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Communal oriented

Communication strategies
Minimizes or avoids mention of WOMM campaign

Product focus
Use of opinion leaders

Negative, depends on communal norms

Hostility toward opinion leaders Satisfaction
Social class

Explanation Use of opinion leaders

Communication strategies
Communal norms Reveals WOMM campaign and participants
Average age
Awareness of cultural tension
Interests The higher the satisfaction the more positive WOM

Communal oriented
Journalists Commitment
Professions related bloggers Narrative strategies Neutral or supportive
Blogger's patterns Reaction
Doctors Acceptance of opinion leaders

Recommendations Promotional marketing language and terms Phsychology

Communication strategies
Critics The lower the commitment the higher the positive WOM
Dual-role: consumer-marketer
Blog purposes
Oriented on personal needs
For moms Embracing Negative if not related to communal norms
Blog themes
Relationships Positive if communal norms are congruent with
Reaction campaign
Sports Factors
Network narratives
How and what can affect
Resistance to opinion leaders
Technical Factors that influence
Terms Oriented on personal needs
The higher the commitment and satisfaction the more
News Communication strategies positive behaviours Identification with brand
Brand equity Reveals WOMM campaign Self-image congruence
Product Type of product
Awareness of cultural tension
information search
Promotional characteristics of campaign
Service Promotional marketing language and terms
Objectives Endorsment Self-connection
Decision making process
Synchronous Tempered negative regarding campaign
Level of interactivity
Reaction Shared values
Support for opinion leaders
Asynchronous Varied by
Online-communities Marketers
Methods of study
Useful for
Organisations with wide product range
Communication scope
Many-to-Many Variables
Examples of world's most popular resourses Benefits
Fluid and flexible Survey+follow-up

More reliable, credible, trustworthy source of information Scales

Percieved as Types of observation

Percieved independence of the source (sender) of Observation : How to measure

Rules of observation Circles
Formed on the linguistis content Differences with offline WOM How to interprete the results

limited non-verbal cues

Offline WOM

Formal (functional)

Personal (emotional) Consumer - Web site relationships (not an individual

vs individual)

More active

More discerining

More accessible to one-on-one processes Online consumers Word of Mouth Books on WOM marketing
The Anatomy of Buzz Revisited: Real-life Lessons in
Word-of-Mouth Marketing, Emanuel Rosen, 2009
+/- Unique benefits and drawbacks
Stealth marketing #
Join the Conversation: How to Engage Marketing-Weary
Law cost of access and information exchange + Consumers with the Power of Community, Dialogue, and
Partnership, Joseph Jaffe, 2007
Beyond Buzz: The Next Generation of Word-of-Mouth
Greater control (in comparison with offline)
Marketing, Louis Kelly, 2007

High involvement in online relationships

Online WOM
Word of Mouth Marketing: How Smart Companies Get
Anonymity People Talking, Andy Sernovitz, 2006
Recent researches/literature
Misleading messages
- Create marketing messages Networked Narratives: Understanding Word-of-Mouth
Marketing in Online Communications, Kozinets, 2010

Target audience
Marketers Word-of-mouth communications in marketing: a meta-
Create new practices analytic review of the antecedents and moderators,
Seen by customers as
Website reciprocity Tie strength Measure efficiency
Celso Augusto de Matos, Carlos Alberto Vargas Rossi,
Emotional web site closeness
Searching for opinion leaders
Researches Satisfaction WOM
Roles Repurchase intentions
Number and types of resourses that are exchanged
Depends on Assurance
The frequency of exchanges

The intimacy of exchanges

Produce values and meaning Customers Related Loyalty Responsiveness
Share opinions
Online WOM process Tangibles
Offline atributes of individuals Antecedents
Consumer behaviour reliability
Homophily In web communities
Shared group interests Trust Empathy
The Network Coproduction Model WOM Antecedents and Moderators study in the
Alternative contextual cues marketing context Affective
Web-site content In social networks Social psychology
On forums Continuance
Relationship development Commitment
Limited individual attributes Normative
Interpersonal communications
Evaluation Source credibility Resistant
Customer's behavioral intentions
Percieved value
Site trustworthiness Idiosyncratic
Seen as
Actors expertise Creative WOM incidence

Types of communications WOM Pisitive

WOM negative
WOM valence
Efficiency is measurable +/- WOM mixed

Audience could be targeted

Wide range of customers is effected Advantages Interaction with resistant customers

Variety of ways to effect on customers
Wide range of customers is effected

Customer produce values and meanings

Negative opinions could be tracked
Avoid marketing influence

Customers share opinions for free Advantages Get "realistic" information

WOM is the most reliable source of information for


Opinion Leaders
Change consumers opinion by ongoing communication
The Linear Marketer Influence Model
Occures Transmit marketing messages
Key persons tasks
Without direct marketing influence Make infromation look faithfully

Customer to customer

Naturally The Organic Interconsumer Influence Model

Target opinion leaders

Expert status
Overcome resistant buyers
Desire to help others Marketers
Motives Influence customers without traditional means
Warn others
Dependency from opinion leaders
Non targeted

Couldn't be measured
Is difficult to effect on customers

Negative opinion couldn't be tracked