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CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 1

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN PROTECTION DESK


PROGRAM: THE TUGUEGARAO CITY PNP WCPD EXPERIENCE

A Thesis

Submitted to

College of Business, Entrepreneurship, and Accountancy

CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY

Andrews Campus

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the degree

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN LEGAL MANAGEMENT

By:

AQUINO, DIANNE HANNALY B.

BARTOLOME, JESSICA P.

BIO, JC KING

LUMIDO, JESSICA P.

QUILANG, JADE MARIELLE E.


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 2

Certificate of Originality

We hereby declare that this submission is our own work, and that to the best of our

knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another

person nor material to which a substantial extent has been accepted for award of any other

degree or diploma of a university or other institute of higher learning, except where due

acknowledgment is made in the text.

We also declare that the intellectual content of this thesis is a product of our work,

even though we may have received assistance from others on style, presentation and

language expression.

Aquino, Dianne Hannaly B.


Bartolome, Jessica P.
Bio, JC King
Lumido, Jessica P.
Quilang, Jade Marielle E.

Candidates

Jaypee G. Alegado, MBA


Adviser

February 07, 2019


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 3

Certificate of Approval for Oral Defense

This thesis entitled

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN PROTECTION DESK


PROGRAM: THE TUGUEGARAO CITY PNP WCPD EXPERIENCE

prepared and submitted by Dianne Hannaly Aquino, Jessica Bartolome, JC King Bio,

Jessica Lumido, and Jade Marielle Quilang, has been ACCEPTED AND APPROVED for

Oral Examination, for the fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of

Science in Legal Management.

CHONA P. AGUSTIN, DPA


Adviser

JAYPEE G. ALEGADO, MBA


Thesis Coordinator, BS in Legal Management

ADVISER’S GRADE: _______


(written and countersigned)

Date: _______
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CERTIFICATION FROM CRITIC TEACHER

February 07, 2019

This is to certify that I reviewed, corrected, and analysed the drafts and manuscript

of the research study entitled, “THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WOMEN AND

CHILDREN PROTECTION DESK PROGRAM: THE TUGUEGARAO CITY PNP

WCPD EXPERIENCE” conducted and prepared by DIANNE HANNALY AQUINO,

JESSICA BARTOLOME, JC KING BIO, JESSICA LUMIDO, and JADE

MARIELLE QUILANG, for the fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor

of Science in Legal Management Program.

This certification was issued to the researchers upon required for whatever legal

and academic purposes it may serve.

Approved by:

MARIBEL F. MALANA, Ph.D.


Critic Teacher
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 5

Approval Sheet

This thesis titled

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN PROTECTION DESK


PROGRAM: THE TUGUEGARAO CITY PNP WCPD EXPERIENCE

prepared and submitted by DIANNE HANNALY AQUINO, JESSICA BARTOLOME,

JC KING BIO, JESSICA LUMIDO, and JADE MARIELLE QUILANG , has been

accepted and approved as partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor

of Science in Legal Management Program.

CHONA P. AGUSTIN, DPA


Adviser

PANEL OF EXAMINERS
Approved by the Panel of Examiners with a grade of ____ on February ______.

_________________________________
Chair

_____________________________ _____________________________

Member Member

Dean Antonia Josefa A. Taguinod, MBM


College Dean
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page 1
Certificate of Originality 2
Certificate of Approval for Oral Defense 3
Certification from Critic Teacher 4
Approval Sheet 5
Table of Contents 6-8
Acknowledgement 9-10
Dedication 11-12
Abstract 13-14

Chapter 1: The Problem and its Background 15-25


Introduction 15-18

Statement of the Problem 19-20

Theoretical Framework 20-21

Paradigm of the Study 22

Significance of the Study 22-23

Scope and Delimitations of the Study 23-24

Definition of Terms 24-25

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature and Studies 26-39


Foreign Literature 26-28
Local Literature 29-31
Foreign Studies 31-34
Local Studies 34-38
Synthesis of the Foregoing 38-39
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Chapter 3: Research Methodology 40-45


Research Design 40
Locale of the Study 40
Research Informants and Sampling Design 41
Statistical Tool 41-42
Interview 43
Research Procedure 43-44
Ethics Statement 44-45

Chapter 4: Presentation, Interpretation, and Analysis of Data 46-57


Table 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution as to Age 46-47
Table 2. Frequency and Percentage Distribution as to 47
Civil Status
Table 3. Frequency and Percentage Distribution as to 47-48
Educational Qualification
Table 4. Frequency and Percentage Distribution as to 48-49
Appropriate Eligibility
Table 5. Frequency and Percentage Distribution as to 49
Number of Years in Service
Table 6. Trainings and Seminars Attended 50
Table 7. Item Mean of the Extent of Responsiveness 50-52
to Intervention Measures
Table 8. Item Mean of the Degree of Problems 52-54
Encountered by the TCWCPD
Table 9. Secondary Data 54
Interview 54-57
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Chapter 5: Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations 58-64


Summary of Findings 58-60
Conclusions 60-61
Recommendations 61-64
Bibliography 65-66
Appendices 67-73
Curriculum Vitae 74-76
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We extend our profound gratitude with deepest sincerity and appreciation to all the

people that made this research study possible especially their comments that greatly

improved the manuscript. Work on this research study will not be probable without the

direction and support from people herein who have contributed in the success of our

research study.

To Prof. Antonia Josefa Taguinod, Dean of College of Business, Entrepreneurship,

and Accountancy, as well as the faculty of CBEA for their encouragement, support,

patience, and advices that greatly helped the researchers to put this work into a reality;

To our thesis coordinator Prof. Jaypee G. Alegado for his warm-hearted support,

valuable information and guidance, which helped us in completing this task through

innumerable stages;

To our thesis adviser, Prof. Chona P. Agustin whose help, stimulating, suggestions,

knowledge, experience and encouragement helped us in all times of study and analysis of

the project. Under her intellectual guidance, we found the passion of doing academic

research and the guts of facing ups and downs of the process, for supporting us enormously

by providing us with constructive criticism and comments that improved our research

study;

To our critic teacher, Prof. Maribel F. Malana, thank you for extending your help

to give critic to our thesis study. Without you, this research will not be fully polished;
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To our informants for their cooperation in making our research work. Their

attendance gave the biggest part to us. Without them, there would be no data to be collected

and no result will be presented;

To our families who supported us all throughout in this study, for their unending

love and for the moral, financial, and spiritual support for giving us the inspiration to

always do the best, thank you so much. This work will always be dedicated to you;

Above everyone and everything else, to our Almighty God, who made everything

possible, we would like to thank You for giving us the assurance that we will surely succeed

in everything we do.
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DEDICATION

This piece of art is dedicated to my family especially to my younger brother and

younger sister who have cheered me up and made me smile whenever I face a downfall.

Also, to my mama and papa who unfailingly sacrificed half of their lives just to let me

finish my education. I also dedicate this study to my circle of friends, who, even if few, has

always been truly there for me. – Dianne Hannaly Aquino

I dedicate this to my family and friends. A special feeling of gratitude to my loving

parents, Mama Edith and Papa Jonjon, whose words of encouragement and push for

tenacity ring in my ears. I also dedicate this thesis to my friends and family who have

supported me throughout the process. All of you have been my best cheerleaders in my

journey. - Jessica Bartolome

This study is wholeheartedly dedicated to my beloved parents who have been a

source of inspiration and gave me strength when I thought of giving up, who continually

provide their moral, spiritual, emotional, and financial support. To my brothers, sisters,

relatives, mentor, friends, and classmates who shared their words of advice and

encouragement to finish this study and of course to my groupmates, Dianne, Jessica, Jade,

and Barts, for their cooperation. Lastly, I dedicate this study to our Almighty God. Thank

You for the guidance. - JC King Bio

I dedicate this study to my family and friends for being there, sharing this endeavour

with me and also whenever I needed a shoulder to lean on. To my friends and fellow
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members, for without them it could be impossible for us to complete this study. - Jessica

Lumido

First of all, I am very thankful to our Almighty God for giving us strength, courage,

and ability to finish this research study in spite of various conflicts. I dedicate this thesis

for all the female and children who are victims of VAWC and other forms of abuses. I also

dedicate this study to my family who has always been there to bring out the best in me.

Thank you to my mama, papa, and younger brother, for the inspiration love, and

motivation. Without you, I won’t be able to fight my battles in life. And to my friends and

special someone, thank you for inspiring me. – Jade Marielle Quilang
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ABSTRACT

Title: THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN PROTECTION


DESK PROGRAM: THE TUGUEGARAO CITY PNP WCPD EXPERIENCE
Degree : Bachelor of Science in Legal Management
Institution : Cagayan State University- Andrews Campus
Researchers : Dianne Hannaly Aquino, Jessica Bartolome, JC King Bio, Jessica
Lumido, Jade Marielle Quilang
Adviser : Dr. Chona P. Agustin, DPA

The implementation of women and children protection desk program as well as the

experience of the Tuguegarao City PNP WCPD is one of the important queries that may

bother us right now. Women and children abuses are rampant nowadays and the only

concern of this research is to find out as to whether or not the desk officers in-charge with

the said implementation are responsive enough in dealing with the cases that are brought

upon their office. It is a must to gain answers to this kind of issue because the silence of

the Women and Children Protection Desk Program will affect the citizen’s mindset. With

the help of this kind of program by the government, we will be able to know how these

police or desk officers act in their duties and responsibilities. Specifically, to be able to

know the personal and demographic profile of the female desk officers in terms of age,

civil status, educational qualification, appropriate eligibility, number of years in service,

and trainings and seminars attended. Also, we have determined through this research their

extent of responsiveness to intervention measures and the degree of problems encountered

by them in the WCPD office since this will massively affect their implementation and

experience. In order to give justification to the study, Descriptive Analysis such as


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percentages, means, and frequency counts was used to analyze the profile of the

respondents in terms of age, civil status, educational qualification, appropriate eligibility,

number of years in service, and trainings attended. Each item was evaluated through

determination of the weighted mean and using Five-point Likert Scale. A secondary data

was also shown to support the findings regarding the implementation process and an

interview was conducted. Our informants were the female desk officers in-charge in the

office. It was shown that the extent of responsiveness to intervention measures was

interpreted as very responsive and the degree of problems they encountered in the office

were interpreted as not serious but as to the victims, the degree is moderately serious.

Adoption of a program of instruction designed for a more comprehensive formal training

from among the female police personnel assigned at the said police unit to ensure the

continuous enhancement and development of human resources at WCPD can be made.

Conducting more seminars in different barangays here in Tuguegarao City and house-to-

house visit to talk with the families regarding the rights of women and children may also

be possible. Using the social media as tool to disseminate information will be one of the

effective ways to disseminate information and reports regarding the implementation in their

office.
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Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION

Humanity has been used to living in a community where stereotyping is evident in

the sense that those who are branded as weak are deprived more of how essential they are

and those who are labeled as strong shall dominate the society. The marking of two

divisions (weak and strong) in the general public has evolved as years pass by and the

evolution had resulted in creating more boundaries in the relationship of humankind.

One relationship that may be affected because of these boundaries is the family

connection. At times, the family may have been bombarded with challenges that may

strengthen or weaken them. These challenges include the economical, physical, and

emotional conflicts. Economic difficulties may include the lack of either or both of the

parents’ capability to sustain or suffice their family. This may be the root cause for the

family to heat up with arguments, especially the mother and father. In this case, their

children may be affected. As a result, they may end up combating each other to the extent

that the father might beat up his wife or involve the child to the maltreatment. Poverty may

also give rise to physical abuses. This has been evident in the current status quo of our

society.

Humphreys (2007) posits that a problem has risen in Western countries responding

to domestic abuse whereby the safety of children is considered to have been secured by a

referral or notification to the statutory child protection authority. In countries where there

is mandatory reporting and domestic abuse is specified, child protection systems have been

overwhelmed.
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According to the World Economic Forum’s Gender Gap (2014), the Philippines has

been among the world’s most gender-fair countries since 2006. It also ranked 9th globally

and topped all of Asia in terms of women’s participation in economy, education, health,

and political empowerment. But the number of VAW cases reported to the Philippine

National Police has increased by over 500% in the past 16 years.

The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines have provided us the rights of women and

children to which the state inherently recognizes. Some of the provisions include Article II

Section 12 which reads that, “the State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall

protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally

protect the life of the mother, and the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and

primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of youth for civic efficiency and

development of moral character shall receive the aid and support of the government.

Another provision is Article II Section 13 which states that, “the state recognizes the vital

role of the youth in nation building, and shall promote and protect their physical, moral,

spiritual, intellectual and social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and

nationalism and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs. Same as Section

14 of the same article which provides that, “state shall recognize the role of women in

nation building and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and

men.”

Aligned with these are the facts that the Congress needs to sustain and ensure that

the rights of women and children are protected and so they came up with creating laws or

statutes that would protect the women and children. The legal basis of this study which is

included in the salient provisions of R.A. 8551, otherwise known as the “Police Reform
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and Reorganization Law,” provides among others that (Section 57, Title II), “the Philippine

National Police (PNP) shall established women’s desk in all police stations throughout the

country to administer and attend to cases involving crimes against chastity, sexual

harassment, abuses committed against women and children and other similar offenses.

Provided, that the municipalities and cities presently without policewomen will have two

(2) years upon the effectivity of the said act within which to comply with the requirement

of the provision of said law, and (Section 58, Title II), “within the next five (5) years, the

PNP shall prioritize the recruitment and training of women who shall serve in the women’s

desk. Pursuant to this requirement, the PNP shall reserve ten percent (10%) of its annual

recruitment, training, and education quota for women (R.A. 8551). Another legal basis is

the General Orders Number DPL 07-03 dated October 15, 2007, National Headquarters,

Philippine National Police, Camp Crame, Quezon City.

The study on the Implementation of Women and Children Protection Desk

Program: The Tuguegarao City PNP Experience focuses on uncovering the truth as regards

how the women and children police desk officers of PNP Tuguegarao respond with the

cases brought to them concerning the violence or abuses against women and children and

any other maltreatment that the victims are experiencing, how the desk officers deal with

the victims, and the intervention measures that are to be made by the officers themselves.

The researchers have come up with investigating this idea because of the prevalence

of abuses, maltreatment, and violence against our women by their husband or live-in

partners as well as in being concerned with the state of their children who are assaulted.

We wanted to dig in to the reality of the implementation to find out whether or not the
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programs and services are effectively and efficiently executed by the desk officers to be

able to conform with the laws protecting the women and children.

We, the researchers, therefore find this study necessary to investigate because it

will help us be mindful if the desk officers conduct a timely, thorough and comprehensive

investigation of all cases involving violence against women and their children, committed

within their respective area of responsibility, consistent with domestic laws, rules, and

regulations, and international human rights standards. In addition to that, we will be able

to see if they are observing the rules and procedures as provided in Section 48 of the

Implementing Rules and Regulations of RA 9262 (Anti-Violence Against Women and

Their Children At of 2004). Moreover, we will be cognizant with the information regarding

the number of abuses here in Tuguegarao City based on the cases brought to the WCPD,

whether or not abuse is prevalent, and most especially to scrutinize if the female desk

officers are executing their duties and responsibilities as well as in doing their endeavors

well in implementing the programs and services for women and children as provided by

the law.

Bearing in mind the fact that the WCPD had just recently upgraded, and it is still

on the process of polishing such operations of this type of policing activities guided by

the truth that their chief concern is promoting welfare to both women and children as well

as in protecting their rights. We cannot deny the fact that their programs and services is

not free from certain factors that could give rise to problems which would affect their

operations. Therefore, this study has emanated.


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Statement of the Problem

Generally, this study aimed to investigate the Implementation of Women and

Children Protection Desk Program and Services in Tuguegarao City Police Station.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the personal and demographic profile of the PNP Tuguegarao WCPD desk

officers in terms of:

1.1 Age

1.2 Civil Status

1.3 Educational Qualification

1.4 Appropriate Eligibility

1.5 Number of months/years in the service

1.6 Trainings/seminars attended

2. What are the common violations brought before the Tuguegarao City Women and

Children Protection Desk?

3. What is the extent of the responsiveness to intervention measures of the TCWCPD as

regards the following services:

3.1 Conduct of Interview and Investigation

3.2 Arrest and Apprehension

3.3 Preventive Measures

3.4 Confidentiality of Police Blotter, Records, and Reports


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4. What is the degree of problems encountered by the TCWCPD officers in the

implementation of the program or services in the protection of the victims as to the

following:

4.1 Physical Facilities

4.2 Interview and Investigation Process

4.3 Victims

5. What are the recommendations to strengthen or improve the TCWCPD?

Theoretical Framework

This study utilized the sociological and psychological theories. A sociological

standpoint places domestic violence within a macro model of society because violence is

perceived as an outcome of social factors. A psychological outlook, on the other hand,

accounts for violence within a micro level of society which means that violence is

attributed to such individual factors as forcefulness, recklessness and paranoia.

Bandura’s Social Learning Theory

Bandura’s social learning theory posits that people learn from one another via

observation, imitation and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between

behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and

motivation. For Bandura, people learn through observing others’ behaviors, attitudes, and

outcomes of those behaviors. Most human behavior is learned observationally through

modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed,

and on later occasions this coded information serves as guide for action. In connection with
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our study, the social learning theory explains the behavior of the perpetrator and how they

execute violence against women and children because of reciprocal determinism present in

the aforementioned theory. This means that a person’s behavior can cause another because

of the imitation and influence done by people to another. When people perceive that such

act could be done since it has been done by other people, i.e. abusing women and children

which is a prevalent situation, then the person influenced will also do it to other people.

Feminist Perspectives

Wife abuse is the result of an imbalance of power between men and women.

Feminists have asserted that through time, women have been subjugated by the greater

patriarchal society that has placed limits on their opportunities and left them vulnerable to

a number of abuses. The “cycle of violence” theory describes the dynamics of an abusive

relationship. It is based on the premise that women are not constantly being abused, and

that their willingness to remain in an abusive relationship is related to cyclical fluctuations

between periods of abuse and relatively peaceful coexistence. The theory also explains how

women become victimized, how they fall into “learned helplessness” behavior, and why

they do not attempt to escape. The cycle of violence is made up of three separate and

distinct phases. The first stage is called the “tension building” phase, during which the

abuse spouse exhibits moodiness, is short tempered, and is critical of her spouse. The

second phase is called the “explosion” phase. This is a relatively short-lived phase in which

the tensions of the previous stage reach crisis proportions and a physical assault ensues.

The third and final phase has been called the “honeymoon” phase, because it is during this

phase that the abusing spouse shows great remorse for his actions and promises never to

repeat the abuse.


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Paradigm of the Study


This study consists of two variables which are the independent and dependent

variables. The independent variable contains the Demographic Profile of the Female Desk

Officers while the dependent variable consists of the experience of the female desk officers

toward the implementation of women and children protection desk program and services

in Tuguegarao City Police Station.

Significance of the Study

The following stakeholders will benefit with this study:

The Women and Children Victims will benefit from this study because of the programs

and services that the Philippine National Police(PNP) through the Women and Children

Protection Desk which would either inform them that whenever they experience abuse

and maltreatment, the PNP WCPD will help them inform of the rights and remedies

available to them.

The Women and Children Protection Desk will be able to use this and serve as a guide

for them in knowing whether or not their implementation of the programs and services

are effective and efficient enough to become operative officers who are doing their duties

and responsibilities well.

The Philippine National Police shall likewise benefit from this and be aware if the

WCPD is performing well their functions as agents of the government and protector of

women and children as they handle cases regarding violations of the latter’s rights as well

as in determining whether or not there will become a modification with the set rules and

policies in the programs and services.


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The Future Administrators will make this a guide in enacting and redefining laws

which are related to the programs and services for women and children.

The Future Researchers can use this study as basis if ever they will decide to create a

research study which has a connection with our research, this could serve as a platform

for them to start their study.

The Students can utilize this as an additional information in their knowledge and

awareness regarding the implementation of the programs and services of WCPD in PNP

Tuguegarao and as a basis if they shall create a thesis with the same topic.

To The Community, this study shall likewise help them because of the fact that they are

the beneficiaries of the effort derived from a police unit who takes control as regards the

victimization of women and children.

To The Researchers-, this study will serve as an instrument in knowing the topic more

and whether or not the programs and services are implemented effectively and

operationally.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This study focused only in determining the implementation of women and children

protection desk programs and services in Tuguegarao City Police Station. It is limited to

the female desk officers who are in charge of handling cases and investigation as regards

the violations against women and children that are included in their record book and was

limited only to the questionnaire, secondary data, and interview guide. In addition to that,

this research will be conducted in PNP Tuguegarao, Enrile Boulevard, Carig Sur,

Tuguegarao City during the first semester of the Academic Year 2018-2019.
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Definition of Terms

The terminologies stated below needs to be interpreted to fully understand this study.

Abuse refers to the physical, sexual, or psychological abuse experiences by a

woman or her child.

Age refers to the women desk officers who are clustered into five brackets which

are 21-25, 26-30, 31-35, 36-40, and 40&above.

Appropriate eligibility refers to the test or examination that has been taken or

passed by the desk officer such as PNP Entrance Exam, Police Officer Exam, Senior Police

Officer Exam, Inspector Exam, Teacher’s Board Exam, Criminology Board Exam, and as

specified by the women desk officer if her appropriate eligibility does not fall within the

choices given.

Children refers to those below eighteen (18) years of age or older but are incapable

of taking care of themselves as defined under Republic Act no. 7610. As used in this study,

it includes the biological children of the victim woman and other children under her care.

Civil status refers to the women desk officers which is categorized as “single” or

“married”.

Domestic violence refers to a situation between two people who have a familiar or

familial relationship, where one party particularly the man or husband uses violence to hurt

or harm the other which pertains to either wife or child/children.

Educational qualification refers to the educational extent of the desk officers

which is classified as college graduate, with master’s units, master’s graduate, doctoral

graduate, and as specified by the desk officer if the choices does not meet her educational

qualification.
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Extent of Responsiveness to Intervention Measures this refers to the present

level of how the desk officers in PNP Tuguegarao intervene or interfere with the programs

and services that they are offering to the women and children of Tuguegarao City.

Implementation refers to how the women and children protection desk officers of

PNP Tuguegarao carry out the duties and responsibilities as they observe the rules and

procedures provided in section 48 of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of RA 9262

(Anti-Violence against Women and Their Children Act of 2004).

Women and Children Protection Desk refers to the newly upgraded operational

support unit of the Philippine National Police (PNP) which will be taking charge with

analogous performance of functions as provided by General Orders Number DPL 07-03

dated October 15, 2007, National Headquarters, Philippine National Police, Camp Crame,

Quezon City.
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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter covers the exploration of related literature and studies, both foreign

and local, and the synthesis of the reviewed literature studies to the present study. The

investigation on the implementation of women and children protection desk program and

services in Tuguegarao City Police Station is a silent issue nowadays. At times, we wonder

if the Philippine National Police are effective and efficient state actors by observing how

they execute the laws, orders, and policies as well as in implementing them. That is the

reason why this study is conducted in order to uncover the truth regarding how the

Tuguegarao City Police Station implements the programs and services of the WCPD, more

specifically on how it conducts a timely and comprehensive investigation of all cases

committed against women and their children.

Foreign Literature

It has been historic that legal and social customs have stomached the physical

assault made by men to women or even their children. Matthews (2004) stated that every

year in America, between 1.5 and 3.6 million women are raped or physically assaulted by

an intimate partner. With multiple assaults per individual, this adds up to approximately 4

to 6 million intimate partner physical and sexual assaults every year- and there are many

more that go unreported.

One reason why such abuse or assault is existent is economic dependency.

Bornstein (2006) describes economic dependency as “the degree to which one

person relies on another for financial support, and is used to describe situations in which
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one member of a dyad has exclusive control over financial resources. Economic

dependency can occur if one person is the sole provider in the family and denies his partner

access to resources, but also when one person uses threat or intimidation to take control of

finances. This may heat up to arguments and the spouses or partners may end up assaulting

one another or the one party particularly the man will abuse his partner or even his child.

He also points out that it is important to realize that links between economic dependency

and abuse are bi-directional. High economic dependency may lead some women to tolerate

physical abuse, but repeated abuse may lead to economic dependence. Women in violent

relationships who do work may have trouble concentrating, be harassed at work by an

abusive partner, and have low self- efficacy due to abuse. The abuse can affect work

performance to the point where they may lose their jobs, contributing to their economic

dependency on their partners.

McCue (2008) affirms that regardless of these violence against women, some of

them may choose to stay and survive day to day abuse rather than make a escape. He

specifically mentions the Native American women as potentially lacking phone services or

access to any sort of transportation which makes for them hard to escape. Because of this,

the researchers have come up with a solution that a protection desk must be prepared or

offered to women, and also to their children most especially if the women and children or

the family itself lives in a remote or isolated place. Protection must still be given to people

who are in geographically isolated places.

Over the preceding decades, numerous African countries have attained significant

gains in the implementation of the child rights framework. Several countries have presented
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 28

social protection mechanisms that play a vital role in supporting vulnerable families and

preventing children from leaving their homes.

Save the Children Sweden (2012) purports that generally, child protection systems

have been conceptualized as a set of activities, working procedures and institutions

involved to prevent and respond to all forms of child abuse and neglect, including

exploitation. In addition to that, Save the Children defines child protection (CP) as

measures and structures to prevent and respond to abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence

affecting children. On its part, the United Nations Children’s Fund (2012) defines child

protection as preventing and responding to violence, exploitation and abuse against

children, including commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking, child labor and harmful

traditional practices such as female genital mutilation/cutting and child marriage. In simple

terms, child protection addresses every child’s right not to be subjected to harm and

together with other rights ensure that the child receives that which they need to survive,

develop and thrive.

Humphreys (2007) posits that a problem has risen in Western countries responding

to domestic abuse whereby the safety of children is considered to have been secured by a

referral or notification to the statutory child protection authority. In countries where there

is mandatory reporting and domestic abuse is specified, child protection systems have been

overwhelmed.
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 29

Local Literature

The paramount and indispensable responsibility of the government is the promotion

of general welfare and protection of society. Unambiguously, the government’s principal

duty is to guarantee that the rights of the individual exclusively the children are protected.

It is the same as the women who are often abused and maltreated because branding as

someone who has weak personality.

The Philippine National Police, as the chief instrument of the administration

authorized to put into effect the laws and to maintain peace and order in the community,

plays a critical yet essential part in the safeguarding of rights.

Under the DIDM (2002), Women’s Crisis and Child Protection Center has the

following objectives: to bring together key people from law enforcement, in particular the

various professionals who could interact and respond to child abuse and violence against

women cases in a coordinated fashion; to organize, pool, train these human resources

whose potentials to serve the greater interest of women and children can be harnessed in

full; to establish a one-stop in the PNP where all sexual and physical abuses committed

against children may be referred for proper police intervention, treatment and attention; to

provide quick-response professional inter-disciplinary services to the victims; to establish

a team approach by eliminating unnecessary duplication of effort and promoting proper

and expeditious collection and preservation of evidence to improve investigative outcomes

of child abuse cases referred to the center; to establish expertise in the collection and

preservation of evidence, in crime scene examination, and in taking statement and

confessions; to make all team members work not actually in all aspects of the investigation,

but inactively coordinating the total police intervention process drawing from the resources
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 30

made available by the disciplines involved; and to develop a more responsive and

innovative law enforcement mechanisms to address violence against women and children.

Fr. Shay Cullen (2017), in his article in The Manila Times, states that violence

against women starts very early in this male-dominated world, and the abuse of women

and children is so common and greatly ignored. An estimated 350,000 young Filipino

women are exploited as sex workers at a young age.

According to the World Economic Forum’s Gender Gap (2014), the Philippines has

been among the world’s most gender-fair countries since 2006. It also ranked 9th globally

and topped all of Asia in terms of women’s participation in economy, education, health,

and political empowerment. But the number of VAW cases reported to the Philippine

National Police has increased by over 500% in the past 16 years.

Also, based on the article made by Rodriguez (2015), aside from stronger

implementation of laws, penalties, and recovery programs, advocates emphasize the need

for better prevention. Both men and women, young and old, must be educated about human

rights, women’s and gender issues, and the roles they play in ending discrimination. The

more informed women are, the more empowered they will be. And an empowered society

has no room for violence.

The legal basis of this study which is included in the salient provisions of R.A.

8551, otherwise known as the “Police Reform and Reorganization Law,” provides among

others that (Section 57, Title II), “the Philippine National Police (PNP) shall established

women’s desk in all police stations throughout the country to administer and attend to cases

involving crimes against chastity, sexual harassment, abuses committed against women

and children and other similar offenses. Provided, that the municipalities and cities
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 31

presently without policewomen will have two (2) years upon the effectivity of the said act

within which to comply with the requirement of the provision of said law, and (Section 58,

Title II), “within the next five (5) years, the PNP shall prioritize the recruitment and training

of women who shall serve in the women’s desk. Pursuant to this requirement, the PNP shall

reserve ten percent (10%) of its annual recruitment, training, and education quota for

women (R.A. 8551). Another legal basis is the General Orders Number DPL 07-03 dated

October 15, 2007, National Headquarters, Philippine National Police, Camp Crame,

Quezon City.

Foreign Studies

Diverse research studies and surveys were steered from various countries

everywhere in the world. Certain studies were conducted across many countries and some

were conducted in their corresponding nations. Below are some of the foreign studies

conducted which the researcher assimilated in order to further analyze them and grasp the

ideas they try to convey.

According to the Lao Social Indicator Survey (2012), 58% of women and 48% of

men reported that VAW was justified if women did not adhere to traditional gender

norms, relations, and roles. The difference of their survey as to our study is that VAW is

justified because women adheres to traditional gender norms, roles, and relations and that

is evident nowadays.

As stated by Lao (2014) in his study on The National Study on Women’s Health

and Life Experiences, it was found that an effective policy-making response to abuse

issues needs to be developed. The similarities of their study and our research study is that

we are both aiming for a policy or law that would protect the rights of women as they are
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 32

stereotyped in our community through abuse and maltreatment. The difference lies on the

fact that our study would only use focus group interview between female desk officers,

because in the former study they used both men and women as informants or

interviewees.

Based on a study conducted by Pinheiro (2006) about general study on violence

against children, it analyzed the violence in five settings which includes the home and

family, schools and educational settings, care and justice institutions, work place and the

community. The study points out that much of this violence remains hidden and children

are afraid to identify the perpetrators – parents, schoolmates, teachers and employers since

they usually depend on them. As children continue to suffer violence and abuse on the

continent, the responses to abuse cases are sporadic, not coordinated and many times

provided by people without capacity to do so. This in many cases re-traumatizes children

who have been abused and discourages community members who may wish to report child

abuse cases. The study contains twelve over-arching recommendations and a number of

setting specific recommendations that represent a comprehensive framework for follow-up

action.

The similarity of Pinheiro’s study with our study is that we have come to ask about

how the children are experiencing violence but our study is far different in terms of the

settings because we have only covered violence in home and family as our parameter.

Al Nagar and Tonnesen (2010) on their study on Child Protection Mechanisms in

Khartoum State revealed that children were aware of the many of the protection issues

facing them. However, they did not know the procedures to be followed for reporting risks.

In South Sudan, Special Protection Units in the police stations receive and investigate child
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 33

abuse cases. Such cases are tried at statutory and traditional courts as both customary and

statutory laws apply in South Sudan. However, the traditional courts are ignorant of both

national and international legislation.

The difference of our study and the above-stated research is that we have

recognized the national and international legislation but the similarities would tell us that

we both wanted to be informed if the children or informants are being informed of the

rights and remedies available to them.

A study carried out by Kisanga, Mbwambo. Hogan, Nystrom, Emmelin, Lindmark

(2010) at Tanzania’s Muhimbili University found that almost 3 out of 10 girls and 1 out of

7 boys had been victims of sexual violence. In addition to these problems, children in Sudan

face unique challenges due to conflicts that have ravaged the nation in the past. Thus, they

face displacement, separation from families and recruitment as child soldiers. The situation

is, however, expected to improve with the signing of the peace accord in 2005 and

subsequent independence of South Sudan in 2011. The study used in-depth interview which

we, the researchers haven’t used. They also included magistrates and legal workers as their

informants which differs to our research because we only used the female desk officers as

our informants. Similarly, we used the same method which is the qualitative approach

which is used to analyze well the data to be collected as guided by the truth that an interview

method will be conducted.

Another research was conducted by Johnson (2017) which claims that the

importance of the ideological and institutional context as structural impediments or

opportunities as well as suggested the more effective strategic alliances between activists,

politicians, and civil servants. It has also indicated the intervention measures to be utilized.
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 34

Similarly, both researchers are comprised of intervention measures but our research is

focused more on the extent of intervention measures which is vaguely presented in the

former study.

Local Studies
In the study conducted by Fronda, Papio and Dela Cruz (2012), they have argued

that positive implications to the Women and Children Protection Desk’s (WCPD)

clientele’s safety--the local government units in the different localities within the research

locale was able to provide their respective constituents with a competent and efficient

delivery of public service by serving and protecting the community-members. They have

made use of a descriptive research in determining the extent of role performance of the

desk officers while in our research, we have focused on the extent of intervention measures

and the degree of problems encountered by the female desk officers.

Maurer (2006) on his study on, “Children’s Exploitation in Cabanatuan City as

Perceived by the Barangay Captains and Barangay Social Welfare and Development

Officers, made the following recommendations: 1) continuous conduct of seminars and

workshops from among the Barangay Captains (BC) and Barangay Social Welfare and

Development Officers (BSWDO) to further enhance their awareness as the first line of

defense concerning rights and interests of children, with the active support of the Local

Government Unit (LGU), purposely to minimize if not totally eliminated occurrence of

children’s exploitation; 2) strict enforcement of the laws concerning rights and interest of

children to be actively undertaken by the Barangay Captains (BC) and Barangay Social

Welfare and Development Officers (BSWDO), and the different concerned government
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 35

agencies for more proactive and reactive efforts in threshing out the existence and would-

be existence of children’s exploitation; 3) address the contributory factors to children’s

exploitations through the formulation of programs, projects and activities to be

spearheaded by the social welfare agency which is geared toward eliminating the root-

causes of violating the rights and interest of children, and the breeding grounds that abet

the proliferation of the conditions placing the welfare of children in jeopardy; 4) more

orchestrated efforts on the part of the Barangay Captains (BC) and Barangay Social

Welfare and Development Officers (BSWDO) with the active support of Local

Government Agencies (LGA), and Non-Government Organizations (NGO), and the

community-members as well in addressing the problems on children’s exploitation in

respective communities; and 5) jointly institute corrective measures through periodic

consultations to deal with the symptoms of the contributory factors to children’s

exploitation to be instituted by the community-at-large through the stewardship of the

Local Government Unit (LGU), and the Local Government Agencies (LGA), and the

Non-Government Organizations (NGO).

Taborada (2004) on her study on the “Responsiveness of the Women’s and

Children Protection Desks (WCPD) in the Management of Children in Conflict with

the Law: An Assessment, made the following recommendations: 1) enlistment of the

services of experts in the different discipline concerning rights and interests of the

children, and employment of professionals who could obviously and effectively

addressed problems confronted by the children in conflict with the law; 2) initiation of

activities and programs that would help developed awareness from among the community

members on the problems confronted by the children in conflict with the law, and active
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 36

support from the Local Government Unit (LGU), Local Government Agencies (LGA),

and Non-Government Organizations (NGO) in response to the alarming incidents

involving children; 3) enhance collaboration with the different sectors of the society for a

more orchestrated effort in the protection of the rights and interests of children, protection

of children from violence and abuses, and reduction of occurrence of incidence involving

children in conflict with the law; 3) assignment and placement of more female police

personnel in the Women’s and Children Protection Desks (WCPD) for a more effective

management of children in conflict with the law, and sophistication and modernization of

facilities and equipment, and allocation of fund and material resources for an improved

discharge of mandated functions; 5) establishment of crisis centers for a more responsive

management of children in conflict with the law, purposely to cater the needs of the

victims, witness, and accused—legally, psychologically, physically, and morally, and that

could attend the well-being of children in conflict with the law; and 5) providing the

children in the management of children in conflict with the law with the restorative

justice for engendered individuals owing to the protection of their rights and interests.

As studied by Anamong-Davis (2010), on her study The Implementation of Women

and Children Protection Desk Program and Services in Cordillera Administrative Region,

it had used the organizational profile of the women employees, crimes against women and

children victims assisted by wcpd, leadership capability of officers, level of

implementation of services, differences in level of implementation of services across

leadership capability, and the problems encountered by the wcpd as factors in determining

the implementation of the WCPD of CAR. Based on the findings of the study, the

Philippine National Police established the creation of the Women Desk to attain cases of
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 37

Violence against women and children in 1995. Majority of the WCPD offices are

established in the province of Benguet while the City of Baguio has a greater number of

women’s’ desk investigators. Another is that the common crimes attended by WCPD

officers are physical violence, sexual assault, physical injuries, sexual abuse and theft.

Furthermore, the leadership capability of the WCPD found out to be proficient in the four

aspects: Administrative, Managerial, Technical and Financial, the WCPD is very much

recognized and empowered to be more successful on their services. In addition to that, the

significant implementation of the services on some areas of the indicator differs from the

leadership capability of the WCPD officers. Finally, the moderately serious problems on

the part of investigation on crimes against women are the suspect is forgiven by the victim,

victim/survivor are afraid to file a case against the suspect, desistance to file a case against

the suspect and non-cooperation of witness/es to testify. On referral activity, the

moderately serious is the slow medico-legal examination of victims. Similarly, our study

will use the same methods of this research such as the usage of questionnaire and interview.

The difference is that we will add documentary findings regarding the information of PNP

WCPD in Tuguegarao City and the factors that we will use shall be limited to the following

factors: the demographic profile of the PNP Tuguegarao WCPD desk officers in terms of

educational qualification, appropriate eligibility, number of months/years in the service,

and trainings/seminars attended; the common violations brought before the Tuguegarao

City Women and Children Protection Desk; the extent of the responsiveness to intervention

measures of the TCWCPD in terms of conduct of interview and investigation, arrest and

apprehension, preventive measures, and confidentiality of police blotter, records, and

reports; the degree of problems encountered by the TCWCPD officers in the


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 38

implementation of the program or services in the protection of the victims in terms of

physical facilities, personnel, interview and investigation process, and victims; and the

recommendations to strengthen or improve the TCWCPD. The aforementioned study will

be the basis of this thesis.

SYNTHESIS OF THE FOREGOING

Based on the above-mentioned review of literature and studies, the researchers find

this study beneficial because of the reason that the implementation of women and children

protection desk program and services in Tuguegarao City Police Station is an effective and

efficient way of generating and prompting the minds of the Filipino citizens to respect each

other, as well as in boosting the interest and morale of women and children to empower

them and to degenerate the mindset of the people in terms of gender inequality and making

them realize that men is not dominative than women, that both of them are equal. The

literature mentioned in this section of study is very significant to the present study, bearing

in mind the fact that entirely, it is focused on violence against women and children, and

marked at one general objective of monitoring the incidence of said cases, and making the

programs and services of the law enforcement agencies particularly the Women and

Children Protection Desk of the Philippine National Police more reactive in effectively

dealing with this problem as they implement well the policy and in doing their assigned

duties and responsibilities provided by law.

Correspondingly, the literature deals with the investigation of cases involving abuse

against women and children which are also the emphasis of the current study. The problems
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 39

encountered in the foreign literature and studies cited in this chapter are nearly the alike as

what is prevailing in the local setting.

The difference lies with the degrees, approaches and processes in conducting a

successful research study particularly in gathering useful information to obtain the

objectives of the study. In addition to that, they differ in the informants, settings, and the

findings of the study. It all boils down to the fact that despite the differences which are

evident, its main concern is the protection of women and their children against abuse,

assault, and any other forms of violence made by men to them.


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 40

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research design, locale of the study, research informants

and sampling design, statistical analysis, research procedure and ethics statement.

Research Design

This study used the qualitative approach with the aid of triangulation method. As

defined by Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999), a triangulation method is utilized to check

out the consistency of findings generated by different data collection methods and to test

the validity of findings. In this research, we will use the questionnaire, documentary

analysis as secondary data, and focus-group interview among the female desk officers for

the purpose of achieving the aforementioned objectives of this research and to be able to

know the experience in the implementation of Tuguegarao City PNP of the Women and

Children Protection Desk Program and Services most especially the female desk officers

in Tuguegarao City Police Station particularly in PNP Tuguegarao, Enrile Boulevard, Carig

Sur, Tuguegarao City.

Locale of the Study

The study was conducted in PNP Tuguegarao, Enrile Boulevard, Carig Sur,

Tuguegarao City, Cagayan and shall have its female desk officers in Women and

Children Protection Desk as the informants in the focus-group interview.


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 41

Research Informants and Sampling Design

For the purposes of this research, purposive sampling technique will be employed

in selecting the informants of the study. The female desk officers will be selected based on

the researcher’s knowledge that the former are the only officers who are in charge of the

women and children protection desk program and services.

Statistical Tool

The research study used a questionnaire that was framed by the researcher using

some of the questions included in the questionnaire of the study conducted by Anamong-

Davis in 2010 with the guidance of their adviser. It is divided into three parts as follows:

Part I of the questionnaire includes the information on the personal and

demographic profile of the female desk officers of PNP Tuguegarao Women and Children

Protection Desk (WCPD). Descriptive Analysis such as percentages, means, and frequency

counts was used to analyze the profile of the respondents in terms of age, civil status,

educational qualification, appropriate eligibility, number of years in service, and trainings

attended.

Part II of the questionnaire composes of the twenty-item checklist under four

categories namely conduct of interview and investigation, arrest and apprehension,

preventive measures, and confidentiality of police blotter, records, and reports which is

designed to collect information on extent of the intervention measures of the PNP

Tuguegarao Women and Children Protection Desk (WCPD). Each item will be evaluated

through determining the weighted mean and using Five-point Likert Scale:
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 42

Numerical Scale Descriptive Value

4.20 – 5.00 Very Responsive (VR)

3.40 - 4.19 Responsive (RP)

2.60 – 3.39 Moderately Responsive (MR)

1.80 – 2.59 Slightly Responsive (SR)

1.00 – 1.79 Not Responsive (NR)

Part III of the instrument consists of a fifteen-item checklist under three

components namely physical facilities, interview and investigation process, and victims

which is likewise designed to collect information as regards the degree of problems

encountered by the PNP Tuguegarao WCPD. Each item will be evaluated through

determining the weighted mean and using Five-point Likert Scale:

Numerical Scale Descriptive Value

4.20 – 5.00 Very Serious (VS)

3.40 - 4.19 Serious (SR)

2.60 – 3.39 Moderately Serious (MS)

1.80 – 2.59 Slightly Serious (SS)

1.00 – 1.79 Not Serious (NS)


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 43

Interview Guide:

 Introductory questions: “How well do you know that you implement well the

programs and services of the Women and Children Protection Programs and

Services?”

 Transition questions: “What are the common problems brought before your

office?”

 Key questions: “What are the recommendations to strengthen or improve the

TCWCPD?”

 Ending questions: “Is there any other information you would like to add?”

“Do this research broaden your mind regarding the implementation

process?”

The questionnaire checklist and focus group interview is intended for the

female desk officers of the Women and Children Protection Desk. On the other

hand, the secondary data which is the documentary analysis shall be based on the

records of the desk officers regarding the records of victims, limited only to the

common violations brought before the said office. The gathering of secondary data

shall only be limited to the records which shows the total number of cases solved

and cleared from year 2017-2018.

Research Procedure

The researchers sought permission from the Regional Director through the Chief

Inspector of WCPD of PNP R02 of allowing them to float the questionnaire among the

female desk officers.


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 44

The researchers asked the female desk officers through questionnaire checklist,

documentary analysis, and focus group interview in order to determine the cases brought

to them, the extent of intervention measures of the TCWCPD as regards their programs

and services, degree of problems encountered in the office, and in knowing the common

problems experienced by the female desk officers.

Ethics Statement

We, the researchers, have utilized the ethics statement provided by Bryman and

Bell (2007) and we deem this to be effective.

1. Research informants should not be subjected to harm in any ways whatsoever and

that voluntary participation of informants in the research is important. Moreover,

informants have rights to withdraw from the study at any stage if they wish to do

so.

2. As researchers, we respect the dignity of research informants. The informants

should participate on the basis of informed consent. The principle of informed

consent involves researchers providing sufficient information and assurances about

taking part to allow individuals to understand the implications of participation and

to reach a fully informed, considered, and freely given decision about whether or

not to do so, without the exercise of any pressure or coercion.

3. Full consent should be obtained from the participants prior to the study. The use of

offensive, discriminatory, or other unacceptable language needs to be avoided in

the formulation of questionnaire, documentary analysis, and focus group interview.


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 45

4. The protection of the privacy of research participants has to be ensured because

privacy and anonymity of the victims as well as the information gathered to the

female desk officers is of paramount importance.

5. Adequate level of confidentiality of the research data should be ensured.

Acknowledgement of works of other authors used in any part of the dissertation

with the use of Harvard/APA referencing system.

6. Anonymity of individuals and organizations participating in the research has to be

ensured. Maintenance of the highest level of objectivity in discussion and analysis

throughout the research.

7. Any deception or exaggeration about the aims and objectives of the research must

be avoided.

8. Any type of communication in relation to the research should be done with honesty

and transparency.

9. Any type of misleading information, as well as representation of primary data

findings in a biased way must be avoided.


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 46

CHAPTER 4

PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION, AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

This chapter contains the presentation, interpretation, as well as the analysis of data

that we have gathered. This chapter also include tables that show the final result of the

frequency counts, means, and percentages. It is organized under the following categories:

personal and demographic profile of the informants, extent of the responsiveness to

intervention measures of the TCWCPD, and the degree of problems encountered by the

PNP Tuguegarao WCPD.

Personal And Demographic Profile Of The Pnp Tuguegarao WCPD

Table 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents as to Age

Age Frequency Percent

21-25 0 0.00

26-30 0 0.00

31-35 2 66.67

36-40 0 0.00

40 and above 1 33.33

Total 3 100.0

The table shows that two or 66.67% of the informants belonged to the age category

of 31-35 and only one or 33.33% of the informants belonged to the age category of 40 and

above. This implies that as the female desk officers execute their duties and responsibilities
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 47

for how many years of service in the WCPD, their traits and characteristics are being

affected as well as their approach for the victims filing in their office.

Table 2. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents as to Civil Status


Civil Status Frequency Percent

Single 0 0

Married 3 100.0

Total 3 100.0

The above table shows that all of the informants or the desk officers in the PNP

Tuguegarao Women and Children Protection Desk are married. This only implies that as

married women, they are manifestly able to give counselling and provide better services

for women and children who are victims of abuse and other forms of violence since they

experience what is like to act as married woman and a mother to a family and that they

may give guidance to the victims well for the reason that they are in the same feet.

Table 3. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents

as to Educational Qualification

Educational Qualification Frequency Percent

College Graduate 2 66.67

With Masters Units 0 0.00

Masters Graduate 1 33.33

Doctorate Graduate 0 0.00

Others 0 0.00
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 48

Total 3 100.0

The table shows that two or 66.67% of the informants in the educational

qualification category are college graduates and one or 33.33% of the informants attained

a master’s degree. This implies that the female desk officers, who are college graduates,

may have attained a Criminology course before entering as a WCPD desk officer while the

other one informant who have attained a Master’s degree may be their senior inspector

because it is one of the qualifications to attain a high position in the WCPD office.

Table 4. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents

as to Appropriate Eligibility
Appropriate Eligibility Frequency Percent

PNP Entrance Examination 0 0

Police Officer Examination 1 33.33

Senior Police Officer Examination 1 33.33

Superintendent Examination 0 0.00

Inspector Examination 0 0.00

Criminology Board Exam and CS


1 33.33
Eligibility

Total 3 100.0

As to appropriate eligibility, one or 33.33% of the informants obtained and passed

the police officer examination, the other one passed the senior police officer examination,

and one desk officer passed the criminology board examination and civil service eligibility.
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 49

This implies that to be able to attain a position in the WCPD office, appropriate eligibility

is required. Any eligibility, like a police officer eligibility, is already suitable to be a female

desk officer in the office.

Table 5. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents as to Number of

Months/Years in Service

Number of Months/Years in Service Frequency Percent

1-5 years 0 0

6-10 years 2 66.7

11-15 years 0 0.0

16-20 years 1 33.3

Others 0 0.0

Total 3 100.0

As to the number of months/ years in the service, because all of the informants are

already serving for years, we put years in the table. Two or 66.67% of the informants

served their office for 6-10 years and one informant already served within 16-20 years.

This only implies that for 6-10 years, the desk officers already gained enough knowledge,

expertise, and consistency in the field. More so for one informant who have already

achieved 16-20 years in the service, this only means that their services and counselling to

the victims has already been a way of life for them and that they are already knowledgeable

enough with how to run and develop more their WCPD office.
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 50

Table 6. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents

as to Trainings/Seminars Attended

Trainings/Seminars Attended Frequency

Examination/investigation of cases involving


3
women and children

Management of women and children in conflict


1
with the law

Criminal Investigation Course 1

WCPC Course 1

Investigation Case 1

R.A. 7877 Seminar 1

R.A 9208 Seminar 1

CICL Case 1

Three of the informants have already undergone seminar for examination or

investigation of cases involving women and children. Other informants have undergone

seminars about management of women and children in conflict with the law, criminal

investigation course, WCPC course, investigation case, R.A. 7877 seminar, R.A. 9208

seminar, and CICL case.

Table 7. Item Mean of the Extent of the responsiveness to intervention


measures of the TCWCPD
Extent of the responsiveness to intervention measures Weighted Descriptive Value
of the TCWCPD Mean
I. Conduct of Interview and Investigation
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 51

1. The conduct of interview and investigation are Very Responsive


5.00
executed by a female officer.
2. The women or children victim is provided with Very Responsive
information on the services and remedies available to 4.67
them from government agencies and non-government
organizations.
3. The conduct of interview and investigation is made Very Responsive
in a separate room with only one authorized person 5.00
allowed inside.
4. Child victim interview and investigation is in the Very Responsive
presence of a social worker as provided in the handbook 4.67
of the Philippine National Police.
5. The information is treated with confidentiality by the Very Responsive
authorized female desk officer conducting such 5.00
investigation.
Category Mean 4.87 Very Responsive
II. Arrest and Apprehension
1. The desk officer notifies the victim on the release of Very Responsive
the perpetrator from custody and the conditions 4.67
attached upon his release.
2. When the perpetrator is not arrested, the reasons are 4.67 Very Responsive
explained by the desk officer to the victim.
3. The police officer arrests the perpetrator despite the Very Responsive
claim by the perpetrator that the victim provoked or 4.67
perpetuated the violence.
4. The police officer in-charge arrests the perpetrator/s Very Responsive
despite the fact that the incident occurred in private 4.67
place.
5. Arrest of perpetrators despite the victim’s opposition 4.67 Very Responsive
to the arrest is made by the arresting officer.
Category Mean 4.67 Very Responsive
III. Preventive Measures
1. The TCWCPD conducts seminars on the laws of Very Responsive
5.00
women and children protection to the community.
2. Proper information dissemination on violence Very Responsive
against women and their children services are given 5.00
attention.
3. The production and regular distribution of VAWC Very Responsive
information education and communication are 4.67
recognized.
4. Gender sensitivity awareness is being 4.67 Very Responsive
acknowledged.
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 52

5. Information drive on anti-trafficking is possessed by 5.00 Very Responsive


the TCWCPD.
Category Mean 4.87 Very Responsive
IV. Confidentiality of Police Blotter, Records, and
Reports
1. Medico legal examination results and other pieces Very Responsive
of evidence are packaged and labeled as confidential 5.00
and stored in a designated evidence room.
2. Maintaining of a separate logbook for VAWC Very Responsive
incident is always implemented also with 5.00
confidentiality.
3. Access to VAWC logbook is limited to 5.00 Very Responsive
WCPD personnel.
4. On-the-spot and progress reports on all VAWC and 5.00 Very Responsive
case folders are secured in a locked cabinet.
5. Case folders are being secured in a locked cabinet. 5.00 Very Responsive
Category Mean 5.00 Very Responsive

The above table shows the result with each of the questions on the extent of

responsiveness to intervention measures of the TCWCPD. All of the categories such as the

conduct of interview and investigation, arrest and apprehension, preventive measures, and

confidentiality of police blotter, records, and reports, has a category mean of 5.00 which

means that they are very responsive. This implies that their responsiveness as to all their

services is enough to cater the needs and welfare of the victims.

Table 8. Item Mean of the Degree of Problems Encountered by the


PNP Tuguegarao WCPD

Degree of Problems Encountered by the PNP Weighted Descriptive Value


Tuguegarao WCPD Mean
I. Physical Facilities
1. Insufficiency of computers and a direct Not Serious
1.67
telephone line.
2. No separate room intentionally for the 1.33 Not Serious
investigation of VAWC victims.
3. No play area for minor victims. 1.00 Not Serious
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 53

4. Insufficient filing cabinet and record room. 1.00 Not Serious


5. No separate comfort room for women victim. 1.00 Not Serious
Category Mean 1.20 Not Serious
II. Interview and Investigation Process
1. Conduct of interview and investigation to Not Serious
1.67
victims of violence are found to be difficult.
2. The victim is not provided with information Not Serious
on the legal rights and remedies available to 1.00
her, especially the right to protection order RA
9262.
3. Inadequate information on the legal rights 1.00 Not Serious
and remedies available to victim.
4. Interview and investigations are not 1.00 Not Serious
conducted by female officers.
5. Initial interview and in-depth investigation is 1.00 Not Serious
not done in a separate room.
Category Mean 1.13 Not Serious
III. VICTIMS
1. Victim is retracting his/her statement and Moderately Serious
3.33
non-appearance in court.
2. Victim is suffering from trauma. 3.67 Serious
3. Non-cooperation of child’s parent/guardian. 3.33 Moderately Serious
4. Victim cannot identify his/her abuser. 2.67 Moderately Serious
5. Child is not afraid to disclose abuses. 3.33 Moderately Serious
Category Mean 3.27 Moderately Serious

As to the degree of problems encountered by the desk officers, under the category

of physical facilities, it is interpreted as not serious which means that their physical

facilities are enough to cater the needs of the victims. Under the interview and investigation

process, the result is not serious which means that they can handle the victims well. Lastly,

on the victims, the result landed to moderately serious which means that the problems they

are encountering with the victims are only average and not extremely nor slightly serious.
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 54

Table 9. Secondary Data based on the number of cases filed in the TCWCPD
Rape Human R.A. 7610 R.A. 9262 Acts of
Trafficking Lasciviousness
2017 13 1 24 19 4
2018 12 1 23 23 1

The table above consists of the secondary data that we gathered from the WCPD

office, showing the solved and cleared cases from 2017 and 2018. In 2017, thirteen (13)

rape cases were filed while 12 rape cases were filed in 2018. The case of human trafficking

in 2017 and 2018 was only one. Violations of R.A. 7610 in 2017 raised to 19 cases while

in 2018, only 23 cases of such violation was filed, all cases were deemed solved and

cleared. Under violations of R.A. 9262, 19 cases were solved and cleared in 2017 and was

raised in 2018 having 23 solved and cleared cases. Finally, four cases for Acts of

Lasciviousness in 2017 were solved and cleared while only one case of the same violation

was filed in 2018 but was also declared solved and cleared.

INTERVIEW
The interviewer asked the Chief Police Officer regarding the introductory question

and that is, how well do they know that they effectively and efficiently implement the

programs and services of the Women and Children Protection Desk Programs and

Services? The officer answered that as a WCPD officer, they are trained through attending

seminars regarding women’s desk, VAWC seminar 9208, WCPC Specialized Course on

Women and Children Protection Law, CICL Course and other related VAWC cases. The

officer added that with regards their trainings and seminars, an implementation is needed
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 55

to further know the rights of each and every one of us especially the victims of abuse like

women and children. Whatever is provided by the law, they have to follow the rules.

When the desk officer was asked on what are the common violations brought before

their office, the informant answered that mostly, R.A. 9262 or the Anti-Violence against

Women and Children are filed. Other cases are child abuse and rape cases.

A follow-up question was asked and that is how the interaction of the WCPD with

other agencies is. The desk officer answered that it is included in their Standard Operating

Procedure (SOP) especially if minors are involved or victimized, they should always

coordinate with the other agencies like social welfare and if it is a rape case, they would let

the Department of Justice know because they offer an assistance to the victims. They also

let the DSWD know since they offer a big help specifically if the victim is a minor who

needs thorough counselling.

When the police officer was asked about how the process of filing in their office is,

she answered that the procedure goes this way, when a victim goes to their office, they are

required to undergo a medical examination first especially if the she is a victim of R.A.

9262. The medical certificate is the basis on why did she filed for physical abuse. They

also follow cardinal points like when and where does the abuse happened. After that, if the

victim is willing to file a case then she needs to produce her birth certificate including their

marriage certificate, if the abuser was her husband, or her child’s birth certificate. Lastly,

the victim also needs to show to the officers her affidavit.


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 56

The desk officer was asked about the filing of a violation if the victim is not

married. She answered that if, for example, they are live-in partners then it is just okay

because the determining point is that “as long as there is a dating relationship”.

When the police officer was asked on the key question, “What are the

recommendations to strengthen or improve the TCWCPD?”, she answered that every time

they are invited to conduct a lecture or seminar about R.A. 9262, R.A. 7610, trafficking,

bullying, and other cases related to women and children, they make sure that the people

they are sharing their knowledge with will become aware on their rights and that is one big

help for them.

Additionally, when the desk officers are going to some schools and barangays, their

seminar is interconnected with re-echoing it because there are victims who are afraid of

telling the truth and so they need to encourage the victims to file a complaint especially if

the abuser is a recidivist. They also stated that they need to focus more on the matter since

before, laws relating to women and children protection are inexistent.

When the desk officer was asked if where the victims stay for protection after a

case in court was filed, some points where clarified such as if the victim is a child and that

he/she has no parents, of course that child will be forwarded to the social workers in DSWD

or if the child has immediate relatives who has capacity to take care of the child, then it is

just fine because what matters most is the best interest of the latter. If the victim is a

woman, they can file a barangay protection order for 15 days so that the abuser will not be

able to go near the victim and vice-versa. After that, a temporary or permanent order may
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 57

also be filed if the victim needs utmost protection. In that case, the alleged suspect will not

be able to go near the victim. Once the suspect violated the order, he may be captured by

the police officers and serve his violation.

Another question was asked and that is what if the victim is afraid of reporting the

incident and somebody saw the matter, would that third person be allowed to report the

same? The desk officer answered that if in case the victim is still afraid to file a complaint,

then that person who saw the matter may report to the barangay, WCPD office, or the PNP

themselves especially if the victim is a child.

Also, the victim has its own prerogative to push through or file a complaint, because

even if the desk officers are much willing to file a case, if the victim is not interested then

the case will be dismissed. It boils to the fact that no one will testify on the complaint and

the only solution with that is to convince the victims to pursue the case.

The victim, who may be disoriented or traumatized, is approached by calming

him/her first and that no force shall be used against them. If he/she is now able to talk to

the desk officers, then that’s the time that all information regarding the case shall be asked

by the officer. In addition to that, the victim may also proceed outright in the TCWCPD

office shall they want to file a complaint.

The desk officer was asked if this research broadened her mind regarding the

implementation process and she definitely answered yes since there are cases that they

could gain knowledge with this research that they still aren’t aware about.
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 58

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of findings, and the corresponding conclusions

derived in the conduct of this study. It also provides recommendations that could be

pursued by other researchers conducting future undertakings relatively with the present

study.

Summary of Findings

This study was anchored on the Implementation of Women and Children Protection

Desk Program and Services pursuant to General Orders Number DPL 07-03 dated October

15, 2007, National Headquarters, Philippine National Police, Camp Crame, Quezon City.

It attempted to find the extent of the responsiveness to intervention measures of the

PNP Tuguegarao WCPD and the degree of problems encountered by them.

The following findings were obtained:

1. The demographic profile of the female desk officers were as follows: age- the

highest was the 31-35 which obtained 66.67% and 41-above being the lowest with

only 33.33% or only one of the informants; civil status- all of the informants or the

desk officers in the PNP Tuguegarao Women and Children Protection Desk are

married; educational qualification- majority (66.67%) of the informants in the

educational qualification category are college graduates and one informant attained

a master’s degree; appropriate eligibility- one informant obtained and passed the

police officer examination, the other one passed the senior police officer

examination, and one desk officer passed the criminology board examination and
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 59

civil service eligibility; number of years in service- majority (66.67%) served their

office for 6-10 years and one informant already served within 16-20 years and;

trainings and seminars attended- Three of the informants have already undergone

seminar for examination or investigation of cases involving women and children.

Other informants have undergone seminars about management of women and

children in conflict with the law, criminal investigation course, WCPC course,

investigation case, R.A. 7877 seminar, R.A. 9208 seminar, and CICL case.

2. Extent of responsiveness to intervention measures were as follows: conduct of

interview and investigation- the mean was 4.87 (Very Responsive); arrest and

apprehension- the mean was 4.67(Very Responsive); preventive measures- the

mean was 4.87 (Very Responsive) and; confidentiality of police blotter, records,

and reports- the mean was 5.00 (Very Responsive).

3. Degree of problems encountered were as follows: physical facilities- the mean was

1.20 (Not Serious); interview and investigation process- the mean was 1.13 (Not

Serious) and; victims- the mean was 3.27 (Moderately Serious).

4. A secondary data regarding the solved and cleared cases on the TCWCPD from

2017 to 2018 was shown as follows: in 2017, there were 13 rape cases, 1 case for

human trafficking, 24 cases for R.A. 7610, 19 cases for R.A. 9262, and 4 cases for

Acts of Lasciviousness. In 2018, there were 12 cases for rape, 1 case for human

trafficking, 23 cases for R.A. 7610, 23 cases for R.A. 9262, and 1 case for Acts of

Lasciviousness.

5. In the interview guide, the Senior Inspector was asked about few questions and

were supported by the other two female desk officers in the office. They were asked
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 60

on how well do they know that they effectively and efficiently implement the

programs and services of the Women and Children Protection Desk Programs and

Services and answered confidently that they are trained through various trainings

and are disseminating information regarding the rights of women and children

through conducting lectures and seminars. When they were asked about the

common violations brought before their office, they answered that mostly, R.A.

9262 or the Anti-Violence against Women and Children are filed. Other cases are

child abuse and rape cases. Other pertinent and related questions were also asked

and are honestly answered by the desk officers. When they were asked on the

recommendations to strengthen or improve the TCWCPD, they responded that they

make sure that the people they are sharing their knowledge with will become aware

on their rights as they conduct the seminars and trainings. On the question about if

this study broadened their knowledge on the implementation, they answered that

they could gain knowledge with this research that they still aren’t aware about.

Conclusions

Based on the above findings, the following conclusions were drawn:

The female officers were all married, have enough years in service that

could prove that they are already experienced and knowledgeable enough to

implement the rights of women and children, have appropriate eligibility to be

suitable desk officers in the long run, and have enough trainings and seminars

attended to share their knowledge and expertise as the conduct each complaint and

cases filed.
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 61

As to the extent of responsiveness to intervention measures of the

TCWCPD, their conduct of interview and investigation, arrest and apprehension,

preventive measures, and confidentiality of police blotter, records, and reports were

found very responsive which means that they are implementing well the rules and

regulations as well as the policies in their office. Hence, the way they handle the

cases does not negatively affect their services to each of the victims they are dealing

with.

As regards the degree of problems encountered by them, the physical

facilities present in their office were evidently adequate to cater the needs of the

victims as they undergo such point of happening in their lives, the interview and

investigation process was not serious which means that they follow the rules

indicated and conducting the processes well, and with the victims, it was interpreted

as moderately serious which mean that there are cases of them having a hard time

dealing with the victims since there are instances that the latter may not cooperate

due to disorientation and trauma.

Recommendations

In the light of the above findings and conclusions, the following recommendations

were made:

1. A program of instruction designed for a more comprehensive formal training

not only to the senior inspector but from among the female desk officers

especially to seminars relating to Management of women and children in


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 62

conflict with the law, Criminal Investigation Course, WCPC Course,

Investigation Case, R.A. 7877 Seminar, R.A. 9208 Seminar, and CICL Case

should be adopted.

2. As to conduct of interview and investigation, we recommend that the women

or children victim will be provided by the female desk officers with more

information on the services and remedies available to them from government

agencies and non-government organizations since their awareness on their

rights will matter most. Additionally, child victim interview and investigation

shall always be in the presence of a social worker as provided in the handbook

of the Philippine National Police.

3. With regards to arrest and apprehension, the female desk officers must focus

more on the notice to the victim on the release of the perpetrator from custod

and the conditions attached upon his release since this is a crucial matter for the

victim or victims who may be disoriented and traumatized with the incident that

happened to them.

4. Relevant to the preventive measures, we highly recommend that the production

and regular distribution of VAWC information education and communication

shall be fully recognized since it is in the sharing of information that the women

and children, and even all people start to value more their rights. Also, gender

sensitivity awareness shall also be extremely acknowledged by the female desk

officers to might as well avoid gender stereotyping.


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 63

5. With reference to the confidentiality of police blotter, records, and reports, the

female desk officers shall only maintain and develop the service since all

disclosed information may affect the complaint or case filed by the victim or

victims in their office.

6. As to the physical facilities in their office, the female desk officers must pay

close attention to the insufficiency of their computers and direct telephone lines

which are needed to contact the other agencies that may help them with the

implementation of their programs and services to the victims.

7. Concerning the interview and investigation process, the female desk officers

must be patient enough in the conduct of interview and investigation to victims

of violence. What matters most is that even though it is a difficult situation for

them to do it, at least the desk officers may get all the information needed for

them to solve the case.

8. In relation to the victims, who may suffer from trauma, the female desk officers

shall continually be considerate with the situation of the victims since they may

be fragile and bewildered with what happened to them.

9. Organization and activation of the Women and Children Protection Council

(WCPC) in the different levels of society, that is from provincial city, municipal

and barangay level, serving as the coordinating machinery of the different

functions in ensuring the rights and interest of women and children.

10. Similar study be conducted in another time and setting which will focus on the

extent of responsiveness of the WCPD, giving emphasis with other factors


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 64

serving as variables, purposely to confirm or negate the findings and

conclusions derived relatively with the conduct of the present study.


CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 65

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Curriculum Vitae
Personal Profile
Name: DIANNE HANNALY B. AQUINO
Address: 02-EA Valenzuela St., Centro 10, Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
Age: 20
Birthday: December 17, 1998
Birthplace:Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
Citizenship: Filipino
Status: Single
Religion: Roman Catholic
Father: David A. Aquino Occupation: Private Employee and Driver
Mother: Hilda B. Aquino Occupation: Housewife
Educational Background
NAME OF SCHOOL YEAR GRADUATED
ELEMENTARY: Tuguegarao East Central School 2011
HIGH SCHOOL: Saint John Berchmans High School 2015
COLLEGE: Cagayan State University- Andrews Campus
Personal Profile
Name: JESSICA P. BARTOLOME
Address: 47-C, Caggay Highway, Tuguegarao City
Age: 19
Birthday: December 26, 1999
Birthplace: Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
Citizenship: Filipino
Status: Single
Religion: Roman Catholic
Father: Servando Q. Bartolome Jr. (Deceased)
Mother: Editha P. Bartolome Occupation: Manicurist
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 75

Educational Background
NAME OF SCHOOL YEAR GRADUATED
ELEMENTARY: Tuguegarao Northeast Central School 2011
HIGH SCHOOL: Cagayan National High School 2015
COLLEGE: Cagayan State University- Andrews Campus
Personal Profile
Name: JC KING R. BIO
Address: Sta. Maria, Lal-lo, Cagayan
Age: 19
Birthday: May 19, 1999
Birthplace: Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
Citizenship: Filipino
Status: Single
Religion: Born Again
Father: Rolando T. Bio Occupation: Laborer
Mother: Alma R. Bio Occupation: Encoder
Educational Background
NAME OF SCHOOL YEAR GRADUATED
ELEMENTARY: Sta. Maria Elementary School 2011
HIGH SCHOOL: Lallo National High School 2015
COLLEGE: Cagayan State University- Andrews Campus
Personal Profile
Name: JESSICA P. LUMIDO
Address: 24 Ipil-ipil St., Capatan, Tuguegarao City
Age: 19
Birthday: May 23, 1999
Birthplace: Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
Citizenship: Filipino
CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY- ANDREWS CAMPUS PAGE 76

Status: Single
Religion: Roman Catholic
Father: Marlon C. Lumido Occupation: Businessman
Mother: Marites P. Lumido Occupation: Housewife
Educational Background
NAME OF SCHOOL YEAR GRADUATED
ELEMENTARY: Capatan Elementary School 2011
HIGH SCHOOL: Cagayan National High School 2015
COLLEGE: Cagayan State University- Andrews Campus
Personal Profile
Name: JADE MARIELLE E. QUILANG
Address: 26 Quilang St., Linao Norte, Tuguegarao City
Age: 20
Birthday: Sep. 04, 1998
Birthplace: Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
Citizenship: Filipino
Status: Single
Religion: Roman Catholic
Father: Joaquin B. Quilang Occupation: Non-uniformed personnel
Mother: Myleen E. Quilang Occupation: Freelance Hairdresser
Educational Background
NAME OF SCHOOL YEAR GRADUATED
ELEMENTARY: San Gabriel Elementary School 2011
HIGH SCHOOL: Cagayan National High School 2015
COLLEGE: Cagayan State University- Andrews Campus