect the prosperity
through vagina. These are presently available as
of family and nation. non-medicated IUDs, copper releasing IUDs
79. In organisms reproducing asexually, only (CuT, etc.) and hormone releasing IUDs. They
single parent is involved in reproduction. Therefore, increase phagocytosis of sperms within uterus and
amount of DNA remains same from parent to suppress sperm motility and its fertilising capacity.
offspring. For example in Amoeba, whole organism They also make uterus unsuitable for implantation
divides into two daughter individuals by binary and cervix hostile to sperms.
fission. Therefore, amount of DNA remain constant. (iii) Oral pills : Oral pills contain progesterone alone
In organisms reproducing sexually. Reproduction or a combination of progestogen and estrogen. They
take place with the help of formation of haploid inhibit ovulation and make uterus unsuitable for
gametes. Gametes are special type of cells called implantation, hence prevent fertilisation.
reproductive cells which contain only half the amount 82. Testes, in human males, are the primary
of DNA as compared to the normal body cells of an reproductive organs. They are the site of sperm
organism. So, when a male gamete combines with formation. The testes also produce male sex
a female gamete during sexual reproduction, then hormone testosterone. Testes are located outside
the new cell ‘zygote’ will have the normal amount the abdominal cavity because sperm formation
of DNA. For example, the human sperm has 23 requires a lower temperature than normal body
chromosomes and the human egg (or ovum) has also temperature. The temperature of the testes in the
23 chromosomes. So, when a sperm and an egg fuse scrotum is about 2–2.5°C lower than normal body
How do Organisms Reproduce? 135

temperature. This temperature is ideal for sperm 83. The process of transfer of pollen grains from
formation and development. Hormone testosterone anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower
brings about the development of secondary sexual or another flower of the same species is known as
character during puberty in boys like growth of pollination. The two modes of pollination are self
facial hair, deepening of voice, growth of scrotum pollination and cross pollination.
and penis, accumulation of muscle mass, etc., and Differences between self pollination and cross
also regulates formation of sperms. pollination are:

Character Self pollination Cross pollination


Occurrence Occurs within a flower or between Occurs between two flowers of two
two flowers of the same plant. different plants of the same species.
Agent of pollination Usually no external agent of External agents such as wind, water,
pollination is required. insects and birds are required.
Production of Produced in small numbers, thus no Produced in large numbers thus,
pollen grains wastage of pollen grains occurs. wastage of pollen grains occurs.
Appearance of Flowers are generally not attractive. Flowers are attractive with coloured
flowers petals.
Fragrance and Commonly flowers do not produce Flowers generally produces scent and
nectar scent or nectar. nectar.
Nature of offsprings Offsprings produced have genetic Offsprings produced may differ in
produced makeup identical to the parent plant, genetic make-up and variations occur.
no variation occurs.

84. (a) Variations arise in sexually reproducing Here haploid gametes fuse to form diploid zygote
organisms on account of the following : which develop into a mature organism.
(i) Genetic variations occur of because DNA Significances of sexual reproduction are as
copying mechanism is not absolutely accurate. follows:
(ii) Creation of new combinations of genetic (i) Sexual reproduction gives rise to genetic
variations because variations from two individuals variations because of genetic recombination that
combine during fusion of gametes. takes place during fusion of gametes.
(b) (i) A is pollen grain. (ii) Progenies arising through sexual reproduction
(ii) Part B is stigma. It is the part of pistil (female sometimes show better combination of traits and
reproductive organ) that receives pollen grains. get better adapted to their surroundings.
Pollen grain reach stigma through various agencies (iii) Genetic recombination, interaction, etc.
like wind, water, insect, etc.
during sexual reproduction provide vigour and
(iii) Pollen tube (C) carries male gametes to the vitality to the offspring.
ovule present in ovary. Male gametes fuse with egg (iv) Variations in genes play an important role in
and secondary nucleus to give rise to zygote and
evolution.
endosperm.
(iv) Female gamete (D) fuses with male gamete 87. The reproductive organs of an angiosperm are
and converts to embryo after fertilisation. stamen (male reproductive part) and carpel/pistil
(female reproductive part). These are located in
85. Refer to answer 83.
the flowers of an angiospermic plant.
86. Sexual reproduction is the process of production The given diagram shows the structure of female
of offspring by the fusion of male and female gametes. reproductive part of a flower.
136 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Stigma (ii) Chemical method - It involves the use of


oral pills that check ovulation. These are mainly
Style hormonal preparations and contain estrogen and
Carpel progesterone.
(iii) Intrauterine contraception device- These
Ovary
Ovule devices are implemented into uterus, e.g., copper -
T, to prevent fertilisation.
Female gamete (iv) Surgical methods : These methods involves
(Egg) removal of a small portion of vas deferens in males
A carpel is made of three parts : stigma, style or Fallopian tube in females to prevent fertilisation.
and ovary. The top part of carpel is called stigma. Contraception prevents frequent pregnancies and
Stigma is for receiving the pollen grains during sexually transmitted diseases thus supports good
pollination. Stigma is sticky so that pollen can health and prosperity of a family.
stick to it. The middle part of carpel is called style.
90. The diseases that are spread by sexual contact
Style is a tube which connects stigma to the ovary.
with an infected person are called sexually
The swollen part at the bottom of a carpel is called
transmitted disease (STDs).
ovary. The ovary contains ovules. Ovules contain the
female gametes or female sex cells (egg) of the plant. (i) Bacterial infection causes Gonorrhoea, Syphilis.
There are usually many ovules in the ovary. Each (ii) Viral infection causes AIDS, Genital herpes.
ovule contains only one female gamete of the plant. STDs can be prevented by using male and female
88. (a) (i) Testis : The two testes in male are the condoms.
sites where male gametes, i.e., sperms are formed. 91. Six specific characteristic of sexual
Testes also produce the male sex hormone called reproduction are as follows:
testosterone. (i) Two different sexes, i.e., male and female are
(ii) Scrotum : The scrotum is a pouch of skin involved in this process.
that lie outside abdominal cavity. The two testes (ii) Sexual reproduction involves formation of
lie in respective scrotal sacs. The scrotum acts special sex cells called gametes.
as a thermoregulator and provides an optimal (iii) Fusion of gametes or fertilisation takes place
temperature for the formation of sperms. in the body of female (internal fertilisation) or
(iii) Vas deferens : This is a straight tube, about 40 outside (external fertilisation).
cm long, which carries the sperms to the seminal (iv) Offsprings inherit traits from both parents
vesicles, where mucus and a watery alkaline fluid (heredity) and also show some new traits of their
containing fructose, mix with the sperms. own (variation), hence they are not clones of the
(iv) Prostate gland : It is a single large gland that parents.
surrounds the urethra and produces a milky,
(v) Variations in sexually reproducing organisms
slightly acidic secretion. Secretion of prostate
arises on account of crossing over during meiotic
gland nourishes and activates the sperm to swim.
division during gamete formation.
(b) Two roles of testosterone are :
(vi) It plays a prominent role in origin of new
(i) It plays a key role in development of male
species as it leads to variations which accumulate
secondary sex organs such as prostate, etc.
over a period of time and get carried to successive
(ii) It promotes the secondary sexual characteris-
tics in males such as increased muscle and bone generations.
mass, growth of body hair, etc. 92. The general awareness regarding reproductive
89. The four methods of birth control which health in a society is significant as :
deliberately prevent fertilisation in humans are: (i) maintenance of personal hygiene among
(i) Barrier method- These are physical devices youngsters and proper knowledge of their
to prevent the entry of sperm in the female e.g., reproductive parts helps them adjust with the physical
condoms. changes and cope with emotional disturbance .
How do Organisms Reproduce? 137

(ii) reproductively healthy society must be free 95. Difference between asexual and sexual mode
from the curse of child marriage which begets of reproduction is as follows :
many complications at the level of individual and Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction
society both. Gametes are not formed Gametes are
(iii) proper care of expecting mothers, monitoring hence fertilisation does always formed and
their health after child birth and care of new born not take place. fertilisation takes
help in building a healthy society. place to form a
(iv) married couples aware of contraceptive zygote.
methods lead a better married life as they are Species reproducing sexually have a better chance
capable of avoiding unwanted pregnancies and of survival as variation occurs only during the
have negligible chances of contracting sexually sexual reproduction. Variations are necessary for
transmitted diseases. evolution and to increase chances of survival in
In past 50 years various areas related to reproductive changed environmental conditions.
health have been launched which have improved 96. DNA copying is an essential part of the
the reproductive health of our society in following process of reproduction as it results in passing of
ways : Two of them are : nearly same genetic information from parents to
(i) reduced mortality rate of mother and infant the offsprings. DNA replication also ensures that
(ii) birth control due to easily available contraceptive same number of chromosomes are passed from
and reduced STDs cases. parents to offspring.
93. L.S. of a bisexual flower is as follows: Advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual
Stigma reproduction is that sexual reproduction provides
Anther variations which is a major factor for evolution
that helps in survival of species in changing
Style environment.
97. The diagram of the longitudinal section of
flower is follows:
Ovary

94. Placenta is an intimate connection between Male germ cell

fetus and uterine wall of the mother to exchange


the materials. It is a disc shaped structure
embedded in the uterine wall. It contains villi on Ovule
Ovary
embryo’s side and blood spaces towards mother’s
side. Blood spaces surround villi. Female germ cell
Placenta performs the following functions :
(i) All nutritive elements from maternal blood
pass into the fetus through it. 98. The parts of a flower which serve the same
(ii) Placental helps in respiration i.e., supply of function as following do in the animals are
oxygen and removal of CO2 from fetus to maternal (i) testis – anther of stamen
blood. (ii) sperm – pollen
(iii) Fetal excretory products diffuse out into (iii) ovary - ovary of pistil
(iv) egg – female germ cell present in ovule.
maternal blood through placenta and are excreted
by mother. 99. Refer to answers 78 and 89.
(iv) Placenta also secretes hormone. 100. Refer to answer 87.
138 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

101.(a) The two advantages of imposing ban on 106. AIDS is an infectious viral disease which
prenatal sex determination are weakens the immune system of human body and
(i) check on female feticide generally leads to death. It is caused by a retrovirus
(ii) improving sex ratio in the country. called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).
(b) Students should educate the society as that AIDS can be transmitted by having sexual
(i) female feticide is reducing the number of girls contact with an infected person.
Use of condoms which are physical barriers can
drastically in some societies. For a healthy society,
reduce the risk of a sexual exposure to HIV.
the male-female sex ratio must be maintained
at almost the same level. Due to reckless female 107. Refer to answer 103.
feticide, the male-female child sex ratio is declining 108. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency
at an alarming rate in some sections of our society. Virus. Yes, AIDS is an infectious disease. It is
(ii) Children in a small family can be provided transmitted sexually or through exposure to
contaminated blood.
with all the resources from education, good
Four modes of spreading AIDS are :
amenities like food, clothing and healthy life style.
(i) unprotected sex with an infected partner
As the family grows larger, the resources should be (ii) use of contaminated needle and syringes
shared with increased number of member. Having (iii) use of contaminated razors for shaving
fewer children also keeps the mother in good health. (iv) transfusion of infected blood or blood products.
102. The two reproductive parts of a bisexual flower 109. AIDS is expanded as Acquired Immuno-
which contain the germ cells are carpel (female deficiency Syndrome. Four methods of prevention
reproductive part) and stamen (male reproductive or control of AIDS are :
part). Carpel is situated in the centre of the flower (i) use of sterilised needles and syrings for
as a flask-shaped structure. A carpel is made up of injecting drugs or vaccine
three parts–stigma, style and ovary. The distal part (ii) to avoid sex with multiple partners
of a carpel is called stigma. Stigma is responsible (iii) use of condoms during intercourse
for receiving pollen during pollination. Style is an (iv) avoid use of contaminated razor in
barber shop.
elongated tubular structure which connects stigma
with ovary. The basal swollen part of carpel is ovary. 110. (a) (i) Refer to answer 69.
Ovary bears several ovules. After fertilisation ovules (ii) Refer to answer 65.
form seeds and ovary forms the fruit. (b) The average duration of human pregnancy is
280 days or 40 weeks from first day of the woman’s
103. The infectious (communicable) diseases,
last menstrual period, i.e., approximately 9 months.
which are spread from an infected person to
111. (a) Refer to answers 88 a(i) and (b).
a healthy person by sexual contact, are called
(b) In human female the fertilisation occurs in the
sexually transmitted diseases.
oviducts or Fallopian tube.
Sexually transmitted diseases caused by virus are : (c) The developing embryo gets nourishment
AIDS (Acquired Immune deficiency Syndrome) from the mother’s blood with the help of a special
and genital warts while caused by bacteria are tissue called placenta. This is a disc like structure
gonorrhoea and syphilis. embedded in uterine wall. It contains villi that
Preventive measures for the diseases are: provides a large surface area to pass glucose and
(i) educating people in high risk groups. oxygen from mother to embryo. Placenta links the
(ii) mutually faithful monogamous relationship. embryo to the mother through umbilical cord.
(iii) avoiding prostitution, multipartner sex and
112. (a) (i) The ovaries in female are primary sex
homosexuality.
(iv) using condoms, etc. organs (or female gonads) which perform the dual
function - production of female gametes (eggs
104. Refer to answer 103. or ova) and secretion of female sex hormones
105. Refer to answer 81. (estrogen and progesterone).
How do Organisms Reproduce? 139

(ii) Uterus is a single, pear-shaped, highly Male gametes move down the pollen tube. The
muscular, hollow structure present in the pelvic pollen tube enters the ovule in the ovary. The tip
cavity, lying between urinary bladder and rectum. of pollen tube bursts and male gametes comes out
If fertilisation takes place, the embryo gets of pollen tube. In ovary, the male gamete of pollen
implanted to the wall of uterus and grows there combines with the female gamete or egg present in
until birth. Development of foetus occurs inside ovule to form a fertilised egg.
uterus, hence it is also called womb. After fertilisation,
(iii) Oviducts or Fallopian tube are paired tubes
(i) ovule develops into seed
originating near to the ovaries of their respective
sides and extend upto uterus. The terminal part (ii) ovary develops into fruit.
of Fallopian tube is funnel-shaped with finger- 119. (a) Unisexual flowers bear organs of only
like projections called fimbriae lying near ovary. one sex, i.e., either stamen or pistil, e.g., papaya.
Fimbriae pick up the ovum released from ovary Bisexual flowers contain both stamen and pistil,
and push it into Fallopian tube. Fertilisation also e.g., Hibiscus.
takes place in the oviduct. (b) After fertilisation, the fertilised egg (or zygote)
(b) Refer to answer 94. divides several times to from an embryo within the
113. (a) Refer to answer 112 (a). ovule. The ovule develops a tough coat around it
and is gradually converted into a seed. The ovary
(b) Refer to answer 94.
of flower develops and becomes a fruit (with seeds
114. Refer to answers 94 and 111 (c). inside it). The other parts of flower like sepals,
115. (a) Refer to answer 112. petals, stamens ,stigma and style dry up and fall
(b) Menstruation is the cyclic discharge of blood off. Only the ovary is left behind. So, at the place
along with endometrial lining of the uterus and on plant where we had a flower originally, we
unfertilised egg in women. It last for 3-5 days. now have a fruit (which is the ovary of the flower
After the release of egg in the females, the uterine containing seeds). A fruit protects the seeds.
lining becomes thickened for the implantation (c) The amount of DNA remain constant in
of fertilised egg or zygote. In the absence of each new generation because of formation of
fertilisation, the egg along with endometrial haploid gametes. Gametes are special type of cells
lining is expelled out of the body in the form of called reproductive cells which contain only half
menstruation. the amount of DNA as compared to the normal
116. Refer to answers 112 and 111 (c). body cells of an organism. So, when a male gamete
117. (a) Refer to answers 88 a(i) and (b). combines with a female gamete during sexual
(b) Refer to answers 112 and 111 (c). reproduction, then the new cell ‘zygote’ will have
118. (a) In the given diagram A is stigma, B is the normal amount of DNA. For example, the
pollen tube, C is ovary and D is female germ cell. human sperm has 23 chromosomes and the human
(b) The process of transfer of pollen grains from egg (or ovum) has also 23 chromosomes. So, when a
the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same sperm and an egg fuse together during fertilisation,
flower or another flower is known as pollination. then the zygote formed will have 23 + 23 = 46
Pollination is important because it brings pollen chromosomes, which is the normal number of
grains to the female reproductive part (carpel) of chromosomes.
the plant that leads to fertilisation. 120. (a) Refer to answers 88 a(i) and (b).
(c) Fertilisation, in plants, occurs when the male (b) Refer to answer 112.
gamete present in pollen grain fuses with the female
(c) Refer to answer 111 (c).
gamete (or egg) present in ovule. When a pollen
grain falls on the stigma of the carpel, it bursts open 121. (a) Refer to answer 112.
and grows a pollen tube downwards through the (b) After implantation of zygote or embryo in
style towards the female gamete in the ovary. the thick lining of the uterus, a disc-like special
140 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

tissue develops between the uterus wall and the Characters Asexual Sexual
embryo, which is called as placenta. Placenta reproduction reproduction
meets all the requirements for developing the (i) Number of The process This process
fetus like nutrition, respiration, excretion, etc. parents involves only involves
When fetus (embryo) develops completely, the one cell or two cells
rhythmic contraction of uterus muscles gradually one parent, or gametes
pushes the baby out of the mother’s baby through so is called belonging
vagina a baby is born. uniparental to different
122. (a) The sectional view of human female reproduction. parents, so
reproductive system is as follows: is generally
biparental
(ii) Reproductive The whole The
unit body of the reproductive
parent acts as unit is gamete,
reproductive which is
unit or it can unicellular
be in a single and haploid.
cell or a bud.
(i) Ovary is the part where eggs develop.
(ii) Fallopian tube is the part where fertilisation (iii) Nature of The The offsprings
takes place. offspring offsprings are differ from
(iii) Uterus is the part where fertilised egg gets genetically parents.
implanted. similar to
(b) (i) When the ovum (or egg) is fertilised in parents.
the oviduct, then a zygote is formed. The uterus
prepares itself every month to receive a zygote. Hydra is simple multicellular animal. It reproduces
The inner lining of uterus becomes thick and asexually by the process of budding. In Hydra first
spongy with lot of blood capillaries in it. This a small outgrowth called ‘bud’ is formed on the
would be required for nourishment and further side of its body by the repeated mitotic divisions
development of embryo. of its cells. This bud then grows gradually to form
(ii) If a sperm is not available at the time of a small Hydra by developing a mouth a tentacles.
ovulation, then fertilisation of ovum does not take Finally, the tiny new Hydra detaches itself
place. Since the ovum (or egg) is not fertilised, so from the body of parent and lives as a separate
the thick and soft uterus lining having lot of blood organism. In this way, the parent Hydra produce
capillaries in it is not required. The unfertilised a new Hydra. The following figure shows Hydra
ovum dies within a day and the uterus lining also reproducing by the method of budding.
breaks down. The breakdown and removal of the
inner, thick and soft lining of the uterus alongwith
its blood vessels in the form of vaginal bleeding is
called menstrual flow or menstruation.
123. (a) A represents pollen grains, B represents
pollen tubes, C represents ovary and D represents 125. (a) Refer to answers 88 (a) (i) and (b)
female germ cell. (b) Refer to answers 112 and 111 (c).
(b) Refer to answer 118 (b). 126. (a) Refer to answer 124.
(c) Refer to answer 118 (c). (b) Sexual reproduction involves fusion of male
124. Differences between asexual and sexual and female gametes coming from male and
forms of reproduction are following. female parents. Variations occur due to (i) fusion
How do Organisms Reproduce? 141

of gametes which come from two different and 129. The process of transfer of pollen grains from
sexually distinct individuals and (ii) meiosis which the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same
occurs during gametogenesis and create a new flower or another flower is known as pollination.
combination of genes. It plays a prominent role in Fertilisation is the fusion of male gamete with the
the origin of new species and leads to variations female gamete (or egg).
required for evolution. Therefore, offsprings of Diagrammatic representation of pistil showing
sexually reproducing organisms show variation. germination is as follows:
127.(a) A represents stigma. It receives the pollen
Stigma
grains from the anther of stamen. Stigma is sticky
so that pollen can stick to it so that fertilisation can
occur. B represents pollen tube. Pollen tube acts as a Style
Pollen tube
conduit to transport the male gamete cells from the
pollen grain at stigma to the ovules at the base of the
carpel for the process of fertilisation. C represent Ovule
female germ cell. Female germ cell fertilise with Ovary
male germ cells to forms zygote which develops
into an embryo within the ovule. Ovule converts Female germ cell
into a seed that gives rise a new individual.
(b) Role of Gamete : Gametes are the reproductive
cells involved in sexual reproduction having half 130. (i) Refer to answers 88 (a) (i).
of the chromosome. Gametes carry variations (ii) Refer to answer 70 (i).
generated during its formation (meiosis). A (iii) Refer to answer 88 (iii).
male gamete and a female gamete fuses to form (iv) Ureter : From hilum of each kidney emerges
zygote. out a slender, whitish tube called ureter. Ureter
Role of Zygote : The fusion of male gamete with of each kidney leaves from the renal pelvis. Each
female gamete forms a zygote during sexual ureter is about 30 cm long, 3 - 4 mm in diameter
reproduction. Zygote has normal number of and opens into urinary bladder by slit-like
chromosomes and new combinations of variation aperture. The ureters carry urine from kidneys to
that express in new generation. The zygote urinary bladder.
undergoes repeated mitotic divisions to form the (v) Refer to answer 70 (ii).
embryo which has the potential to form a complete 131. The flowers which contain only one sex
individual. organ, either stamens or carpels are called
128.(a) Hibiscus is an example of a bisexual flower. unisexual flowers. E.g., flowers of papaya
(b) Diagrammatic representation of pistil showing and watermelon whereas the flowers which
germination is as follows: contain both the sex organs, stamens as well as
carpel, are called bisexual flowers, e.g., flowers
Stigma of Hibiscus and mustard. The given diagram
showing germination of pollen on stigma.
Style Pollen grain
Pollen tube
Male germ-cell

Ovary

Female germ cell Ovary

Female germ cell

(c) Refer to answer 118 (c).


142 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

132. Refer to answer 122. rhythmically. The rhythmic contraction of uterus


133. (a) Refer to answer 131. muscles gradually pushes the baby out of the
mother’s baby through vagina and a baby is born.
(b) Refer to answer 83. If, a sperm is not available at the time of ovulation,
134. When the ovum (or egg) is fertilised in then fertilisation of ovum (or egg) does not take
the oviduct, then a zygote is formed. The zygote place. Since the ovum (or egg) is not fertilised, so
divides rapidly by mitosis as it moves down slowly the thick and soft uterus lining having lot of blood
in the oviduct and forms a ball of cells. This hollow capillaries in it is not required. The unfertilised
ball of cells, called an embryo sinks into the soft ovum dies within a day and the uterus lining also
and thick lining of the uterus and gets embedded breaks down. The breakdown and removal of the
in it. The embedding of embryo in the thick lining inner, thick and soft lining of the uterus alongwith
of the uterus is called implantation. its blood vessels is called menstrual flow or
After implantation, a disc-like special tissue develops menstruation.
between the uterus wall (called uterine wall) and the
embryo (or fetus), which is called placenta. The fetus 135. (a)
Stigma
is connected to placenta in mother’s body through
umbilical cord. It is through the placenta that all the
requirements of the developing fetus like nutrition, Petal
respiration and excretion, etc., are met from the
mother’s body.
The time period from the fertilisation upto the Sepal
birth of the baby is called gestation. The average Ovary
gestation period in humans (or the average during
of human pregnancy) is about nine months. (b) Refer to answer 87.
During the gestation period, the fetus grows to
become a baby. Birth begins when the strong 136. (a) Refer to answers 129 and 131.
muscles in the walls of the uterus start to contract (b) Refer to answer 83.
Chapter
Heredity and
9 Evolution
9.1 Accumulation of Variation During 9.4 Speciation
Reproduction
9.5 Evolution and Classification
9.2 Heredity
9.6 Evolution Should Not Be Equated With
9.3 Evolution ‘Progress’

Topicwise Analysis of Last 10 Years’ CBSE Board Questions (2017-2008)

8 Maximum weightage is of Heredity. Accumulation of Variation During Reproduction


8 Maximum VSA and SA II type questions were and Heredity.
asked from Heredity. 8 Maximum LA type questions were asked from
8 Maximum SA I type questions were asked from Heredity and Evolution and Classification.

QUICK RECAP
8 Genetics : The science primarily concerned X The transmission of characters (or traits)
with precise understanding of biological from the parents to their offspring is called
properties which are transmitted from parent heredity. In most simple terms, heredity
to offspring is called genetics. The term means continuity of features from one
generation to the next.
‘genetics’ was coined by W. Bateson in 1905.
X The hereditary information is present in the
8 Heredity : A recognisable feature of a human sex cells (or gametes) of the parents. Thus,
being (or any other organism) like height, gametes constitute the link between one
complexion, shape of hair, colour of eyes generation and the next, and pass on the
and shape of nose and chin, etc., is called paternal (father’s) and maternal (mother’s)
‘character’ or ‘trait’. characters or traits to the offspring.
144 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

8 Variations : The offspring are never a X A gene is a unit of DNA on a chromosome


true copy of their parents. In fact, no which governs the synthesis of one protein
two individuals are exactly alike and the that controls a specific characteristic (or trait)
members of any one species differ from of an organism. The term ‘gene’ was coined
one another in some characters (or traits) by Johannsen in 1909. However Mendel
or the other. These differences are known called them factor. Genes work in pairs and
as variations, i.e., the differences in the are represented by letters. Genes controlling
characters (or traits) among the individuals the same characteristics are given the same
of a species is called variation. letters. For example, the gene for tallness is
8 Accumulation of variations : Variations represented by the letter T whereas the gene
appear during reproduction whether for dwarfness is represented by the letter t.
asexual or sexual. X Genes for controlling the same characteristic
X Minor variations may arise during asexual of an organism can be of two types : dominant
reproduction due to small inaccuracies in or recessive. The gene which decides the
DNA copying. appearance of an organism even in the
X Sexual reproduction generates even presence of an alternative gene is known as
greater diversity. This is so because sexual a dominant gene and the dominant gene
reproduction involves two parents (father is represented by a capital letter. The gene
and mother) and every offspring receives which can decide the appearance of an
some characters of father and some of organism only in the presence of another
mother. Different offsprings receive identical gene is called as recessive gene. The
different combinations of characters of corresponding recessive gene is represented
their parents and show distinct variations by the corresponding small letter. Genotype
among themselves as well as from their is the description of genes present in an
parents. organism.
During sexual reproduction variations arise 8 Mendel’s experiments : Mendel selected
due to - garden pea (Pisum sativum) for series of
hybridisation experiments because it has
Chance separation of chromosomes some special features.
during gamete formation (gametogenesis)
It is easy to grow.
Crossing over during meiosis
It has a short life cycle and, therefore,
Special features of garden pea plant are:

Chance coming together of chromosomes it is possible to study number of


during fertilisation generations in less time.

Mutations, i.e., alterations in the genetic Garden pea plant has distinct, easily
material detectable contrasting variants of
X The significance of a variation shows up features. Mendel, in fact, noted seven
only if it continues to be inherited by the pairs of such contrasting characters in
offspring for several generations. garden pea plant.
X The great advantage of variation to a species
The plant has bisexual flowers wherein
is that it increases the chances of its survival
artificial cross fertilisation could be
in a changing environment.
8 Gene as unit of heredity : Chromosome is easily achieved.
a thread-like structure in the nucleus of a
Each pea plant produces many seeds
cell and is formed of DNA which carries the
genes. in one generation.
Heredity and Evolution 145

X The characters which always appear in two X Illustration of Mendel’s monohybrid F1


opposing conditions are called contrasting cross :
characters. There were seven contrasting F1 generation phenotype/genotype: Tall plant Tall plant
Factors: Tt Tt
characters noted by Mendel in garden pea.
These are listed in the given table: Gametes: T t T t
Cross of gametes during
Character Contrasting Traits fertilisation:

Dominant Recessive F2 genotype: TT Tt Tt tt


F2 phenotype: Tall Tall Tall Dwarf
1. Plant height Tall Dwarf (Three tall and one dwarf plant)
2. Position of flower Axial Terminal X Mendel said that the trait of dwarfness of one
on the stem of the parent pea plant had not been lost, it
3. Colour of unripe Green Yellow was merely concealed or suppressed in the
pod first generation to re-emerge in the second
4. Shape of pod Inflated Constricted generation. He called the repressed trait of
5. Shape of seed Round Wrinkled dwarfness as recessive trait and expressed
(smooth) trait of tallness as the dominant trait.
6. Colour of seed Yellow Green X This phenomenon of appearance of only one
7. Colour of flower Violet White of two contrasting traits in F1 generation, is
termed as dominance.
Mendel conducted breeding experiments in X Mendel also noted that all the pea plants
three steps: produced from the hybrid tall parents of F1
generation, were either tall or dwarf. There
Selection of pure parent plants (i.e.,
were no plants with intermediate height (or
plants producing similar traits in every
medium height) in-between the tall and
generation).
dwarf plants.
Production of first generation of plants by X This is because there is no mixing or blending
cross breeding (hybridisation). of traits and they are inherited independently.
X Mendel formulated his first law of inheritance
Raising of second and subsequent which is called the law of segregation.
generations by self-fertilisation of hybrids.
According to this law, the characteristics (or
8 Monohybrid inheritance and law of traits) of an organism are determined by
segregation : A breeding experiment dealing internal ‘factors’ which occur in pairs. Only
with a single character is called monohybrid one of a pair of such factors can be present in
cross. a single gamete.
X Mendel first crossed pure-bred tall pea plants X Illustration of Mendel’s monohybrid
with pure-bred dwarf pea plants and found parental cross :
that only tall pea plants were produced in the Tall plant Dwarf plant
Factors: TT tt
first generation or F1 generation.
X Mendel then crossed the tall pea plants of the Gametes: T T t t

first generation (F1 generation) and found Crossing of gametes


during fertilisation:
that tall plants and dwarf plants were obtained F1 genotype: Tt Tt Tt Tt
in the second generation (or F2 generation) in F1 phenotype: Tall Tall Tall Tall
the ratio of 3 : 1 (monohybrid ratio). (All tall plants)
146 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

8 Dihybrid inheritance and law of the appearance of four types of


independent assortment : A breeding combinations. These included two
experiment dealing with two characters parental types (round and yellow
at the same time is called a dihybrid seeds, and wrinkled and green seeds)
cross. and two new combinations (round and
X Mendel considered shape as well as colour green seeds and wrinkled and yellow
of the seeds simultaneously. He selected seeds).
pure line plants and then cross pollinated – Based on dihybrid cross, Mendel
flowers raised from seeds of round postulated that inheritance of factors
shape and yellow colour with those from
controlling a particular trait in an
wrinkled seeds and green colour. He observed
organism is independent of the other.
that in F1 generation all seeds had the features
This is called law of independent
of only one parental type, i.e., round shape
and yellow colour. He raised plants from F1 assortment. Hence, at the time of
generation seeds and allowed the flowers reproduction, two pairs of factors of
to self pollinate to produce the seeds of F2 each of the two traits in a dihybrid
generation. cross segregated independently during
X Illustration of Mendel’s dihybrid cross : gamete formation and randomly formed
– In F2 generation, Mendel observed combinations in the F2 generation.

Parental cross

Parents’ phenotype : Plants having Plants having


round-yellow
× wrinkled-green
seeds seeds

Factors : R R Y Y r r y y

Gametes : RY RY ry ry
Fusion of gametes :

F1 genotype : Rr Yy Rr Yy Rr Yy Rr Yy
F1 phenotype : Round Round Round Round
yellow yellow yellow yellow

(All plants with round and yellow seeds)

F1 cross
F1 generation genotype: Plants having × Plants having
round-yellow round-yellow
seeds seeds

Factors: R r Y y R r Y y

Gametes : RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry
(one hybrid) (other hybrid)
Heredity and Evolution 147

RY Ry rY ry X A dominant factor or allele controls the


synthesis of a fully functional structural
RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYy
Fusion of gametes (shown in the table)

RY Round Round Round Round protein or enzyme to produce its


yellow yellow yellow yellow morphological or physiological effect. A
RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy recessive factor, on the other hand, produces
Ry Round Round Round Round defective, incomplete and less efficient
yellow green yellow green
structural protein or enzyme. It is, therefore,
RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy unable to express its effect in the presence
rY Round Round Wrinkled Wrinkled
yellow yellow yellow yellow of dominant factor. Effect of recessive factor
only becomes apparent when it occurs in a
RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy
ry Round Round Wrinkled Wrinkled pair.
yellow green yellow green
Characters (traits) are controlled
F2 ratio : Round yellow = 9, Round green = 3, by genes which are present on

Basic features of the mechanism of inheritance


Wrinkled yellow = 3, Wrinkled green = 1 chromosomes.
So, the ratio is 9 : 3 : 3 : 1. Each gene controls one character.
8 Mechanism of heredity : Deoxyribonucleic There may be two or more forms
acid (DNA) present in the chromosomes (alleles) of the gene.
of cell is the hereditary material. It is the One form may be dominant over
information source in the cell for making the other form.
proteins. An individual has two (similar or
X Structure of DNA : It was first isolated by dissimilar) forms of the gene.
the scientist Frederick Meisher from the The two forms of the gene separate
nucleus of the pus cells in 1869. He named
at the time of gamete formation so
it as ‘nuclein’ or nucleic acid because of its
that each gamete has only one form
acidic nature. Later, it was experimentally
of the gene.
proved by the scientists Griffith (1928);
The two forms of the gene are
Avery, McLeod and McCarty (1944) that
DNA is the carrier of the genetic information brought together in the zygote after
from one generation to another generation. fusion of male and female gametes.
X DNA is a macromolecule or polymer made 8 Sex determination : The process by which
up of very large number of ‘nucleotide’ units the sex of a person is determined is called sex
and hence is termed polynucleotide. Each determination.
nucleotide unit in a DNA molecule is made X Human beings have genetic or chromosomal
up of three components : sex determination.
Deoxyribose sugar : A pentose sugar X Humans have separate sexes where a specific
pair of chromosomes in each diploid cell
Nitrogenous base: In a DNA
determines the sex of the individual. They are
molecule, nitrogenous bases are
Components of DNA

called sex chromosomes.


of two types: Purines in a DNA
X All other chromosomes are termed
molecule are – Adenine (A) and
autosomes as these have genes which control
Guanine (G). Pyrimidines in a DNA
the somatic (body) characters.
molecule are – Cytosine (C) and
X A male individual contains one X
Thymine (T).
chromosome and one Y chromosome,
Phosphate group: It contains i.e., XY. Male produces two different kinds
one phosphorus atom and four of gametes (sperms); half of the sperms
specifically linked oxygen atoms. have X chromosome and other half have
148 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Y chromosome. Therefore, male is called X Our galaxy is called Akash Ganga (The Milky
heterogametic. Way). Sun is one of the millions of stars in
X A female individual contains two X our galaxy.
chromosomes, i.e., XX. Female, therefore, X Our solar system (including Earth) was
produces only one type of gamete (ova). So, formed about 4.5 billion (4500 million) years
female is called homogametic. ago from a huge, spinning cloud of solar
X The sex of the child is determined at the time nebula.
of fertilisation when male and female gametes X Many theories have been advanced to explain
fuse to form zygote. If a sperm carrying Y origin of life on Earth. These include theory
chromosome fertilises an egg or ovum which of special creation, theory of spontaneous
has X chromosome, then the offspring will be generation, cosmozoic or interplanetary
a boy (male). This is because the offspring will theory and naturalistic theory.
have XY combination of sex chromosomes. If X Naturalistic theory or abiogenic theory
a sperm carrying X chromosome fertilises an or chemical theory of origin of life is the
ovum having X chromosome, then offspring most accepted one. It was independently put
will be a girl (female). forward by the A.I. Oparin (1923) and J.B.S.
X In some of the animals, sex determination is Haldane (1929). According to this theory, life
also controlled by the environmental factors. originally arose from the inorganic molecules
For example, in some reptiles, the temperature of the primitive Earth (abiogenesis), but on
at which the fertilised egg is incubated today’s Earth life comes only from the pre-
before hatching, plays an important role in existing life (biogenesis).
determining the sex of the offspring. X Major support to this theory was provided by
laboratory experimental work of S.L. Miller
8 Acquired and inherited traits : and H.C. Urey in 1953.
X Acquired trait : A trait (or characteristic)
of an organism which is ‘not inherited’ but 8 Evolution : Evolution is the sequence of
develops in response to the environment is gradual changes which took place in the
called an acquired trait. These traits cannot primitive organisms over millions of years
be passed on to the future generations. due to which new species are produced.
X Some of the important evidences of evolution
Only those traits can be transmitted to
are given below :
future generations in which changes have
X Morphological evidences :
occurred in the genes (or DNA) present in
– Homologous organs : The organs which
the reproductive cells (or gametes) of parent
have the same basic structure (or same
organisms.
basic design) but different functions are
X Inherited trait : A trait (or characteristic) of
called homologous organs. For example,
an organism which is due to the expression
the forelimbs of a lizard, a bird and a
of a gene (or DNA) is called an inherited
human being show similarity in basic
trait. Inherited traits actually mean the
structure and also develop in similar
characteristics which we receive from our
fashion. However, these organs perform
parents.
entirely different functions.
8 Origin of life : According to big bang – Analogous organs : The organs which
theory, the universe originated by a big bang have different basic structure but have
(thermonuclear explosion) of a dense entity similar appearance and perform similar
about 15 billion years ago. functions are called analogous organs.
X Numerous scattered pieces of cosmic material For example, the wings of an insect
(nebulae) slowly condensed and became and a bird have different structures but
organised into galaxies. perform similar functions.
Heredity and Evolution 149

– Vestigial organs : The organs which Selection. It suggests that the best adapted
occur in reduced form and are useless to organisms are selected by nature to pass on
the possessor, but were fully developed, their characteristics to the next generation.
functional organs in the ancestors or Darwin’s theory of evolution applies to plants
related forms are called vestigial organs. as well as animals. It can be described as
For example, vermiform appendix of the follows:
large intestine and nictitating membrane – Within any population, there is natural
in the eye of human beings. variation. Some individuals have more
favourable variations than the others.
X Embryological evidence : Embryology refers
– Even though all species produce a large
to the study of development of an embryo of
number of offspring, populations remain
an organism from fertilised egg to young one.
fairly constant naturally.
The early embryos of all vertebrates resemble
– This is due to the struggle between
in shape and structure which suggests that members of the same species and
they have evolved from a common ancestor. different species for food, space and mate.
(ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny - Ernst – The struggle for survival within
Haeckel). populations eliminates the unfit
X Palaeontological evidence individuals. The fit individuals possessing
– Fossils : The remains (or impressions) of favourable variations survive and
dead animals or plants that lived in the reproduce. This is called natural selection
remote past are known as fossils. (or survival of the fittest.)
Fossils help in establishing evolutionary – The individuals having favourable
relationships among different plant variations pass on these variations to their
and animal groups. For example, progeny from generation to generation.
the discovery of Archaeopteryx fossil – These variations when accumulate over a
showing characters of both reptiles and long time period, lead to the origin of a
birds provided a clue that birds have new species.
X Natural selection is the process of evolution
evolved from reptiles.
of a species whereby characteristics which
Fossils also provide us evidence of
help individual organisms to survive and
instances wherein a change useful for one
reproduce are passed on to their offspring,
function to start with, can become useful
and those characteristics which do not help
later for quite a different function. For are not passed on.
example, feathers were developed initially X Though Darwin’s theory was widely accepted,
to provide insulation in cold weather but but it was criticised on the ground that
later these became useful for the function it could not explain ‘how the variations
of flight in birds. This speculation is based arise’. Genetic variation is the raw material
on the evidence from fossil records of a of evolution. So, the Darwin’s theory was
small dinosaur, who had feathers but it modified accordingly. These days, the most
could not fly using them, thus, suggesting accepted theory of evolution is the Synthetic
that evolution of feathers had nothing to Theory of Evolution in which the origin of
do with flight. species is based on the interaction of ‘genetic
X Darwin’s theory of evolution : Charles variation’ and ‘natural selection’.
Robert Darwin gave the theory of evolution 8 Artificial selection : Artificial selection is
in his famous book ‘The Origin of Species’. the process by which man selects trait(s)
X The theory of evolution proposed by useful to him for improving the qualities of
Darwin is known as ‘The Theory of Natural domesticated plants and animals.
150 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

E.g., plant breeders have produced several development of more and more complex
useful varieties of plants like wheat, rice, designs over a period of time. For instance,
sugarcane, cotton, pulses, vegetables and one of the simplest forms of bacteria still
ornamental plants by artificial selection. inhabit the most inhospitable habitats such
Several crop plants like broccoli, kohlrabi, as hot springs, deep sea thermal vents and
cabbage, cauliflower, kale, etc., are produced the ice of Antarctica. Thus, human beings are
from a common wild cabbage species by not the pinnacle of evolution, but simply yet
selective breeding. another species in the spectrum of evolving
8 Speciation : A species is a population of life.
organisms consisting of similar individuals 8 Human evolution : Human evolution has
which can breed together and produce fertile been studied by using various tools of
offspring. The process by which new species tracing evolutionary relationships such as
develop from the existing species is known as excavating (digging Earth), carbon-dating,
speciation. studying fossils as well as determining DNA
X The important factors which could lead to the sequences. The study reveals there is a great
rise (or formation) of a new species are the diversity of human forms and features across
following: the planet. For a long time, people used to talk
– Geographical isolation of a population about `human races’. The human races were
caused by various types of barriers (such identified on the basis of their skin colour and
as mountain ranges, rivers and sea). This named as white, black, yellow and brown.
isolation leads to reproductive isolation In fact, there is no biological basis for
due to which there is no flow of genes dividing human beings into different `races’,
between separated groups of population. it is now proved that all human beings belong
– Genetic drift caused by drastic changes to a single species, Homo sapiens. The earliest
in the frequencies of particular gene by members of Homo sapiens have been traced
chance alone. back to Africa. A couple of hundred thousand
– Variations caused in individuals due to years ago, some of our ancestors left Africa
natural selection. while others continued living there while the
8 Evolution and progress : Evolution should residents spread across Africa. The migrants
not be equated with `progress’. There is no slowly spread across the planet from Africa
real progress in the concept of evolution. to West Asia, then to Central Asia, Eurasia,
Evolution, infact results in the generation South Asia, East Asia. Like all other species
of diversity and shaping of this diversity by on the planet, they had come into being as an
environmental selection. The only progressive accident of evolution and were trying to live
trend that appears in the evolution is the their lives the best they could.
Heredity and Evolution 151

Previous Years’ CBSE


PREVIOUS Board
YEARS MCQS Questions

9.1 Accumulation of Variation blood group O. Is this information enough to


tell you which of the traits - blood group A or
During Reproduction O is dominant? Why? (Delhi 2008)
VSA (1 mark)
SA II (3 marks)
1. All the variations in a species do not have 12. How did Mendel’s experiments show that
equal chances of survival. Why? different traits are inherited independently?
(Foreign 2014) Explain. (Delhi 2017)
2. What is the effect of DNA copying which is 13. How did Mendel explain that it is possible
not perfectly accurate in the reproduction that a trait is inherited but not expressed in
process? (AI 2008) an organism? (AI 2017)
SA I (2 marks) 14. In one of his experiments with pea plants
3. Why is variation beneficial for the species, Mendel observed that when a pure tall pea
but not necessarily for the individual? plant is crossed with a pure dwarf pea plant,
(Foreign 2010) in the first generation, F1 only tall plants
appear.
4. Define variation in relation to a species. Why
(a) What happens to the traits of the dwarf
is variation beneficial in the species?
plants in this case?
(Delhi 2008)
(b) When the F1 generation plants were self-
SA II (3 marks) fertilised, he observed that in the plants
of second generation, F2 both tall plants
5. “Only variations that confer an advantage
and dwarf plants were present. Why it
to an individual organism will survive in a
happened? Explain briefly.
population.” Justify this statement.
(Foreign 2011) (Delhi 2016)
15. How did Mendel interpret his result to show
9.2 Heredity that traits may be dominant or recessive?
Describe briefly. (Delhi 2016)
VSA (1 mark)
16. In a monohybrid cross between tall pea
6. Name the information source for making plants (TT) and short pea plants (tt) a
proteins in the cells. (Delhi 2014) scientist obtained only tall pea plants (Tt) in
7. What is a gene? (AI 2014) the F1 generation. However, on selfing the
8. What is heredity? (AI 2014) F1 generation pea plants, he obtained both
tall and short plants in F2 generation. On
9. Why is the progeny always tall when a tall pea
the basis of above observations with other
plant is crossed with a short pea plant?
angiosperms also, can the scientist arrive
(Foreign 2014)
at a law? If yes, explain the law. If not, give
SA I (2 marks) justification for your answer. (Delhi 2016)
10. Write a difference between inherited traits and 17. How do Mendel’s experiment show that traits
acquired traits giving one example of each. are inherited independently? (AI 2016)
(Delhi 2013C) 18. With the help of an example justify the
11. A man with blood group A marries a woman following statement: “A trait may be inherited,
with blood group O and their daughter has but may not be expressed.” (AI 2016)
152 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

19. List two differences in tabular form between (a) State the colour of flower you would
dominant trait and recessive traits. What expect in their F1 generation plants.
percentage/proportion of the plants in the F2 (b) What must be the percentage of white
generation/progeny were round, in Mendel’s flower plants in F2 generation if flowers
cross between round and wrinkled pea of F1 plants are self-pollinated?
plants? (Foreign 2016) (c) State the expected ratio of the genotypes
20. Explain Mendel’s experiment with peas on BB and Bb in the F2 progeny.
inheritance of characters considering only
(Delhi 2012)
one visible contrasting character.
(Foreign 2016, 2014) 28. If we cross pure-breed tall (dominant) pea
plant with pure-breed dwarf (recessive) pea
21. “It is a matter of chance whether a couple will
plant we will get pea plants of F1 generation.
have a male or a female child.” Justify this
If we now self-cross the pea plant of F1
statement by drawing a flow chart.
generation, then we obtain pea plants of F2
(Foreign 2015)
generation.
22. “It is possible that a trait is inherited but may (a) What do the plants of F1 generation look
not be expressed.” Give a suitable example to like?
justify this statement. (Foreign 2015)
(b) State the ratio of tall plants to dwarf
23. A cross was made between pure breeding pea plants in F2 generation.
plants, one with round and green seeds and (c) State the type of plants not found in F1
the other with wrinkled and yellow seeds.
generation but appeared in F2 generation,
(a) Write the phenotype of F1 progeny. Give
mentioning the reason for the same.
reason for your answer.
(b) Write the different types of F2 progeny (AI 2012)
obtained along with their ratio when F1 29. With the help of a flow chart explain in brief
progeny was selfed. how the sex of a newborn is genetically
(Delhi 2014, Delhi 2013C) determined in human beings. Which of
24. (a) Mendel crossed tall pea plants with the two parents, the mother or the father,
dwarf pea plants in his experiment. Write his is responsible for determination of sex of a
observations giving reasons on the F1 and F2 child?
generations.
(Foreign 2012)
(b) List any two contrasting characters
other than height that Mendel used in his 30. How is the sex of the child fixed during the
experiments in pea plants. (Delhi 2014) fertilisation step in human beings? Explain.
25. “A trait may be inherited, but may not be (Foreign 2011)
expressed”. Justify this statement with the 31. Explain how the sex of the child is determined
help of a suitable example. at the time of conception in human beings.
(AI 2014) (AI 2009)
26. “The sex of a newborn child is a matter
of chance and none of the parents may be
LA (5 marks)
considered responsible for it”. Justify this 32. How do Mendel’s experiments show that
statement with the help of flow chart showing (a) traits may be dominant or recessive?
determination of sex of a new born. (b) inheritance of two traits is independent
of each other? (Delhi 2017)
(Delhi 2013)
33. (a) Why did Mendel choose garden pea for
27. A blue colour flower plant denoted by BB is his experiments ? Write two reasons.
cross-bred with that of white colour flower (b) List two contrasting visible characters of
plant denoted by bb. garden pea Mendel used for his experiment.
Heredity and Evolution 153

(c) Explain in brief how Mendel interpreted 43. Distinguish between inherited and acquired
his results to show that the traits may be traits by giving one example of each. Give
dominant or recessive. (Foreign 2016) reason why the traits acquired during the
lifetime of an individual are not inherited.
9.3 Evolution (Foreign 2014)
VSA (1 mark) 44. With the help of suitable examples, explain
why certain traits cannot be passed on to the
34. Give the respective scientific terms used for
next generation. What are such traits called?
studying
(AI 2014)
(a) the mechanism by which variations are
created and inherited and 45. Tabulate two distinguishing features between
(b) the development of new type of acquired traits and inherited traits with one
organisms from the existing ones. example of each. (Delhi 2013)
(Delhi 2014) 46. “An individual cannot pass on to its progeny
35. Write the contribution of Charles Darwin in the experiences of its life-time”. Justify the
the field of ‘evolution’. (Delhi 2014) statement with the help of an example and
36. Why do mice whose tails were surgically also give reason for the same. (Foreign 2012)
removed just after birth for generations, 47. Describe any three ways in which individuals
continue to produce mice with tails? with a particular trait may increase in
(Foreign 2014) population. (AI 2011)
SA I (2 marks)
9.4 Speciation
37. Give one example each of characters that are
inherited and the ones that are acquired in VSA (1 mark)
humans. Mention the difference between the
inherited and the acquired characters. 48. What is speciation? (Delhi 2015, 2013)
(Delhi 2010) SA II (3 marks)
SA II (3 marks) 49. What is speciation? Explain in brief the role
38. Distinguish between the acquired traits and of natural selection and genetic drift in this
the inherited traits in tabular form, giving process. (Foreign 2016)
one example for each. (Delhi 2017) 50. What is speciation? List four factors
39. With the help of two suitable examples, responsible for speciation. (Delhi 2015)
explain why certain experiences and traits 51. Explain the following:
earned by people during their lifetime are not (a) Speciation
passed on to their next generations. When (b) Natural selection. (AI 2015, Delhi 2011)
can such traits be passed on? (AI 2017)
52. List three main factors responsible for the
40. List three distinguishing features, in tabular speciation and briefly describe each one of
form, between acquired traits and the
them. (AI 2014)
inherited traits. (Delhi 2016)
53. List three main factors responsible for the
41. “We cannot pass on to our progeny the
rise of a new species giving a brief description
experience and qualifications earned during
about each. (Foreign 2014)
our lifetime.” Justify the statement giving
reason and examples. (Delhi 2015) 54. What is meant by the term speciation? List
42. List in tabular form, two distingushing four factors which could lead to speciation.
features between the acquired traits and the (Delhi 2012)
inherited traits with one example of each. 55. With the help of suitable examples explain
(Delhi 2015, AI 2012) natural selection. (Foreign 2010)
154 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

9.5 Evolution and Classification study of evolution? (Delhi 2013C, AI 2011)


SA I (2 marks) 65. Distinguish between homologous organs and
analogous organs. In which category would
56. What are fossils? What do they tell about the you place wings of a bird and wings of a bat?
process of evolution? (AI 2008) Justify your answer giving a suitable reason.
SA II (3 marks) (Delhi 2012)
66. How are fossils formed? Describe, in brief,
57. Explain with the help of an example each, how
two methods of determining the age of fossils.
the following provide evidences in favour of
evolution: (AI 2012)
(a) Homologous organs 67. (a) We see eyes in Planaria, insects, octopus
(b) Analogous organs and vertebrates. Can eyes be grouped
(c) Fossils (Delhi 2017, AI 2015, Delhi 2011) together in case of the above-mentioned
58. “Evolution and classification of organisms animals to establish a common
are interlinked”. Give reasons to justify this evolutionary origin? Why?
statement. (AI 2017) (b) State one evidence to prove that birds
have evolved from reptiles.
59. “Two areas of study namely ‘evolution’ and
(Foreign 2012)
‘classification’ are interlinked”. Justify this
statement. (AI 2016) 68. Explain how evolutionary relationship can be
traced by the study of homologous organs.
60. List three factors that provide evidences in
(Foreign 2011)
favour of evolution in organisms and state the
role of each in brief. (Foreign 2016) 69. Explain analogous organs and homologous
organs. Identify the analogous and
61. (a) Planaria, insects, octopus and vertebrates homologous organs amongst the following:
all have eyes. Can we group eyes of these Wings of an insect, wings of a bat, forelimbs
animals together to establish a common of frog, forelimbs of a human. (Delhi 2009)
evolutionary origin? Justify your answer.
70. What are fossils? Describe the importance of
(b) “Birds have evolved from reptiles”. State
fossils in deciding evolutionary relationship
evidence to prove the statement.
between organisms. (Foreign 2009)
(Delhi 2015)
62. (a) Cite the evidence on the basis of which it LA (5 marks)
is concluded that birds have evolved from 71. Define evolution. How does it occur?
reptiles. Describe how fossils provide us evidences in
(b) Insects, octopus, Planaria and vertebrates support of evolution. (AI 2016)
also possess eyes. Can these animals be 72. What are fossils? How are they formed? List
grouped together on the basis of the eyes two methods of determining the age of fossils.
they possess. Why or why not ? Give reason Explain in brief the importance of fossils in
to justify your answer. (Foreign 2015) deciding the evolutionary relationships.
63. (a) Give the evidence that the birds have (Foreign 2016)
evolved from reptiles. 9.6 Evolution Should not be
(b) Insects, octopus, Planaria and vertebrates Equated With ‘Progress’
possess eyes. Can we group these animals
together on the basis of eyes that they SA II (3 marks)
possess? Justify your answer giving 73. Define the term “evolution”. Evolution should
reason. (Delhi 2014) not be equated with progress.” Give reason to
64. What are fossils? How do they help in the justify this statement. (Foreign 2014)
Heredity and Evolution 155

Detailed Solutions
1. All the variations do not have equal chances are favourable and helpful in better survival.
of survival in the environment in which they Depending upon the nature of variations,
live. Depending on the nature of variations, different individuals would have different kinds
different individuals would have different kinds of advantages. For example, bacteria that can
of advantages. The organisms which are most withstand heat will survive better in a heat wave
adapted to the environment will survive. than others.
2. DNA copying is imperative for reproduction 5. Variations are the structural, functional or
and multiplication of species. When a cell or an behavioural changes from the normal characters
organism is ready to reproduce asexually it makes developed in the living organisms. Inheritable
a copy of its DNA which carries all the hereditary variations participate in evolution. According to
information in the form of genes. In most cases, Darwin, natural selection sorts out individuals
DNA copying is accurate and progenies are exact with favourable variations. Such organism will
copies of parents but very rarely error takes place survive, reproduce more and thus, will leave more
during this process and variations arise among the progenies. Hence, useful variations get established
individuals of progeny. In sexually reproducing in nature.
organisms, error in DNA copying accounts for 6. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) present in the
variations during gametogenesis along with chromosomes of cell nucleus is the information
variation that always arise due to crossing over source for making proteins.
during meiotic divisions. 7. A gene is a unit of DNA on a chromosome
3. Due to presence of variation, few individuals in which governs the synthesis of particular protein
population may survive under extreme conditions that controls specific characteristics (or traits) of
such as change in temperature, water level, etc. an organism.
Due to drastic change in niche, population except 8. The inheritance of characters (or traits) from
few individuals with variations can be wiped out. the parents to their offsprings is called heredity.
This inbuilt tendency for variation is the basis of 9. When a tall pea plant is crossed with a short
evolution and over time, such variations are useful pea plant, the resultant progeny is always tall
for the survival of the species. because tall is dominant trait and short is recessive
4. The differences in the traits or characters shown trait. Therefore, dominant trait expresses itself in
by the individuals of a species are referred to as the progeny.
variations. Variations appear during reproduction 10. A trait (or characteristic) of an organism
whether organisms multiply asexually or sexually. which is ‘not inherited’ but develops in response
Minor variations arise during asexual reproduction to the environment is called an acquired trait. For
due to small inaccuracies in DNA copying. Sexual example, if a group of mice are normally bred, all
reproduction however, generates greater variations their progeny will have tails. Now, if the tails of
because of the following reasons: these mice are cut by surgery in each generation,
(i) Chance separation of chromosomes during tail-less mice will not be produced. This is so
gamete formation (gametogenesis). because removal of tail is an acquired character.
(ii) Crossing over during meiosis. A trait (or characteristic) of an organism which is
(iii) Chance coming together of chromosomes caused by a change in its genes (or DNA) is called
during fertilisation. an inherited trait . Inherited traits can be passed on
(iv) Mutations, i.e., alterations in the genetic to the progeny of the organism because they have
material. produced changes in the genes (or DNA) of the
Some variations among individuals of a species organism. For example, skin colour in human beings.
156 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

11. In humans, genes for blood groups A and RY Ry rY ry


B are dominant over genes for blood group O
RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYy
but codominant to each other. Hence, genotype RY Round Round Round Round
of man with blood group A will be either IAIA yellow yellow yellow yellow
(homozygous dominant) or IAIO (heterozygous RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy
dominant). Genotype of woman with blood group Ry Round Round Round Round
yellow green yellow green
O will be IOIO. The children of this couple will have
the following probabilities for their blood groups : RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy
rY Round Round Wrinkled Wrinkled
yellow yellow yellow yellow

Case I : IAIA × IOIO RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy


↓ ↓ ry Round Round Wrinkled Wrinkled
(Parents) yellow green yellow green
Gametes: IA IO F2 generation ratio : Round-yellow = 9, Round-
green = 3 Wrinkled-yellow = 3; Wrinkled-green =1
F1 : IAIO 13. Mendel first selected two pure line plants.
All children with He then crossed such plants having contrasting
blood group A (heterozygous) characters. In the F1 generation, he observed
that only one of the two contrasting character
Case II : IAIO × IOIO appeared, he called it dominant and the one which
(Parents) ↓ ↓ does not get expressed in F1 was recessive. He later
Gametes: IA IO IO selfed the F1 plants and observed that both the
traits appear but in a definite proportion. It can be
explained by the following cross :
F1 : IAIO IOIO
50% children with 50% children Parents (pure line) : Tall plant Dwarf plant
A blood group with O blood TT tt
(heterozygous group (homozy-
dominant) gous recessive)
Gametes : T t
Thus, gene for blood group A is dominant over
gene for blood group O.
12. In a dihybrid cross given by Mendel, it was
observed that when two pairs of traits or characters
were considered, each trait expressed independent F1 generation : Tt (Tall)
of the other. Thus, Mendel was able to propose the Selfing
Law of Independent Assortment which says about T t
independent inheritance of traits. This could be T TT Tt
explained clearly from the given cross: t Tt tt
F2 generation : Tall : Dwarf
3:1
This is how Mendel explained that a trait may be
inherited but not expressed in the plant.
14. (a) Mendel’s monohybrid cross indicated
that out of two contrasting traits only one appears
in the progeny of first generation. This implies
that the trait which appears in F1 generation is
dominant and the trait which does not express is
recessive. We can also say that gene controlling the
Heredity and Evolution 157

dominant trait is dominant gene or allele and gene Mendel interpreted his results as, the trait that
controlling the recessive trait is recessive gene or expressed itself in F1 was dominant and the one
allele. that reappeared in F2 generation was recessive. It
In F1 progeny although the dominant trait is can be demonstrated by the following cross :
expressed but genes for both dominant and
Parents: TT tt
recessive traits are present in a heterozygous
condition. The recessive trait has a chance to Gametes : T t
express in next generation only if recessive genes
come in homozygous condition. This can be
illustrated by the given cross:
Parents (pureline) : Tall plant Dwarf plant F1 generation : Tt (All tall)
TT tt Selfing
T t
Gametes : T t
T TT Tt
t Tt tt
F2 generation : 3 Tall : 1 Dwarf
F1 generation : Tt (Tall) 16. In the situation discussed in the question the
(b) Appearance of suppressed recessive trait in scientist can arrive at two different laws, i.e., law of
individuals of F2 generation in Mendelian cross dominance and law of segregation (or law of purity
indicates that the characters of recessive traits are of gametes). This can be explained with the help of
not lost even when they are not expressed. When following crosses :
the F1 generation plants were allowed to self-
Parents : TT × tt
fertilise, both the parental traits were expressed in
(Tall) (Dwarf)
definite proportion in F2 generation. This could be
Gametes : T t
explained by the given cross by selfing the gametes
obtained in F1 generation. F1 generation : Tt
Tall
F1 generation : All tall plants obtained Selfing : Tt × Tt
Tt × Tt
Self fertilised Gametes : T t T t
F2 generation : TT Tt Tt tt
Gametes : T t T t Ratio : 3 Tall : 1 Dwarf
In F1 hybrid two dissimilar alleles are present for
TT Tt Tt tt one character, i.e., height T is for tallness and t is
1 dwarf for dwarfness, out of which only one allele called
Ratio : 3 tall plants
plant dominant allele expresses itself and the one which
15. Mendel crossed the pea plant for two remains unexpressed is called recessive allele. This
contrasting characters under consideration. is called “law of dominance”.
The trait that expressed itself in F1 generation Also the two dissimilar alleles that remain together
was dominant and the one not expressed in F1 in a heterozygous individual do not get mixed up
generation was recessive. He later selfed the plants and keep their distinct identity. Hence, at the time
of F1 generation and recovered, both parental of gamete formation they separate so that each
traits in a definite proportion in F2 generation. gamete receives only one allele and is always pure
158 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

which enables reappearance of recessive trait in Parent : RR × rr


F2 progenies when the two recessive alleles come (Round) (Wrinkled)
together. This is called "law of purity of gametes." ↓ ↓
Gametes : R r
17. Refer to answer 12.
18. A trait may be inherited but may not be
expressed, this could be explained by the given Rr
example. When a tall pea plant was crossed with a F1 generation : Rr Rr
dwarf pea plant, then F1 generation plants were all ×
Selfing
tall. When F1 plants were selfed, then F2 generation
plants were both tall and dwarf. This shows that Gametes R r R r
the F1 plants had inherited both the parental traits
but did not express dwarfness or recessive trait in
the presence of the trait for tallness or dominant F2 generation : RR Rr Rr rr
trait. This could be explained by the given cross :
20. Mendel crossed a pure tall pea plant with
Parent : TT × tt
pure dwarf pea plant. All the plants obtained in F1
(Tall) (Dwarf)
generation were tall. When Mendel selfed plants
Gametes : T t from F1 generation then he obtained both tall and
F1 generation : Tt dwarf plants in F2 generation in the ratio of 3 : 1.
(Tall) This can be illustrated as follows :
Selfing: Tt × Tt
Parent : TT × tt
T t T t (Tall) (Dwarf)
Gametes : T t
TT Tt Tt tt F1 generation : Tt
(Tall)
Ratio : 3 Tall : 1 Dwarf
Selfing: Tt × Tt
19. Differences between dominant traits and
recessive trait are given below: T t T t

Dominant trait Recessive trait TT Tt Tt tt


(i) It is the trait controlled It is the trait controlled Ratio : 3 Tall : 1 Dwarf
by dominant allele. by recessive allele.
This explains that for each pair of contrasting
characters there are two alleles. The trait which is
(ii) It is the trait which It is the trait which
expressed in F1 is dominant trait and is controlled
is expressed in F1 remains suppressed
by dominant allele and the trait which remains
generation. in F1 generation
unexpressed in F1 is the recessive trait and is
and appears in F2
generation. controlled by recessive gene. When both the
contrasting alleles are present together in F1
Out of total 4 genotypes possible in F2 generation individuals, no mixing of alleles occurs and they
31 genotypes result in phenotypic expression of again segregate at the time of gamete formation
round seeds. So, the percentage of plants with Therefore, when the recessive alleles come together
round seeds will be 75%. This can be illustrated as they result in reappearance of recessive trait in F2
follows: generation.
Heredity and Evolution 159

21. Sex is determined at the time of fertilisation Therefore, the phenotype of F1 progeny is round
when male and female gametes fuse. Male and yellow.
produces two types of gametes, i.e., having X or (b) The different types of F2 progeny obtained
Y chromosome and female produces same type of along with their ratio when F1 progeny was selfed
gametes containing X chromosomes. The sex of could be illustrated by the given cross:
the child is determined at the time of fertilisation F1 Generation : RrYy RrYy
when male and female gametes fuse to form (Selfing)
zygote.
If a sperm (male gamete) carrying X chromosome
fertilises an egg or ovum (female gamete) carrying Gametes : RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry
X chromosome, then the offspring will be a girl RY Ry rY ry
(female). This is because the offspring will have XX
combination of sex chromosomes. RY RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYy
If a sperm (male gamete) carrying Y chromosome Ro und Round Round Round
fertilises an egg or ovum (female gamete) which yellow yellow yellow yellow
has X chromosome, then the offspring will be a Ry RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy
boy (male). This is because the offspring will have Round Round Round Round
XY combination of sex chromosomes. yellow green yellow green
Therefore, there are 50% chance of a male child rY RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy
and 50% chance of a female child. Round Round Wrinkled Wrinkled
yellow yellow yellow yellow
Male Female
ry RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy
Gametes Round Round Wrinkled Wrinkled
X Y X yellow yellow yellow green
Phenotypic ratio : 9 : 3 : 3 : 1
Round yellow seeds – 9 ; Round green seeds – 3
XX XY Wrinkled yellow seeds – 3 ; Wrinkled green seeds – 1
Girl Boy 24. (a) The possible cross of Mendel's experiment
22. Refer to answer 18. is :
23. (a) The given cross was made between pure Tall plant Dwarf plant
breeding pea plants, one with round and green Parental generation TT tt
seeds and the other with wrinkled and yellow
Gametes T t
seeds.
Yellow seed colour and round seed shape is
dominant over green seed colour and wrinkled seed
Tt
shape. In F1 generation, dominant traits express F1 Generation : (Tall plant)
itself, whereas recessive traits get suppressed.
On selfing of F1 generation Tt × Tt
Round and Wrinkled and
green seeds × yellow seeds Gametes : T t T t
Parents : RRyy rrYY

F2 Generation genotype : TT Tt Tt tt
F2 Generation phenotype : Tall Tall Tall Dwarf
Gametes : Ry rY
Ratio : 3 : 1
Hence, tall (T) is dominant whereas dwarf (t)
is recessive. In F1 generation, only dominant
F1 Generation : RrYy (Round yellow trait expresses itself, whereas recessive trait gets
seeds) suppressed.
160 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

In F2 generation, both traits, i.e., dominant and Parents : Pure tall Pure dwarf
recessive express themselves . In this way, Mendel’s (TT) (tt)
experiment showed that the traits (tall and dwarf)
are inherited independently. Gametes : (T) (t)
(b) The two contrasting characters other than
height that Mendel used in his experiment in pea
Tt
plants are round/wrinkled seeds and violet/white F1 generation :
(Tall)
flowers.
25. Refer to answer 18. Gametes T t
26. Refer to answer 21. TT Tt
T
27. (a) The colour of the flower in F1 generation (Tall) (Tall)
F2 generation :
will be blue. Tt tt
t
(b) If the flowers of F1 generations are self (Tall) (Dwarf)
pollinated, then the percentage of white flowers in
F2 generation must be 25%. F2 phenotypic ratio–3 (Tall) : 1 (Dwarf)
(c) The expected ratio of the genotypes BB and Bb F2 genotypic ratio– 1 : 2 : 1
in the F2 generation progeny is 1  : 2. (Pure Tall) (Hybrid Tall) (Pure Dwarf)
The above results could be depicted by the given
29. Refer to answer 21.
cross:
Parental Blue colur White colour 30. Human beings have 23 pairs chromosomes (22
generation: flower plant flower plant pairs of autosomes +1 pair of sex chromosome).
(BB) (b b) A male has one X chromosome and one Y
Gametes : B B b b chromosome whereas a female has two X
chromosomes. Sex of a child depends on the two
conditions which takes place during fertilisation.
F1 generation : Bb Bb The two conditions are given below:
All blue plants obtained
(i) If a sperm carrying X chromosome fertilises
Blue colour Blue colour an ovum which carries X chromosome, then the
flower plant flower plant
child born will be girl.
Bb (Selfing) Bb
(ii) If a sperm carrying Y chromosome fertilises
B b B b an ovum which carries X chromosome, then the
child born will be a boy.
F2 generation : BB Bb Bb bb 31. Refer to answer 30.
Blue Blue Blue White 32. (a) Mendel first crossed pure-bred tall pea
1 : 2 : 1 plants with pure-bred dwarf pea plants and found
Pure Hybrid Pure
that only tall pea plants were produced in the first
28. (a) The plants of F1 generation will be all tall
generation (F1). He then self crossed the tall pea
plants.
plants of the F1 generation and found that tall
(b) The ratio of tall plants to dwarf plants in F2
plants and dwarf plants were obtained in the second
generation is 3 : 1.
(c) Dwarf plants are not found in F1 generation generation or (F2) in the ratio of 3:1. Mendel said
but appeared in F2 generation. This is so because in that the trait of dwarfness of one of the parent pea
F1 generation only dominant trait (tall) expresses plant had not been lost, it was merely concealed
itself and recessive trait (dwarf) gets suppressed. or suppressed in the first generation to re-emerge
The dwarf plants appeared in F2 generation, in the second generation. He called the suppressed
because the traits whether dominant or recessive trait of ‘dwarfness’ as ‘recessive trait’ and the
are independently inherited. In others words, a expressed trait of ‘tallness’ as the ‘dominant trait’.
single copy of (T) is enough to make the plant tall, In this way, Mendel’s experiments with tall and
while both copies have to be (t) for the plant to be dwarf pea plants showed that the traits may be
dwarf. dominant or recessive.
Heredity and Evolution 161

Hence this could be explained by the given cross :

RY Ry rY ry

RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYy


RY Round Round Round Round
yellow yellow yellow yellow
RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy
Ry Round Round Round Round
yellow green yellow green
F1 generation phenotype : Tall plant × Tall plant
Tt Tt RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy
rY Round Round Wrinkled Wrinkled
Gametes : T t T t yellow yellow yellow yellow
RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy
ry Round Round Wrinkled Wrinkled
Crossing of gametes yellow green yellow green
during fertilisation
F2 generation genotype : TT Tt Tt tt F2 generation : Round-yellow = 9, Round-green = 3
F2 generation phenotype : Tall Tall Tall Dwarf Wrinkled-yellow = 3; Wrinkled-green =1
(Three tall and one dwarf plant) 33. (a) Mendel chose garden pea for his experiments
(b) Mendel observed that he had started with because:
two combinations of characteristics in seeds, (i) It was easy to grow and it shows some clear
round-yellow and wrinkled -green, and two new contrasting traits like some pea plants are tall
combinations of characteristics had appeared in the whereas others are dwarf.
F2 generation, round-green and wrinkled-yellow. (ii) Pea plants are self pollinating and many
According to Mendel’s second law of inheritance generation of pea plants can be produced in
comparatively less time.
more than one pair of traits are considered in a
(b) The contrasting characters of garden pea plant
cross simultaneously, the factors responsible for
studied by Mendel are:
each pair of trait are distributed independently to
the gametes. Plant
Character
The cross given below showing dihybrid cross Dominant Recessive
explains that the inheritance of two traits is 1. Plant height Tall Dwarf
independent of each other.
2. Colour of the seed Yellow Green
(c) Refer to answer 15.
34. (a) Heredity is the mechanism by which
variations are created and inherited.
(b) Evolution is the process in which development
of new type of organisms takes place from the
existing ones.
35. The contribution of Charles Darwin in
the field of evolution is that only the organism
which can adapt to the changing environmental
conditions can survive and he also stated that
the natural selection is a process which plays an
important role in evolution of plants and animals
162 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

by selecting the organisms with traits favourable to 39. Certain experiences and traits earned by
the environment. people during their lifetime are not passed on to
36. A group of mice are normally bred and all their next generations because all these characters
their progeny possess tail. Now, if the tails of these are acquired by the man during his lifetime. The
mice are surgically removed in each generation, man is not born with these traits and he cannot
tail-less mice will not be produced. This is so pass on these traits to his children. These could be
because removal of tail during the life cycle of mice
better explained by the given examples:
is an acquired character which is not transferred to
future generations. The removal of the tail cannot (i) Child of a very good swimmer may not know
change the genes of the germ cells of the mice. how to swim. This is so because the technique of
37. The difference between inherited and acquired swimming is not inherited from parents but it is
characters is that the inherited character of an learnt by the person himself or herself.
organism is caused by a change in its genes (or (ii) A person may have a scar on the face from a
DNA) on the other hand acquired character of an cut he got in an accident. This is also an example of
organism is not inherited but develops in response acquired trait which cannot be passed to the next
to the environment. Eye colour is an example generation.
of inherited character whereas swimming is an Traits can be passed on to future generations in
example of acquired character in humans. which changes have occurred in the genes present
38. Differences between the inherited traits and in the reproductive cells of the parent organisms.
acquired traits are as follows : These traits or characters are known as inherited
traits.
Inherited traits Acquired traits
40. Refer to answer 38.
(i) These are passed These are developed during
from the parent the life of an individual. 41. Refer to answer 39.
to offspring. 42. Refer to answer 38.
(ii) These are genetic These are somatic 43. Refer to answers 38 and 39.
variations. variations. 44. Refer to answer 39.
(iii) These develop These develop due to 45. Refer to answer 38.
due to use and disuse of organs
46. If we breed a group of mice, all the progeny of
crossing over and direct effect of
mice will have tails just like their parents. Now, if we
phenomenon environment.
remove the tails surgically and again breed them,
and mutations.
we still get new mice with tails. This is because
(iv) These are passed These traits die with the cutting the tails of mice does not change the genes
on from one death of the individual. of their reproductive cells (or gametes). And since
generation to the acquired trait of ‘cut tails’ does not bring about
the other. a change in the genes of mice, this trait cannot
(v) Example : Skin Example : If a group of be passed on to their next generations. From this
colour, eye mice are normally bred, we conclude that the experiences acquired by an
colour, form of all their progenies will individual during his lifetime (called acquired
hair, polydactyly have tails. Now, if the traits) cannot be passed on to its progeny, and
(extra fingers), tails of these mice are hence cannot lead to evolution because they are
free and removed surgically in each not caused by the change in genes.
attached ear generation, tailless mice 47. Three ways in which individuals with a
lobes, blood will not be produced. It is particular trait may increase in population are:
groups of so because removal of tail (i) Genetic drift : It is the random change in
human beings. is an acquired character gene frequency occurring by chance fluctuations.
and it will not bring change In this phenomenon, an event may increase the
in the genes of the germ frequency of a particular trait having little adaptive
cells of the mice. value and survival advantage.
Heredity and Evolution 163

(ii) Natural selection : It is the phenomenon survived beetles are of blue colour. This population
wherein nature selects traits favourable to the again slowly multiply and will contain mostly blue
species in the environment. Thus, a particular trait coloured beetles over a period of time. Survival
selected by the nature increases in number. of more blue beetles in the population changed
(iii) Geographical isolation : Interbreeding the coloured characteristic from normal red to
populations are geographically isolated by blue over a period of time. In small population,
barriers such as mountain ranges, rivers and sea. accidents can change the frequency of some genes
This geographical isolation leads to reproductive in a population, even if it does not give any survival
isolation and thus there is no gene flow between advantage to the possessors.
separated groups of population and therefore, 50. The process by which new species develop
population with particular character increases. from the existing species is known as speciation.
48. The process by which new species develop The four factors responsible for speciation are:
from the existing species is known as speciation. (i) Geographical isolation of a population leads
49. The process by which new species develop to reproductive isolation and hence speciation.
from the existing species is known as speciation. (ii) Genetic drift leads of formation of new species
Both natural selection and genetic drift play a very by causing drastic changes in the frequencies of
important role in speciation. By natural selection particular gene by chance alone..
traits favourable to the species in the given (iii) Natural selection wherein nature in the wild
environment are selected by the nature. selects traits favourable to the species in the given
Example, beetles develop colur variation during environment.
reproduction. Consequently, in the progeny, (iv) Random mating resulting in genetic variations
one beetle develops green body colour instead in genotype frequencies within the population.
of normal red colour. This beetle can inherit this 51. (a) Speciation : Origin of new species from
variation in colour on to its progeny so that all its existing one due to reproductive isolation of a part
offspring are green in colour. Crows cannot easily of its population is called speciation.
locate green-coloured beetles on the green leaves Suppose a large population of beetle living in an
of bushes and continue to eat red beetles which area gets split into two sub populations due to
are easily located on green leaves. As a result, in geographical barriers like river, mountain, sea,
population of green beetles increases in each etc. Then members of these sub-populations
generation. will not be able to interbreed. Hence, there will
Genetic drift is the elimination of the genes of be no gene flow between the members of these
certain traits from the small population when populations. After few generations, genetic drift
a section of population dies of natural calamity will accumulate different variations in each of the
or migrates to other region. It alters the gene two geographically separated sub-populations.
frequency of the remaining population. Natural selection may also operate simultaneously
Suppose in sexually reproducing red beetle in a different way in these geographically isolated
population, a colour variation arises wherein one sub-populations. This makes geographically
beetle develops blue body colour instead of red. isolated sub-populations to become more and
This beetle can also pass this colour variation to its more different from each other and ultimately
progeny so that all its offsprings are blue coloured reproductive isolation occurs between individuals
beetles. As the population of beetles expand, of these groups and they transform into new
initially there would be few blue coloured beetles species.
among the majority of red coloured beetles. At this (b) Natural selection is the phenomenon wherein
point, an elephant comes by and stamps on the nature, in the wild, selects traits favourable to the
bushes where the beetles live. Consequently, most species in its environment.
of the beetles get killed. By chance, most of the Also refer to answer 49.
164 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

52. Speciation is the process by which new species evolutionary change produced in an organism for
develop from the existing species. one purpose becomes more useful for an entirely
The three important factors responsible for the different functions later.
speciation are : 56. Fossils are the remains or impressions of the
(i) Geographical isolation of a population dead animals and plants that lived in the remote
caused by various types of barriers such as past. The fossils provide evidence for evolution.
mountain ranges, rivers and sea. Geographical For example, a fossil bird called Archaeopteryx
isolation is the major factor in the speciation of have characters of both reptiles and birds. It had
sexually reproducing animals because it causes feathers, fused bones and beak which are exclusive
reproductive isolation and interrupts the flow of characters of birds and had teeth in the jaws,
genes between their isolated populations through claws on fingers, a long tail, etc like reptiles. Thus,
the gametes. Archaeopteryx is a connecting link between the
(ii) Genetic drift is the elimination of the genes reptiles and birds, and hence suggests that the
of certain traits from the small population when birds have evolved from the reptiles through the
a section of population dies of natural calamity process of continuous evolution.
or migrates to other region. It alters the gene 57. (a) Homologous organs perform different
frequency of the remaining population. functions in different species but have similar
(iii) Variations introduced by random mating basic structure and similar embryonic origin. For
and hybridisation. Random fusion of gametes example forelimbs of a frog, lizard, bird and human
adds new alleles and it result in formation of new being show similarity in basic structure. However,
species. these organs perform entirely different functions
53. Refer to answer 52. but the basic similarity in the forelimbs of these
54. Refer to answer 50. different vertebrates indicates common ancestry.
This means that these vertebrates have modified
55. Natural selection is the process by which
according to the special needs of the subsequent
organisms which are well adapted to the
generations during the course of evolution.
environment survive and reproduce and pass their
(b) Analogous organs are different in fundamental
successful characters to the next generation, while,
structure and embryonic origin but have similar
organisms less adapted to the environment either
appearance and perform similar functions. For
fail to reproduce or die.
example, the wings of an insect and a bird have
(i) When animals produce their progeny by
different structures but they perform the same
sexual reproduction, some changes always appear
function of flying. The presence of these organs
in the progeny i.e., one of the progeny may be
indicates that they are not derived from common
tall (having long legs) than the other one. When
ancestors but they can still evolve to perform
there is no food (grass, short plants, etc.) available
similar functions to survive, flourish and keep
on the ground, the progeny having long legs can
on evolving in the prevailing environment. This
easily reach the leaves on tall trees, eat them as
provides a mechanism for evolution.
food and survive. While the progeny having short
(c) Refer to answer 56.
legs cannot reach the leaves on tall trees, do not get
any food, starve and hence die. Therefore, nature 58. Evolution is the process by which newer types
has selected the long-legged animals that will live of organisms are developed from the pre-existing
enough to produce their offsprings. In course of ones through modifications. Classification is the
evolution, the short legged animals evolved into arrangement of organisms into a series of groups
long-legged animals due to favourable variations. based on physiological, biological, anatomical or
(ii) Birds evolved feathers as a means of providing other relationships. All systems of classification
insulation to their bodies in cold weather but are hierarchial. The more closely two species are
later on these feathers became more useful for related, the more recently they have a common
the purpose of flying. Hence, sometimes an ancestor. Classification of organisms necessarily
Heredity and Evolution 165

involves organising them in different groups, organs which have different basic structure and
based on the similarities and differences of embryonic origin but perform similar functions
characteristics. It helps in the recognisation of are called analogous organs. The wings of bird
the basic arrangement of a hierarchical structure and wings of bat are analogous organs because
among diverse species. It facilitates studies or the basic structure or design of the wings of bird
research of wide variety associated with organisms and bat are different but they perform the similar
effortlessly. Thus, classification of species is infact function of flying.
a reflection of their evolutionary relationship or 66. When organisms like plants or animals
we can say that evolution and classification are die, their bodies get decomposed by the action
interlinked. of microorganisms in the presence of oxygen,
59. Refer to answer 58. moisture, etc. Sometimes the conditions in the
60. Some of the important sources which provide environment are such (like absence of oxygen,
evidences for evolution are homologous organs, moisture, etc.), which do not let the body of the
analogous organs and fossils. organism to get decompose completely. It is the
Also refer to answer 57. body (or body part) of an organism which we get
61. (a) Planaria, insects, octopus and vertebrates as fossil on digging the earth. In many cases the
cannot be grouped together on the basis of eye. soft parts of the organisms get decomposed and
Eyes of insects, octopus, Planaria and vertebrates we get skeleton of hard parts (like teeth, bones,
are analogous organs which have developed etc.) as fossil. Even the soft parts of the plants and
over generation as an adaptation for similar animals (which usually decompose quickly) are
function. They represent convergent evolution sometimes preserved as fossils in the form of their
where distantly related groups develop similar impressions inside the rocks. For example, if a
functional structure as an adaptation for same dead leaf gets caught in mud, it will not decompose
function. quickly. The mud around the leaf will set around it
(b) Fossil bird Archaeopteryx had features as a mould, gradually harden to form a rock and
like feathers, fused bones, beak which are the retain the impression of the leaf. This forms a leaf
characteristic features of birds. It also had some fossil which can be dug out from the earth a after a
features of reptiles, like, teeth in jaws, claws on long time period.
free fingers, a long tail, etc. Thus, it represents a The age of fossils can be determined in two ways
connecting link between reptiles and birds. This as given below :
example provides a clue that birds have evolved (i) By the relative method : When we dig into the
from reptiles. earth, we find fossils at different depths. The fossils
which we find in layers closer to the surface of
62. (a) Refer to answer 61 (b).
the earth are more recent and those fossils which
(b) Refer to answer 61 (a).
are found in deeper layers are older; whereas the
63. (a) Refer to answer 61(b). fossils found in the deepest layers of earth are the
(b) Refer to answer 61 (a). oldest ones.
64. Refer to answer 56. (ii) Carbon dating method : When a living object
65. Those organs which have the same basic dies and forms fossil, its carbon-14 radioactivity
structure and similar embryonic origin but goes on decreasing gradually. By this method, the
different functions are called as homologous age of fossils is found by comparing the carbon-14
organs. These organs follow same basic plant of radioactivity left in fossils with the carbon-14
organisation during development, but in adults radioactivity present in living objects today.
got modified to perform different function as 67. (a) Refer to answer 61 (a).
an adaptation to different environments. Those (b) Refer to answer 61 (b).
166 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

68. Homologous organs provide morphological remains or impressions of organisms that lived
and anatomical evidences of evolution. There are in the remote past. Fossils provide the evidence
number of organs in different groups of animals that the present animal have originated from
or plants which have similar basic design but are previously existing ones through the process
used for different purposes. These are termed as of continuous evolution. Fossils can be used to
homologous organs. For example, the forelimbs of reconstruct evolutionary history of an organism.
frog, lizard, bird and human beings show similarity The distribution pattern of fossils shows that the
in basic structure. The basic similarity of forelimbs ancient fossils present in the bottom rocks are
of these different vertebrates indicates that all simple, while the most recent fossils found in the
these have evolved from a common ancestor upper strata are more highly evolved. It means
who had five digited or pentadactyle limbs which fossils form and become more and more complex
became modified according to the special needs as we proceed from earliest to recent rocks. It gives
of subsequent generations during the course of us an idea of time in history when different species
evolution. Hence, homologous organs depict were formed or became extinct. Thus, fossils
divergent evolution or adaptive radiation. provide us evidences in support of evolution.
69. The organs which are quite different in 72. Refer to answers 66 and 70.
fundamental structure and embryonic origin but
73. Evolution is the sequence of gradual changes
perform same function and may superficially look
which take place in the primitive organisms
alike are called analogous organs The organs which
perform different functions in different species but over millions of years in which new species are
have similar basic structure and similar embryonic produced.
origin are called homologous organs. Evolution should not be equated with progress
Among the given examples: wings of an insect, because there is no real progress in the concept
wings of bat are examples of analogous organs of evolution. Evolution is just the production of
whereas forelimbs of frog and human are examples diversity of life forms and shaping of this diversity
of homologous organs. by the environmental selection. The only progress
70. Fossils are the remains or impressions of the in evolution appears to be that more and more
dead animals and plants that lived in the remote complex body designs of organisms have emerged
past. Fossils occur in sedimentary rocks, peat, over the ages. This will become clear from the
amber, asphalt, lava and snow. These provide following examples. When a new species is
direct evidence of evolution. Fossils play a very formed, it is not necessary that the old species will
important role in establishing evolutionary disappear or get eliminated from earth. It will all
relationship between organisms. The age of fossils depend on the environment. Also it is not as if the
can be approximately assumed through various newly formed species are in any way better than
techniques which gives an idea of the time period the older ones. It is simply that genetic drift and
in the geological time scale when a particular natural selection processes have combined to form
organism existed. Some of the morphological a population having different body design which
features of organisms are well preserved which cannot interbreed with the older population.
give a clue about their ancestors and descendants. It is a common belief that chimpanzees are
Also refer to answer 56. the ancestors of human beings. It is, however,
71. Evolution is the sequence of gradual changes, not true that human beings have evolved from
from simple life forms to complex life form, i.e., chimpanzees. Actually, both chimpanzees and
from primitive organisms that lived over millions human beings had a common ancestor long time
of years ago to new organisms that exist today. ago. The two offsprings of that ancestor evolved in
Evolution occurs by changes, improvement and their own separated ways to form the modern day
modification of simple life forms. Fossils are the chimpanzees and human beings.
Chapter
Light-Reflection
10 and Refraction
10.1 Reflection of Light 10.3 Refraction of Light

10.2 Spherical Mirrors

Topicwise Analysis of Last 10 Years’ CBSE Board Questions (2017-2008)

8 Maximum weightage is of Refraction of Light. 8 Maximum SA II type questions were asked


from Spherical Mirrors.
8 Maximum VSA type questions were asked from
Spherical Mirrors. 8 Maximum LA type questions were asked from
Refraction of Light.

QUICK RECAP
8 Reflection : When light falls on a surface and may occur depending on the nature of
gets back into the same medium, it is called reflecting surface.
reflection. 8 Laws of reflection
N X The incident ray, the reflected ray and the
P Q
normal at the point of incidence, all lie in the
In
y

cid same plane.


Ra

en
ed

tR i r The angle of reflection (r) and the angle of


ct

X
ay
fle
Re

M M1
incidence (i) are equal.
O 8 Plane mirror : A plane mirror always forms
Point of Incidence
an erect, virtual, size to size image at the same
X In reflection, the frequency, speed and distance as the object is, but at the back of the
wavelength do not change but a phase change mirror.
168 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

X Its magnification is +1. surface, the mirror is called convex mirror.


X It forms a laterally inverted image. M r
X When a plane mirror is turned by an angle , i
the reflected ray will turn by an angle of 2 .
X The radius of curvature of a plane mirror is
infinity. Its focal length is therefore infinity. x y
C F P
X To see full size image of a person, he needs a
(Principal (Centre of (Focus) (Pole)
mirror of length half his height.
axis) curvature)
8 Spherical mirror : A reflecting surface which
M
is of the form of a sphere in which inner or f
outer surface is reflecting. R
X Concave mirror : If the outer surface is Convex Mirror
silvered and reflection takes place from inner X Rules to draw the ray diagram : Any two of
surface, the mirror is called concave mirror.
the rules are used in order to draw the ray
M
diagram.
i – The rays of light passing parallel to the
r principal axis will converge at the focus
after reflection.
x y
C F P – The rays of light passing through the
(Principal (Centre of (Focus) (Pole) focus will emerge parallel to the principal
Axis) curvature) axis after reflection.
M – The rays of light passing through the
f centre of curvature will all retrace their
R
path after reflection.
Concave Mirror – The rays of light falling at the pole gets
X Convex mirror : If the inner surface is reflected at the same angle on the other
silvered and reflection takes place from outer side of principal axis.

X Image formation by spherical mirrors :

Concave mirror
Ray diagram Object position Image position Nature of image
(a) At infinity At the focus F Real, inverted and
point-sized

(b) Between infinity Between F and C Real, smaller than


and the centre the object and
of curvature C inverted
Light-Reflection and Refraction 169

(c) At C At C Real, same size and


inverted

(d) Between C and Between C and Real, enlarged and


F infinity inverted

(e) At F At infinity Real, infinitely large


and inverted

Infinity

(f) Between the Behind the Virtual, enlarged


pole P and F mirror and erect

Convex mirror

Ray diagram Object position Image position Nature of image


(a) Between Behind the Virtual, smaller and
infinity and mirror between erect
the pole the focus and
the pole

(b) At infinity Behind the Virtual, point-sized


mirror at the and erect
focus F

Infinity
170 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

X Sign conventions : X The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence


Direction of to the sine of angle of refraction is a constant,
A incident light y
sin i
M i.e., = constant, for the light of a given
Height
Direction against Direction along sin r
upwards
incident light (–ve) incident light (+ve) colour and for a given pair of media.
(+ve) B
x x sin i
B P 8 Refractive index : is called refractive
Height sin r
downwards (–ve)
index (n) of one medium with respect to
A M
y another medium. It has no unit.
X Absolute refractive index : The ratio of
1 1 1 speed of light in vacuum or air to the speed
X Mirror formula : = +
f u v of light in the medium is called the absolute
Where f, u and v are the focal length, object refractive index.
distance and image distance respectively. Speed of light in air (c)
Magnification : It is defined as the ratio of n=
X
Speed of light in medium (v )
size of image to the size of object.
X Relative refractive index : The relative
Size of object (hI ) v
m= =− refractive index is defined as the ratio of
Size of image (h0 ) u refractive index of medium 2 to the refractive
Magnification is always (+ve) for convex index of medium 1.
mirror while it depends on position of object c /v2 n2
n21 = =
for concave mirror. c /v1 n1
X Uses of concave mirror : It is used
X Relative refractive index of two media :
– as a shaving mirror.
sin i
– in a reflecting type astronomical For air-water interface, nwa = ...(i)
sin r1
telescope.
– in search light, headlight of automobile. sin r1
For water-glass interface, ngw = ...(ii)
X Uses of convex mirror : It is used sin r2
– as rear view mirrors in automobiles. sin r2
For glass-air interface, nag = ...(iii)
– as a device to check theft in shops. sin e
– to bring view of corners which are not From eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii)
directly visible. sin i sin r1 sin r2
nwa × ngw × nag = × × =1
8 Refraction : Bending of light when it passes sin r1 sin r2 sin e
obliquely from one medium to another i= e
medium is called refraction. Incident ray
A
Air i
Rarer Denser Air- water
interface
i i Water r1 C
B r1
r Water-glass
r E interface
Glass
Denser Rarer r2 r2
D
Glass-air
X Laws of refraction : The incident ray, the Air interface
e
refracted ray and the normal at the point of
F Emergent ray
incidence, all lie in the same plane.
Light-Reflection and Refraction 171

X Lateral displacement : The perpendicular


r
distance (M) between the original path of O
incident ray and the emergent ray coming out M
A i
of a glass slab is called lateral displacement of
the emergent ray of light.
P N1 B
real depth OB
i n= =
Air apparent depth OA
Q Glass – The bottom of the tank, filled with water
r N3
appears to be raised.
N2 – A coin placed at the bottom of water
r
Air
filled glass tumbler appears to be raised.
R M – When a straight rod, partly immersed in
e
water, viewed from the sides, it appeared
to be broken.
N4 S – A lemon kept in a bowl viewed from side,
Lateral displacement is it appears larger than its actual size.
– directly proportional to the thickness of – The part of the rod inside water appears
the slab. thick, if viewed from side.
– directly proportional to the incident
8 Lens : A piece of transparent medium
angle. bounded by at least one spherical surface is
– directly proportional to the refractive called lens.
index of the glass slab.
– inversely proportional to the wavelength
of incident light.
X Apparent position of object : Due to
refraction, the original depth of a tank cannot
Convex or Concave Plano- Plano-
be known. The apparent depth of the tank is converging or diverging convex concave
1/n times the original depth of the tank. lens lens lens lens

X Image formation by lenses :


Convex lens
Ray diagram Position of object Position of image Nature of image

Real, inverted and


(a) O F At infinity At F
highly diminished

u = –ve, v = +ve and f = +ve


A
F B
B 2F F O 2F Between infinity Real, inverted and
(b) Between F and 2F
f and 2F diminished
u A
v
u = –ve, v = +ve and f = +ve
172 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

F B 2F
B Real, inverted and
(c) 2F F O At 2F At 2F
same sized
A
u = –ve, v = +ve and f = +ve
A
F B
Real, inverted and
(d) 2F B F O 2F Between F and 2F Beyond 2F
enlarged
A
u = –ve, v = +ve and f = +ve
A

F
Real, inverted and
(e) B O F 2F At F At infinity
enlarged

u = –ve, v = +ve and f = +ve


A
A

On the same side Virtual, erect and


(f) B F B O
Between F and O
F of the lens enlarged

u = –ve, v = –ve and f = +ve


Concave lens
Ray diagram Position of object Position of image Nature of image

Virtual, erect and


(a) 2F F O F 2F At infinity At F
highly diminished

u = –ve, v = –ve and f = –ve


A
A
(b) 2F BF B O F 2F Between infinity Between F and O Virtual, erect and
and O diminished

u = –ve, v = –ve and f = –ve

X Lens formula and magnification : object distance (u), image distance (v) and
1 1 1 the focal length (f).
= −
f v u The ratio of the height of the image and the
This formula gives the relationship between height of the object is magnification of lens.
Light-Reflection and Refraction 173

Size of image (h′) v Power of a convex lens is taken as (+)ve while


m= = the power of concave lens is taken as (–)ve.
Size of object (h) u
X Lenses in combination : When two or more
Magnification of inverted image is taken as lenses are used in combination, the diverging
(–)ve and for erect image, it is taken as (+)ve. or converging power varies.
X Power of a lens : The ability of a lens to
converge or diverge is called power (P) of the The equivalent focal length in combination is
lens. 1 1 1
given as = +
1 F f1 f2
P=
f The power of the combination, P = P1 + P2
The SI unit of power is dioptre. The magnification of combination,
1 dioptre = 1 m–1 m = m1 × m2 × m3 ..... mn
174 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Previous Years’ CBSE


PREVIOUS Board
YEARS MCQS Questions

10.1 Reflection of Light 11. Draw the following diagram in your answer
book and show the formation of image of the
SA I (2 marks) object AB with the help of suitable rays.
1. List four characteristics of the images formed
by plane mirrors. (Delhi 2015)
A

2. State the two laws of reflection of light. C F B P


(Delhi 2011)
(AI 2008)
3. State any four characteristics of the image of
an object formed by a plane mirror. 12. Draw the following diagram in your answer
(AI 2011) book and show the formation of image of the
object AB with the help of suitable rays.
10.2 Spherical Mirrors B

VSA (1 mark)
A P
4.
F
What is the magnification of the images
C

formed by plane mirrors and why? (AI 2008)


(Delhi 2015) 13. Draw the following diagram in your answer
5. Explain why a ray of light passing through the book and show the formation of image with
centre of curvature of a concave mirror gets the help of suitable rays.
reflected along the same path. (Delhi 2010)
6. What is the nature of the image formed by a
concave mirror if the magnification produced C F P

by the mirror is +3? (Delhi 2010)


(AI 2008)
7. A object is kept at a distance of 4 m in front of
a spherical mirror which forms its erect image SA I (2 marks)
at a distance of 1.0 m from the mirror. What
is the magnification? Is the mirror concave or 14. An object is placed at a distance of 30 cm
convex? (Foreign 2010) in front of a convex mirror of focal length
15 cm. Write four characteristics of the
8. What kind of mirrors are used in big shopping
image formed by the mirror. (Delhi 2017)
stores to watch activities of customers?
(Foreign 2009) 15. An object is placed at a distance of 12 cm
in front of a concave mirror of radius of
9. Draw a ray diagram to determine the position
curvature 30 cm. List four characteristics of
of image formed of an object placed between
the image formed by the mirror. (Delhi 2017)
the pole and the focus of a concave mirror.
(Foreign 2009) 16. A ray of light is incident on a convex mirror
as shown. Redraw the diagram and complete
10. Copy this figure in your answer-book and
show the direction of the light ray after the path of this ray after reflection from the
reflection. mirror. Mark angle of incidence and angle of
reflection on it.

C F P F C
(Delhi 2008) (Delhi 2016)
Light-Reflection and Refraction 175

17. Name the type of mirrors used in the design of 25. Draw a ray diagram to show the path of the
solar furnaces. Explain how high temperature reflected ray corresponding to an incident
is achieved by this device. (AI 2016) ray of light parallel to the principal axis of a
18. “The magnification produced by a spherical concave mirror. Mark the angle of incidence
and angle of reflection on it. (Delhi 2014)
mirror is –3”. List four informations you
obtain from this statement about the mirror/ 26. List two possible ways in which a concave
image. (AI 2016) mirror can produce a magnified image of an
object placed in front of it. State the difference
19. AB and CD, two spherical mirrors, from parts if any between these two images. (AI 2014)
of a hollow spherical ball with its centre at O as
27. The image formed by a concave mirror is
1
shown in the diagram. If arc AB = arc CD, observed to be virtual, erect and larger than
2 the object. Where should the position of the
what is the ratio of their focal lengths? State
object be relative to the mirror? Draw ray
which of the two mirrors will always form diagram to justify your answer. (AI 2014)
virtual image of an object placed in front of
28. The linear magnification produced by a
it and why?
spherical mirror is +1/3. Analysing this value
state the (i) type of mirror and (ii) position
C
A
of the object with respect to the pole of the
O mirror. Draw any diagram to justify your
(Foreign 2016) answer. (AI 2014, Foreign 2014)
B
D

20. List two properties of the images formed by 29. The linear magnification produced by a
convex mirrors. Draw ray diagram in support spherical mirror is –1. Analysing this value
state the (i) type of mirror and (ii) position
of your answer. (Foreign 2016)
of the object with respect to the pole of the
21. The linear magnification produced by a mirror. Draw any diagram to justify your
spherical mirror is +3. Analyse this value and answer. (Foreign 2014)
state the (i) type of mirror and (ii) position
30. The linear magnification produced by a
of the object with respect to the pole of the spherical mirror is –1/5. Analysing this value
mirror. Draw a ray diagram to show the state the (i) type of spherical mirror and
formation of image in this case. (ii) the position of the object with respect to
(Foreign 2016) the pole of the mirror. Draw ray diagram to
22. List four specific characteristics of the images justify your answer. (Foreign 2014)
of the objects formed by convex mirrors. 31. What is the minimum number of rays
(Delhi 2015) required for locating the image formed by
23. Draw a ray diagram to show the path of the a concave mirror for an object? Draw a ray
reflected ray corresponding to an incident ray diagram to show the formation of a virtual
which is directed towards the principal focus image by a concave mirror. (Delhi 2009)
of a convex mirror. Mark on it the angle of SA II (3 marks)
incidence and the angle of reflection.
32. The image of a candle flame placed at a
(Delhi 2014)
distance of 30 cm from a mirror is formed
24. Draw a ray diagram to show the path of the on a screen placed in front of the mirror at a
reflected ray corresponding to an incident ray distance of 60 cm from its pole. What is the
which is directed parallel to the principal axis nature of the mirror? Find its focal length.
of a convex mirror, Mark on it the angle of If the height of the flame is 2.4 cm, find the
incidence and the angle of reflection. height of its image. State whether the image
(Delhi 2014) formed is erect or inverted. (Delhi 2017)
176 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

33. An object 4 cm in height, is placed at 15 cm find the nature and position of the image of
in front of a concave mirror of focal length an object placed at a distance of 15 cm from a
10 cm. At what distance from the mirror concave mirror of focal length 10 cm.
should a screen be placed to obtain a sharp (Delhi 2015, AI 2012)
image of the object. Calculate the height of 39. If the image formed by a mirror for all
the image. (Delhi 2017) positions of the object placed in front of it
34. Draw the following diagram in which a ray of is always erect and diminished, what type of
light is incident on a concave/convex mirror, mirror is it? Draw a ray diagram to justify
on your answer sheet. Show the path of this your answer. Where and why do we generally
ray, after reflection, in each case. use this type of mirror? (AI 2015)
40. Draw a ray diagram to show the path of the
reflected ray in each of the following cases.
F F
A ray of light incident on a convex mirror :
(a) strikes at its pole making an angle from
the principal axis.
(b) is directed towards its principle focus.
(c) is parallel to its principal axis.
(Delhi 2016)
(Foreign 2015)
35. The image of an object formed by a mirror
41. A spherical mirror produces an image of
is real, inverted and is of magnification –1. If
magnification –1 on a screen placed at a
the image is at a distance of 40 cm from the
distance of 50 cm from the mirror.
mirror, where is the object placed? Where
(a) Write the type of mirror.
would the image be if the object is moved
(b) Find the distance of the image from the
20 cm towards the mirror? State reason and
object.
also draw ray diagram for the new position of
(c) What is the focal length of the mirror?
the object to justify your answer. (AI 2016)
(d) Draw the ray diagram to show the image
36. The image formed by a spherical mirror is
formation in this case.
real, inverted and its magnification is –2.
(Delhi 2014, AI 2014)
If the image is at a distance of 30 cm from
the mirror, where is the object placed? 42. A spherical mirror produces an image of
Find the focal length of the mirror. List two magnification –1 on a screen placed at a
characteristics of the image formed if the distance of 40 cm from the mirror.
object is moved 10 cm towards the mirror. (i) Write type of mirror.
(AI 2016) (ii) What is the nature of the image formed?
(iii) How far is the object located from the
37. If the image formed by mirror for all positions
of the object placed in front of it is always mirror?
virtual and diminished, state the type of the (iv) Draw the ray diagram to show the image
mirror. Draw a ray diagram in support of your formation in this case. (Delhi 2014)
answer. Where are such mirrors commonly 43. A spherical mirror produces an image of
used and why? (Foreign 2016) magnification –1.0 on a screen placed at a
38. To construct a ray diagram we use two rays distance of 30 cm from the pole of the mirror.
of light which are so chosen that it is easy to (i) Write the type of mirror in this case.
determine their directions after reflection (ii) What is the focal length of the mirror?
from the mirror. Choose these two rays and (iii) What is the nature of the images formed?
state the path of these rays after reflection (iv) Draw the ray diagram to show the image
from a concave mirror. Use these two rays to formation in this case? (Delhi 2014)
Light-Reflection and Refraction 177

44. A student wants to project the image of a the mirror. List these two rays and state the
candle flame on a screen 48 cm in front of a path of these rays after reflection. Use these
mirror by keeping the flame at a distance of rays to locate the image of an object placed
12 cm from its pole. between centre of curvature and focus of a
(a) Suggest the type of mirror he should use. concave mirror. (AI 2012)
(b) Find the linear magnification of the 51. State the types of mirrors used for (i)
image produced. headlights and (ii) rear view mirrors, in
(c) How far is the image from its object? motorcycles. Give reason to justify your
(d) Draw ray diagram to show the image answer in each case. (AI 2012)
formation in this case. (AI 2014) 52. An object is placed between infinity and the
45. A student wants to obtain an erect image of pole of a convex mirror. Draw a ray diagram
an object using a concave mirror of 12 cm and also state the position, the relative size
focal length. What should be the range of and the nature of the image formed.
distance of the candle flame from the mirror? (AI 2011)
State the nature and size of the image he is
53. With the help of a ray diagram explain why
likely to observe. Draw a ray diagram to show
a convex mirror is preferred for rear view
the image formation in this case.
mirrors in the motor cars. (Foreign 2011)
(Foreign 2014)
46. A student wants to obtain an erect image of a LA (5 marks)
candle flame using a concave mirror of focal 54. (a) To construct a ray diagram we use two
length 15 cm. What should be the range of rays which are so chosen that it is easy
distance of the candle flame from the mirror? to know their directions after reflection
State the nature and size of the image he is from the mirror. Use these two rays and
likely to observe. Draw a ray diagram to show draw ray diagram to locate the image of
the image formation in this case. an object placed between pole and focus
(Foreign 2014) of a concave mirror.
47. A student has a concave mirror of 20 cm focal (b) A concave mirror produces three times
length and he wants to see an erect image magnified image on a screen. If the
of his face in the mirror. What should be objects placed 20 cm in front of the
the range of distance of the mirror from his mirror, how far is the screen from the
face? State the nature and size of the image object? (Delhi 2017)
he is likely to observe. Draw a ray diagram to 55. (a) If the image formed by a mirror for all
justify your answer. (Foreign 2014) positions of the object placed in front of
48. Mention the types of mirrors used as (i) rear it is always diminished, erect and virtual,
view mirrors, (ii) shaving mirrors. List two state the type of the mirror and also draw
reasons to justify your answer in each case. a ray diagram to justify your answer. Write
(Delhi 2013, Delhi 2012) one use such mirrors are put to and why?
49. Calculate the magnification of the image of an (b) Define the radius of curvature of
object placed perpendicular to the principal spherical mirrors. Find the nature and
axis of a concave mirror of focal length 15 cm. focal length of a spherical mirror whose
The object is at a distance of 20 cm from the radius of curvature is +24 cm. (AI 2017)
mirror. (Delhi 2013) 56. (a) Define the following terms in the context
50. To construct ray diagram we use two light of spherical mirrors:
rays which are so chosen that it is easy to (i) Pole
know their directions after reflection from (ii) Centre of curvature
178 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

(iii) Principal axis 59. A student has focused the image of a candle
(iv) Principal focus flame on a white screen using a concave
(b) Draw ray diagrams to show the principal mirror. The situation is a given below :
focus of a Length of the flame = 1.5 cm
(i) Concave mirror Focal length of the mirror = 12 cm
(ii) Convex mirror Distance of flame from the mirror = 18 cm
(c) Consider the following diagram in which If the flame is perpendicular to the principal
M is a mirror and P is an object and Q axis of the mirror, then calculate the following:
is its magnified image formed by the (a) Distance of the image from the mirror
mirror.
(b) Length of the image
If the distance between the mirror and the
M Q
P
O flame is reduced to 10 cm, then what would
C F
be observed on the screen? Draw ray diagram
State the type of the mirror M and one to justify your answer from this situation.
characteristic property of the image Q. (Foreign 2015)
(Delhi 2016) 60. A student wants to project the image of a
57. It is desired to obtain an erect image of an candle flame on the walls of school laboratory
object, using concave mirror of focal length by using a mirror.
of 12 cm. (a) Which type of mirror should he use and
(i) What should be the range of distance of a why?
object placed in front of the mirror?
(b) At what distance in terms of focal length
(ii) Will the image be smaller or larger than
‘f ’ of the mirror should he place the
the object. Draw ray diagram to show the
candle flame so as to get the magnified
formation of image in this case.
(iii) Where will the image of this object be, if image on the wall?
it is placed 24 cm in front of the mirror? (c) Draw a ray diagram to show the
Draw ray diagram for this situation also formation of image in this case.
to justify your answer. (d) Can he use this mirror to project a
Show the positions of pole, principal focus diminished image of the candle flame on
and the centre of curvature in the above ray the same wall? State ‘how’ if your answer
diagrams. (AI 2016) is ‘yes’ and ‘why not’ if your answer is ‘no’
58. Suppose you have three concave mirrors A, (Delhi 2014)
B and C of focal lengths 10 cm, 15 cm and
61. Define the following terms in case of a
20 cm. For each concave mirror you perform
concave mirror:
the experiment of image formation for three
(a) Pole
values of object distances of 10 cm, 20 cm and
(b) Radius of curvature
30 cm. By giving reason, answer the following:
(a) For the three object distances, identify (c) Principal axis
the mirror/mirrors which will form an (d) Principal focus
image of magnification –1. Suppose you want to observe an erect image
(b) Out of the three mirrors, identify the of a candle flame using a concave mirror of
mirror which would be preferred to be focal length 20 cm. State the range of distance
used for shaving purposes/make up. of the candle flame from the mirror. List two
(c) For the mirror B draw ray diagram for other characteristics of the observed image.
image formation for object distances Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of
10 cm and 20 cm. (Foreign 2016) image in this case. (Delhi 2013)
Light-Reflection and Refraction 179

62. List the sign conventions for reflection of light


by spherical mirrors. Draw a diagram and O
apply these conventions in the determination 2F F F 2F
of focal length of a spherical mirror which
(Delhi 2009)
forms a three times magnified real image of
an object placed 16 cm infront of it. 70. The refractive index of diamond is 2.42. What
is the meaning of this statement in relation to
(Delhi 2012) speed of light? (Delhi 2008)
63. List the new Cartesian sign convention for
reflection of light by spherical mirrors. Draw SA I (2 marks)
a diagram and apply these conventions for 71. An object is placed at a distance of 15 cm
calculating the focal length and nature of a from a convex lens of focal length 20 cm. List
spherical mirror which forms a 1/3 times four characteristics (nature, position, etc.) of
magnified virtual image of an object placed the image formed by the lens. (AI 2017)
18 cm in front of it. (AI 2012) 72. What is meant by power of a lens? What does
64. Name the type of mirror used in the following its sign (+ve or –ve) indicate? State its S.I. unit
situations related to focal length of a lens? (Delhi 2016)
(i) Headlights of a car 73. The refractive indices of glass and water with
(ii) Rear-view mirror of vehicle respect to air are 3/2 and 4/3 respectively. If
(iii) Solar furnace speed of light in glass is 2 × 108 m/s, find the
Support your answer with reason. speed of light in water. (AI 2016)
(Foreign 2012) 74. The absolute refractive indices of glass and
water are 4/3 and 3/2 respectively. If the speed
10.3 Refraction of Light of light in glass is 2 × 108 m/s, calculate the
speed of light in (i) vacuum, (ii) water.
VSA (1 mark) (AI 2015)
65. What is meant by power of a lens? 75. “A ray of light incident on a rectangular
(Delhi 2015) glass slab immersed in any medium emerges
66. How should a ray of light be incident on a parallel to itself.” Draw labelled ray diagram
rectangular glass slab so that it comes out to justify the statement”. (Delhi 2013)
from the opposite side of the slab without 76. The absolute refractive indices of glass and
being displaced? (Foreign 2010) water are 1.5 and 1.33 respectively. In which
medium does light travel faster? Calculate the
67. A girl was playing with a thin beam of light
ratio of speeds of light in the two media.
from her laser torch by directing it from
(Delhi 2013 C)
different directions on a convex lens held
vertically. She was surprised to see that 77. To construct a ray diagram we use two light
in a particular direction the beam of light rays which are so chosen that it is easy to
know their directions after refraction from
continues to move along the same direction
the lens. List these two rays and state the path
after passing through the lens. State the
of these rays after refraction. Use these two
reason for this observation. (Foreign 2010)
rays to locate the image of an object placed
68. Why does a ray of light bend when it travels between ‘f ’ and ‘2f ’ of a convex lens.
from one medium into another? (Delhi 2009) (Foreign 2012)
69. Draw the given diagram in your answer book 78. The refractive index of water is 1.33 and the
and complete it for the path of ray of light speed of light in air is 3 × 108 m s–1. Calculate
beyond the lens. the speed of light in water. (Foreign 2009)
180 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

79. Explain with the help of a diagram, why a your answer. If the numerical value of focal
pencil partly immersed in water appears to be length of such a lens is 20 cm, find its power
bent at the water surface. (Delhi 2008) in new cartesian sign conventions.
80. Draw ray diagram to represent the nature, (Foreign 2016)
position and relative size of the image formed 86. State the laws of refraction of light. If the
by a convex lens for the object placed speed of light in vacuum is 3 × 108 m/s,
(a) at 2F1 find the absolute refractive index of a
(b) between F1 and optical centre O of lens
medium in which light travels with a speed
(AI 2008)
of 1.4 × 108 m/s. (Foreign 2015)
SA II (3 marks) 87. State the laws of refraction of light. If the
81. Draw ray diagrams to show the formation of speed of light in vacuum is 3 × 108 m s–1, find
three times magnified (a) real, and (b) virtual the speed of light in a medium of absolute
image of an object by a converging lens. Mark refractive index 1. 5 (Delhi 2014, AI 2014)
the positions of O, F and 2F in each diagram. 88. The image of a candle flame placed at a
(AI 2017) distance of 40 cm from a spherical lens is
82. (a) Draw a diagram to show the refraction of formed on a screen placed on the other side
light through a glass slab and mark angle of the lens at a distance of 40 cm from the
of refraction and the lateral shift suffered lens. Identify the type of lens and write its
by a ray of light while passing through focal length. What will be the nature of the
the slab. image formed if the candle flame is shifted
(b) If the refractive index of glass for light 25 cm towards the lens? Draw a ray diagram
going from air to glass is 3/2, find the to justify your answer. (Foreign 2014)
refractive index of air for light going 89. An object of height 6 cm is placed
from glass to air. (Delhi 2016) perpendicular to the principal axis of a
83. The image of an object formed by a lens is concave lens of focal length 5 cm. Use lens
of magnification –1. If the distance between formula to determine the position, size and
the object and its image is 60 cm, what is the nature of the image if the distance of the
focal length of the lens? If the object is moved object from the lens is 10 cm. (Delhi 2013)
20 cm towards the lens, where would the image
90. Draw ray diagram to show the path of the
be formed? State reason and also draw a ray
refracted ray in each of the following cases.
diagram in support of your answer. (AI 2016)
A ray of light incident on a concave lens
84. (a) Define focal length of a spherical lens. (i) is parallel to its principal axis, (ii) is passing
(b) A divergent lens has a focal length of
through its optical centre and (iii) is directed
30 cm. At what distance should an object
towards its principal focus. (Delhi 2013 C)
of height 5 cm from the optical centre
of the lens be placed so that its image is 91. What is the principle of reversibility of light?
formed 15 cm away from the lens? Find Show that the incident of light is parallel to
the size of the image also? the emergent ray of light when light falls
(c) Draw a ray diagram to show the formation obliquely on a side of a rectangular glass slab.
of image in the above situation. (AI 2011)
(AI 2016) 92. What is understood by lateral displacement
85. If the image formed by a lens for all positions of light? Illustrate it with the help of a
of the object placed in front of it is always diagram. List any two factors on which the
virtual, erect and diminished, state the type lateral displacement in a particular substance
of the lens. Draw a ray diagram in support of depends. (Foreign 2011)
Light-Reflection and Refraction 181

93. At what distance should an object be placed S. No. Object Image


from a convex lens of focal length 18 cm Distance u(cm) Distance v(cm)
to obtain an image at 24 cm from it on the 1 –100 +25
other side. What will be the magnification
2 –60 +30
produced in this case? (Delhi 2010)
3 –40 +40
94. The image of an object placed at 60 cm in front 4 –30 +60
of a lens is obtained on a screen at a distance
5 –25 +100
of 120 cm from it. Find the focal length of the
6 –15 +120
lens. What would be the height of the image
if the object is 5 cm high? (Foreign 2010) (a) What is the focal length of the convex
95. For which position of the object does a convex lens? Give reason to justify your answer.
(b) Write the serial number of the observation
lens form a virtual and erect image? Explain
which is not correct. On what basis have
with the help of a ray diagram. (AI 2009)
you arrived at this conclusion?
LA (5 marks) (c) Select an appropriate scale and draw
a ray diagram for the observation at
96. Analyse the following observation table S. No. 2. Also find the approximate value
showing variation of image distance (v) of magnification. (AI 2017)
with object distance (u) in case of a convex 98. (a) Draw a ray diagram to show the formation
lens and answer the questions that follows, of image by a convex lens when an object
without doing any calculations : is placed in front of the lens between its
optical centre and principal focus.
S. No. Object distance Image distance
(b) In the above ray diagram mark the object
u (cm) v (cm)
distance (u) and the image distance (v)
1 – 90 + 18 with their proper sign (+ve or –ve as per
2 – 60 + 20 the new Cartesian sign convention) and
3 – 30 + 30 state how these distances are related to
the focal length (f) of the convex lens in
4 – 20 + 60 this case.
5 – 18 + 90 (c) Find the power of a convex lens which
6 – 10 + 100 forms a real and inverted image of
magnification –1 of an object placed at a
(a) What is the focal length of the convex
distance of 20 cm from its optical centre.
lens? Give reason in support of your (Delhi 2016)
answer.
99. (a) Draw a ray diagram to show the
(b) Write the serial number of that
formation of image by a concave lens
observation which is not correct. How when an object is placed in front of it.
did you arrive at this conclusion? (b) In the above diagram mark the object
(c) Take an appropriate scale to draw distance (u) and the image distance (v)
ray diagram for the observation at with their proper sign (+ve or –ve as per
S. No. 4 and the approximate value of the new Cartesian sign convention) and
magnification. (Delhi 2017) state how these distances are related to
97. Analyse the following observation table the focal length ( f ) of the concave lens in
this case.
showing variation of image-distance (v) with
(c) Find the nature and power of a lens
object-distance (u) in case of a convex lens
which forms a real and inverted image of
and answer the questions that follow without magnification –1 at a distance of 40 cm
doing any calculations. from its optical centre. (Delhi 2016)
182 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

100. (a) Define optical centre of a spherical lens. of the lens at a distance of 60 cm from the
(b) A divergent lens has a focal length of optical centre of the lens. Identify the type
20 cm. At what distance should an object of lens and calculate its focal length. If the
of height 4 cm from the optical centre height of the flame is 3 cm, find the height of
of the lens be placed so that its image is its image. (Delhi 2015)
formed 10 cm away from the lens. Find 106. (a) State the laws of refraction of light.
the size of the image also. Explain the term absolute refractive index
(c) Draw a ray diagram to show the of a medium and write an expression to
formation of image in above situation. relate it with the speed of light in vacuum.
(AI 2016) (b) The absolute refractive indices of two
101. (a) Define focal length of a divergent lens. media A and B are 2.0 and 1.5 respectively.
(b) A divergent lens has a focal length of If the speed of light in medium B is
30 cm forms the image of an object of 2 × 108 m/s, calculate the speed of light in
size 6 cm on the same side as the object (i) vacuum
at a distance of 15 cm from its optical (ii) medium A (Delhi 2015)
centre. Use lens formula to determine the 107. What is meant by power of a lens? Define its
distance of the object from the lens and S.I. unit.
the size of the image formed. You have two lenses A and B of focal lengths
(c) Draw a ray diagram to show the formation +10 and –10 cm respectively. State the nature
of image in the above situation. and power of each lens. Which of the two
(AI 2016) lenses will form a virtual and magnified
102. At what distance from a concave lens of focal image of an object placed 8 cm from the lens?
length 20 cm a 6 cm tall object be placed so Draw a ray diagram to justify your answer.
as to obtain its image at 15 cm from the lens? (AI 2015)
Also calculate the size of the image formed. 108. One half of a convex lens of focal length
Draw a ray diagram to justify your answer for 10 cm is covered with a black paper. Can such
the above situation and label it. a lens produce an image of a complete object
(Foreign 2016) placed at a distance of 30 cm from the lens?
103. At what distance from a concave lens of focal Draw a ray diagram to justify your answer.
length 25 cm a 10 cm tall object be placed so A 4 cm tall object is placed perpendicular to the
as to obtain its image at 20 cm from the lens. principal axis of a concave lens of focal length
Also calculate the size of the image formed. 20 cm. The distance of the object from the
Draw a ray diagram to justify your answer for lens is 15 cm. Find the nature, position and
the above situation and label it. size of the image. (AI 2015)
(Foreign 2016) 109. What is meant by the power of a lens ? What
104. “A convex lens can form a magnified erect as is its S.I. unit ? Name the type of lens whose
well as magnified inverted image of an object power is positive.
placed in front of it”. Draw ray diagram to The image of an object formed by a lens
justify this statement stating the position of is real, inverted and of the same size as the
the object with respect to the lens in each object. If the image is at a distance of 40 cm
case. from the lens, what is the nature and power
An object of height 4 cm is placed at a distance of the lens? Draw ray diagram to justify your
of 20 cm from a concave lens of focal length answer. (Foreign 2015)
10 cm. Use lens formula to determine the 110. (a) Explain the following terms related to
position of the image formed. (Delhi 2015) spherical lenses:
105. The image of a candle flame placed at a (i) optical centre
distance of 30 cm from a spherical lens is (ii) centres of curvature
formed on a screen placed on the other side (iii) principal axis (iv) aperture
Light-Reflection and Refraction 183

(v) principal focus (vi) focal length The refractive indices of glass and water
(b) A converging lens has focal length of with respect to vacuum are 3/2 and
12 cm. Calculate at what distance should 4/3 respectively. If the speed of light in glass
the object be placed from the lens so that is 2 × 108 m/s, find the speed of light in
it forms an image at 48 cm on the other (i) vacuum, (ii) water. (Delhi 2012)
side of the lens. (AI 2014) 116. A 4 cm tall object is placed perpendicular
111. Explain the following terms related to to the principal axis of convex lens of focal
spherical lenses length 24 cm. The distance of the object from
(a) Centres of curvature the lens is 16 cm. Find the position, size and
(b) Principal axis nature of the image formed, using the lens
(c) Optical centre (d) Principal focus formula. (AI 2012, Foreign 2012)
At what distance from a concave lens of focal 117. With the help of a ray diagram state what
length 20 cm, should a 6 cm tall object be is meant by refraction of light. State Snell’s
placed so that it forms an image at 15 cm law for refraction of light and also express it
from the lens? Also determine the size of the mathematically.
image formed. (AI 2014) The refractive index of air with respect to
112. What is meant by power of a lens? Name and glass is 2/3 and the refractive index of water
define its S.I. unit. with respect to air is 4/3. If the speed of light
One student uses a lens of focal length in glass is 2 × 108 m/s, find the speed of light
+50 cm and another of –50 cm. State the in (a) air, (b) water. (AI 2012)
nature and find the power of each lens. Which 118. List the sign conventions that are followed in
of the two lenses will always give a virtual and case of refraction of light through spherical
diminished image irrespective of the position lenses. Draw a diagram and apply these
of the object? (Foreign 2014) conventions in determining the nature and
113. (a) State the laws of refraction of light. Give focal length of a spherical lens which forms
an expression to relate the absolute three times magnified real image of an object
refractive index of a medium with speed placed 16 cm from the lens. (Foreign 2012)
of light in vacuum. 119. (a) What is meant by ‘power of a lens?’
(b) The refractive indices of water and (b) State and define the S.I unit of power of a
glass with respect to air are 4/3 and 3/2 lens.
respectively. If the speed of light in glass (c) A convex lens of focal length 25 cm and
is 2 × 108 m s–1, find the speed of light in a concave lens of focal length 10 cm
(i) air, (ii) water. (Delhi 2013) are placed in close contact with each
114. The image of a candle flame placed at a distance other. Calculate the lens power of this
of 45 cm from a spherical lens is formed combination. (AI 2011)
on a screen placed at a distance of 90 cm 120. (a) Under what condition with a glass lens
from the lens. Identify the type of lens and placed in a transparent liquid become
calculate its focal length. If the height of the invisible.
flame is 2 cm, find the height of its image. (b) Describe and illustrate with a diagram,
(Delhi 2012) how we should arrange two converging
115. State the law of refraction of light that defines lenses so that a parallel beam of light
the refractive index of a medium with respect entering one lens emerges as a parallel
to the other. Express it mathematically. How beam after passing through the second
is refractive index of any medium ‘A’ with lens.
respect to a medium ‘B’ related to the speed (c) An object is placed at a distance of 3 cm
of propagation of light in two media A and from a concave lens of focal length 12 cm.
B? State the name of this constant when one Find the (i) position and (ii) nature of the
medium is vacuum or air. image formed. (Foreign 2011)
184 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

Detailed Solutions
1. Characteristics of the image formed by a 10.
plane mirror are
(i) image distance is same as that of object distance
C
(ii) image formed is virtual and erect
(iii) image formed is of the same size as that of the
object The incident ray passing through focus, goes
(iv) image formed is laterally inverted (left appears parallel to the principal axis after the reflection
right and right appears left). through the given mirror.
2. Laws of reflection of light states that 11. Refer to answer 9.
(i) The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of
12. In the given diagram, object is placed between
reflection.
centre of curvature (C) and focus (F). Image of the
(ii) The incident ray, the reflected ray and the
object AB can be obtained as follows:
normal to the mirror at the point of incidence all
lie in the same plane.
3. Refer to answer 1.
4. Magnification of images formed by plane
mirrors is unity because for plane mirrors, the size
of the image formed is equal to that of the object.
5. A ray passing through centre of curvature of a 13. In the given diagrams object is placed at
concave mirror gets reflected along the same path centre of curvature of a concave mirror. Image
because it acts as a normal to the surface of mirror, formed by the object can be drawn as
and we know that any ray passing through normal
reflects along the same path.
6. Since, the sign of given magnification of the
F
image is positive (+ ve) and greater than one so the
image formed is virtual, erect and enlarged.
7. Here, object distance, u = –4 m 14. Four characteristics of the image formed by
Image distance, v = 1.0 m the given convex mirror of focal length 15 cm are :
−v −1 1 (i) Virtual
Magnification, m = So, m = =
u −4 4 (ii) Erect
Since, the magnification is positive and less than (iii) Diminished
one therefore, the given mirror is convex mirror. (iv) Image is always formed behind the mirror
8. Convex mirrors are used in big shopping between pole and focus.
stores to watch activities of customers.
15. Radius of curvature (R) = 30 cm, object
9. Image formed by an object when it is kept distance is 12 cm in front of the mirror. Thus we
between the pole and the focus of a concave mirror is can say that object is placed between focus and
pole. Four characteristics of the image formed by
A'
the given concave mirror are :
A
(i) Virtual
B B' (ii) Erect
(iii) Enlarged
(iv) Image is formed behind the mirror
Light-Reflection and Refraction 185

16.
M
r A i
r
i
A
B P B F C
P F C
N
21. Positive value of the magnification indicates
17. Concave mirrors are used in the designing of that image is virtual and erect.
solar furnaces.
When a solar furnace is placed at the focus of a (i) Since the image is magnified, the mirror is
large concave mirror, it focuses a parallel beam of concave.
light on the furnace. Therefore, a high temperature (ii) The object is between pole and focus of the
is attained at the point after some time. mirror as shown
18. Negative sign of magnification indicates that
the image is real and inverted. Since the image
is real and inverted, the mirror is concave and
magnification of –3 indicates that the image is
magnified.
19. Focal length of a mirror is given by
Radius of curvature 22. Characteristics of image formed by convex
Focal length =
2 mirrors :
• Diminished
Since both the mirrors have same radius of
• Virtual and erect
curvature, therefore focal length of the two mirrors
• The image formed is closer to the mirror than
will be same, i.e.,
the object placed
f1 1 • Image is formed behind the mirror.
=
f2 1
23.
Since virtual image is always formed by convex
mirror. The mirror AB will always form virtual i
r
image.
20. Convex mirrors always form diminished,
virtual and erect images. P F C
(a) Object placed at infinity
A M
24. Refer to answer 16.

25.
i
P F C r
F P
C
B N
At Infinity
26. A concave mirror can produce a magnified
(b) Object placed between infinity and the pole P image of an object when object is placed :
of the mirror (1) In between its pole and its focus,
186 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

(2) In between its focus and its centre of curvature. M A


Difference between these two images : E
The image produced in first case will be virtual and A
erect. i
The image produced in second case will be real C F B r P B
and inverted.
27. The position of the object should be between
P and F N
32. Given :
M A
Object distance, u = – 30 cm, image size, h = ?
E
A Image distance, v = – 60 cm,
Object size , h = 2.4 cm,
C i Focal length, f = ?
F B r P B Using mirror formula,
1 1 1 1 −1 − 2 −3 1
= + or = = =−
N f v u f 60 60 20
28. (i) Convex mirror or f = – 20 cm
(ii) Between infinity and the pole of the mirror. Hence, focal length is 20 cm
h′ −v
Also, magnification, m = =
r
M h u
A
h′
i
(−60) = −2
A or, m = − = − 2 or
(−30) h
B P B F C
h = – 2 × 2.4 = – 4.8 cm
As the image formed is real, therefore the mirror
N is concave.
29. (i) Concave mirror because the image is real, The height of the image is 4.8 cm.
inverted. The image formed is enlarged and inverted.
(ii) Object is placed at C.
33. Given : object distance, u = –15 cm,
object height, h = 4 cm, focal length, f = –10 cm;
Image distance, v = ?
F Using mirror formula,
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ = + = = −
v u f v (−15) −10 v 15 10
30. (i) Concave mirror
(ii) Object is placed beyond C. 1 10 − 15 −5 −1
A or = = = or v = – 30 cm
M v 150 150 30
In order to obtain a sharp image of the object on
B the screen, screen should be placed at a distance of
B C F P
30 cm in front of the mirror.
A
h′ −v
Also, magnification, m = =
N h u
h′ (−30) −(30) × 4
31. At least two rays are required for locating the or =− or h ′ = = −2×4
image formed by a concave mirror for an object. 4 (−15) (15)
Virtual image is formed when object is placed or h = – 8 cm
between pole and focus of concave mirror. Thus, the height of the image is 8 cm.
Light-Reflection and Refraction 187

34. The path of the rays are shown below.


M
A r
i
A
B P B F C

N
Convex mirrors are widely used as rear view
mirrors in cars, motorcycles etc. It produces an
erect image that is smaller in size than the object
hence giving a wide view.
38. We use two rays of light, one passing through
the centre of curvature of a concave mirror, and
another is parallel to the principal axis. After
35. Since the image formed by the mirror is real
reflection, the ray passing through the centre of
and inverted, therefore the mirror is concave and
a concave mirror is reflected back along the same
magnification of the mirror will be
path and the ray parallel to the principal axis will
v v
m = − ⇒ −1 = − v=u pass through the principal focus.
u u
u = –15 cm, f = –10 cm
i.e., object and image both are formed at the centre
of curvature, i.e., 40 cm from the mirror.
Now, if the object is moved 20 cm towards the
mirror, the object will be at the focus of the mirror
and therefore the image will be formed at infinity. 10 cm
M 15 cm
E
A
D From ray diagram, v = –30 cm, i.e., beyond C
C B Nature of image is real, inverted and magnified.
P
F
39. Refer to answer 37.
At infinity N 40. (a)
36. Since the image formed is real and inverted,
the mirror is concave.
−v −v P F C
Magnification, m = ⇒ −2= v = 2u
u u
Now, if v = – 30 cm then u = – 15 cm
As focal length of the mirror is (b) Refer to answer 23.
uv −15 × − 30 450 (c) Refer to answer 16.
f = = =f = = −10 cm
u+v −15 − 30 −45 41. (a) Concave mirror
If the object is shifted 10 cm the mirror, then the v −v
(b) Magnification, m = − or −1 =
object is between principal focus and the optical u (−50)
centre and the image formed will be virtual and Distance of the image from the object is,
erect. v = – 50 cm
37. If the image formed is always virtual and (c) As the image is formed at centre of curvature
diminished then the mirror used is convex. i.e., v = R.
188 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

−50 M A
focal length of the mirror, f = = − 25 cm E
2 A
(d) Refer to answer 29 (ii).
42. (i) This is a concave mirror. C
(ii) The image is real and inverted and of same size. F B P B
(iii) As m = – 1
−v −v
m= ⇒ −1 = ⇒ u=v N
u u
46. To obtain an erect image of an object, the
Hence, object is located at centre of curvature i.e.,
object should be placed in between pole and focus.
at distance of 40 cm from the pole of the mirror.
Range of distance of the candle flame from the
(iv) Refer to answer 29(ii).
mirror is in between 15 cm.
43. (i) The mirror is concave mirror. Nature of the image = Virtual and erect
(ii) Distance the image from the object = – 30 cm Size of the image = Enlarged
−v For ray diagram, refer to answer 45.
Magnification, m =
u 47. Focal length of a concave mirror = 20 cm
Here m = – 1 and v = – 30 cm Range will be in between 20 cm.
(−30) Nature of the image = Virtual and erect
–1= −
u Size of the image = Enlarged
u = – 30 cm For ray diagram, refer to answer 45.
As v = u, object is placed at centre of curvature.
48. (i) Convex mirror is used as rear view mirror
Therefore, focal length of the mirror,
because
−30 (a) it gives erect image.
f= = – 15 cm
2 (b) it gives diminished image thus provides wider
(iii) Image formed is real and inverted and of the view of traffic behind the vehicle.
same size of the object. (ii) Concave mirror is used as shaving mirror
(iv) Refer to answer 29 (ii). because
44. (a) Concave mirror (a) it gives erect image when mirror is close to the
(b) Linear magnification, face.
−v −(− 48) (b) it gives enlarged image of the face so that a
m= = = −4 person can shave safely.
u −12
(c) The distance between the image and the object 49. Given, focal length of concave mirror,
= 48 – 12 = 36 cm f = –15 cm
(d) M Object distance, u = –20 cm
E Image distance, v = ?
Using mirror formula,
A D
B C 1 1 1
P = +
B F f v u
12 cm
1 1 1 1 1 −4 + 3
or = − = − =
A N v f u −15 −20 60
48 cm
1 −1
45. To obtain an erect image, the object is placed = or v = −60 cm
in between pole and the focus of the concave v 60
mirror. So range of distance of the candle flame Using magnification formula,
from the mirror is in between 12 cm. v  −60 
m = − = − or m = –3
Nature of the image = Virtual and erect. u  −20 
Size of the image = Enlarged So, the magnification, m = –3.
Light-Reflection and Refraction 189

50. A ray parallel to the principal axis, after


reflection, will pass through the principal focus
in case of a concave mirror or appear to diverge
M
from the principal focus in case of a convex
mirror. B
B
A ray passing through the centre of a curvature
of a concave mirror or directed in the direction A P A F C
of the centre of curvature of a convex mirror,
after reflection, is reflected back along the N
same path. The light rays come back along the 54. (a) Two lights rays whose path of reflection
same path because the incident rays fall on are priorly known are :
the mirror along the normal to the reflecting (i) When the incident ray passes through the
surface. centre of curvature of a concave mirror, it gets
M reflected in the same path.
E
(ii) When the ray is incident obliquely to the
A D principal axis, towards the pole of mirror, it gets
B C
P reflected back by making equal angles with the
B F principal axis (laws of reflections).
Suppose an object is placed between focus and
A N pole of the concave mirror. Then by using the
above two rays, the image of the object can be
51. (i) Concave mirrors are used in headlights of
located as
cars to get powerful beams of light.
M A
(ii) Convex mirrors are used as rear-view mirrors
E
of vehicle to get a wider field of view and and erect A
image of traffic behind.
C i
52. B r P B
F
M
A r
i
A N
B P B F C Image formed is virtual, erect, magnified and it is
formed behind the mirror.
N
(b) Given : Magnification, m = – 3
Object-distance, u = – 20 cm
Position : Image is formed between pole and
principal focus of the mirror. −v −v
Magnification, m = or − 3 =
Relative size : Image formed is diminished. u −20
Nature : Image formed is virtual and erect. or v = – 60 cm
53. Convex mirror is preferred for rear view The screen is placed in front of the mirror at a
mirrors in motor cars because no matter where distance of 60 cm from the pole.
the object is located infront of convex mirror, Thus, the screen is placed (= 60 cm – 20 cm) 40 cm
it always gives erect and diminished image of away from the object.
the object, so that driver is able to see the large 55. (a) If the image formed by a mirror for all
traffic view in small area and the image is erect. positions of the object placed in front of it is always
This can be interpreted from the following diminished, erect and virtual then the mirror is
diagram. convex mirror.
190 CBSE Champion Science Class 10

The ray diagrams for the formation of image by a centre. This point is called the centre of curvature
convex mirror for the first position when the object of spherical mirror and is represented by the letter C.
is at infinity and the second position when the object (iii) Principal axis : An imaginary line passing
is at a finite distance from the mirror is shown. through the pole and the centre of curvature of a
A M spherical mirror and normal to the mirror at its
pole is called principal axis.
(iv) Principal focus : Incident rays parallel to
principal axis, after reflection either converge
P F C to as appear to diverge from a fixed point on the
principal axis known as principal focus of the
spherical mirror.
B N (b) (i)
At Infinity M
(a)
A
i D
r
A M
At P
C F
A infinity
B A N
B P B F C
(ii) A M

(b) N

Uses of Convex Mirrors P F C


Convex mirrors are commonly used as rear-view
(wing) mirrors in vehicles because they always
give an erect, though diminished, image. Also, B N
At Infinity
they have a wider field of view as they are curved
outwards. Thus, convex mirrors enable the driver (c) The object is placed between focus and pole
to view a large area. of the mirror and a magnified image is formed
(b) Radius of Curvature : The radius of the sphere behind the mirror.
of which the reflecting surface of a spherical mirror The mirror is concave and image formed is
forms a part, is called the radius of curvature of the virtual and erect.
mirror. It is represented by the letter R. 57. Given : focal length of the concave mirror
 The radius of curvature is equal to twice the f = 12 cm
focal length. (i) If the object is placed between the pole and
R = 2f focus of the concave mirror, then the image
R 24 formed is virtual and erect. Therefore, the range of
If R = +24 cm f= = = 12 cm
2 2 distance of the object should be 0 < u < 12 cm.
Since the radius of curvature is positive. Then the (ii) The image formed will be enlarged as shown
mirror is convex mirror. Hence the nature of the below.
image is virtual and erect. M A
E
56. (a) (i) Pole : The centre of the reflecting A
surface of a spherical mirror is a point called the
C i
pole. It lies in the surface of the mirror and its r
F B P B
represented by the letter P.
(ii) Centre of curvature : The reflecting surface of
a spherical mirror is a part of a sphere which has a N
Light-Reflection and Refraction 191

(iii) If the object is placed 24 cm in front of the


mirror i.e., at the centre of the curvature then 1.5 cm
the image will also be formed at the centre of the 12 cm
curvature. F P
M
A 18 cm
D
B 1 1 1
(a) As, = +
B C F P f u v