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A Study of Co-Curricular Activities and Student Participation in Secondary Schools of Dera Ismail Khan 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 2
1.1 Problem Statement ........................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Research Objectives ......................................................................................................... 3
1.3 Hypothesis ........................................................................................................................ 3
1.4 Limitations of the study.................................................................................................... 3
1.5 Significance of the study .................................................................................................. 4
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................. 5
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .................................................................. 7
3.1 Instruments ....................................................................................................................... 7
3.2 Population......................................................................................................................... 7
3.3 Sampling........................................................................................................................... 7
3.4 Data collection.................................................................................................................. 7
3.5 Analysis of data ................................................................................................................ 8
References ............................................................................................................................. 9
A Study of Co-Curricular Activities and Student Participation in Secondary Schools of Dera Ismail Khan 2

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

The modern education system recognizes that child come to educational institution

i.e. school for all round and harmonious development. It aims at the development of the total

personality of the child and for that school provides opportunities for experiences. In fact the

quality of the school depends on and evaluated upon the education experiences which are

provided in the school study programs, which may contribute to a long, happy and normal

life to the child. These comprise curricular, extracurricular as well as co curricular educative

experiences which provide inside as well as outside the classroom.

In this context, modern education lays special emphasis on the need of co curricular

and extracurricular activities, because it has been recognized as a source of enrichment and

vitalization of the school curriculum.

These activities form a vital link in the pattern of educational experiences necessary

for all boys and girls. Besides, these activities provide opportunities of self expression and

participation which include various important traits in learner. Psychologically, these

activities are considered essential because they provide outlets for the flow of the surplus

energies of the students (Dhanmeher, 2014).

1.1 Problem Statement:

Due to Globalization and privatization of educational sector, each educational

institution gives an ample chance to their students to become all rounder by Co curricular

activities (CCAs) participation. Some ambitious students always participate in CCAs to win

the race. This highlights that there is cut throat competition to win, which develops fair

competitive sprit within the students.

Hence it becomes necessary to conduct a comprehensive research in terms of

student’s participation in CCAs and their personality development through CCAs. This also
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helps to judge whether CCAs results into positive or negative impact on non academic aspect

of student’s personality development.

The study mainly focused on discovering the factors that students are aware about Co

curricular activities (CCAs) liking, participating or nonparticipating in CCAs and their

scholastic as well as non scholastic development.

1.2 Research Objectives:

The objective of the study is to find out the impact of Co curricular activities on

developing confidence, honesty, sociability, sympathetic attitude, sense of responsibility,

social obligation and adaptation.

The following were the objectives of the study:

1. To study the different aspects of Co Curricular Activities.

2. To study the different aspects of Non Academic Development.


3. To study the impact of Co Curricular Activities on the Non Academic Development of

Students (e.g. Non Academic Development includes adoption, Self Confidence, Honesty,

Sympathetic Attitude, Social Obligation, a Sense of Responsibility, Time Management and

Leadership Qualities).

1.3 Hypothesis:

(1) Do the co-curricular activities influence the academic performance of the

secondary school students?

(2) How is the academic performance influenced by specific activities?

1.4 Limitations of the study:

1) Being as a student it is beyond my approach to force the selected members of the

population for a response.

2) Time is also a factor which limited this study a great extent.


A Study of Co-Curricular Activities and Student Participation in Secondary Schools of Dera Ismail Khan 4

3) Financial constraints and boundaries are also research limit.

1.5 Significance of the study:

The research had sought to identify the impact of Co Curricular Activities (CCAs) on

a non academic aspect of the student development which is very essential in today's world.

An endeavor had been made to study the impact of CCAs on holistic development of students

with reference to various CCAs conducted in secondary schools.

The research was expected to help schools and their management in getting pointers

for student’s improvement in overall performance, hence resulting in an indirect contribution

to the welfare of the society.


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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

There are different views about extra-curricular activities. Education system in

schools offers co-curricular activities at all levels (Foster, 2008). The activities e.g. “co-

curricular activities, non-classroom activities and extracurricular activities” all have the same

meaning, referring to participation in music, drama and debates, etc (Emmer, 2010).

Activities on voluntary basis, which are being offered by the school and are officially

approved and have no extra marks or grades in exam are considered co-curricular activities

(Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2008). Student participation in such activities depends on the

opportunities which are being offered by school at different levels. Experience from these

activities shape an alternative curriculum—one that helps to shape the behavior of the

students and is well incorporated into the daily program of the school (Barbieri, 2009).

Both opportunities for extra-curricular activity and the extent of involvement in these

activities may affect the holistic development of individuals (Eccles, 2003). Involvement in

these activities may be beneficial in various ways e.g. it can encourage healthy lifestyle or

personality development at an early stage. Extracurricular activities provide such learning

which cannot be taught from subjects in class room and it helps young ones to apply their

classroom learning (Lunnenburg, 2010).

Exam or grade performance of students is also linked with the level of involvement in

such activities. Students who participate in various non-class room activities are also more

engaged in school time, have better exam grades and motivation towards education

(Fredricks & Eccles, 2006). But students who take part in at least some co-curricular

activities perform better in exams than those students who don’t participate at all (Reeves,

2008).

National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) also stated that there is high

awareness about co-curricular activities among children, but unfortunately the participation
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remains low for minority and poor students. Participation in such activities is perhaps the best

investment that a school can offer to his poor students to improve their performance (Everson

& Millsap, 2005). Level of involvement in any activity and its intensity is also important

(Gardner, Roth, & Brooks-Gunn, 2008).

Benefits of being involved in co-curricular activities are numerous and it leads to

positive youth development. But what exactly does this means? According to Eccles (2003)

involvement in voluntary activities in school may increase achievement and participation.

This is because student’s interpersonal skills and social norms are developed and

consequently they get more involved in pro social programs which then help to improve their

emotional wellbeing and social networks. The involvement in such activities is then expected

to contribute towards the improvement in grades and it may also help to reduce behavioral

issues.

Daley and Leahy (2003) found that mental health of the young ones can be improved

by being involved in physical activities and, as a result, their self-perceptions will be higher

than non-participating students.

Darling, Caldwell, and Smith (2005) stated that involvement in co-curricular activities

result in better exam grades, less disciplinary issues, increased attendance and less dropout

rate from school. The positive outcomes of co-curricular activities are not specific to athletic

activities, but these are also linked to other types of co-curricular activities. Olson (2008)

found that those individuals who were engaged in fine arts activities had significantly

improved attendance compared to those students who preferred to limit only to study at

school. Being involved in co-curricular activities are significantly related with class

attendance and higher class attendance is linked with higher exam grades (Olson, 2008).
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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The Research Methodology is a blue print of the Study conducted, which includes

many steps such as formulating research questions or objectives, matching the research

design with research objectives, defining and clarifying the research variables or analysis of

plan, drawing the sample, selection of sample, methods of data collection, framing

questionnaire, conducting interview survey, monitoring and carrying out the research,

processing of data analysis and finally interpretation of the data. The Research Methodology

is based on stages of fact finding and its analysis.

The study will be conducted by using the questionnaire filling technique, which will be

distributed among Head Masters/ Principals, teachers and students of high schools. Thus the

data will be collected and then analyzed for final outcome on the basis of which conclusions

will draw.

3.1 Instruments:

The tool used is a simple structured Questionnaire to collect quantitative data and

comments by respondents on the open ended questions. The questionnaire provided a rich

layer of information which could not be gathered through a highly structured questionnaire.

3.2 Population:

The Head Masters/ Principals, teachers and students of high schools are included as

the population of the study.

3.3 Sampling:

The convenient sampling procedure will be adopted in the selection of schools.

3.4 Data collection:

The method use for data collection for the study will be simple questionnaire.
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3.5 Analysis of data:

The collected data will be analyzed through the use of percentage/mean.


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Gardner, M., Roth, J., & Brooks-Gunn. (2008). Adolescents' participation in organized
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