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Nanorobots Medical Applications

Table of Contents

Abstract ......................................................................................................................................... 02

1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 03

1.1 Cancer Treatment .......................................................................................................... 04


1.2 Nanorobots .................................................................................................................... 05

2. Properties Of nanorobots ........................................................................................................ 07

2.2 Behavior In Fluid Microenvironment .............................................................................. 09

3. Nanorobot Architecture ........................................................................................................... 10

3.1 Chemical Sensor ........................................................................................................... 11


3.2 Actuator ......................................................................................................................... 13
3.3 Energy Supply................................................................................................................ 14

4. Current Status of Development ...…………...……………..................……….………………….15

5. Advantage.……...………………………………………………………………………………………16

6. Disadvantages.…….………………………………….………………………………….…………….17

7. Conclusion ...……...……………………………………….…………………………………………. 18

References.………………………………………………….…………………...………………………. 19

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ABSTRACT

According to World Health Organization, today cancer is a leading cause of death. There are
two commonly used treatments for cancer, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There are many side
effects of these cancer treatments. With the help of Nanorobots we can completely cure cancer
without any side effects. In the past decade, researchers have made many improvements on the
different systems required for developing practical nanorobots, such as sensors, energy supply,
and data transmission. A few generations from now someone diagnosed with cancer will be offered
a new alternative to chemotherapy. The traditional treatment of radiation that kills not just cancer
cells but healthy human cells as well causing hair loss, fatigue, nausea, depression, and a host of
other symptoms. A doctor practicing nanomedicine would offer the patient an injection of a special
type of nanorobots that would seek out cancer cells and destroy them, dispelling the disease at the
source, leaving healthy cells untouched. A person undergoing a nanorobotic treatment could
expect to have no awareness of the molecular devices working inside them, other than rapid
betterment of their health. This paper presents study of cancer treatment using nanorobots. Further
it also provides an insight into the future scope in this field of study.

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Cancer Treatment:
World health organization estimates that cancer is a leading cause of death and because of
these 7.6 million peoples died last year. In the US, men have a 1 in 2 lifetime risk of developing
cancer, and for women the risk is 1 in 3. Lung cancer is the most common cancer related cause of
death among men and women.
Radiation therapy is one of the major treatment modalities for cancer. Approximately 60% of
all people with cancer will be treated with radiation therapy during the course of their disease.
Radiotherapy is the treatment of cancer and other diseases with ionizing radiation. Ionizing
radiation programs cells for death in the area being treated (“the target tissues”) by damaging their
DNA structure, making it impossible for these cells to continue to grow (mitotic death). Although
normal cells can also be affected by ionizing radiation, they are usually better able to repair their
DNA damage. Radiations’ affect on individual cells is probabilistic process. However, the effects of
radiation on a large set of cells are more deterministic. The primary aim of radiotherapy is to deliver
a high dose to maximize the probability of tumor of tumor control with risk to normal tissue within
the tolerable level. In certain areas, the radio sensitivity of surrounding normal tissue becomes the
dominant factor (e.g. optic chiasm for brain tumor treatment, or the spine for lung tumor treatment),
thus limiting the maximum amount of dose that can be delivered. Some tissues such as in the lung
have a low dose threshold for permanent radiation effects. Stereotactic technology, which has been
applied to neurosurgery since the early nineties, recently has been applied to radiation treatment of
tumors, particularly brain tumors. Stereotactic radiotherapy involves varying the angle of a radiation
treatment beam in 3-D together with varying beam intensities to achieve very precise delivery of
radiation to target tissue.
Another major method to eliminate cancer is through surgical procedures. Cancer can be
successfully treated with current stages of medical surgery tools. However, a decisive factor to
determine the chances for a patient with cancer to survive is: how precise can surgeon eliminate
malignant tissues from the patient’s body.

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1.2 Nanorobots:

Nanorobotics is emerging as a demanding field dealing with miniscule things at molecular


level. Nanorobots are extremely small Nano electromechanical systems designed to perform a
specific task with precision at nanoscale dimensions. Its advantage over conventional medicine lies
in its size. Particle size has effect on serum lifetime and pattern of deposition. This allows drugs of
Nano size to be used in lower concentration and has an earlier onset of therapeutic action. It also
provides materials for controlled drug delivery by directing carriers to a specific location. The typical
medical nanodevice will probably be a microscale device assembled from nanoscale parts.
Nanorobots with sizes comparable to bacteria could provide many novel capabilities through
their ability to sense and act in microscopic environments. Particularly interesting are biomedical
engineering applications, where nanorobots and nanoscale structured materials inside the body
provide significant improvements in diagnosis and treatment of disease. The rapid progress in
engineering nanoscale devices should enable a wide range of capabilities. For example, ongoing
development of molecular scale electronics, sensors and motors provides components to enable
nanorobots. Carbon will likely be the principal element comprising the bulk of medical nanorobot,
probably in the form of diamond or diamonded/fullerene nanocomposites.
Many other light elements such as hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, silicon etc.
will be used for special purposes in nanoscale gears and other components.
The various components in the nanorobots design may include onboard sensors, motors,
manipulators, power supplies and molecular computers. Perhaps the best-known biological
example of such molecular machinery is the ribosome the only freely programmable nanoscale
assembler.
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Figure: Nanorobots
Using drugs and surgery, doctors can only encourage tissues to repair themselves. With
nanorobots, there will be more direct repairs. Cell repair will utilize the same tasks that living
systems already prove possible. Access to cells is possible because biologists can insert needles
into cells without killing them. Thus, nanorobots are capable of entering the cell. Also, all specific
biochemical interactions show that molecular systems can recognize other molecules by touch,
build or rebuild every molecule in a cell, and can disassemble damaged molecules. Finally, cells
that replicate prove that molecular systems can assemble every system found in a cell. Therefore,
since nature has demonstrated the basic operations needed to perform molecular-level cell repair,
in the future, nanorobots will be built that are able to enter cells, sense differences from healthy
ones and make modifications to the structure.
Nano computers will be needed to guide these machines. These computers will direct
machines to examine, take apart, and rebuild damaged molecular structures. Nanorobots will be
able to repair whole cells by working structure by structure. Then by working cell by cell and tissue
by tissue, whole organs can be repaired. Finally, by working organ by organ, health is restored to
the body. Cells damaged to the point of inactivity can be repaired because of the ability of
nanorobots to build cells from scratch. Therefore, cell nanorobots will free medicine from reliance
on self-repair alone.
Nanorobots are also candidates for industrial applications. In great swarms they might clean the air
of carbon dioxide, repair the hole in the ozone, scrub the water of pollutants, and restore the
ecosystems.

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CHAPTER 2
Properties of Nanorobots
The extreme concept of nanotechnology is the "bottom up" creation of virtually any material
or object by assembling one atom at a time. Although nanotech processes occur at the scale of
nanometers, the materials and objects that result from these processes can be much larger.
Nanorobots will typically be 0.5 to 3 microns large with 1-100 nm parts. Three microns is an upper
limit of any nanorobot because nanorobots of larger size will block capillary flow. The nanorobots
Structure will have two spaces that will consist of an interior and exterior.
The exterior of the nanorobots will be subjected to the various chemical liquids in our bodies but
the interior of the nanorobot will be closed, vacuum environment into which liquids from the outside
cannot normally enter unless immune system by having a passive, diamond exterior. The diamond
exterior will have to be smooth and flawless because this prevents leukocytes activities since the
exterior is chemically inert and have low bioactivity. According to the current theories, nanorobot
will possess at least rudimentary two-way communication. Robots will respond to acoustic signals
and will be able to receive power or re-programming instruction from an external source via sound
waves. A network of special stationary nanorobots might be strategically positioned throughout the
body, logging each active nanorobot as it passes, and then reporting those results, allowing an
interface to keep track of all of the devices in the body. A doctor could only monitor a patient
progress but change the instructions of nanorobots in vivo to progress to another stage of healing.
We treat the nanorobots as cylinders, 1μm in length and 0.5μm in diameter. Most of the cells
are red blood cells, with diameter 6μm. The number densities of platelets and white blood cells are
about 1/20-th and 1/1000-th that of the red cells, respectively. The nanorobot density equals 1012
nanorobots in the entire 5-liter blood volume of a typical adult. Thus, a similar number of
nanorobots may be used in medical applications. The total mass of all the nanorobots is about
0.2g. Due to fluid drag and the characteristics of locomotion in viscous fluids, nanorobots moving
through the fluid at ≈1mm/ s dissipate a picowatt. Thus, if all the nanorobots moved simultaneously
they would use about one watt, compared to a typical person’s 100-watt resting power
consumption. On the inside payloads of up to 2000 siRNA molecules required for a 70nm diameter
tumor. SiRNA is a small interfering Ribonucleic acid, it deactivates the protein production of ant
RNA, so because of this cancer cells will die due to starvation. So, each nanorobot is having siRNA
protein which is injected in the tumor cell after being detected. We can also use Taxol which is an
anticancer drug which react with the lower pH of tumors.
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This nanorobots consists of sensor element, power supply circuitry, motors or actuators, container,
and nanochip.
As a sensor we can use here biosensors or chemical sensors as chemical properties of
cancer tumors are different than normal cells. Motors or actuators gives the proper motion to
nanorobot in blood fluid. Nanorobot container consists of cancer antidote element. Nanochip takes
input signal from sensor and according to the input signal it performs its task. Manufacturing better
sensors and actuators with nanoscale sizes makes them find the source of release of the chemical.
Nanorobot Control Design (NCD) simulator was developed, which is software for nanorobots in
environments with fluids dominated by Brownian motion and viscous rather than inertial forces.
These nanorobots can work together in response to environment stimuli and programmed
principles to produce macro scale results.
Replication is a critical basic capability for molecular manufacturing. Replication in the body is
dangerous because it might go out of control. If even replicating bacteria can give humans so many
diseases, the thought of replicating nanorobots can present unimaginable dangers to the human
body.

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2.1 BEHAVIOR IN FLUID MICROENVIRONMENTS
We consider nanorobots operating in small blood vessels. The fluid in the vessels contains
numerous cells, several microns in diameter. Viscosity dominates the nanorobots motion through
the fluid, with physical behaviors quite different from our experience with larger organisms and
robots. The ratio of inertial to viscous forces for an object of size R moving with velocity v through a
fluid with viscosity η and density ρ is given by the Reynolds number as follows:
Re Rρv/η.………………………………….…... (1)
. Typical values for density and viscosity in blood plasma are represented by equations 2 and 3
respectively
ρ1g / cm3 ………………………………………... (2)
η 10^2 g / co.’s …………………………………. (3)
Flow speeds in small blood vessels are about 1mm/s. This is also a reasonable speed for
nanorobot motion with respect to the fluid, giving Re ≈ 10^−3 for a 1-micron nanorobot, so
viscous forces dominate. Consequently, nanorobots applying a locomotive force quickly reach a
desired velocity in the fluid. Hence, applied force is proportional to velocity rather than the direct
correlation applied in the acceleration of Newton’s law F = ma. Diffusion arising from thermal
motion of molecules (Brownian motion) is also important. Depending on the object’s size, the
diffusion coefficient D characterizes the resulting random motion.
For a ≈1μm nanorobot operating at body temperature, this displacement is ≈ microns with t
measured in seconds. Brownian motion also randomly changes the nanorobot orientation.
Chemicals have much larger diffusion coefficients than nanorobots. Because displacement grows
as Ο () instead of linearly in t, diffusion is fast at short distances and relevant for coordinating
activity among nearby nanorobots, but slow over long distances. Chemicals can signal medically
relevant events, and also be used for nanorobots communication. Communication ideally involves
chemicals not otherwise found in the body (to produce low signal noise level) which are biologically
inert over the relevant time scale of the nanorobot task, and can later be cleared from the body by
existing biological processes.

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CHAPTER 3
Nanorobot Architecture

The medical nanorobot for biohazard defense should comprise a set of integrated circuit
block as an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit). The architecture has to address
functionality for common medical applications, providing asynchronous interface for sensor and
logic Nano processor, which is able to deliberate actuator and ultrasound communication activation
when appropriate. The main parameters used for the nanorobot architecture and its control
activation, as well as the required technology background that can advance manufacturing
hardware for molecular machines, are described next. As a practical rule, the number of
nanodevices to integrate a nanorobot should keep the hardware sizes in regard to inside body
operation applicability.

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3.1 Chemical Sensor:
Manufacturing silicon-based chemical and motion-sensor arrays using a two-level system
architecture hierarchy has been successfully conducted in the last 15 years. Applications range
from automotive and chemical industry, with detection of air to water element pattern recognition,
through embedded software programming, and biomedical analysis. Through the use of nanowires,
existing significant costs of energy demand for data transfer and circuit operation can be decreased
by up to 60%. CMOS-based sensors using nanowires as material for circuit assembly can achieve
maximal efficiency for applications regarding chemical changes, enabling new medical
applications. Sensors with suspended arrays of nanowires assembled into silicon circuits, decrease
drastically self-heating and thermal coupling for CMOS functionality. Factors like low energy
consumption and high-sensitivity are among some of the advantages of Nano sensors. Carbon
nanotubes serve as ideal materials for the basis of a CMOS IC Nano biosensor. Some limitations
to improving Bic MOS (bipolar-CMOS), CMOS and MOSFET methodologies include quantum-
mechanical tunneling for operation of thin oxide gates, and subthreshold slope. However, the
semiconductor branch has moved forward to keep circuit capabilities advancing. Smaller channel
length and lower voltage circuitry for higher performance are being achieved with biomaterials
aimed to attend the growing demand for high complex VLSIs. New materials such as strained
channel with relaxed SiGe (silicon-germanium) layer can reduce self-heating and improve
performance. Recent developments in three-dimensional (3D) circuits and FinFETs double-gates
have achieved astonishing results and according to the semiconductor roadmap should improve
even more. To further advance manufacturing techniques, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology
has been used to assemble high-performance logic sub 90nm circuits. Circuit design approaches
to solve problems with bipolar effect and hysteretic variations, based on SOI structures, have been
demonstrated successfully. Thus, while 10nm circuits are currently under development, already-
feasible 45nm NanoCMOS ICs represent breakthrough technology devices that are currently being
utilized in products.
E-cadherin (uvomorulin, cell-CAM120/80) is a calcium dependent cell adhesion molecule
expressed predominantly in epithelial tissues. It plays an important role in the growth and
development of cells via the mechanisms of control of tissue architecture and the maintenance of
tissue integrity. The nanorobot sensing for changes on E cadherin protein signals. Several studies
have shown that E-cadherin expression is significantly reduced in cancer tissues.

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So, this will affect the pH level of the cell and with the help of pH responsive sensor i.e.
phosphatidic acid nanorobot can distinguish healthy cells and cancer cells. Thus, the response is
improved by having the nanorobots maintain positions near the vessel wall instead of floating
throughout the volume flow in the vessel. A key choice in chemical signaling is the measurement
time and detection threshold at which the signal is considered to be received. Due to background
concentration, some detection occurs even without the target signal.

Figure: View of simulator workspace showing the vessel wall, cells and nanorobots.

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3.2 Actuator:
There are different kinds of actuators, such as electromagnetic, piezoelectric, electrostatic,
and electrothermal. Which can be utilized, depending the aim and the workspaces where it will be
applied. Flagella motor has been quoted quite frequently as an example for a kind of biologically
inspired actuator for molecular machine propulsion. Adenosine triphosphate, also known for short
as ATP, is equally used as an alternative for nanomotors. DNA and RNA (ribonucleic acid)
prototypes were also proposed for designing different types of devices. A set of fullerene structures
were presented for nanoactuators.
The use of carbon Nano tubes (CNTs) as conductive structures permits electrostatically driven
motions providing forces necessary for nanomanipulation. CNTs can be used as materials for
commercial applications on building devices and nanoelectronics such as Nano tweezers and
memory systems. SOI technology has been used for transistors with high performance, low heating
and low energy consumption for VLSI devices. CNT self-assembly and SOI properties can be
combined to addressing CMOS high performance on design and manufacturing nanoelectronics
and nanoactuators. Owing to the maturity of silicon CMOS technology, as well as the unique
properties of CNTs, the integration of CNT and the CMOS technology can make use of the
advantages of both. For a medical nanorobot, applying CMOS as an actuator based on biological
patterns and CNTs is proposed for the nanorobot architecture as a natural choice. In the same way
DNA can be used for coupling energy transfer, and proteins serve as basis for ionic flux with
electrical discharge ranges from 50-70 mV dc voltage gradients in cell membrane, an array format
based on CNTs and CMOS techniques could be used to achieve nanomanipulators as an
embedded system for integrating nanodevices of molecular machines. Ion channels can interface
electrochemical signals using sodium for the energy generation which is necessary for mechanical
actuators operation. Embedded actuators are programmed to perform different manipulations,
enabling the nanorobot a direct active interaction with the bloodstream patterns and molecular
parameters inside the body.

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3.3 Energy Supply:
The most effective way to keep the nanorobot operating continuously is to establish the use
of a continuous available source of power. The energy may be available and delivered to the
nanorobot while it is performing predefined tasks in the operational environment. For a medical
nanorobot, this means that the device must keep working inside the human body, sometimes for
long periods, and must have easy access to clean and controllable energy to maintain efficient
operation.
Some possibilities to power the nanorobot can be provided from ambient energy.
temperature displacements could likewise generate useful voltage differentials. Cold and hot fields
from conductors connected in series may also produce energy using the well-established See beck
effect. Electromagnetic radiation from light is an option for energy generation in determined open
workspaces but not for in vivo medical nanorobotics, especially since lighting conditions in different
kinds of workspaces could sharply change depending on the application. Kinetic energy can be
generated from the bloodstream due to motion interaction with designed devices embedded with
the nanorobot, but this kinetic process would demand costly room within the nanorobot
architecture.
Electromagnetic radiation from light is used option for energy generation in determined open
workspaces but not for in vivo medical nanorobots, especially since lighting conditions. Most
recently, remote inductive powering has been used both for RFID and biomedical implanted
devices to supply power on the order of milli watts. To operate nanorobot a low frequency energy
source may be enough. This functional approach presents the possibility of supplying energy in a
wireless manner in order to operate sensors and actuators necessary for the controlled operation
of nanorobot inside the human body. Nanocircuit with resonant electric properties can operate as a
chip providing electromagnetic energy supplying 1.7 m at 3.3 V for power, allowing the operation of
many tasks with few or no significant losses during transmission. The energy received can be also
saved in ranges of 1μW while the nanorobot stays in inactive modes, just becoming active when
signal patterns require it to do so. Allied with the power source devices, the nanorobots need to
perform precisely defined actions in the workspace using available energy sources as efficiently as
possible. Another method of generating power supply is take the energy from blood itself. For this
nanorobot will having chemical in a container that chemical reacts with glucose and oxygen of
blood. During this chemical reaction energy production takes place and this energy is used by
nanorobot to perform tasks.
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CHAPTER 4
Current Status of Development Look close:
You may be staring at the end of cancer. Those tiny black dots are nanobots delivering a
lethal blow to a cancerous cell, effectively killing it. The first trial on humans has been a success,
with no side-effects. “It sneaks in, evades the immune system, delivers the siRNA, and the
disassembled components exit out.”

Figure: Nanorobots In Cancer Tumor


Those are the words of Mark Davis, head of the research team that created the nanobot
anti-cancer army at the California Institute of Technology. According to a study to be published in
Nature, Davis' team has discovered a clean, safe way to deliver RNAi sequences to cancerous
cells. RNAi (Ribonucleic acid interference) is a technique that attacks specific genes in malign
cells, disabling functions inside and killing them.
The 70-nanometer attack bots made with two polymers and a protein that attaches to the
cancerous cell's surface. These robots carry a piece of RNA called small-interfering RNA (siRNA),
which deactivates the production of a protein, starving the malign cell to death. Once it has
delivered its lethal blow, the nanoparticle breaks down into tiny pieces that get eliminated by the
body in the urine.
The most amazing thing is that you can send as many of these soldiers as you want, and
they will keep attaching to the bad guys, killing them left, right, and center, and stopping tumors.
According to Davis, "the more [they] put in, the more ends up where they are supposed to be, in
tumor cells." While they will have to finish the trials to make sure that there are no side-effects.
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The Caltech team combined nanobots with Andrew Fire and Craig Mello's Noble Prize-
winning discovery RNA interference from more than a decade ago. Fire and Mello were looking for
a way to disable genetic mutations of worms at their DNA. How did they do it? In cell production,
DNA leads to messenger RNA (mRNA) that carries off the instructions for making important
proteins. Fire and Mello used particles called small interfering RNAs, or siRNAs, to cut out
unwanted pieces of the genetic code in the mRNA of their worm subjects.
Fast forward 10 years and the researchers at Caltech combined the RNA interference
technology with nanotechnology and injected nanorobots with siRNAs designed to cut out the
genetic mutation for cancer in mRNA into the bloodstreams of cancer. Phase 1 of the clinical trial
with 15 patients began in March 2010, and the data so far is promising.
If the studies continue to show promise, nanorobots could be our best friends when it comes to
cancer. We may be able to customize dosages based on cancer type, and they appear to leave
good cells alone and work in conjunction with other treatments. For example, researchers at
Georgia Institute of Technology and the Ovarian Cancer Institute are also studying the use of
siRNAs. Their method is to hide a nanoparticle with siRNAs inside of a hydrogel, which then
sneaks its way inside cancer cells. Once inside, it kills the cells and helps make chemotherapy
more effective. The researchers have even been able to time the release of siRNAs from the
nanobots to get the most out of them. Despite all of the promise nanobots may hold for cancer
treatment, there are still a lot of unknowns.

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CHAPTER 5
ADVANTAGES
 Total Cure:
More than million people in this world are affected by this cancer disease. Currently there is
no permanent vaccine or medicine is available to cure the disease without any side-effects. The
currently available drugs can increase the patient’s life to a few years only if it is lately detected, so
the invention of this nanorobot will make the patients to get rid of the disease.
 Small Size:
As we will inject the nanorobots into the patient’s body we require robots’ size as small as
possible. Size of nanorobot is 0.5 to 3 microns. Upper limit of its size is 3 microns. As minimum
diameter of capillary is 5 to 10 microns. So Nanorobots easily flow in the body without blocking the
capillary flow.
 Inexpensive (if mass produced):
The initial cost of development is only high but the manufacturing by batch processing reduces the
cost.
 Automated:
Nanorobots will not require any monitoring or control system for performing the task. These are
fully automated robots. When we inject nanorobots into the human body these will sense the
cancer tumor and after detecting the tumor, robots will inject antidote in it.
 Painless Treatment:
Existing cancer treatment drugs do successfully kill growing tumor cells, but that the rest of the
body cannot tolerate the drug concentrations required to eliminate the cancer cells. These
treatment kills not just cancer cells but healthy human cells as well causing hair loss, fatigue,
nausea, depression, and a host of other symptoms. A person undergoing a nanorobotic treatment
could expect to have no awareness of the molecular devices working inside them, other than rapid
betterment of their health. As nanorobots attacks only on caner tumor patient will not suffer any
pain.
 Easily Disposable
After finishing the task nanorobots will reach outlet of patient’s body. If the nanorobot has been
introduced into the body in order to perform a specific task. It will be removed, which means that
either it will obtain outlet from the circulatory system, or it will pass through an already existing port
of exit. It can either proceed to a point where it can be removed easily. Nanorobot will not leave the
body unless they done their job. 16
DISADVANTAGES
 The initial design cost is very high.
 Complicate Design.
 Nanorobots should be Accurate. If there is an error then harmful effect occurs.
 Electrical systems can create stray fields which may activate bioelectric-based molecular
recognition systems in biology.
 Electrical nanorobots are susceptible to electrical interference from external sources such as
RF or electric fields, EM pulses, and stray fields from other in vivo electrical devices.
 Hard to Interface.

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CHAPTER 7
Conclusion
The development of nanorobots may provide remarkable advances for diagnosis and
treatment of cancer. Using chemical sensors, they can be programmed to detect different levels of
E-cadherin and beta-catenin in primary and metastatic phases. Our work has shown a
comprehensive methodology on tracking single tumor cell in a small venule, where nanorobots
using communication techniques to increase their collective efficiency. The simulation has clearly
demonstrated how better time responses can be achieved for tumor detection, if chemical signals
are incorporated as part of nanorobot control strategy. As observed in the study, the follow gradient
with attractant signal is a practical method for orientation and coordination of nanorobots. It has
enabled a better performance for nanorobots to detect and reach cancerous targets. This approach
can be useful in the treatment of many patients for a detailed examination and intervention.

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