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Scania Engine

Developments

Anders Lundström

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Transport efficiency
Present development challenges
Long-term strategy
Future energy challenges

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Today’s issues for operators

• Reliability and uptime?


• Operating cost?
• Fuel economy?
• Payload / pay-cube?
• Fuel quality?
• Resale value?
• Convenience?
• Purchase price?
• Investment?
• Environmental performance?

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Drivers and challenges
Long-haulage

Construction

Fuel Driver 1kg fuel Distribution


=
Fuel Driver= 3 kg CO2

Other
Other Fuel

Other Driver

Other

to give the customer the lowest operating cost

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More efficient road transport
Engine improvement

Rolling resistance

Aerodynamic drag

Increased payload capacity

Driver influence
10 percent

50%
1970 2000
Fuel consumed per tonne-km (= CO2 emissions)

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More efficient road transport
Engine improvement

Rolling resistance

Aerodynamic drag

Increased payload capacity

Biofuels
Vehicle improvements
Driver

50% Efficient use of vehicles

1970 2000 2020

Fuel consumed per tonne-km (= CO2 emissions)

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More efficient road transport
Modular combination lengths

Three cargo units – 25.25 m

Tractor/semitrailer – 16.5 m • 40-60% added capacity


• 30% fewer trips
• 20% less fuel per tonne
transported
Truck/trailer– 18.75 m
• 20% lower emissions
• Eight axles sharing the weight
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Present development
challenges

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European emission standards

NOx g/kWh
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Euro 1 1992
Euro 2 1996

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Euro 3 2001
e n ts
i r em
4 qu
Euro 4 2006 Re

2 Euro 5 2009

Euro 6 / EPA10 2012?


0
0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40
PM g/kWh

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Fuel consumption
Engine development
CO2 emissions

NOx
Nitrogen oxides = NO + NO2

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Fuel consumption
Engine development
CO2 emissions

NOx
Nitrogen oxides = NO + NO2

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Fuel consumption
Engine development
CO2 emissions

Engine development
is to shift the curve

0.5% per
year

NOx
Nitrogen oxides = NO + NO2

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Long-term strategy

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Powertrain design

• Fuel flexibility
• Convenient handling
• Proven and robust technology
• Affordable

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Euro 5 (2008/09)

All truck and bus engines Particulates 0.02 g/kWh


NOx 2.0 g/kWh
• Scania EGR Scania XPI
Rail

• Scania XPI
Injectors

• Variable turbo geometry

• Increased swept volume


Fuel filters

• Oxicat
Low pressure
High-pressure
fuel pump

fuel pump

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Euro 6 (2011/12 ?)
New world standard based on EPA 10 ?

Assuming Particulates 0.013 g/kWh


NOx 0.27 g/kWh
– Japanese, US and
European norms Scania XPI
Rail
harmonised
– World-harmonised
Injectors
test cycle

Technologies
– Scania XPI, EGR, Fuel filters

VTG, SCR … High-pressure


fuel pump
Low pressure
fuel pump

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Scania HCCI
• Homogeneous charge
compression ignition
• Technology mature
around 2015

• High efficiency
• Lean (cold) combustion Image from test cell
gives low NOx
or in truck
• Premix prevents
formation of particulates
• High EGR rate
• Tricky combustion control
• High noise level
• High strength required

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Future energy challenges

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Oil and gas production
Expected
production peak
in 2008

Source: Uppsala Hydrocarbon Depletion Study Group, Oil and gas liquids 2004 Scenario,
Updated by Colin J. Campbell, 15 May 2004

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OECD
International Energy Agency

• has a more positive outlook to 2030


• but huge investments are needed,
15 to 20 trillions (1012) of USD

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Forecast for transport fuels
according to EU objectives
350

300

250
Hydrogen
200 6% 20%
Natural gas
Mtoe

EU targets for Bio fuel


150
alternatives Oil
100

50

0
2005 2010 2015 2020
Year

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Primary energy

Energy carrier

Energy conversion

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Future ne r gyfuels and energy carriers
e
a ry
Prim Sun
Natural Biomass Nuclear
Oil Coal Hydro
gas (waste) Wind power

Diesel oil Synthetic


gas Electricity

Fischer-
RME Tropsch Hydrogen

DME Alcohols

Petrol Methane
LPG

Source: Rolf Egnell, Lund Institute of Technology

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Future fuels and energy carriers
Natural Sun Nuclear
Biomass
Oil Coal Hydro
gas (waste) Wind power

Diesel oil Synthetic


gas Electricity

Fischer-
RME Tropsch Hydrogen

DME Alcohols

Petrol Methane
r rie rs
LPG a
r gy c
Ene
Source: Rolf Egnell, Lund Institute of Technology

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Future fuels and energy carriers
Sun
Natural Biomass Nuclear
Oil Coal Hydro
gas (waste) power
Wind

Diesel oil Synthetic


gas Electricity

Fischer-
RME Tropsch Hydrogen

DME Alcohols

Petrol Methane
LPG

Source: Rolf Egnell, Lund Institute of Technology

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Future fuels

• International standards
• Smooth transition to alternatives

• Existing technology can be used

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1st Scania ethanol (Otto) engine produced in 1916
1st Scania ethanol (Diesel) engine 1979, Brazil
Some 600 ethanol (Diesel) buses delivered

Ethanol
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1000 gas (Otto) vehicles delivered, mainly to Australia

Gas
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Robust hybrid technology

Ultra-capacitors for energy storage


Standard chassis and body components
25 per cent fuel reduction in city operations ?

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Liquid fuels preferable for vehicles

• Gas ideal for stationary


plants
• Gas propulsion possible
for urban use
• Gas gives weight and
bulk penalty onboard
• Liquid fuel convenient to
distribute and handle
• Liquid fuel easy to carry
onboard a vehicle
Source: BEST kickoff

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Renewable fuels
• Some alternatives are attractive, but …
– Production efficiency is lacking
– Lack of agricultural land for the quantities required
• Pure fuel for dedicated vehicles undesirable
• Mix with petrol and diesel recommended
– Adapted to suit all vehicles
– Potential for 100% in some cases
– International standards desirable
• Best mixes
– Petrol and ethanol
– Diesel and ethyl/methyl ester, e.g. RME

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Viable alternatives

• Ethanol – liquid renewable fuel


– With 5% ignition improver
• RME (FAME) – liquid renewable fuel
– 100% or mixed 5% in diesel
• Synthetic diesel – fossil or renewable
– 100% or mixed with diesel
• Gas (methane) – fossil or renewable

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