You are on page 1of 164

NGRBA

NATIONAL GANGA RIVER


BASIN AUTHORITY

Sewerage Project, Begusarai


DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
MAY 2010
VOLUME I : MAIN REPORT

BIHAR URBAN DEVELOPMENT AGENCY


URBAN DEVELOPMENT & HOUSING DEPARTMENT, GOVERNMENT OF BIHAR
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Sewerage Project,
Begusarai
Acronyms & Abbreviations

A
AUWSP : Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme

ASP : Activate Sludge Process

B
BOD : Biochemical Oxygen Demand

BUDA : Bihar Urban Development Authority

BUIDCO : Bihar Urban Infrastructure Development Corporation

C
CDP : City Development Plan

CPHEEO : Central Public Health and Environment Engineering Organization

CWR : Clear Water Reservoir

CSP : City Sanitation Plan

D
DPR : Detail Project Report

G
GAP : Ganga Action Plan

GIS : Geographical Information System

GoI : Government of India

GoB : Government of Bihar

i
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

K
kW : Kilo Watt

kWH : Kilo Watt Hour

L
Lac Lit : Lac Liters

LPCD : Liters Per Capita Per Day

M
MLD : Million Liters per Day

Ml : Million Liter

M : Meter

mm : Millimeter

N
NGRBA : National Ganga River Basin Authority

NRCD : National River Conservation Directorate

NRCP : National River Conservation Programme

O
O&M : Operation & Maintenance

OHSR : Overhead Service Reservoir

P
PHED : Public Health Engineering Department

PPP : Public Private Partnership

ii
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

QA&QC : Quality assurance & quality control

S
SLNA : State Level Nodal Agency

SPS : Sewage Pumping Station

STP : Sewage Treatment Plant

SBR : Sequential Batch Reactor

U
UD&HD Urban Development & Housing Department

ULB : Urban Local Body/Bodies

W
WSP Waste Stabilisation Ponds

iii
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

SEWERAGE PROJECT, BEGUSARAI


UNDER

NGRBA
(NATIONAL GANGA RIVER BASIN AUTHORITY)

VOLUME I : MAIN REPORT


Chapter No Particulars

C-1 Project Background

C-2 Project Town

C-3 Design Criteria

C-4 Existing Infrastructure

C-5 Population projection

C-6 Proposed Sewerage System

C-7 Wastewater Treatment Process

C-8 Treatment Plant Design

C-9 Project Cost

C-10 Funding & Implementation

C-11 Operation & Maintenance

C-12 IEC Activities & Capacity Building

iv
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

SEWERAGE PROJECT, BEGUSARAI


UNDER

NGRBA
(NATIONAL GANGA RIVER BASIN AUTHORITY)

VOLUME II : ANNEXURES
ANNEXURE

Annexure No Particulars

A-1 General Standards for discharge of environmental


pollutants

A-2 Population projections

A-3 Hydraulic Design of Sewer network

A-4 Design of Sewage Treatment Plant

A-5 Design of Pumping Main

A-6 Design of Wet well & Pumping Stations

A-7 Structural Design of Sewers

A-8 General Abstract of Cost

A-9 Cost Estimates & Rate Analysis

A-10 Income & Expenditure Statement of Begusarai ULB

A – 11 Operation & Maintenance Cost

A - 12 Minutes of 1st meeting of ESC of NGRBA dated 05-02-


2010

A – 13 NRCD - Revised Guideline for preparation of DPRs for


conservation of Rivers & Lakes

v
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

SEWERAGE PROJECT, BEGUSARAI


UNDER

NGRBA
(NATIONAL GANGA RIVER BASIN AUTHORITY)

VOLUME III : DRAWINGS


DRAWINGS

SN Drawing No Particulars

1 BR/NGRBA/SWG/BEGUSARAI/01 Map and State of Bihar showing


Begusarai District

2 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/02 Town Map of Begusarai

3 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/03 Town map showing wards & ward wise
population

4 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/04 Comprehensive sewerage proposals

5 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/05 Town map showing sewer network

6 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/06 Typical sewer trench

7 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/07 Details of pipe bedding

8 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/08 Typical brick manhole Type ‘A’

9 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/09 Typical brick manhole Type ‘B’

10 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/10 Typical brick manhole Type ‘C’

11 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/11 Typical brick manhole Type ‘D’

12 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/12 Typical RCC manhole type E & F

13 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/13 Typical drop manhole

14 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/14 Typical Vent shaft arrangement

15 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/15 Typical house sewer connection

vi
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

SN Drawing No Particulars

16 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/16 STP layout plan

17 BR/ NGRBA /SWG/BEGUSARAI/17 Pumping Station

vii
NGRBA Detail Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Sewerage Project,
Begusarai
Table of Contents

Abbreviation i – iii
Combined Contents iv - vii
Table of Contents viii – xiii
Executive Summary xiv – xviii
Salient Features xix - xxii

CHAPTER 1. PROJECT BACKGROUND 1

1.1. PROJECT BACKGROUND 1


1.2. ESC APPROVAL 2
1.3. RIVERS 3
1.4. RIVER GANGES 4
1.5. RIVER POLLUTION 5
1.6. NGRBA 6
1.6.1. KEY FEATURES OF THE NEW APPROACH OF NGRBA 6
1.6.2. KEY FUNCTIONS OF THE NGRBA 6
1.6.3. ‘PREPARATORY STEPS’ AFTER SETTING UP NATIONAL GANGA RIVER BASIN AUTHORITY 7
1.7. DOCUMENT ORGANIZATION 9

CHAPTER 2. THE PROJECT TOWN 12

2.1. INTRODUCTION 12
2.2. THE STATE 12
2.3. THE DISTRICT 17
2.4. HISTORY 18
2.5. LOCATION 18
2.6. DEMOGRAPHY 18
2.7. CONNECTIVITY 18
2.8. CLIMATE 19
2.9. GEOGRAPHY 19
2.10. FACILITIES 21
2.11. COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES 21
2.12. TOURIST LOCATIONS 23

CHAPTER 3. DESIGN CRITERIA 25

viii
NGRBA Detail Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

3.1. THE MANUAL OF SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE TREATMENT (SECOND EDITION) 25


3.2. DESIGN PERIOD 25
3.3. GROUND WATER INFILTRATION 27
3.4. FLOW FORMULAE 27
3.5. VARIATION IN FLOW 28
3.6. PIPE MATERIAL 28
3.6.1. PRECAST CONCRETE (PC) PIPES: 28
3.6.2. VITRIFIED CLAY PIPES: 29
3.6.3. PLASTIC PIPES: 30
3.6.4. DI PIPES 30
3.7. THE STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF SEWERS 31
3.8. MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM SEWER PIPE SIZES 31
3.8.1. MINIMUM SEWER SIZES 31
3.8.2. MAXIMUM SIZES OF SEWERS 32
3.9. NORMAL MINIMUM DEPTHS FOR SEWERS 32
3.10. MANHOLE DESIGN AND SPACING 33
3.10.1. MANHOLE DESIGN 33
3.10.2. MANHOLE SPACING 34
3.11. FLOW CAPACITY OF SEWERS 35
3.12. SEWAGE SEPTICITY & VENTILATION 35
3.13. SEWAGE PUMPING STATIONS AND PUMPING MAINS 36
3.13.1. GENERAL 36
3.13.2. RECOMMENDATIONS 36
3.13.3. PUMPING MAINS 37
3.14. SEWER CROSSINGS 38

CHAPTER 4. EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE 39

4.1. EXISTING WATER SUPPLY 39


4.1.1. EXISTING ARRANGEMENTS 39
4.2. EXISTING STORM WATER DRAINAGE FACILITIES 40
4.2.1. EXISTING DRAINS 40
4.3. EXISTING SEWERAGE SYSTEM 42
4.3.1. SANITATION METHODS 43
4.3.2. COMMUNITY TOILETS 43
4.3.3. NEED OF THE PROJECT 45

CHAPTER 5. POPULATION PROJECTION 47

5.1. HISTORICAL TREND 47


5.2. CENSUS 2001 49
5.3. POPULATION PROJECTIONS METHODOLOGY 50
5.4. POPULATION PROJECTION 52
5.5. MICRO LEVEL POPULATION PROJECTION 53

ix
NGRBA Detail Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

CHAPTER 6. PROPOSED SEWERAGE SYSTEM 56

6.1. INTRODUCTION 56
6.2. PROPOSED SEWERAGE ZONES 56
6.3. PROPOSED NETWORK LAYOUT 57
6.4. DESIGN OF SEWERAGE NETWORK 59
6.5. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF SEWER PIPES 60
6.5.1. LOAD PRODUCING FORCES 60
6.5.2. SUPPORTING STRENGTH OF RIGID CONDUIT 62
6.5.3. LOAD FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT CLASSES OF BEDDING 62
6.5.4. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 63

CHAPTER 7. WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS 65

7.1. GENERAL 65
7.2. SEWAGE CHARACTERISTICS 65
7.2.1. IMPORTANT PARAMETERS 66
7.2.1.1. pH value 66
7.2.1.2. Solids 66
7.2.1.3. Nutrients 66
7.2.1.4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 67
7.2.1.5. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 67
7.2.2. EXISTING WATER/WASTEWATER CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 67
7.2.2.1. Drinking Water Characteristics 68
7.2.2.2. Wastewater characteristics 68
7.2.3. ADOPTED INFLUENT QUALITY 69
7.2.4. EFFLUENT STANDARDS 69
7.3. TREATMENT PROCESSES 70
7.4. SELECTION OF TREATMENT PROCESS 71
7.4.1. STABILIZATION PONDS 71
7.4.1.1. Aerobic ponds 71
7.4.1.2. Anaerobic ponds 71
7.4.1.3. Facultative Ponds 72
7.4.1.4. Disadvantages 72
7.4.2. AERATED LAGOONS 73
7.4.2.1. Aerobic Lagoons 73
7.4.2.2. Facultative Aerated Lagoons 73
7.4.3. UPFLOW ANAEROBIC FILTER PROCESS (UASB) 74
7.4.4. ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS 76
7.4.5. CYCLIC ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS/SEQUENTIAL BATCH REACTOR (CASP/SBR) 77
7.4.6. CONCLUSION 81

CHAPTER 8. TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN 85

x
NGRBA Detail Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

8.1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION 85


8.1.1. RECEIVING OF RAW SEWAGE (INLET CHAMBER) 85
8.1.2. COARSE AND FINE SCREENING 85
8.1.3. RAW SEWAGE PUMPING AREA 86
8.1.4. FINE SCREENING CHANNELS 86
8.1.5. DE-GRITTING 86
8.1.6. FLOW MEASUREMENT 87
8.1.7. SBR / CYCLIC ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS 87
8.1.8. CHLORINATION SYSTEM 87
8.1.9. SLUDGE HANDLING SYSTEM 87
8.2. TREATMENT PLANT CAPACITY 88
8.3. STP UNITS 88
8.3.1. RECEIVING CHAMBER 89
8.3.2. COARSE SCREEN CHANNELS 90
8.3.3. RAW SEWAGE PUMPING 91
8.3.3.1. Sump and Pumps 91
8.3.4. MECHANICAL FINE SCREEN AND CONVEYOR 93
8.3.5. GRIT REMOVAL UNIT 94
8.3.6. FLOW MEASUREMENT 95
8.3.7. DIVISION BOX 95
8.3.8. CYCLIC ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS / SBR PROCESS WITH DIFFUSERS AND AIR BLOWERS 95
8.3.8.1. Process Design 96
8.3.8.2. Decanting Device 96
8.3.8.3. Aeration System 97
8.3.8.4. Return Sludge and Excess Sludge Pumps 98
8.3.8.5. Automation and Control 100
8.3.9. SLUDGE HANDLING SYSTEM 100
8.3.9.1. Sludge Sump and Pump House 100
8.3.9.2. Sludge Transfer Pumps and Mixing Blowers 101
8.3.9.3. Mechanical Dewatering Unit: 102
8.3.9.4. Polyelectrolyte Dosing: 103
8.3.10. DISINFECTION SYSTEM 104
8.3.10.1. Chlorination Tank: 104
8.3.10.2. Chlorination System: 104
8.3.11. DISPOSAL PIPE/CHANNEL 105
8.3.12. SBR AIR BLOWER CUM ADMINISTRATIVE CUM MCC & CONTROL BUILDING 105
8.4. PROPOSED DISPOSAL METHOD 105
8.5. ANCILLARY FACILITIES 106
8.5.1. SECURITY ROOM 106
8.5.2. PMCC ROOM 106
8.5.3. CONTROL ROOM 106
8.5.4. REST ROOM 106
8.5.5. WORKSHOP CUM STORE 106
8.5.6. OPEN STORE YARD 106
8.5.7. COVERED VEHICLE PARK 107

xi
NGRBA Detail Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

8.5.8. LANDSCAPING 107

CHAPTER 9. PROJECT COST 108

9.1. SOURCES 108


9.2. SEWERS 109
9.3. MANHOLE 109
9.4. PUMPING STATIONS 110
9.5. TREATMENT PLANT 110
9.6. PROPERTY CONNECTIONS & SEWERS IN NARROW LANES 110
9.7. OTHER ITEMS 110
9.8. ABSTRACT OF COSTS 111

CHAPTER 10. FUNDING & IMPLEMENTATION 112

10.1. IMPLEMENTING AGENCY 112


10.2. AGENCY RESPONSIBLE FOR OPERATION & MAINTENANCES 112
10.3. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN 113
10.4. IMPLEMENTATION PERIOD 114
10.5. PACKAGING 114
10.6. IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE 114
10.7. FUNDING PATTERN 114

CHAPTER 11. OPERATION & MAINTENANCE 117

11.1. INTRODUCTION 117


11.1.1. CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE 118
11.1.2. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 118
11.1.3. PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE 118
11.1.4. FLUSHING PLAN 119
11.2. BENEFITS 120
11.3. TECHNICAL & MANAGERIAL CAPACITY 121
11.4. OUTSOURCING : 121
11.5. SEWERAGE O&M MANAGEMENT PLAN 121
11.6. O&M COSTS 124
11.6.1. PROVISION FOR SEWERAGE CHARGES IN BIHAR MUNICIPAL ACT, 2007 124
11.6.2. MODALITIES FOR SELF SUSTAINING SYSTEM 125
11.6.3. SUSTAINABILITY 125
11.7. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL BEGUSARAI 127
11.7.1. BACKGROUND 127
11.7.2. ADMINISTRATIVE SETUP 128
11.7.3. TOOLS & PLANTS 129
11.7.4. INCOMES & EXPENDITURES 129
11.7.5. POWER OF MUNICIPALITIES FOR SEWERAGE CONNECTION 131

xii
NGRBA Detail Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

11.8. SPECIFIC O&M REQUIREMENTS 132


11.9. O&M EQUIPMENT 133

CHAPTER 12. IEC ACTIVITIES & CAPACITY BUILDING 135

12.1. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY 135


12.2. PRINT MEDIA 136
12.3. ELECTRONIC MEDIA 137
12.4. CAPACITY BUILDING 137
12.5. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION UNITS 140

xiii
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Sewerage Project,
Begusarai
Executive Summary

With growing urbanization and emergence of urban areas as growth


centers combined with improved living standards, piped water supply with
improving service levels has become integral part of basic civic amenity.
Safe disposal of human excreta & wastewater is also necessary for health
reasons. The options available for disposal of excreta are either on-site or
off-site sewerage system. On site sanitation system, prevailing till date, in
most of the towns, are individualistic system with inherent problems for
collection & disposal of sludge & risks of contamination of ground water.
Water carriage sewerage system, more or less, has come to be universally
adopted for disposal of excreta.
Begusarai Town is the district head quarter of Begusarai District in State of
Bihar. The town is flanked by River Ganges on its west-south border. The
town is situated 125 kms from Capital, Patna. The topography of the town
is that of a flat plain area. The mean annual rainfall is 1155 mm mostly
confined to monsoon season and with maximum temperature during
summer between 42oC and minimum temperature of 8oC during winter
season.
As per 2001 census, the project town had a population of 93,741 souls.
Project facilities are proposed to be designed for future requirements of
year 2041. An elaborate exercise has been carried out for population
projection at both macro & micro level using number of statistical
methods & tools. The designed population for year 2041 comes out to be
221,740. The results of population projection for different years are as
follows:

S.No Census Population


Year

1 2001 93741
2 2008 109923
3 2011 117516
4 2021 146055
5 2026 162410
6 2031 180353
7 2041 221740

xiv
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Town Begusarai has no comprehensive sewerage system. The human


excreta is disposed of using on site sanitation methods. Open defection is
also not uncommon. Spent water from kitchen & bath rooms is let into
surface drains which lead to local depressions. Septic effluent from septic
tanks is also let into the surface drains.
The proposed project aims effective abatement of pollution of river
Ganga by provide a comprehensive wastewater collection, treatment &
disposal system using laterals, branches and trunk mains including sewage
treatment plant.
The project is proposed to be implemented under National Ganga River
Basin Authority (NGRBA), a programme launched by Government of India
with the objectives of pollution abatement and to improve water quality
of Ganga River. Under the project, Sewerage system is being proposed to
ascertain that no wastewater will be discharged in Ganga river
untreated.
The provisions, as recommended by Manual of Sewerage and Sewage
Treatment, published by Central Public Health and Environmental
Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), of Government of India and revised
guidelines for preparation of DPRs by NRCD are largely adopted for design
of sewerage system for this project.
The most of the town is proposed to discharge at single location on its
south eastern side. The treated wastewater is proposed to carry from
tratement plant site to River Ganga through a pipe. Two pumping stations
are proposed to restrict the depth of excavation to 8.0 mtr in general.
It is proposed to use Reinforced Cement Concrete non pressure circular
pipes for sewers suitably supported with bedding, depending on structural
requirements. A minimum size of 150 mm is adopted as per
recommendations of CPHEEO Manual. Manhole are proposed to be
provided at 30 mtr or more spacing as per prevalent practice &
specifications. The summary of sewer lengths for the town is as below:

Diameter Total
(mm) Length(m)
150 7761
160 17133
200 64564
250 1802
300 2051
350 1996
400 893

xv
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Diameter Total
(mm) Length(m)
450 853
500 756
600 921
700 505
900 313
1000 966
1100 4435
104948

A number of available technologies including conventional system like


Attached and Suspended growth aerobic systems, Anaerobic systems ,
oxidation ditch, UASB, Sequential Batch Reactor and unconventional
systems like Reed beds or Constructed wetlands, Soil application methods
and Waste Stabilization ponds are reviewed. The review of available
technologies is made with the consideration to the local climate, Land
availability, power requirements and treatment levels. A sewage
treatment system, based on Sequential Batch Reactor Process finds favor
owing to discharge standards requirement of 30 mg/l BOD and less land
requirement. It is increasing difficult to find adequate land in urban towns.
The proposed system includes Primary treatment in form of Coarse & Fine
Screens, Grit Chamber, SBR Tanks, Centrifuge and Chlorination Contact
Tank.
The intended treatment levels are to conform to the effluent standards for
application on land as per The Environment Protection Act, 1986. The
effluent is proposed to be discharged in River Ganga. The effluent
standards for inland surface water discharge includes 5 day BOD at 200C
as 30 mg/l and suspended solids of 100 mg/l.
A sewage treatment plant based on Sequential Batch Reactor
technology is proposed to be constructed of capacity 17 mld.
The costs for sewerage collection system with all ancillary works comes to
be Rs 52.63 Crores and that of Rs 16.70 Crores for Sewage Treatment plant
& SCADA. The total cost of the project will be Rs 69.33 Crore.
Benefits for the implementation of this project could only be achieved with
parallel improvements in other related fields. A number of other
interventions will be required for reaping full benefits of this project and to
ensure its continual efficient functioning. The major identified interventions
are provided below.

xvi
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Developing comprehensive management system for sewerage


facilities
 Encouraging property owners to connect to sewers where they are
available
 Introducing improved Quality Assurance procedures and checks
 Improving Solid Waste Management
 Sanitation awareness and domestic hygiene
Bihar Urban Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd. (BUIDCo) to act
as Execution Agency for all Projects sanctioned under NGRBA.,
Bihar Urban Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd. (BUIDCo) is a
Govt. of Bihar Undertaking registered under the Company’s Act 1956 (Act
1 of 1956) on 16th June, 2009. The project will be implemented by the
BUIDCo. There shall be tripartite contract agreements between BUIDCo,
ULB and Contractor for capital works and for O&M of assets created.
After successful testing and commissioning of all components, the assets
will be transferred to ULB for taking care of O&M responsibilities.
Considering the financial, technical & human resource constraints of
Municipal Council, it is proposed to club the operation & maintenance of
the sewerage system with STP in first five years with Capital works contract.
Later, with gradual capacity building of Municipal council, the O&M of the
system may be taken over by Municipal council or outsourced to some
private operator.
To assist the executing agency for activities of Construction supervision,
implementation of Quality assurance & quality control (QA&QC)
procedures, it is proposed to engage Construction supervision Consultants
for this project as a pre execution activity. Another important pre-
execution activity is to appoint some experienced Non Governmental
Organisation or other suitable agency with the aim to ensure active
participation of beneficiaries with the project implementation, carry out
social awareness campaign for good sanitation and good hygiene
practices and to encourage property owners to connect to sewers laid
under this project and to encourage the beneficiaries to pay for sanitation
services for efficient O&M operations and overall sustainability.
The project is proposed to be implemented in a single work package to
expedite the implementation process. Excluding the first nine months of

xvii
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

pre execution activities, project is proposed to be implemented in fifteen


months.
To ensure sustainability of the project, it is imperative that revenue be
generated from the beneficiaries of the system to recover the Operation
& maintenance costs and if possible, costs for extension & up-gradation of
facilities. In due course of time, it is required to Levy reasonable user
charges by ULB with the objective that full cost of operation and
maintenance or recurring cost is collected. It is proposed that a suitable
system in consultation with users and resident welfare associations is
required to be developed for collecting charges for sewerage facilities.
Two recommended options are; to levy sewerage charges as %age of
water charges and second is to charge property owners based on
categorized localities and plot size with preference to first option.
Successful Implementation & commissioning of project will considerably
improve the water quality of river Ganga with additional benefits in form
of improvement in living environment, hygienic conditions of town people.
The project will help in considerably reducing pollution load on Ganga
river which will lead to restoration of aquatic ecology of these rivers and
flourishing of aquatic flora & fauna.

xviii
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Programme National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)

Project Sewerage Project, Begusarai

Project Town Begusarai District Begusarai

SALIENT FEATURES
GENERAL INFORMATION
Area : 751.42 Ha Population, 2001 : 93741
Av Annual Rainfall : 1155 mm Households : 14310
Max Temperature : 42oC Min Temperature : 8 oC

LOCATION

Begusarai is district
headquarter of Begusarai
District. It lies in central
Bihar with River Ganga
flowing along its southern
boundary. It is 125
kilometers from State capital
Patna.

DEMOGRAPHY
Historical Population Population Projections

Year Population Year Projected Population


Arithmetical Geometric Incrementa Graphical Average
1921 9062 Progression l Increase Projection of four
1931 7739 methods
1941 12803 2001 93741 93741 93741 93741 93741
1951 15141
2008 105361 115526 108122 110682 109923
1961 27346
1971 35736 2011 110341 126349 114982 118393 117516
1981 56633 2021 126941 170299 140866 146114 146055
1991 71424 2026 135241 197712 155548 161140 162410
2001 93741 2031 143541 229538 171391 176942 180353
2041 160141 309382 206559 210877 221740

xix
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

EXISTING SCENARIO

There is no sewerage system existing in the town. Open defecation is not uncommon
in the town. Most of households having sufficient yard area and in newly developed
housing societies the wastewater disposal is done through septic tanks and effluent
from these septic tanks is discharged in open drains and get collected in local
ponds.

WASTEWATER PRODUCTION
Year Population Per Wastewater Wastewater Wastewater Infiltration Total
Capita Contribution Volume Volume (mld) Wastewater
Water per capita (mld) volume
Supply per day (mld)
2011 117516 135 80% 108 12.69 0.71 13.40
2021 146055 135 80% 108 15.77 0.71 16.48
2026 162410 135 80% 108 17.54 0.71 18.25
2041 221740 135 80% 108 23.95 0.71 24.66

PROPOSED SEWERAGE SYSTEM


Sewer Network Pumping Station

Diameter Total Two pumping stations are proposed one at Begusarai


(mm) Length(m) Museum and second at Gayitri Shakti Peeth
150 7761
160 17133 PS No Flow Head(m) kW Number
200 64564 (cum/hr)
250 1802
1 92.28 12 9.3 5
300 2051
350 1996 2 359.23 13 30 5
400 893
450 853
500 756 Railway & National Highway Crossings
600 921
700 505
There is one Railway crossing opposite Hanuman Manidr
900 313
near Railway Station and there are 4 NH crossings in the
1000 966
town.
1100 4435
104948
Treatment Plant

A treatment plant with capacity to treat 17 mld of wastewater is proposed. The


treatment process proposed is Activated Sludge Process based on Sequential Batch
Reactor technology. The treatment plant shall be sited in South East of town near
Wajidpur and the treated effluent shall be discharged in river Ganga through an
effluent pipe.

xx
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

PROJECT COST
PARTICULARS AMOUNT (Rs.)
Earthwork, Timbering and Barricading 66,620,215
Providing and Laying of Sewer lines with bedding works 112,287,407
Construction of Manholes, Vent-shafts and uPVC pipe 174,553,032
laying
Dismantling and Restoration of Roads, structure and 43,619,667
Railway & NH crossing by Trenchless technology etc
E. Miscellaneous Items like encasing, equipments for 16,849,448
flushing of sewer lines etc
Provision for 2 nos pumping station, rising main and 35,579,658
pumping machineries and for dedicated HT & LT
feeders.
Provision for STP (Sequential Batch Reactor) 17 MLD in 167,000,000
PHASE I including SCADA
TOTAL 616,509,427
Provision for Land Acquisition 22,100,000
Provision for IEC activities 5,000,000
Centage charges @ 8.0% (excluding land acquisition 49,720,754
cost)
GRAND TOTAL 693,330,181
SAY RS. Crores 69.33

O&M Expenditure Sustainability

Particulars O&M Exp (Lac Rs) Total O&M Expenditure for Rs 4070.07
project period
Year Year 2041
2012 Discounted O&M Rs 1292.73
Expenditure for Project
Salaries & Wages 48.0 48.0
period
Power Charges 38.00 71.96 Unit user charges required Rs 1.95
Repair & Maint 22.82 22.82 to offset undiscounted
O&M Cost
Chemical Charges 0.6 0.6
Unit user charges required Rs 2.10
Flushing Charges 6.65 6.65 to offset discounted O&M
Total Cost Cost
116.07 150.02

xxi
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

COST SHARING

The sharing of funds would be in the ratio of 70:30 between Central Government &
State Government & local bodies. The quarterly funds requirement in pre
construction & construction phase shall be as follows:

Funding Fund Quarterly Fund Requirements


Source Required
(Rs Pre Construction Phase Construction Phase
Crores) I II III IV V VI VII VIII
Central
48.53 0.10 0.39 5.63 4.35 10.87 15.22 8.71 3.26
Government

State
Government & 20.80 0.04 0.17 2.41 1.86 4.66 6.52 3.74 1.40
Local Bodies

Total 69.33 0.14 0.56 8.04 6.21 15.53 21.74 12.45 4.66

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

The initial nine months will be taken up by preliminary activities like appointment of
construction supervision consultants, identification & allotment/transfer of lands for
STP & Pumping Stations and Bidding process. Afterwards the project execution period
is taken up as 15 months.

xxii
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 1. Project Background

1.1. Project Background

Bihar Urban Development Agency (BUDA), working under UD&HD, is


engaged in systematic planning, infrastructure development, and
creation of civic amenities in urban and semi-urban areas in the State of
Bihar. BUDA has also been designated as the State Level Nodal Agency
(SLNA) for implementation of JNNURM & UIDSSMT programmes to work as
a facilitator in effective implementation of the projects in the identified
ULBs. These programmes are to be implemented through ULBs.
Govt of Bihar has decided Bihar Urban Infrastructure Development
Corporation Ltd. (BUIDCo) to act as Execution Agency for all Projects
sanctioned under NGRBA.,
BUIDCo is a Govt. of Bihar Undertaking registered under the Company’s
Act 1956 (Act 1 of 1956) on 16th June, 2009; established with a view to
accelerate infrastructure development activities across all ULBs and assist
the ULBs in developing, augmenting, financing and maintaining municipal
services.
There shall be tripartite contract agreements between BUIDCo, ULB and
Contractor for capital works and for O&M of assets created. After
successful testing and commissioning of all components, the assets will be
transferred to ULB for taking care of O&M responsibilities.
Government of Bihar has posed Sewerage projects of three towns namely
Hajipur, Buxar and Begusarai situated on the banks of river Ganges to

1
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) for financial support. The
broad objectives for the proposed sewerage projects is for rejuvenation of
river water quality by preventing passage of untreated municipal sewage
into the river.
The details of these towns is as below;

Area Population No. of


SNo. Project ULBs District
(Sqkm) Census 2001 Wards

1 Buxer Nagar Parishad Buxer 5.16 83,168 34


2 Hazipur Nagar Parishad Vaishali 19.64 1,19,412 39
3 Begusarai Nagar Parishad Begusarai 8.98 93,741 36

Total 33.78 2,96,321 109

The National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) decided that no


untreated municipal sewage and industrial effluents would be allowed to
enter the river Ganga after 2020 under Mission Clean Ganga. An
estimated investment of Rs 15,000 crore would be required over the next
ten years to create the necessary treatment and sewerage infrastructure.
An amount of Rs 250 crore has been allocated for the NGRBA in the Union
Budget for 2009-10. An allocation of Rs 500 crore per year has been
agreed to by the Planning Commission for the remaining two years of the
XIth Plan.
The World Bank, which has promised long-term support for the Authority's
work programme, has indicated assistance of $ 1 billion for the first phase.
A proposal of $3 million project preparation facility was forwarded to the
Bank and it has been approved.

1.2. ESC Approval

First meeting of Empowered Steering Committee (ESC) of the National


Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) was held of February 5’ 2010. In the
meeting following four projects of State of Bihar was taken into
consideration:
 Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Plant at Begusarai for pollution
abatement of River Ganga in Bihar – Rs 65.40 crores
 Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Plant at Buxar for pollution
abatement of River Ganga in Bihar – Rs 74.95 crores

2
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Plant at Hajipur for pollution


abatement of River Gandak in Bihar – Rs 113.62 crores
 Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Plant at Munger for pollution
abatement of River Ganga in Bihar – Rs 187.89 crores
Empowered Steering Committee has decided the following for these four
towns as follows:
 Approval of the project of Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Plant
at Begusarai for pollution abatement of River Ganga in Bihar – Rs
65.40 crores and release of first installment of Rs 7.0 crores
 Approval of the project of Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Plant
at Buxar for pollution abatement of River Ganga in Bihar – Rs 74.95
crores and release of first installment of Rs 8.0 crores
 Approval of the project of Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Plant
at Hajipur for pollution abatement of River Gandak in Bihar – Rs
113.62 crores and release of first installment of Rs 12.0 crores after
approval of Project by Union Finance Minister.
The minutes of meeting of ESC is available at Annex A-12.

1.3. Rivers

Rivers have been used for navigation for thousands of years. The earliest
evidence of navigation is found in the Indus Valley Civilization, which
existed in northwestern Pakistan around 3300 BC. Riverine navigation
provides a cheap means of transport, and is still used extensively on most
major rivers of the world.
Rivers have been a source of food since pre-history. They can provide a
rich source of fish and other edible aquatic life, and are a major source of
fresh water, which can be used for drinking and irrigation. It is therefore no
surprise to find most of the major cities of the world situated on the banks
of rivers. Rivers help to determine the urban form of cities and
neighborhoods and their corridors often present opportunities for urban
renewal through the development of foreshore ways such as River walks.
Rivers have been important in determining political boundaries and
defending countries. The coarse sediments, gravel and sand, generated
and moved by rivers are extensively used in construction. in recent
decades there has been a significant increase in the development of
large scale power generation from water

3
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Rivers also provide an easy means of disposing of waste-water and, in


much of the less developed world, other wastes.

1.4. River Ganges

The Ganges is one of the major rivers


of the Indian subcontinent, flowing
east through the Gangetic Plain of
northern India into Bangladesh. The
2,510 km river rises in the western
Himalayas in the Uttarakhand state
of India, and drains into the
Sunderbans delta in the Bay of
Bengal. The Ganges Basin drains
1,000,000-square-kilometre and
supports one of the world's highest density of humans. The river has been
declared as India's National River.
After flowing 200 km through its narrow Himalayan valley, the Ganges
debouches on the Gangetic Plain at the pilgrimage town of Haridwar.
Further, the river follows an 800 km curving course passing through the city
of Kanpur before being joined from the southwest by the Yamuna at
Allahabad. Joined by numerous rivers such as the Kosi, Son, Gandaki and
Ghaghra, the Ganges forms a formidable current in the stretch between
Allahabad and Malda in West Bengal. On its way it passes the towns of
Kanpur, Soron, Kannauj, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, Ghazipur, Bhagalpur,
Mirzapur, Ballia, Buxar, Saidpur, and Chunar.
The Ganges Basin with its fertile soil is instrumental to the agricultural
economies of India and Bangladesh. The Ganges and its tributaries
provide a perennial source of irrigation to a large area. Chief crops
cultivated in the area
include rice, sugarcane,
lentils, oil seeds, potatoes,
and wheat. Along the banks
of the river, the presence of
swamps and lakes provide a
rich growing area for crops
such as legumes, chillies,
mustard, sesame,
sugarcane, and jute. There

4
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

are also many fishing opportunities to many along the river, though it
remains highly polluted.
Tourism is another related activity. Three towns holy to Hinduism –
Haridwar, Allahabad, and Varanasi – attract thousands of pilgrims to its
waters. Thousands of Hindu pilgrims arrive at these three towns to take a
dip in the Ganges, which is believed to cleanse oneself of sins and help
attain salvation. The rapids of the Ganges also are popular for river rafting,
attracting hundreds of adventure seekers in the summer months.

1.5. River Pollution

The major polluting industries on the Ganga are the leather industries,
especially near Kanpur, which use large amounts of Chromium and other
chemicals, and much of it finds its way into the meager flow of the
Ganga.
Also, inadequate cremation procedures contributes to a large number of
partially burnt or unburnt corpses floating down the Ganga, not to
mention livestock corpses.
The Ganga Basin, the largest river basin of the country, houses about 40
percent of population of India. During the course of its journey, municipal
sewages from 29 Class-I cities (cities with population over 1,00,000), 23
Class II cities (cities with population between 50,000 and 1,00,000) and
about 48 towns, effluents from industries and polluting wastes from several
other non-point sources are discharged into the river Ganga resulting in its
pollution. The NRCD records put the estimates of total sewage generation
in towns along river Ganga and its tributaries as 5044 MLD (Million Litres per
Day). According to the Central Pollution Control Board Report of 2001, the
total wastewater generation on the Ganga basin is about 6440 MLD.

Urban filth and industrial pollution are scientific causes, but


environmentalists believe that apart from industrial pollution and sewage,
the increase in number of slaughterhouse, dhobi ghats, crematoria and
slums are the major sources of pollution in these rivers. Every year, religious

5
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

idols are immersed in rivers which lose a little more of their life as they are
choked yet again.

1.6. NGRBA

The Central Government, by a notification dated 20.2.2009, as set up


‘National Ganga River Basin Authority’ (NGRBA)as an empowered
planning, financing, monitoring and coordinating authority for the Ganga
river, in exercise of the powers conferred under the Environment
(Protection) Act,1986. The Prime Minister is ex-officio Chairperson of the
Authority, and it has as its members, the Union Ministers Concerned and
the Chief Ministers of states through which Ganga flows, viz., Uttarakhand,
Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, among others. The
objective of the Authority is to ensure effective abatement of pollution
and conservation of the river Ganga by adopting a holistic approach with
the river basin as the unit of planning. The functions of the Authority
include all measures necessary for planning and execution of
programmes for abatement of pollution in the Ganga in keeping with
sustainable development needs.
1.6.1. KEY FEATURES OF THE NEW APPROACH OF NGRBA

 River Basin will be the unit of planning and management. This is an


internationally accepted strategy for integrated management of
rivers. Accordingly, a new institutional mechanism in the form of
National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) will spearhead river
conservation efforts at the national level. Implementation will be by
the State Agencies and Urban Local Bodies.
 The minimum ecological flows for the entire Ganga will be
determined through modeling exercises. NGRBA will take
appropriate measures in cooperation with the States to regulate
water abstraction for marinating minimum ecological flows in the
river.
 Attention would also be paid to the restoration of living parts of the
river ecosystem for its holistic treatment to enable conservation of
species like dolphin, turtles, fishes and other native and
endangered species in their river.
1.6.2. KEY FUNCTIONS OF THE NGRBA

 The NGRBA would be responsible for addressing the problem of


pollution in Ganga in a holistic and comprehensive manner. This will

6
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

include water quality minimum ecological flows, sustainable access


and other issues relevant to river ecology and management.
 The NGRBA will not only be regulatory body but will also have
developmental role in terms of planning & monitoring of the river
conservation activities and ensuring that necessary resources are
available.
 The NGRBA would work for maintaining the water quality of the river
Ganga upto the acceptable standards. The pollution abetment
activities will be taken up through the existing implementation
mechanisms in the States and also through Special Purpose
Vehicles (SPVs) at the pollution hotspots.
 The NGRBA will ensure minimum ecological flow in the Ganga by
regulating water abstraction and by promoting water storage
projects.
 The NGRBA will plan and monitoring programmes for clanging of
Ganga and its tributaries. To begin with, it will concentrate on
Ganga main stem.
 The NGRBA would draw upon professional expertise within and
outside the Government for advise on techno-economic issues.
 The technical and administrative support to NGRBA shall be
provided by the Ministry of Environment & Forests.
1.6.3. ‘PREPARATORY STEPS’ AFTER SETTING UP NATIONAL GANGA RIVER BASIN
AUTHORITY

 River Basin Management Plan: a notice inviting Expression of Interest


to start the process of selecting an appropriate agency to prepare
the Ganga River Basin Management Plan has been issued. This has
been prepared taking into account inputs received from the
Central pollution control Board and the Central Water Commission
on the scope of work to be included in the Plan. 30 proposals have
been received from leading consultants. The Consultant will be
finalized shortly after two stage selection process.
 Status Paper: the Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, IIT, Roorkee has
been asked to prepare a Status Paper on Ganga which includes
the experience of the Ganga Action Plan and the present water
quality. It is being finalized. The Status paper will be presented in the
first meeting of meeting of the NGRBA.

7
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Priority Action plan for pollution hotspots: one of the priority functions
of the Authority is to implementation river conservation works at
pollution hotspots. These activities should commence even as the
comprehensive basin management plan is under preparation. MoEF
has requested the concerned State Governments to prepare action
plans for comprehensively tackling the problem of pollution in the
Ganga at the hotspots locations, such as Hardiwar, Varansani,
Ahmadabad, Kanpur, Patna and Howrah. These plans are awaited.
 SPVs as mode of implementation: the process of consolations with
State Government and Urban Local Bodies has been started to
discuss he feasibility of having SPVs in the river clearing sector and to
evolve the necessary modalities viz. Contractual arrangements,
concessions agreements, etc. A meeting was organized on 16th
June 2009 with the representatives of the State Governments and
the Heads of the Urban Local Bodies as a brainstorming session to
begin the process of identifying appropriate locations and the types
of river conservation infrastructure where SPVs would be feasible. A
presentation was made by IL&FS. State Governments & ULBs have
been requested to formulate proposals for implementing this
concept on a pilot basis.
 GIS Mapping: The National Information Centre (NIC has been
entrusted with the work of GIS based mapping of the entire Ganga
Basin. This work has already commenced. This will help the users to
view and update maps and tabular data relating to pollution
abetment works, water quality etc. and analyze the data for
monitoring and effective decision making.
 Memoranda of Agreement with States: the National Institute of
Urban Affairs has prepared a modal Memorandum of Agreement
which would link flow of funds to achievement of milestones such as
measurable improvements in water quality indicators,
implementation of pre determined reform measures and provision s
for O&M.
 Compendium of Technologies: A Compendium of the treatment
technologies available in India and aboard is being prepared by IIT,
Kanpur. This can serve as a store house for the NGRBA and would
help the State Governments and the local authorities in choosing
the appropriate technologies depending upon the totality of local

8
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

circumstances. The compendium would be presented in the first


meeting of NGRBA.
 The States have to be at the forefront of implementation of the river
conservation programme. The Authority, therefore, provides for the
State Governments to constitute State River Conservation Authorities
under the chairmanship of their Chief Ministers. However, certain
States may want the States Authorities to be constituted under the
Environment (Protection) Act in which case the notification will
have to be issued by the Central Government. A model notification
in this regard has been circulated to the State Governments for their
consideration.

1.7. Document Organization

This Project report includes three volumes. This document is volume I and
various annexure forms volume II and the Project drawings constitute
volume III.
Volume I include:
 Executive Summary: Executive summary of these proposals
summarizes the existing sanitation methods, the wastewater
infrastructure requirement, infrastructure proposed and the
consequent cost estimates of these proposals. It also highlights the
need of these proposals & the objectives it aims to achieve.
 Chapter I – Project Background: The Chapter discusses the
background of Project, NGRBA programme under which project will
be implemented, the Scope of Work for this work and in brief
describes the project town. It also details the document
organisation.
 Chapter 2 – The Project Town: This chapter provides a detailed view
of the project town including its physical environment i.e.
Topography, climate, geology, Water Table, Water bodies etc.,
demographics, location, industrial, institutional base and tourist
locations.
 Chapter 3 – Design Criteria: The various design criteria adopted for
preparation of these proposals are listed in this chapter. The options
available for different parameters and adopted values are
described in detail. This chapter also provides prevailing discharge
standards for different discharge locations.

9
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Chapter 4 – Existing Infrastructure: The existing infrastructure related


to civic amenities is detailed in this chapter. The existing water
supply arrangement, drain & outfalls, solid waste management, and
existing system of disposal of wastewater is described herein.
Considering the existing infrastructure, justification/need of this
project is described herein.
 Chapter 5 – Population Projection: The projected population of
town for the design period is provided in this chapter. The historical
population of town is analyzed and projected by various projection
methods available. Population projections of town at ward level is
also available in this chapter.
 Chapter 6 – Infrastructure Designs: This chapter includes design of
various sewerage infrastructure components which includes network
design, structural design of sewers, design of pumping stations and
force mains.
 Chapter 7 – Treatment Process: Various treatment options for
treatment of wastewater are described in details. The relative merits
& demerits of these options are evaluated for selection of preferred
option considering the specific requirements for the wastewater
quality, treated wastewater end use, disposal method in this
chapter. Availability of land vis-à-vis land required for preferred
treatment process is also provided in this chapter.
 Chapter 8 – Design of Treatment Plant: This chapter provides various
unit processes in the proposed treatment plant. The designs of
various units of treatment plant are also included in this chapter.
 Chapter 9 – Cost Estimates: The rate analysis and cost estimates of
various designed components are provided in this chapter.
 Chapter 10 - Project funding & Implementation Plan: This chapter
provides the quarterly requirement of funds for this project for
different agencies. The packaging options & preferred option is also
provided in this chapter. An implementation programme with
suitable Gantt Chart is included in this chapter.
 Chapter 11 – Operation & Maintenance: This chapter provides the
specific requirements for sustainable operation & maintenance of
proposed project in long term. The specific manpower, machinery &
funds requirement for sustainable O&M of the proposed system is
included here. The existing infrastructure of town ULB is described in

10
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

this chapter. The matters like collection mechanism, revenue &


expenditures of last few years of ULB, existing municipal bye-laws are
included in this chapter.
 Chapter 12 – Capacity building: The requirements for capacity
building of ULB in view of additional responsibilities are provided
herein. Recommendations for generic capacity building measures
are also included.
Volume II includes various annexure and Volume III contains various
drawings of existing & proposed Infrastructural system in the town.

11
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 2. The Project Town

2.1. INTRODUCTION

Begusarai is district headquarter of District Begusarai in State of Bihar. The


Begusarai district lies in central Bihar with river Ganga flowing along its
southern boundary. Patna, the capital of Bihar is about 125 km far from
Begusarai.

2.2. THE STATE

Location

The State of Bihar is situated in the vast Gangetic plain, Bihar is a land-
locked state between West Bengal on the east, Uttar Pradesh on the west,
Jharkhand on the south and Nepal (international border) on the north,
covering an area of 94,163 sq km.
A part of Bihar was separated and formed into a new state Jharkhand on
November 15, 2000.
Demography

According to Census 2001, total population of Bihar is 82,878,796 with


43,153,964 men and 39,724,832 women; the population density is 880
persons per sq. kilometer. The number of Children under 0-6 years is
16,234,539. Total rural population and urban population is 89.5% and 10.5%
respectively. Sex ratio is 921. According to 1991 census, the share of
population of the Scheduled Castes was 14.56% and Scheduled Tribes was

12
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

7.66% in Bihar. This ratio of the STs has changed drastically after separation
of Jharkhand from Bihar.
History

Bihar's antiquity is evident from its name, which is derived from the ancient
word "VIHARA" (monastery). It is indeed a land of monasteries. Hindu,
Buddhist, Jain, Muslim and Sikh shrines abound in this ancient land where
India's first major empires rose and fell. Where the ruins of the worlds'
earliest university slumbers in the void of time. The passage of Ganga,
flowing wide and deep enrich the plains of Bihar before distributing in
Bengal's deltoid zone.
Among all Indian states, Bihar is the one most intimately linked to the
Buddha’s life, resulting in a trail of pilgrimages which have come to be
known as the Buddhist circuit. The Buddhist trail begins at the capital city,
Patna, where a noteworthy museum contains a collection of Hindu and
Buddhist sculptures as well as a terracotta urn said to contain the ashes of
Lord Buddha.
The Khuda Baksh Oriental Library has rare Muslim manuscripts including
some from the University of Cordoba in Spain. 40 km away, Vaishali, was
the site for the second Buddhist Council. 90 km south of Patna is Nalanda
which translates as the place that confers the lotus’ (of spiritual
knowledge). A monastic university flourished here from the 5th to the 11th
century. It is said to have contained nine million books, with 2,000 teachers
to impart knowledge to 10,000 students who came from all over the
Buddhist world. Lord Buddha himself taught here and Hieun Tsang, the 7th
century Chinese traveler, was a student. Ongoing excavations have
uncovered temples, monasteries and lecture halls. Rajgir, ‘the royal
palace’, 12 km south, was the venue for the first Buddhist Council.
The Buddha spent five years at Rajgir after having attained enlightenment,
and many of the remains at Rajgir commemorate various incidents
related to life of Buddha, the hill of Gridhrakuta being perhaps the most
important, as this is where the Buddha delivered most of his sermons.
Bodhgaya is the spot where Lord Buddha attained enlightenment, with
the Mahabodhi Temple marking the precise location.
Topography

The topography of Bihar can be easily described as a fertile alluvial plain


occupying the north, the Gangetic Valley. The northern plain extends from

13
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to a few miles south of the river
Ganges as it flows through the State from the west to the east.
The tract lying between 25°8' & 27°31' North Latitude and 83°20' &
88°17' East Longitude is Bihar. It is bounded on the north by the Kingdom
of Nepal, in the south by Jharkhand, in the east by West Bengal and on
the west by Uttar Pradesh. Roughly rectangular in shape it comprises
mainly the Gangetic Plains, the dissected highlands of Kaimur plateau
and the Himalayan foothills occupying a very small tract of the state. The
North Gangetic plain extends from the base of the Tarai in the north to the
Ganga in the south, comprising an area of about 22,000 square miles.
Except for the Someshwar and the Dun hills in the extreme northwest, it
presents an almost flat appearance and has an elevation of less than 250
feet above sea level. The Someshwar and the Dun hills cover an area of
about 364 square miles in Champaran. They are the lowest and the
outermost of all the Himalayan ranges, immediately overlooking the plain,
and form part of a long range which runs along the whole length of
Nepal, at the southern base of which lies the swampy submontane tract
called the Tarai. The Someshwar range runs along the northern frontier of
the State for a distance of about 46 miles and varies in altitude from a few
hundred feet to 2884 feet at Fort Someshwar, which commands a
magnificent view of the Himalayas wrapped in the grandeur of eternal
snow. The Dun hills lie to the south of the Someshwar range from which the
Dun Valley separates them. They are a range of low hills land extends from
about 20 miles from the northwest to the southeast. The Tarai that lies
towards their southern margin forms a narrow belt of submontane forest,
followed by a prairie land of long reedy grasses. It is mostly marshy and
unhealthy. This area of hills is but sparsely populated by an aboriginal tribe
called the Tharus. But for this small area of hills in the northwest, one looks
in vain in any direction for la hill or mound, which may interrupt the
continuity of the level surface.
The North Gangetic plain is the playground of rivers- the Gogra, Gandak,
Bagmati, Kosi, Mahananda and a host of minor streams, which descend
from the Himalayas and make their way to the Ganga in frequently
changing channels. The Kosi particularly has earned the bad name of
being the most changeable stream in India, shifting its bed all the time.
Because of the large quantities of silt they deposit the rivers at many points
flow on ridges slightly elevated above the general level of the country
and frequently inundate the low-lying lands on either side during the rains.

14
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

The South Gangetic plain occupies the greater part of what is popularly
known as South Bihar. It is wide towards the west and the middle, and
extremely narrow towards the east. The outlying hills and undulations of
the Chotanagpur plateau encroach upon the plain from the south, until
near Munger they extend in the Kharagpur hills as far north as the Ganga
itself, and after a brief recession run along the bank of the river for a
considerable distance as the Rajmahal hills. The South Gangetic differs in
many respects from the North Gangetic plain. It is higher in the south and
slopes towards the Ganga, but the slope is not so gradual as in the North
Gangetic plain. While the North is liable to flood and change, the South
Gangetic plain is stable and not subject to floods except in limited areas.
Moreover, it is much more diversified than the North, and a great many
hills spring as islands of high rock from the level alluvium. Notable among
the hills that lie scattered in the South Gangetic plain are the Barabar hills,
the Rajgir-Jethian hills, and the Kharagpur hills. These hills lie in the districts
of Jehanabad, Nalanda and Munger. Though not quite naked, they have
been highly denuded, and most of the vegetation has either been
cleared away with the axe or has disappeared with the erosion of the
surface soil. They therefore present semi-bare rocky surfaces having a thin
covering of grass and scrub. In the Kharagpur hills, areas of jungle still
survive as but poor remnants of the dense forests which once clothed
these hills. The Barabar and the Rajgir hills are generally less than 1,000 feet
above sea level, but they exceed 1,000 feet at several places. The
Kharagpur hills have several peaks rising above 1,600 feet. High banks on
either side contain the trough occupied by the channel of the Ganga.
After the close of the monsoon, there appear within the trough large
expanses of sand and silt deposits called ‘diaras’ which vary greatly in
extent and position every year. The Rajmahal hills form the northeast angle
of the Chotanagpur plateau and are the only considerable mass of hills
that approach the Ganga in its course in that region. Although nowhere
do they rise higher than 2,000 feet they present an extremely varied and
picturesque topography. On its eastern margin, the plateau has a height
of less than 1,000 feet but the general configuration is still that of an
undulating upland. The Kaimur hills, separated from the rest of the plateau
by the valley of the Son, are structurally very different from Chotanagpur.
They are the easternmost termination of the Vindhyan range and form an
undulating tableland rising abruptly from the plain in bold and lofty
precipices, to eminences of about 1,200 feet above sea level.
Forests & Wildlife

15
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Among the wildlife, notable are: deer, bears, numerous species of birds,
including the peacock, pheasant, and wild fowl, and most notably, the
tiger. The forest around Valmiki Nagar, West Champaran is one of the last
remaining refuges of this highly endangered species.
The forests of Bihar yield valuable commercial products besides the
timber. Cane trees are used in the manufacture of an indigenous product
for making furniture. A resinous material secreted by the lac insect is
valuable commercially. It is the source of shellac. Also, bangles made of
lac are very popular among women of Bihar. The silkworm is the source of
magnificent silk - characteristically, the tusser or tussah silk.
The majestic banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis), and the related pipal (Ficus
religiosa), dot the entire landscape of the State.
Languages

Hindi is by far the most common language of the state, understood by all.
There is a significant number of Bengali speaking people also. They are
descendants of the settlers from the old British Presidency of Bengal.
English is the language of commerce and is spoken by the educated
masses.
In addition people speak many dialects in different regions. The major
dialects are: Bhojpuri, Magahi and Maithili. Bhojpuri is spoken in the districts
of Champaran (East and West), Saran, and Shahabad. Magahi is the
dialect of Central Bihar, i.e., the districts of Patna, Gaya and Bihar. Maithili,
and its variants, is the dialect of the people in the north-east, i.e., the
districts of Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, Darbhanga, Samastipur, Saharsa, Purnia
and Bhagalpur.
Trade & Commerce

Rich farmland and lush orchards extend throughout the north. Following
are the major crops: paddy, wheat, lentils, sugarcane, jute (hemp, related
to the marijuana plant, but a source of tough fibers and "gunny bags".)
Also, cane grows wild in the marshes of West Champaran. The principal
fruits are: mangoes, banana, jack fruit and litchis. This is one the very few
areas outside China which produces litchi. There is very little industry in the
plain region except for the sugar factories that are scattered all over the
northern plains, particularly in the western region. Jute is transported to the
jute factories located mostly in Calcutta.
The principal commercial products of Bihar are:

16
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Crops - rice, wheat, lentils, maize (corn), sugar cane.


 Fruits - mangoes, bananas, jack-fruit, and litchis.
 Fibers - silk (particularly from the Bhagalpur region in the East,
producers of a distinct quality of silk, namely, tussar or tussah); and
jute, transported to factories located mostly near Calcutta for easy
export of the finished material.
 Forest Products - hard wood timber, saal and sakhua from the north;
also cane for weaving, particularly from the swamps in West
Champaran district of North Bihar.
North Bihar, a rich agricultural area, has many industries associated with
agricultural products. There are numerous sugar factories scattered
throughout the area. Many rice and edible oilmills also dot the landscape.
It also has some sundry, but important, manufacturing plants, for example
the Button Factory at Mehsi (East Champaran), and the old and
renowned rail wagon manufacturing plant, the Arthur Butler & Co, at
Muzaffarpur. Immediately after independence however, a major industrial
complex grew around Barauni. The industrial plants located there are: the
Fertilizer Factory, the Oil (petroleum) Refinery Plant, and the
Thermal Power Station. Recently, a Thermal Power Plant has also begun
operation at Kanti, in the Muzaffarpur district along its border with East
Champaran.
Regarding commerce and North Bihar, mention must be made of the
gigantic annual cattle fair at Sonpur in the Saran district, close to the
confluence of the Gandak and Ganges rivers. The fair is held around the
religious festival of Kartik Purnima - full moon in the month of Kartik in the
Hindu lunar calendar (corresponding to some time in Oct-Dec in the
Gregorian calendar), which marks the end of the holy month of Kartik. This
fair is reputed to be one of the world's largest such fair, where not just
cattle but also exotic animals and horses and elephants are traded in
large number. It attracts a large number of tourists from many countries.
The Government of Bihar, through their Department of Tourism, provide
many amenities for their boarding and lodging.

2.3. THE DISTRICT

District Begusarai is situated in the middle of North Bihar. It is bordered by


Samastipur in the north and by the Ganga and Lakhisarai district in the
south. In the east of Begusarai lies Khagaria and Munger, while Samastipur

17
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

and Patna district bounds it from the west. Begusarai covers an area of
2219 sq. km. According to the 2001 census the population of the Begusarai
District is 23,49,366 with male population 1228874 and female population
1120492. The Literacy Rate in the district is 38.16%, as registered in the
census of 2001.

2.4. HISTORY

In 1870 Begusarai was established as a sub-divison of the Munger district.


Begusarai district was carved out of it as a separate district on 2nd
October 1972. Now it is a part of the Munger commissionery. It was named
after "Begu" a man of this district who used to look after "Sarai" an old and
small market. Begusarai district is a part of Darbhanga division.

2.5. LOCATION

The town Begusarai is located at 25024’52” North latitude and 8607’42”


Eastern longitude. It has an average elevation of 48 metres above sea
level. Some of the towns/villages around the town are Bhagwanpur, Balia,
Bakhri, Barauni, etc. The area under the municipal limits of town is 751.42
Hactares.
The location of Town of Begusarai in State of Bihar is shown in map
provided in next page.

2.6. DEMOGRAPHY

As of 2001 India census, town Begusarai had a population of 93,741 with


population of SC & ST as 9,336 and 45 respectively
The number of household in the town is 14,310. The average population
density of town is 12476 persons per sq km.

2.7. CONNECTIVITY

Begusarai is 125 kilometers from State capital, Patna. Begusarai is well


connected to other parts of Bihar and India through railways as well as
roads. New Delhi - Gawahati railway line passes through Begusarai. Small
aerodrome in Ulao is five kms from the district headquarters.
Railway has a route of 119 km (B.G.) and 67 km (M.G.). Barauni Railway
Junction occupies an important position. A number of important trains
originate from this station for distant destinations, viz, Delhi, Guwahati,

18
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Amritsar, Varanasi, Lucknow, Mumbai, Chennai etc. Rajendra Setu on the


Ganga is connected to Mokama and Howrah. There are 18 railway
stations in this district.
Interior parts of the district are connected to the main roads. The National
Highways 28 and 31 link this district to the other parts of the country. Its
total length is 95 km. State roads have the total length of 262 km. 95% of
the total villages are linked to the rural and urban road facilities.
Bridge across Ganges at Barauni forms an important link way connecting
north and south Bihar.

2.8. CLIMATE

Being a part of Gangetic plain of Indian subcontinent, the district


experiences three climatic seasons – summer from late March to mid time
rainy season from mid June to October and the winter season from
November to February. The month of February & March fall in the
transitional season from winter to summer described as spring or “Basant”.
Similarly the months of September & October falls in the transitional season
from rainy season to winter season described as “Shishir”.
During summer due to high temperature this becomes an area of low
pressure. During this period Bay of Bengal, due to its geographical
characteristics, serves as homeland for cyclones. Being on area of low
presser, the plains of Begusarai and associated areas attract these
cyclonic winds. This leads to the dust storms. These dry, hot, dusty storms
are locally termed as ‘Loo’. These are prevalent in the month of May-June.
The rainfall is average in this area. The average annual rainfall in this belt
of Ganga- Burhi Gandak is 1384mm of which 83% falls between Mid June
and & Mid-October. Monsoon normally starts in June and lasts till October.
The early monsoon currents, channeled to the NW are the principal source
of rainfall of the region. 17 % of pre monsoonal rains, which are spread in
the different months of the year, especially in the months of November-
December-January, have been explained as due to Norwester affect and
rest during monsoons due to Himalayan affect. Heavy rains,
supplemented by physiographic/geomorphic features lead to heavy
flood.
The chilling winter starts in mid-October and continues till initial periods of
March. Most part of the winter is dry except some sporadic rains.

2.9. GEOGRAPHY

19
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

North Ganga plain is a major physiographic unit of the Indian landmass.


Generally recognized as "a water-surplus area", this region is bounded by
a northern piedmont belt where water oozes to the surface, followed by a
broad belt of swampy lands, depressions and lakes, and finally an
aggregation of alluvial fans as all these northern streams bend to form
confluence points with the Ganga. Hence, the surface is characterized by
palaeo levees, swamps or flood basins locally called "Chaurs", relict
palaeo channels aggraded in varying degrees, meander belts, ox-bow
lakes and cut-of loops. Its fluvial geomorphology is dominated from west
to east by the Ghagra-Gandak Interfluves, the Gandak-Kosi Interfluves
and the western Kosi Fan Belt. Some of these rivers frequently change their
channels. Their channels are called by different names in different parts of
their courses.
The district of Begusarai lies in the middle part of this great plain known as
mid Ganga plain. In general, it is a low-lying flat terrain having a southerly
to south-easterly slope. This factor governs the flow of streams.
Geomorphologically it is a part of the Gandak- Kosi interfluves. The
southern part of the district, except those of low-lying flood plains of
Ganga, appears to be an elevated landmass when compared to the
adjoining districts of Khagaria and Samastipur. Hence, being a safer
destination amidst the flood drained region, it supports the human
activities in a better way.
The district Begusarai is divided into three flood plains namely
i. Kereha-Old Bhagmati flood plains,
ii. Burhi Gandak Flood plain and
iii. Ganga Flood plain
The first two flood plains of the district are very low lying areas and are
prone to the flood. The floods owe their origin to the complex interplay of
fluvial geomorphic elements in the upstream sections of the Kosi, Bagmati-
Kareh-Budhi Gandak and related rivers. These two flood plains converge
in the southeastern part of the district, which is lowland. The streams
flowing in the region show a shifting tendency. In the course of their
shifting, the rivers leave behind their scars of their previous channels. Thus
due to shifting nature of streams and physiographic characteristic, this
part is full of wetlands, back swamps and oxbow lakes. However, in the
southern part, the flood plains of Ganga are least prone to flood.
Interestingly the Railway track passing through the district marks a

20
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

prominent divider line for Ganga flood plain and Kereha- old Bhagmati
flood plains & Burhi Gandak flood plain. The Flood plains of Burhi Gandak
and Kareha are marked by the presence of paleo levees, oxbow lakes,
paleochannels, relict streams and chaurs viz Kaulachaur and Bhagwanpur
chaur. These chaurs serve as excellent fertile agricultural lands during
summer and are submerged during rains. Also the areas around these
chaurs face the problem of submergence for around three-four months a
year. Kawar Lake, a large fresh water lake which is basically a huge
wetland is present as an important physiographic feature of this part.
In the Ganga flood plain, which is approximately 50-55 km long and 5-6
kms wide, in the southern part of the district, except those low lying areas
of “Taals and chaurs”, the typical fluvial characteristics of North Bihar rivers
are not visible, which are prominent in the north of Railway track. This is the
least flood prone area of the district, which gets drowned only in cases of
exceptional floods in Ganga and Burhi Gandak. This relatively upland area
appears to be the levee of river Ganga.

2.10. FACILITIES

Begusarai has many government schools. It also has colleges for various
streams of education like Ayurvedic Medicine, Law, Polytechnic, I.T.I,
Homeopathic and a college for general stream. With so many industrial
and educational units Begusarai has the potential to become one of the
developed districts of the state.

2.11. COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES

Most of the people in Begusarai depend on agriculture and grow cash


crops like oilseeds; jute, tobacco, potato, red chillies, tomato and some
are engaged in rearing of cattle.
Two big industries mark the skyline of the district i.e. Thermal power station
and Petro-Chemicals factory & Oil refinery complex at Barauni.
Oil refinery
Barauni refinery is one of the country's biggest oil refineries at Barauni in
Bihar State. The refinery is managed and controlled by Indian Oil
Corporation Ltd.(IOC). Barauni Refinery was built in collaboration with
Soviet Union at a cost of Rs. 49.40 crore and went on stream in July 1964.
By November 1967, the initial capacity was expanded from 2 MMTPA

21
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

(million metric tons per annum) to 3 MMTPA. The present capacity of the
refinery is 6.00 MMTPA.

Barauni Thermal Power Station


Barauni Thermal Power Station (BTPS) was established on 26 January 1963,
starting from 15 MW with a unit of (Kerosene Oil to Coal) 365 MW, BTPS
went through different stages of revolutions.
Chemical fertilizer plants
Chemical fertilizer plants are located at Barauni in Begusarai District. In
Nov'1962 it was proposed to the govt. In 1967 it was established. Here 330
tons of urea is produced per annum. It is expanded in 330 acre Lands. The
name of final product is Moti Urea.
Barauni Dairy
Established in 1959, (M.D.Barauni Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd,
Barauni Diary) a fully co-operative organization, marketing its product to
Kolkotta, Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Gaya, Danbad etc.

22
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

2.12. TOURIST LOCATIONS

The major tourist destination in Begusarai is the "Kaveri Jheel", which is the
largest fresh water lake of Asia and is also known for the famous Bird
Sanctuary which has birds of rare species. The Ghats of Ganga at Simaria
possess religious importance and exists as a potential tourist spot.

Kabar Birds Kabar Birds Flying

23
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

At Begusarai, Sri Krishan indoor stadium is known for having major sports
facilities. Subash Park at Begusarai, which is lush green area, reflects the
greenery of Bihar, and most popular place among the public.

Subash Park Sri Krishan Indore Staduim

24
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 3. Design Criteria

3.1. THE MANUAL OF SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE TREATMENT (SECOND EDITION)

The Manual of Sewerage and Sewage Treatment (Second Edition),


Ministry of Urban Development, 1993 is an excellent publication which
comprehensively deals with all aspects of sewerage systems from initial
planning through design and construction, including management and
legal aspects, and then on to the subsequent operation and
maintenance of the systems.
The proposals and recommendations of the Sewerage Manual, and its
previous version of 1986, are normally complied with by all engineering
consultants and authorities throughout India for the design of sewerage
systems.
A number of design criteria have been adopted from the revised
guidelines for preparation of DPRs for conservation of rivers & lakes as
issued vide office memorandum G.11011/2/2001-NRCD.I dated 13-08-2002
of National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD), Ministry of Environment
& Forest, GoI.
In general, these proposals comply with the criteria and
recommendations of these documents.

3.2. DESIGN PERIOD

For a sewerage system the main component of the project is to design a


suitable system of sewers for collecting the waste water generated by the
population as domestic effluent, industrial effluent and also likely ground

25
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

water infiltration. Since sewers once laid are extremely difficult to change
in size and slope with increasing flow due to expansion in population, it is
necessary to adopt a certain rational figure for the likely projected
population.
It is a generalized practice to design sewers to match the flow of a
projected population for thirty years. Too large period will involve very
heavy financial burden on the present population, which will not be able
to enjoy the benefits, and a small period will soon get overloaded
creating insanitary conditions.
“Manual for Sewerage and Sewerage Treatment” recommend to adopt a
design period of thirty years for all types of sewers and its components. But
for pumping machinery it has to match the life of pumping machinery
which is generally limited to fifteen years and has to be replaced. For trunk
and outfall the period can be reduced provided that there is technical
feasibility of subsequent duplication. In case of this project town which will
be still a town of moderate size – much less than a metropolitan or city, a
design year of 2041 with effective design period of 30 years is adopted for
entire sewerage system.
For different lift stations, design year for pumping machinery is adopted as
2026 with design period of 15 years.
NRCD Guidelines Recommendations
Base year—The year of expected commissioning of the project shall be
taken as the base year for design of various components of the projects.
Design periods of various components may be adopted as under:

S.No. Component Design Period Clarification


from base
year
1 Land 30 Land will be required to add
acquisition STPs. Accordingly, land should
be acquired
2 Sewer system 30
3 Sewage 30 Cost of civil works is economical
Pumping for full design period.
Station – civil
works
4 Pumps 15 Considering modular approach

26
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

5 STP 10 Construction may be done with


a modular approach in a
phased manner as the
population grows.
6 Rising mains 30 In case of low velocities, dual
rising mains to be examined
7 Effluent 30 Provision of design capacities in
disposal the initial stages itself is
economical.
8 LCS Required as of base year
9 Crematoria Required as per assessment
10 RFD Required as per assessment
11 MSW Requirement as per assessment

3.3. GROUND WATER INFILTRATION

The quantum of ground water infiltration in sewers depends largely on the


-
 Depth of sewers and ground water table.
 Material and type of jointing and
 Workmanship.
As the project town is situated on the banks of River Ganga, the water
table in the town is very much near the ground. Looking to possibility of
infiltration of ground water, it is proposed to adopt strict quality control
measures for material & workmanship. However, a provision of infiltration in
sewers is adopted as 250 litre/manhole/day.

3.4. FLOW FORMULAE

The manning’s formula is used to calculate the hydraulic gradient in


sewers, as given below:

V = 1/n A2/3 S1/2


Where,
V : Velocity of flow in meters per second
n : Manning’s Constant
S : Slope of channel
R : Hydraulic radius of section, meter
For salt-glazed pipes value 'n' has been adopted as .012 and for
Reinforced Cement Concrete pipes value 'n' is 0.011.

27
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

3.5. VARIATION IN FLOW

Since the flow in sewers varies considerably from hour to hour as such
peak flows with the following peak function have been adopted for
arriving at design flow as per guide lines provided in the Manual.

Contributory population Peak flow


Upto 20,000 3.00
20,000 to 50,000 2.5
50,000 to 7,50,000 2.25
Above 7.5 lacs 2.0

3.6. PIPE MATERIAL

Use of three types of wastewater pipes is more prevalent. These are


precast concrete (PC), Vitrified Clay (VC) and plastic pipes).
All pipes for wastewater drainage should be manufactured to the relevant
Indian Standard. In practice, this does not always seem to be the case
and so this needs to be checked before ordering and accepting delivery
of pipes. The quality of pipes is also important when jointing.
In considering the most appropriate pipe material for use in town, the
following factors should be considered :
 Availability of sizes and fittings, when required,
 Cost of materials and installation,
 Durability - life expectancy,
 Durability - resistance to chemical and biological attack,
 Strength,
 Condition of installation,
 Size - for example, the maximum size for SWG is 600 mm diameter.
3.6.1. PRECAST CONCRETE (PC) PIPES:

Precast concrete pipes are manufactured as standard sewer pipes and as


pressure pipes. For sewers, non-pressure, reinforced concrete pipes are
normally used. In the past, collar joints have been used with plain-ended
pipes, but these have now been superseded by rubber ring, spigot and
socket joints. These pipes are governed by IS:458.

28
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

PC Pipes are manufactured in diameters from 80 to 2600 mm in


accordance with BIS Standards, and can be supplied with rubber ring
gaskets. The jointing system with rubber rings offers the potential for a
water-tight and flexible joint which is easy to make in a trench. The pipes
are manufactured in 2.0 m lengths for diameters up to 250 mm, and 2.5 m
lengths for diameters above 250 mm.
Plain ended PC pipes with collar joints are also manufactured, but these
are not recommended.
Disadvantages of concrete pipes include:
 limited range of fittings,
 risk of corrosion following hydrogen sulphide formation in sewers,
 need for good quality control and supervision over manufacture
and jointing.
Nevertheless, they have generally proved to be durable and have been
used extensively. They are also relatively cheap. They are therefore
recommended with the precaution that the standards and specifications
for manufacture and installation will be followed.
3.6.2. VITRIFIED CLAY PIPES:

Salt glazed stoneware pipes (SW pipes) are manufactured to BIS


Standards in diameters from 100 mm to 600 mm internal diameter in 50
mm steps. Pipes are manufactured in 600, 750 & 900 mm lengths with
spigot and socket, cement mortar type joints. A wide range of fittings,
including bends and gully traps, is available. Nowadays, rubber ring joints
are also being used for pipes of diameter more than 150 mm.
Vitrified clay pipes are brittle rigid pipes which are susceptible to
breakages during transport and handling. Nevertheless, they are cheap,
durable, and suitable for use with corrosive liquids and aggressive ground
conditions. They are not susceptible to sulphide corrosion. They have been
used extensively for use in house drains, house connections and for main
sewers up to about 300 mm diameter.
The main disadvantage of stoneware pipes compared with concrete
pipes is the greater number of joints that are required because of the short
lengths that are manufactured. This increases the cost of laying and
increases the potential for infiltration through badly made joints if strong
supervision is lacking during the construction phase.

29
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

SW pipes with flexible joints are not available.


The standards for this pipe are governed by IS:651.
3.6.3. PLASTIC PIPES:

uPVC pressure pipes are manufactured in diameters from 75 mm up to 400


mm. The pipes are delivered in 5 or 6 m lengths and can be jointed by
either rubber gaskets or by solvent welding. Normally, rubber gaskets are
used for pipes larger than 100 mm. uPVC is an inert material, and is
suitable for carrying many corrosive effluents and for laying in aggressive
ground conditions. However, the pipes are susceptible to poor
workmanship, when longitudinal warping, cross-sectional distortion and
cracking have been experienced. Many of these factors are exacerbated
by the thin walled sewer pipes, and it is recommended that, if uPVC pipes
are to be used for sewers, then pressure pipes are used rather than sewer
class pipework. It is also recommended that very careful attention is given
during installation to pipe stacking, handling, trench bedding and
backfilling procedures.
The uPVC & HDPE pipe specifications are governed by IS Code 4685 and
IS 4984.
HDPE pipes of 160 mm are proposed to be used in narrow lanes and
connected to main sewers using chambers.
It is proposed to utilize uPVC pipe of diameter 100 mm for property
connections in connecting individual property to public sewers.
3.6.4. DI PIPES

Ductile Iron pipe is also a possible solution for modern sewers. Ductile’s
long laying lengths and bottle-tight joints minimize potential infiltration and
aid in construction. For most sizes, its larger inside diameters deliver up to
several million gallons per day more flow than nominal pipe diameters. Its
standard cement-mortar lining ensures an excellent friction coefficient
and resistance to scour and cement deterioration from most domestic
sewage.
And its high material strength resists heavy impact, handles extreme
external loadings, and in many cases, there is no need for special bedding
or backfill.
Ductile Iron pipe can be used in a wide variety of applications, including
challenging conditions like deep trenches, shallow cover, seismic activity,
subsequent adjacent excavations, beam loading, and ring crushing.

30
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Ductile Iron pipe is especially suited for pressure sewer applications


because its standard pressure classes provide for high operating pressures
with a allowance for surge pressures. Surges, or hydraulic transients, are a
very serious problem for pressure sewers as pump stations are vulnerable
to power outages and surge control devices for raw wastewater are not
always dependable.
In this project, pressure sewers are proposed of Ductile Iron Pipe. The
specifications of DI pipe in india are governed by IS:8329.

3.7. THE STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF SEWERS

Sewers and other water pipelines need to be designed structurally so that


when buried they can withstand all the external forces to which they are
likely to be subjected. As sewers flow under gravity, there are no
significant internal pressures to allow for.
Providing bedding, haunching and surrounds, which may be of concrete
or sand or gravel, are important ways of strengthening a pipeline to
withstand higher loading.
The basic data on which the need of additional support is determined are
the actual strengths of the pipes used, the depths of the laid pipeline and
its location (whether in a main road with fast moving traffic, or in a plot
with pedestrian traffic only, etc.)
The computation of loads on buried pipelines has been established by the
work of Marston, Spangle and others, and is summarised in the CPHEEO
manual.
To allow for settlement and soil movement, it is recommended that all
sewers are provided with flexible joints, which should also be self-
centering. Such joints are normally formed using rubber rings. The pipe
spigots and the interiors of their sockets should be smooth and sound, and
made to tolerances which allow this type of jointing.

3.8. MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM SEWER PIPE SIZES

3.8.1. MINIMUM SEWER SIZES

The Design Manual recommends that the minimum sewer pipe size should
be 150 mm diameter except for very hilly areas where it may be reduced
to 100 mm diameter.

31
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

In many places, sewer blockages regularly occur in the smaller diameter


sewers due to misuse by the public, and it is therefore usual to stipulate a
minimum diameter of 200 mm for public sewers.
It is proposed to adopt minimum size of proposed public sewers as 150 mm
diameter.
It should be noted that this minimum size does not apply to property
connections. The suggested minimum size for these is 100 mm diameter.
3.8.2. MAXIMUM SIZES OF SEWERS

Theoretically, the maximum required size of a sewer pipe depends upon


various factors including anticipated maximum flows, the available
gradients and flow criteria. It also depends upon what large sizes of pipes
are locally available.
Economics are also important but are not the only factor to be
considered. After a certain size, it becomes cheaper to construct
duplicate sewers instead of a single large sewer, when every cost factor -
cost of pipes including handling and transport, costs of trench excavation
and backfilling, costs of pipe laying and jointing, costs of pipe bedding
and other support and protection, the anticipated annual increase in the
flow with which the sewer must deal, etc. - is taken into account.

3.9. NORMAL MINIMUM DEPTHS FOR SEWERS

It is not logical to specify a maximum depth for a sewer as this will be


dictated by practical and economic considerations. The choice will
normally be between having a deep sewer or having a sewerage
pumping station. The suggested rule is that sewerage pumping stations
should only be proposed with great reluctance, when absolutely
necessary.
Sewers should always if feasible be laid at depths which will
accommodate not only all existing properties but also any future
properties within the area which sewers are designed to serve.
Minimum depths of cover over sewers are often given as 1200 mm in roads
and 900 mm in all other areas. Normal current practice is to have at least
1 m cover above the top of the sewer. It should be noted that the depth
of a sewer is not the distance between the sewer invert and the ground
level.

32
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

However, applying these criteria to initial lengths of sewer in flat areas will
lead to unnecessarily deep sewers, and the cost of providing protection to
the first length of a shallow sewer will be saved by the reduction in depth
of all the subsequent sewer lengths.
A shallow sewer at a depth of 0.6 m, with adequate protection against
damage by proper concrete shrouding, will be considered acceptable
when this is justified economically and is not technically detrimental
It is recommended to adopt a minimum depth of sewer as 1.0 mtrs in
general and 0.6 mtr for shallow sewers.

3.10. MANHOLE DESIGN AND SPACING

3.10.1. MANHOLE DESIGN

The Design Manual has a comprehensive section on recommended


manhole design with sizes, depending upon both the depth and the size
of the sewers, for circular manholes as shown in the following Table 3.1
which are in general adopted.
Table 3.1: Minimum Diameters for Circular Manholes (Sewerage Manual, 1993)

Manhole Depth (m) Minimum Manhole Diameter


(mm)
0.90 - 1.65 m 900 mm
1.65 - 2.30 m 1200 mm
2.30 - 9.0 m 1500 mm
9.0 - 14.0 m 1800 mm
It is recommended to adopt these recommendations with suitable
modification as described below:
For Brick manholes, following four configurations have been adopted

Type Manhole Depth (m) Minimum Manhole Diameter


(mm)
A
0.90 - 1.65 m 900 mm
B
1.70 - 2.50 m 1200 mm
C
2.60 - 5.0 m 1500 mm
D
5.1 - 9.0 m 1800 mm

33
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

For RCC Manhole, two configurations type E (upto 3.5 mtr diameter) and F
(beyond 3.5 mtr diameter) with different depth categories have been
adopted:

Type Outgoing Sewer Minimum Manhole


Diameter Diameter (mm)

E&F 700 1400


800 1500
900 1550
1000 1750
1200 2000
1400 2200
General observations:
Manholes less than 4.5 m deep are normally circular in shape and
constructed with cement-mortared Brick masonry with internal plastering.
Circular construction is preferred to rectangular from strength
considerations..
Manholes equal to 4.5 m depth or greater are constructed from cast in situ
reinforced concrete or Precast concrete rings.
Recently, pre-constructed plastic manhole have also been introduced in
the market and the manufacturers claim several advantages for them
such as ease of installation and speedier construction of the system,
corrosion free service etc. However, the plastics are thermo-labile and
may yield under superimposed loads especially during summers. Further,
their protection against UV and abrasion is not yet established and they
have to be proven by way of long service in tropical countries before their
large-scale adoption can be considered.
Manholes covers:
Ferro Cement Covers/Cast Iron covers and frames were commonly used
in the past in other towns but, because of the widespread theft of these
for the scrap value of the cast iron, manhole covers are now usually Pre-
cast Ferro Cement type housed/fit in to a cast iron frame which is
embedded in a reinforced concrete manhole cover slab. The same is
proposed to be adopted for this project.
Step irons:
It is proposed to use Cast iron steps in this project.
3.10.2. MANHOLE SPACING

34
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

The Design Manual recommends that the maximum spacing of manholes


on sewers which cannot be entered for cleaning or inspection should be
30 meters. For sewers of diameter above 900 mm, subject to operational
and maintenance requirements / procedures the spacing may be in the
range of 90 meters to 150 meters and for sewers exceeding 1500 mm
diameter the spacing may be increased to 200 meters.
It should be noted that the above criteria are qualified by the fact that
manholes should be provided at every change of alignment, grade or
diameter, at the head of every system and at every junction of two or
more sewers. Additionally, it is a widely followed norm that all property
connections should be connected to the sewerage system at a manhole.
Therefore the actual spacing will generally be less than the standard
spacing recommended by the Manual.

3.11. FLOW CAPACITY OF SEWERS

The Design Manual recommends that a sewerage system should be


designed to flow 80% full at peak dry weather flow.
The Design Manual says that storm water should not be expected to enter
the sewerage system.

3.12. SEWAGE SEPTICITY & VENTILATION

Positive steps need to be made to minimise the chances of corrosion in


the future. The recommended precautions are based mainly upon
keeping the sewerage systems well ventilated. Sewer ventilation is
necessary for several reasons including:
 to prevent undue concentrations of hydrogen sulphide and other
gases potentially dangerous to concrete and other materials;
 to prevent undue concentrations of methane and other gases
potentially dangerous to operatives;
 hydraulic requirements.
The existing regulations and practices are the following:
 The Design Manual recommends that sewers are designed to flow
at 80% of full capacity in order to allow for ventilation and indicates
that ventilating columns should be considered on the sewerage
system where there are older property connections with
intercepting traps.

35
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 The National Building Code of India realises the need for and
encourages sewer ventilation through ventilating pipes on property
connections.
 The National Code describes and supports various domestic
plumbing systems for dealing with both sullage and human excreta.
It is recommended to adopt following practices
 Where ventilation pipes are provided as part of the house drainage
connections, ventilation columns are not required on area sewers. It
is recommended, however, that they are used on main trunk sewers
for sizes above 450 mm with a spacing of 300 mtr.
 It is proposed that every property drainage system should have a
vertical ventilating pipe at the upper end of every drain, in addition
to any down-pipes discharging into other parts of the drains and
which have ventilators to prevent water seals from being broken.

3.13. SEWAGE PUMPING STATIONS AND PUMPING MAINS

3.13.1. GENERAL

When a sewerage system is being designed the aim should be to avoid


sewerage pumping stations wherever possible. This is because the pumps
and associated equipment automatically form a weak point in the system.
However they are necessary where gravity drainage is not feasible in low
lying areas or where gravity drainage is not economical because of the
cost of excavation.
Sewage pumping is always a management problem. Sewage pumping
results in the environmental impacts of noise and odor, and there are
always environmental risks associated with failure of the pumping station.
Also the station creates an environmental nuisance because of the need
of vehicular access for repairs, maintenance and sludge removal.
3.13.2. RECOMMENDATIONS

All pumping station shall be preceded by a mechanical screen. A clear


spacing between bars as 25 mm at lift station is adopted.
For simplicity of maintenance, the sewerage pumping stations of the wet
well type are proposed. The electrically driven submersible pumps should
be unchokeable and wear-resisting types, capable of passing solids up to
100 mm spheres, and should operate close to their points of maximum

36
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

efficiency. Standby pump units should be provided at all pumping


stations.
Manual of Sewerage and Sewage treatment by CPHEEO recommends
following arrangement of Pumps “The capacity of pumps shall be adequate to meet
the peak flow rate of flow with 50% standby. The capacity of pump is usually stated in
terms of Dry Weather Flow (DWF) estimated for pumping station. 5 pumps are usually
provided comprising of 2 of 1/2 DWF, 2 of 1 DWF and 1 of 3 DWF capacity”.

The vulnerability to power failure, and the potential impact of consequent


flooding, is considered for each pumping station. Looking to the doubt for
the reliability of the electricity supply, standby power diesel generators are
proposed to be provided.
All pumping station wet wells need to be ventilated to avoid a build-up of
hydrogen sulphide.
NRCD Guidelines Recommendations
Preference may be given to submersible pumps wherever, feasible, they
being cheaper and operation friendly.
Configuration of sewage pumps shall be as below;
Where rising main is long Peak flow/2 pumps 2 nos.

Non peak flow pumps 2 nos.

Where rising main is short Peak flow/4 pumps 5 nos. 1 standby

It is proposed to provide submersible pumps 4 working and 1 standby in


numbers of capacity Peak flow/4 at all the lift stations as per NRCD
recommendations

3.13.3. PUMPING MAINS

The recommendations are as following:


Pumping mains should be designed with a minimum velocity of 0.9 m/s to
avoid sedimentation. The maximum velocity should be determined from
an economic comparison between pipeline and energy costs for different
diameters of pipe.
The minimum diameter for pumping mains should be 150 mm to minimise
the chances of blockages. Anchor blocks are required at all changes in
direction of the pumping main.

37
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Where high points in the pumping main are absolutely unavoidable,


sewage type air relief valves, including an isolating valve to aid
maintenance, should be provided.
Washouts, leading to a ditch or preferably to a nallah, should be provided
at all low points.
Manholes and other chambers into which pumping mains discharge
should be well-ventilated to avoid a build-up of hydrogen sulphide, the
release of which is commonly caused by turbulence.

3.14. SEWER CROSSINGS

Gravity trunk sewers must obviously cross beneath roads and railway
tracks.
They can either cross above nallahs on a pipe bridge, or they can cross
beneath the nallah:
It could be, but this is unlikely, that the sewer is so deep that it can cross
under the nallah without altering manhole depths and gradients. Provided
that there is sufficient cover between the top of the sewer and the firm,
true bed of the river, then there is no problem. However, the sewer must
always be protected by concrete against possibilities of scour.
It is more likely that it will be possible to cross the nallah via a pipe bridge -
that is, by supporting each length of sewer pipe, which should be ductile
iron or protected mild steel, on concrete or other rigid, firm pillars. This is
acceptable provided that the sewer is sufficiently high so that it is clear of
the water during maximum flood flow levels.

38
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 4. Existing Infrastructure

4.1. EXISTING WATER SUPPLY

4.1.1. EXISTING ARRANGEMENTS

The water supply of town is maintained by Public Health Engineering


Department. Most of the areas are covered by water supply network only.
There are no piped water supply arrangements maintained by any private
body.
The source of water for Municipal water supply of the town is ground
water. There are number of tube-wells through which ground water is
drawn. There are five service reservoirs of which three are working and
other two are under construction.
The location and capacity of these reservoirs is as given below:

S.No. Location Capacity

1. Kalisthan 1 lakh Gallon

2. Mufasil Thana 1.2 lakh Gallon

3. Harrakh Kothi 1.6 lakh Gallon

There are 7 nos. of high yield tubewells at following locations:


1. PHED campus Khalisthan
2. State Bank campus main branch
3. Near SP office

39
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

4. Near Begusarai stadium


5. Harrakh Kothi
6. Division office chotti road
7. Near Mufasil Thana
All these tubewells are in working conditions and are used for pumping
water to Service Reservoirs and for boosting directly in water supply
networks.
There are three no. water treatment plants (only iron removal plant) in the
town. In most of the houses, hand operated hand pumps are used to
draw water from shallow ground water aquifer.
Disinfection using chlorination is being practiced in the town water supply.
The daily water production is about 6 lakh gallon and the daily water
supply in the town is around 55 LPCD.
In addition, almost all the households of the town have shallow hand
pumps to meet their daily water requirement and the water table in town
is quite shallow due to its proximity with Ganga rivers. Considering these
private sources of water supply, the average daily water supply of the
town is 135 LPCD.
The average water table in the town is around 15 mtrs.

4.2. EXISTING STORM WATER DRAINAGE FACILITIES

The district is drained by a no. of rivers viz. Ganga, Burhi Gandak, Bagmati
and Balan rivers and in addition, small rivulets, dhars, nalas which are
originated locally and preserve rain water, mark the landscape. Among
the rivers, Ganga, Burhi Gandak, Kosi, Kareha and Bagmati are perennial,
whereas Channa River, Bainti nadi, Kachna nadi, Monrya nadi and Malti
nadi are seasonal.
4.2.1. EXISTING DRAINS

The condition of existing drains is not satisfactory. The existing drains are in
dilapidated condition. Moreover, due to inefficient solid waste disposal
system in town, most of the drains are choked by polythene bags & other
solid wastes and often overflows.

40
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Main Drain Covered Open Main Drain

The two main drains in the town are;

1. This drain runs from Power house to National Highway no. 31 gail.
The length of this drain is about two kms. It is a pakka covered
drain.
2. This drain runs from Hamera chowk to Saligram babu residence
having an overall length of 1.5 kms. It is a pakka covered drain.
Besides these drains there are some small connecting drains also such as,

• Town Thanka to Kalisthan chowk. It is a pakka covered drain.

• Dr. K.D.N.Agarwal to Station chowk. It is a pakka covered drain


having a length of 750 mts.

• Fuso chowk to Power house chowk. It is a pakka covered drain


having a length of 750 mts.

• Kachchri chowk to traffic chowk. It is a pakka covered drain


having a length of 1000 mts.

• Thana chowk to B.P. School. It is a pakka covered drain having a


length of 1000 mts.

41
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Existing Drains Ponding

There are number of surface depression spread all across the town. In
these depressions during monsoon, the rain water is collected causing a
threat of public health & safety. The major locations where storm water &
wastewater get collected are as follows:
I. Suja Mouja
II. Mouja Alodipur Hemra
III. Near Emu Mouja
IV. Mirjapur Bandumar simana
V. Mouja Vishnupur Bahaur
VI. Near Mouja Mahmadpur
VII. Near Rohil Chowk
VIII. Near Porwaria Road
IX. Near IOP Township
X. Near Harhar mahadev Chowk
XI. Near Nav Mandir Nala road
XII. All along the railway track
These areas are dewatered with the help of main drains. Municipality take
care of the main drains and if necessary pump the water into the main
drain and let the water to go into ‘Sujabharra moorg’ near the railway
line, where the waste water is finally disposed.

4.3. EXISTING SEWERAGE SYSTEM

42
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

There is no sewerage system in the town. The sewage & wastewater is


disposed of using different on-site sanitation methods.
4.3.1. SANITATION METHODS

The most common on-site wastewater treatment & disposal practice


adopted in town is Septic Tank. In most of the households in newly
developed areas and in areas within already developed city the houses
with adequate space within its premises wastewater from water closets is
connected to septic tanks. The supernatant from these septic tanks is
discharged in road side gutters. This wastewater is drained to nearest
depression creating pond there.
Kutcha toilets are not uncommon in the town. Though under various
programmes, a large number of kutcha toilets are converted in flushed
toilets, still in the high density area where individual households have no
open space around, one can find kutcha toilets.
Open defecation is also not uncommon in the town. In areas lying at
outskirts of town, open defecation is very common in the town.
In general, the sullage water fixtures & fittings are connected with open
storm water collection system. All the sullage from different household
activities is discharged in roadside drains. The sullage after flowing in drains
is collected in nearby local surface depressions. This collected sullage
creates unsightly conditions in the locality. These ponds of collected
sullage are potential threat to public health as these are breeding
grounds of mosquitoes etc.
4.3.2. COMMUNITY TOILETS

In all, there are seven community toilets in the town. The location of these
community toilets is as follows:
Constructed / No. of Urinals No. of Toilet Seats
S.No. Location
Operated by Gents Ladies Gents Ladies

Municipal Sulab
1 Personal Bus Stand 10 10 10 10
Complex

Municipal Sulab
2 Court Compound Complex 10 10 10 10

Municipal Sulab
3 P.H.E.D Sulabh Toilet Complex 6 6 6 6

Municipal Sulab
4 Sadar (Main) Hospital Complex 6 6 6 6

43
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Constructed / No. of Urinals No. of Toilet Seats


S.No. Location
Operated by Gents Ladies Gents Ladies
Municipal Sulab
Har-har Mahadev Complex
5 10 10 10 10
Sulab Complex

Municipal Sulab
6 Barauni Sulabh Toilet Complex 6 6 6 6

Municipal Sulab
Chhoti - Ratanpur Complex
7 6 6 6 6
Bus Stand

Community toilet Community toilet

Community toilet Community toilet

44
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

These community toilets are operated & maintained by NGO


“Sulabh”/Municipal Council.
4.3.3. NEED OF THE PROJECT

The general drainage of the town is through open drains and these drains
often find their way to nearby rivers Ganga increasing the pollution load
on receiving waters and consequently deteriorating water quality of these
rivers and damaging the aquatic ecology of these rivers.
The absence of appropriate sanitation facilities has led to gross
contamination of nallahs and surface water in and around the town,
posing high risks through water borne diseases.
The present system of disposal of WC effluents is through open drains or
septic tank. These drains dispose in lower areas and ponds thereby
creating crude pollution of environment and water bodies. Only few
house holders have got septic tanks constructed in their houses. The
effluent from septic tanks is discharged in open drains and are often
overflow, causing bed smell, unhygienic condition & breeding of
mosquitoes. Carrying sullage through open drainage system is entirely
unsatisfactory and unhygienic. Generally, disposal through septic tanks
are recommended only for isolated dwellings away from habitat. With the
increasing population and rise in population density of residential area,
the problem may become serious for disposal of effluent from septic tanks,
because of poor soaking capacity of the soil. Besides due to increasing
pressure on land for residential purposes, sufficient land may not be
available for providing on site disposal system in the already developed
residential areas (old areas).
Location of large number of soak pit/septic tanks within the area of
municipal council, must be causing pollution of groundwater in the
vicinity.
In the absence of safe disposal system of sewage as mentioned above,
the people of Begusarai are facing unhealthy and unhygienic
environment therefore public representatives are also demanding facilities
of sewerage system on priority basis. The town requires sound drainage
and sewerage especially because the soil, owing to irrigated area/ canal
/high level of water table, does not have soaking capacity.
After execution of sewerage system by providing underground sewer pipe
line network followed by sewerage treatment plant, there will be a
marked improvement in water quality of river Ganga and the public of

45
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Begusarai would find great relief from unhealthy and unhygienic


environment.

46
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 5. Population Projection

5.1. HISTORICAL TREND

The experience of Indian urbanization can be broadly classified into four


periods: pre-1920, 1920-1947, post-1947 till 1991(liberalization) and post
liberalization. In the pre-1920 period, urbanization largely was a result of
commerce and trade rather than industry, with security playing a small
but significant role in some cases. The initial growth, till 1931, was
extremely slow, but began to pick up pace as the influence of
transportation sector expansion was added to the influence of the
manufacturing and service sectors.
Bihar has the second highest density of population, despite being the least
urbanized. In terms of distribution of age, it is also the “youngest” state in
India. Bihar has just 130 in Class I, II and III categories. The state has ten
Class I towns, 23 Class II towns and 97 Class III towns.
Even more interestingly in Bihar we see a reversal of the trend of fast rising
urbanization, seen not only in the rest of the country, but also the entire
developing world. In terms of urbanization Bihar has the least number of
people living in towns with just 15.2% residing in them as compared to
28.8% in the rest of India.
There seems to be a reverse flow in the last decade with urban Bihar
actually contracting from 11.4 million in 1991 to 8.7 million in 2001, a
decrease of 23.6% though the state’s decennial population growth rate of
28.4% was among the highest in the country. One reason for this is the
“loss” of Jharkhand with large towns like Ranchi, Dhanbad and

47
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Hazaribagh and with the urbanized population accounting for 6 million of


its 26.9 million.
Even after accounting for this significant event, the level of urbanization in
2001 was 13.19%, which is marginally less than what it was (13.38%) in 1991.
The declining pace of urbanization in Bihar can be attributed to low
industrialization around (and in) urban areas, which has possibly
discouraged youths from rural areas in quest of employment to migrate to
the cities of the state. The deteriorating physical conditions in the towns
contribute just as much as the lack of economic opportunity to the
reversal in urbanization in Bihar.
The approach to the process of urbanization until recently has been
largely "reactive" in the sense that problems have sought to the addressed
in a knee-jerk manner. Urban planning needs to be anticipating and
based upon an integrated approach to address the various dimensions of
urban development.
Nevertheless, the growth of population and marginal influx into urban
areas has put the aging and creaking urban infrastructure and services
under a severe stress. The increasing pressure on urban environment is
taking its toll on the quality of life of the urban population.
In addition to the low industrialization of truncated Bihar, until recently,
there is little by way of urban construction or renewal in Bihar.
The population figures of Begusarai city must be viewed in the above
context as well and interpreted accordingly. The census data available for
the past decades for town of Begusarai are reproduced below:
S.No. Year Population
1 1921 9062
2 1931 7739
3 1941 12803
4 1951 15141
5 1961 27346
6 1971 35736
7 1981 56633
8 1991 71424
9 2001 93741

The decadal growth & incremental increase rate in the past decades as
per census data is as below:

48
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

S. Year Population Decadal Geometric Incremental


No. Growth Increase in Increase
(Increase in Population
Population per Decade
per Decade)

1 1921 9062
2 1931 7739 -1323 -14.60%
3 1941 12803 5064 65.43% 6387
4 1951 15141 2338 18.26% -2726
5 1961 27346 12205 80.61% 9867
6 1971 35736 8390 30.68% -3815
7 1981 56633 20897 58.48% 12507
8 1991 71424 14791 26.12% -6106
9 2001 93741 22317 31.25% 7526
Average per
10585 37.0% 3377
Decade

The graphical representation of past population trends is shown below:

The growth pattern is highly varying for this town. The growth rates in past
decades show abrupt peaks in decades 1931-41, 1951-61 and 1971-81
which are 65.43%, 80.61% and 58.48% in corresponding years. The growth
rate in last two decades has slowed down and was around 26 to 31%.

5.2. CENSUS 2001

49
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

As per Census 2001, the population of town Begusarai is 93,741. The town
has 36 number of wards. The ward wise population of town as per 2001
census is as follows:
S.No Particular Total
1 Ward No. 1 2950
2 Ward No.2 2115
3 Ward No.3 3070
4 Ward No.4 2215
5 Ward No.5 2200
6 Ward No.6 3101
7 Ward No.7 2195
8 Ward No.8 2305
9 Ward No.9 3073
10 Ward No.10 2975
11 Ward No.11 2675
12 Ward No.12 2820
13 Ward No.13 2630
14 Ward No.14 2305
15 Ward No.15 3100
16 Ward No.16 2204
17 Ward No.17 3035
18 Ward No.18 2295
19 Ward No.19 3041
20 Ward No.20 2300
21 Ward No.21 3100
22 Ward No.22 2600
23 Ward No.23 2115
24 Ward No.24 2120
25 Ward No.25 2307
26 Ward No.26 2350
27 Ward No.27 2581
28 Ward No.28 2250
29 Ward No.29 3100
30 Ward No.30 2121
31 Ward No.31 2350
32 Ward No.32 2745
33 Ward No.33 3075
34 Ward No.34 2923
35 Ward No.35 2350
36 Ward No.36 3050
Total 93741

Index plan showing city wards is available on the following page

5.3. POPULATION PROJECTIONS METHODOLOGY

A number of methods for population projection are recommended by


Manual of Water Supply and Treatment by CPHEEO and are listed below:
i. Demographic Method of Population Projection

50
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

ii. Arithmetic Increase Method


iii. Incremental Increase method
iv. Geometric Increase Method
v. Decreasing Rate of Growth Method
vi. Graphical Method
vii. Logistic Method
viii. Method of Density
The different mathematical formula used for population projections are as
follows:

(i) Arithmetic increase Method

(ii) Incremental Increase Method

(iii) Geometric Increase Method

Manual on water supply says that


i. Arithmetical Increase method is generally applicable to large
and old cities. This method gives a low value and is suitable for
well settled and established communities.
ii. Geometrical increase method gives much higher value and is
mostly applicable for growing towns and cities having vast scope
for expansion.
iii. Incremental increase method increases the figures obtained by
the arithmetical increase method.

51
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

iv. Graphical Method – In this method population curve of the city


(i.e. population v/s past decades) is smoothly extended for
getting future value. This extension has to be done carefully.

5.4. POPULATION PROJECTION

The Sewerage System is recommended to serve for a period of 30 years as


per guidelines of the ‘Manual on Sewerage & Sewage Treatment’
published by C.P.H.E.E.O., Ministry of Urban Development, Government of
India, therefore, the design period of the proposed system has been
adopted as Year 2041 with the assumption that the project execution will
start in 2009 and project facilities will start functioning by Year 2011.
The population of Begusarai town has been projected using Arithmetic
increase, Incremental Increase, Geometric Increase and Graphical
Projection methods. The growth rates for past decades from 1961 onwards
have been considered, as census data for pre-independence decades
and few past independence decades are not representative of currently
observed growth trends. The detailed population projection exercise is
available at Annexure ‘A-1’.
The projected population of town by different methods is summarized
below:
Year Projected Population
Arithmetical Geometric Incremental Graphical Average
Progression Method Increase Projection of four
Method Method Method methods

2001 93741 93741 93741 93741 93741


2008 105361 115526 108122 110682 109923
2011 110341 126349 114982 118393 117516
2021 126941 170299 140866 146114 146055
2026 135241 197712 155548 161140 162410
2031 143541 229538 171391 176942 180353
2041 160141 309382 206559 210877 221740

The results of population projections for the town are depicted graphically
below:

52
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

It is recommended to use average of all the four population projection


methods for arriving at the design population of municipal area of
Begusarai town for this project as arithmetic increase and increment
increase method are providing too low results that do not represent
present or likely future growth rates. The results provided by Geometric
growth rate method made in respect of growth potential provided
comparative larger figure. A more realistic assessment for design
population can be arrived at by taking average of all the four methods.
The future populations for various years is adopted as arrived by
averaging all the four projection methods and provided below:
S.No Census Population
Year
1 2001 93741
2 2008 109923
3 2011 117516
4 2021 146055
5 2026 162410
6 2031 180353
7 2041 221740

5.5. MICRO LEVEL POPULATION PROJECTION

53
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Considering the Growth potential and physical limitations, Wards of


Begusarai town have been divided in three Categories; which are:
I Wards with high growth potential.
II Wards with moderate growth potential.
III Fully saturated wards
The areas especially of 9, 12, 18, 24 to 28, 33 are already in an overly
developed state and. The wards covering such areas are considered to
grow at low pace.
The areas in wards e.g. 2, 3, 4, 6, 15 and 35 have significant open areas
and reasonable to good connectivity and are expected to grow at much
higher pace on these accounts. Rest of the areas are considered in
category II which are either physically constrained e.g. due to railway
lines, canals, rivers etc. and have only a moderate scope for future
growth.
The projected populations at micro level for individual wards as carried
out are as follows:
S.No. Ward Population Area Density Growth Density Population
No. 2001 (Ha) 2001 category 2041 2041
1 1 2950 16.4745 179 II 425 7001
2 2 2115 17.961 118 I 420 7542
3 3 3070 58.949 52 I 180 10610
4 4 2215 21.715 102 I 360 7816
5 5 2200 24.676 89 II 210 5181
6 6 3101 17.696 175 I 600 10617
7 7 2195 15.209 144 II 350 5322
8 8 2305 31.087 74 II 175 5440
9 9 3073 21.415 143 III 230 4925
10 10 2975 10.978 271 II 625 6860
11 11 2675 12.694 211 II 500 6346
12 12 2820 9.066 311 III 500 4532
13 13 2630 6.423 409 II 950 6101
14 14 2305 7.328 315 II 750 5494
15 15 3100 13.396 231 I 800 10716
16 16 2204 38.829 57 II 135 5241
17 17 3035 19.525 155 II 360 7027
18 18 2295 30.654 75 III 120 3678
19 19 3041 28.435 107 II 250 7108
20 20 2300 17.807 129 II 300 5341
21 21 3100 18.897 164 II 390 7368

54
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

S.No. Ward Population Area Density Growth Density Population


No. 2001 (Ha) 2001 category 2041 2041
22 22 2600 7.983 326 II 760 6067
23 23 2115 16.348 129 II 300 4903
24 24 2120 9.758 217 III 340 3317
25 25 2307 19.330 119 III 190 3671
26 26 2350 29.616 79 III 120 3553
27 27 2581 18.835 137 III 220 4142
28 28 2250 9.207 244 III 390 3590
29 29 3100 10.988 282 II 670 7360
30 30 2121 12.000 177 II 420 5038
31 31 2350 29.910 79 II 190 5682
32 32 2745 25.151 109 II 260 6538
33 33 3075 32.775 94 III 150 4916
34 34 2923 28.696 102 II 245 7030
35 35 2350 36.638 64 I 230 8425
36 36 3050 24.973 122 II 290 7242
Total 93741 221740

55
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 6. Proposed Sewerage System

6.1. INTRODUCTION

Sewer networks are designed to collect & convey the wastewater


generated in properties across the town to its treatment/disposal site.
Sewer networks are planned & designed to achieve its intended objective
throughout its lifetime without any risk to public health, public safety &
environment.
The objective for properly designed sewer networks is to
 Achieve self cleansing velocity to avoid silt depositions.
 Effective ventilation
 Avoidance of back surcharging
 To minimize the infiltration
 Structurally safe
While designing the sewer network for this project all the above objectives
have been kept in consideration.

6.2. PROPOSED SEWERAGE ZONES

The drainage zone boundaries are generally restricted by natural & man-
made features such as Railways, National Highways, Rivers, Canal, Drains
etc.

56
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

The major geographical features that delimit the zonal boundaries in


Begusarai town are National Highway No 28 and Railway line.
Considering the ground relief, the major sewerage zones emerges are as
follows:
Sewer network for Zone-1 covers entire Northern part of the town. It is
bounded by Suja Mouja Railway line on the Southern side which separates
it from rest of the town. This zone consists of ward no. 1, 2, 3, 25 and 26,
covering the areas, Mouja Bagh, Nagdah Mouga, Suja Mouga, Airam
road, etc. It collects the entire sewerage of this Zone and brings it to the
node N-88 near Hanuman Mandir near Begusarai Mueseum, from where it
is pumped to manhole no.N-89 of Zone-2 across the Railway line through
the rising mains in the Southward direction.
Sewer network for Zone-2 covers entire Eastern, Western and Southern part
of the town. This zone consists of thirty three wards out of which around
sixteen wards are in Western direction (ward no. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19) and the rest seventeen wards are in Eastern
direction (ward no. 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36) and covering the areas, Mauja Mahmadpur Raghunath, Harhar
Mahadev chowk, IOP Township, Mauja Pipra Itwa, Rohil chowk, Mouja
Makhsaspur Hemra Mouja, Mouja Alodipur Hemra, Emu Mouja, Mirjapur
Bandumar Simana, Mauja Vishnupur Bahaur, etc. This network collects the
entire sewerage of this Zone and brings it to the node N-27 in ward no. 32,
from where it is pumped to manhole no.N-34 of the same ward through
the rising mains in the South-East direction. It also connects the sewers at
various nodes under gravity to the main trunk carrying the sewerage of
Zone-1. This network does not encounter any railway crossing or any River
crossing in its way.
The main trunk carrying the entire sewerage of the town discharges the
waste under gravity to the STP near Wajidpur Village outside the town.

6.3. PROPOSED NETWORK LAYOUT

Sewer networks layout is planned for the project area keeping in


consideration following broad principles.
 Minimise the crossings of major barriers like National highways,
Railways, Rivers, Drains, canals.
 Sewers are laid along natural drainage line to minimize the depth of
excavation.

57
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 The drainage path from different locations to disposal site is to kept


minimum.
 Trunk & sub-trunk mains layout is kept along major roads.
Looking to the town topography and lateral expanse of town population,
whole of town is proposed to discharge at a single location. The selected
disposal point is on the south eastern side of town near Wajidpur village
The sewer network is laid to follows the ground profile within the zones as
described above.
It is proposed to provide two pumping stations in the proposed network to
restrict the depth of excavation to 8.0 mtr in general, which are as below:
Pumping Station No 1 : This pumping station is proposed to be located at
Hanuman Mandir near Begusarai Mueseum. It will receive wastewater
from whole of the area north of railway tracks.
Pumping Station No 1 is proposed at node 88. The wastewater collected
from this zone is pumped to Node No 89 through a pumping main of 300
mm diameter. The flow for various years at this pumping station are as
follows;
Average Flow (lps) Peak Factor Infiltration Peak Flow
2011 2026 2041 2026 2041 2026 2041
29.196 40.350 55.09 2.5 2.5 1.6562 102.53 139.38

The details of pumps proposed to be provided at this pumping station is as


follows:
S No Flow Head Efficiency Number Standby kW Adopted
Cum/hr
1 92.28 12 50% 4 1 6.0 9.3

Pumping Station No 2 : This pumping station is proposed to be located


near Gayitri Shakti Peeth. It will receive wastewater from western area of
town.
Pumping Station No 2 is proposed at node 27. The wastewater collected
from this zone is pumped to Node No 34. The flow for various years at this
pumping station are as follows;
Average Flow (lps) Peak Factor Infiltration Peak Flow
2011 2026 2041 2026 2041 2026 2041
126.097 174.269 237.93 2.25 2.25 7.0445 399.15 542.39

The details of pumps proposed to be provided at this pumping station is as


follows:

58
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

S No Flow Head Efficiency Number Standby kW Adopted


Cum/hr
1 359.23 13 50% 4 1 25.4 30.0

There is one railway crossing near railway opposite hanuman mandir near
Railway Station. There are four National Highway crossing in the town,
locations are as follows; It is proposed to get these crossings through
trenchless technology.
 Hanuman Mahadev Chowk
 Subhash Chowk
 Power House Chowk
 Kali Sthan chowk
The outfall will move eastwards, collecting the wastewater from North &
western area and terminate at proposed Sewage Treatment Plant Site
near Wajidpur village.

6.4. DESIGN OF SEWERAGE NETWORK

Proposed Sewerage network has been designed using the design


principles described in Chapter 3: Design criteria. The major criteria used
are provided below:
 A per capita water supply figure of 135 LPCD with 80% contributing
to wastewater is adopted to arrive at expected wastewater flows in
sewers.
 An infiltration value of 250 lit/manhole/day in pipe is adopted
considering the high water table in the town.
 A minimum diameter of sewer pipe is adopted as 150 mm as
currently in practice.
 A minimum earth cover of 1.0 m is kept for all the pipes.
 For sewer pipes in initial reaches, it is difficult to achieve the
minimum velocity of 0.8 m/s. It is proposed to lay 150 mm diameter
sewers at a gradient of 1 in 160 and to have provision of mobile
flushing units for regular flushing all initial sewers at regular time
interval.
 All subsequent pipes are designed to achieve a minimum flow
velocity of 0.8 m/sec.

59
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Crown of outgoing sewer is matched to crown of lowest of


incoming sewers in that particular manhole.
The detailed result of hydraulic analysis of sewer network is available at
Annexure ‘A-3’. The summary of sewer network is as below:
Diameter Total
(mm) Length(m)

150 7761
160 17133
200 64564
250 1802
300 2051
350 1996
400 893
450 853
500 756
600 921
700 505
900 313
1000 966
1100 4435
104948

The depth wise summary of different diameters is as follows:


Diameter Length of Sewer for diferent depths (m)
0-1m 1-2m 2-3m 3-4m 4-5m 5-6m 6-7m 7-8m 8-9m Total
150 7761 7761
160 17133 17133
200 37539 16470 7356 2537 502 159 64564
250 257 891 620 34 1802
300 244 562 671 574 2051
350 98 570 870 458 1996
400 334 430 130 893
450 719 134 853
500 151 120 303 182 756
600 72 676 115 58 921
700 505 505
900 313 313
1000 115 227 236 170 141 78 966
1100 2700 1485 250 4435
17133 45452 16585 11002 4561 5092 3619 1370 136 104948

6.5. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF SEWER PIPES

Generally sewers are laid in ditches or trenches by excavation in natural or


undisturbed soil and then covered by refilling the trench to the original
ground level.
6.5.1. LOAD PRODUCING FORCES

60
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

The vertical dead load to which a conduit is subjected under trench


conditions is the result of two major forces. The first component is the prism
of soil within the trench and above the top of the pipe and the second is
due to the friction or shearing forces generated between the prism of soil
in the trench and the sides of the trench produced by settlement of
backfill .the resultant load on the horizontal plane at the top of the pipe at
the top of the pipe within the trench is equal to the weight of the backfill
minus these upward shearing forces.
Soil loads
The loads on rigid conduits in trench condition is given by the marston’s
formula in the form
Wc = Cd x w x B2 x d
• Wc = the load on the pipe in kg per linear meter
• W = the unit of backfill soil in kg/m3
• Bd = the width of trench at the top of the pipe in m and
• Cd =the load coefficient which is a function of a ratio of height of fill
to the friction coefficient between and the backfill and the sides of
the trench.
Equation gives the total vertical load due to backfill in the horizontal
Plane at the top of the conduits as shown in fig, if the pipe is rigid. For
Flexible conduits ,the formula may be modified as
Wc = Cd w Bc Bd
Where Bc is the outside width of the conduit in m
Concentrated load
The formula load due to superimposed load such as a truck wheel is Is
given in the following from by Holl’s integration of Boussinesq,s Formula
Wsc = Cs (PF/L)
Where
• Wsc = the load on the conduit in kg/m
• p = the concentrated load in kg acting on the surfaces
• F = the impact factor(1.0 for air field runways 1.5 for the highway
Traffic and the air field taxi ways, 1.75 for the railways traffic
• Cs = the load coefficient which is a function of Bc/2H and L/2H

61
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

• H = the height of the top of the conduits to ground surface in m


• Bc = the outside width of conduit in m, and
• L = the effective length of the conduit to which the load is
transmitted in m.
The effective length of the conduit is defined as the length over which the
average load due to surface traffic units produces the same stress in the
conduit wall as does the actual load which varies in intensity from point to
point. This is generally taken as 1M or the actual length of the conduit if ti is
less than 1m.)
6.5.2. SUPPORTING STRENGTH OF RIGID CONDUIT

The ability of a conduit to resist safely the calculated earth load depends
not only on its inherent strength but also on the distribution of the vertical
load and bedding reaction and on the lateral pressure acting against the
sides of the conduit. The inherent strength of a rigid conduit is usually
expressed in terms of the three edge bearing test results, the conditions of
which are, however different from the field load conditions. The
magnitude of the supporting strength of a pipe as installed in the field is
dependent upon the distribution of the vertical load and the reaction
against the bottom of the pipe. It also depends on the magnitude and
distribution of the lateral pressure acting on the sides of the pipe.
6.5.3. LOAD FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT CLASSES OF BEDDING

The load factors for different class of beddings as recommended by


CPHEEO manual are as follows:
Class of Condition Load
Bedding factor
A a Concrete cradle plain concrete and lightly 2.2
tamped backfill
A b Concrete cradle plain concrete with 2.8
carefully tampled backfil
A c Concrete cradle RCC with p-0.4% Upto 3.4
A d Arch type plain concrete
RCC with p-0.4%
RCC with p-0.1% Upto 3.4
(p is the ratio of the area of steel to the area Upto 4.8
of concrete at the crown)
B Shaped bottom or compacted granular 1.9
bedding with carefully compacted backfill
C Shaped bottom or compacted granular 1.5
bedding with lightlyted backfill
D Flat bottom trench 1.1

62
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

The granular material used must stabilize the trench bottom in addition to
providing a firm and uniform support for the pipe. Well graded crushed
rock or gravel with the maximum size not exceeding 25mm is
recommended for the purpose
6.5.4. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

The combination of pipe class and pipe bedding is arrived at by carrying


out a detailed techno-economic analysis. The unit rates of pipe laying and
pipe beddings are analyzed using SoRs currently enforced in State of
Bihar.
For different pipe diameters and invert depths, the various combinations
of pipe classes and pipe beddings are analyzed for their load carrying
capacity with required factor of safety. The loads are computed as per
recommendations of CPHEEO manual and as discussed above. The rates
of all the combinations of pipe classes and bedding types is calculated.
The final pipe class and bedding type combination is selected which can
withstand the imposed loads and which is most cost-effective. The
detailed analysis for different pipe diameters and representative invert
depths for this project is available at Annex A-7.
The summary of techno economic analysis is provided below:
Diameter Invert Depths (m)
(mm) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000
150 NP2 - A NP3 - A NP3 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A
200 NP3 - A NP3 - A NP2 - B NP2 - B NP3 - B NP3 - B NP3 - B NP3 - B NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A
250 NP2 - B NP2 - B NP2 - B NP2 - B NP3 - B NP3 - B NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A
300 NP2 - B NP2 - B NP2 - B NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
350 NP4 - A NP2 - B NP2 - B NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
400 NP4 - A NP2 - B NP2 - B NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
450 NP4 - A NP2 - B NP2 - B NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
500 NP2 - B NP2 - B NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
600 NP2 - B NP2 - B NP2 - C NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
700 NP2 - B NP2 - B NP2 - C NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
800 NP2 - B NP3 - A NP2 - C NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
900 NP2 - B NP3 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
1000 NP3 - A NP3 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
1100 NP2 - C NP3 - A NP3 - A NP3 - B NP3 - B NP4 - A NP3 - C NP3 - C NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
1200 NP3 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B
1400 NP3 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - C NP4 - C NP4 - C
1600 NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - A NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - B NP4 - C NP4 - C NP4 - D NP4 - D

The four bedding types adopted in this project are as follows:

Pipe Bedding Type Pipe Bedding description

A Shaped bottom or compacted granular bedding


with carefully compacted backfill

B Concrete cradle plain concrete with carefully


tampled backfil

63
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Pipe Bedding Type Pipe Bedding description

C Concrete cradle RCC with p-0.4%

Arch type plain concrete


D
RCC with p-0.1%

64
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 7. Wastewater Treatment Process

7.1. GENERAL

Wastewater management is a costly business. Once wastewaters (i.e.


any combination of domestic sewage and industrial effluents) are
produced and collected in sewerage systems, then treatment becomes a
necessity.
Sewage has been seen as a problem requiring treatment and disposal.
Most conventional sewage treatment options are based on approaches,
which usually meant a reduction in biodegradable organic material and
suspended solids, plus perhaps some nutrients (nitrogen and
phosphorous). Treatment has involved the ‘removal’ of these pollutants,
but removal is usually conversion to another product, usually sludge. The
disposal of sewage sludge is a major consideration, and it is often seen as
an offensive product which is either dumped (now required to be land-
filled or used as compost) or burned.

7.2. SEWAGE CHARACTERISTICS

While determining quantity of flow it is essential to decide the capacity of


the treatment plant, equally important is to determine the characteristics
of the inflowing sewage on which depends the choice of treatment
methods/processes that may be adopted. Assessing the quality also helps
in

65
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 deciding the beneficial uses that the effluent after treatment may
be put to.
 presence of industrial discharge, if any, can also be determined
 presence of toxicants or other interfering compounds like
surfactants
 quantity of nutrients present to support biological processes.
Domestic sewage primarily consists of spent water from kitchens,
bathrooms and toilets etc. The factors that influence the variation in
sewage quality are per capita consumption of water and economic
status as it affects water usage habits.
7.2.1. IMPORTANT PARAMETERS

Important parameters with relation to sewage quality reaching the


proposed STP are discussed below
7.2.1.1. PH VALUE

Normally due to various products used in households, pH of sewage is


higher (alkaline) than that of water supply. Discharge of small quantities of
trade effluent from textile processing units is not likely to affect the pH of
sewage. However if sewage flows long distance and is in not properly
ventilated sewers, it may turn septic i.e. pH may get reduced. In present
case sewers are of adequate size and well ventilated, therefore
development of septic conditions is not expected.
7.2.1.2. SOLIDS

It is obvious that solids, suspended and dissolved in spent water is


considerably higher than that in water supply. Though concentration of
solids is usually less than 1 percent, it contains substantial quantity of
putrescible (biodegradable) matter, which on decomposition yield foul
odour. Amount of suspended solids in ambient air is high all through the
year. This as well as the fact that in many households (especially in low
income group) ash or soil is used for cleaning the utensils results in higher
concentration of suspended solids (inorganic) in sewage. Cooking waste,
disposal of leftover and toilet effluents contribute to suspended solids of
organic nature.
7.2.1.3. NUTRIENTS

Basic nutrients of importance in STP are Nitrogen and Phosphorus


compounds. Leftover food materials containing proteins and other food

66
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

residues contain both the N and P compounds. Nutrients concentration in


relation to BOD in the approximate ratio of 100(BOD) : 5(N) : 1(P) is
considered adequate to support biological processes in STP. The sewage
analysis shows the presence of these in adequate quantity.
7.2.1.4. BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

BOD is a measure of concentration of biodegradable matter present in


water, measured under a standardized test procedure. Based on the long
term studies of sewage from various towns in India, it has been inferred
that on an average per person contribution of BOD is 45 gms/day. BOD is
an important parameter based on which secondary/tertiary biological
processes are designed and effluent discharge standards are set.
Wastewater containing degradable organic matter (BOD) when
discharged in a water body (river or lake) it consumes oxygen in the
process of oxidation of degradable matter, which results in depletion of
dissolved oxygen levels. Depletion of dissolved oxygen below the levels of
4 mg/l may result in mortality of fish and other aquatic life.
This in a way also governs the BOD concentrations that may be permitted
in treated effluent. If the effluent is discharged in a perennial river with
substantial discharge, higher BOD may be permitted as the rivers have
their own self purification capacity.
7.2.1.5. CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD)

COD represents the total oxygen required to oxidize all the organic
matter, degradable and non-degradable (refractory) present in sewage
as well as the oxygen consumed in oxidizing some of the inorganic salts
under the test conditions. As is clear from the definitions of BOD and COD,
COD representing overall oxygen requirements is always higher than BOD.
Further BOD to COD ratio is taken as biodegradability of the waste water.
Sewage normally has ratios varying from 1:2 to 1:2.5 and is considered as
“degradable”.
7.2.2. EXISTING WATER/WASTEWATER CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

To estimate the expected pollution load on proposed Sewage Treatment


Plant & to decide on treatment process, it is essential to have a thorough
knowledge of the strength of expected influent in terms on concentration
of various pollutants. It is equally necessary to have the knowledge of
concentration of various elements & compounds in drinking water
supplied to town as the users only add pollution to this supplied water.

67
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

7.2.2.1. DRINKING WATER CHARACTERISTICS

The drinking water supplied to town is analyzed for its composition. The
physical-chemical analysis of water samples is as follows:
Particulars Begusarai
1 2
Turbidity 1
Colour 5
pH 7
Conductivity 1192
Total Hardness 360
Calcium 144
Magnesium 52
Chloride 90
Sulphate 80
iron 4
Nitrate -
Fluoride 0.6
TDS 775
Total Alkalinity 360

7.2.2.2. WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS

An understanding of the nature of wastewater is fundamental to the


design and operation of wastewater collection, treatment, and reuse
facilities. Wastewater is characterized in terms of its physical, chemical,
and biological composition. Greater emphasis is being
It is not possible to assess the quality of sewage being generated as there
is no sewerage system. Whatever wastewater is flowing in open drains is
primarily sullage water discharged from kitchens and bathrooms mixed
with effluent from septic tanks. Even the discharge in open drains is
subjected to seepage and can not be representative. On the other hand
CPHEEO Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment, based on its vast
experience, has recommended values to be adopted for towns in India.
Alternatively, the Manual of Sewerage & Sewage Treatment published by
CPHEEO recommends a per capita contribution of 90 gms of Suspended
Solids and 45 gms of BOD5 Days, 20Deg C.
The per Capita water supply for the town is 135 LPCD as recommended by
Manual of Water Supply Published by CPHEEO. These figures exclude the
Unaccounted for Water(UfW). Wastewater manual recommends
following:

68
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

“Generally, a 80% of water supply is expected to reach public sewers unless the
data available to the contrary. However, the sewers should be designed for a
minimum wastewater flow of 100 liters per capita per day.”

Adopting these recommendations, a wastewater contribution per capita


per day comes to be 80/100 * 135 i.e. 108 liters.
The BOD concentration in wastewater comes to be 45*1000/108 i.e. 417
mg/l and Suspended solids concentration comes to be 90*1000/108 i.e.
834 mg/l.
However, as indicated above, this does not include sundry UfW flows into
the sewers (which may be as high as 40% of water supplied). Further, it has
been established by research that the entire sewerage system acts as flow
through reactor with significant load of SS & BOD being removed prior to
entry into STP.
7.2.3. ADOPTED INFLUENT QUALITY

Based on the data from STPs from other similar towns, sewage
characteristics for the design purpose have been taken as follows:

S.No. Parameters Unit Values

1 BOD Mg/l 300

2 COD Mg/l 700

3 Suspended Soilds Mg/l 600

7.2.4. EFFLUENT STANDARDS

The Environmental Protection Rules 1986, vide its Section Vi provides


general standards for discharge of environmental pollutants for discharge
of treated effluent to Public Sewers, Inland Surface Waters, Land for
Irrigation and marine coastal areas.
The important standards for effluent discharging to inland surface waters &
land for irrigation are reproduced here.

S.No. Parameters Unit Inland Land for


Surface Irrigation
Water

1 Suspended Solids, max Mg/l 100 200

69
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

S.No. Parameters Unit Inland Land for


Surface Irrigation
Water

2 Biochemical oxygen demand (5 Mg/l 30 100


days at 20 0C), max

3 Chemical Oxygen demand, Mg/l 250 -


max

4 Ammonical nitrogen (as N), Mg/l 50 -


max

The complete standards for discharge of effluents as per Section VI of


Environment(Protection) Rules, 1986 are available at Annexure ‘A-1’.
NRCD Guideline recommendations

S. No. Parameters For discharge on land For discharge into water

1 BOD (mg/l) <100 <30

2 SS (mg/l) <200 <50

3 Faecal Desirable Max. Desirable Max.


coliform permissible permissible

1000 10000 1000 10000

7.3. TREATMENT PROCESSES

Preliminary: this includes simple processes such as screening (usually by bar


screens) and grit removal. (through constant velocity channels) to remove
the gross solid pollution.
Primary: usually plain sedimentation; simple settlement of the solid material
in sewage can reduce the polluting load by significant amounts.
Secondary: for further treatment and removal of common pollutants,
usually by a biological process.
Tertiary/Advanced: usually for removal of specific pollutants e.g. nitrogen
or phosphorous, or specific industrial pollutants. When reuse is
contemplated, the tertiary treatment may comprise of several other unit

70
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

processes/operations such as disinfection, activated carbon filtration,


membrane filtration or even RO, depending on the end use
contemplated and also on the ease and cost of the fresh water
availability and legal stipulations. Needless to say, this can be by far the
costliest step of wastewater treatment.

7.4. SELECTION OF TREATMENT PROCESS

As mentioned above the sewage after giving primary treatment is given


secondary treatment to remove the organic purtrescible organic matters
and bring down the BOD of the effluent given to the primary treated
effluent is described below:-
 Waste Stabilization Ponds
 Aerated Lagoons
 Up Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASBR) + FAL
 Conventional Activated Sludge Process
 Cyclic Activated Sludge Process/SBR

7.4.1. STABILIZATION PONDS

Stabilization ponds are open, flow through earthen basins specifically


designed and constructed to treat sewage. Stabilization pond provides
comparatively long detention periods extending from few to several days.
During this period purtrescible organic matter in the waste is stabilized in
the pond through a symbiotic relationship between bacteria and algae.
There are three types of stabilization ponds,
a) Aerobic Ponds
b) Anaerobic ponds
c) Facultative ponds
7.4.1.1. AEROBIC PONDS

In this type of ponds complete aerobic conditions is maintained. These


types of ponds are used for soluble wastes which allow penetration of light
throughout the liquid depth. These types of ponds are shallow with depth
less than 0.5 m. The pond contents are periodically mixed. The major
disadvantage is that such ponds develop intense algal growth.
7.4.1.2. ANAEROBIC PONDS

Anaerobic ponds are used as a pretreatment for high strength industrial


wastes and sometimes of municipal wastewaters. BOD load of 400 3000

71
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

kg/ha./day and 5 50 days detention period would result in 50 855 BOD


reduction. Such ponds are constructed for a depth of 2.5 5 m to
conserve heat and minimize land area requirement. Major constraint with
such ponds is odor problem and hence not widely used.
7.4.1.3. FACULTATIVE PONDS

The facultative ponds functions aerobically at the surface while anaerobic


conditions prevail at the bottom. The aerobic layer acts as a good check
against odour evolution from the pond. The treatment effected by this
type of pond is comparable to that of conventional secondary treatment
processes. The functioning of facultative stabilization pond are based on
the symbiotic relationship of bacteria and algae. In the tope aerobic
layer, where oxygen is supplied through algal photosynthesis, the
non settle able and dissolved organic matter in the incoming sewage is
oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. In addition some end products of
partial anaerobic decomposition such as volatile acids and alcohol,
which may permeate to upper layers are also oxidized aerobically. The
settled sludge mass originating from raw waste and microbial synthesis in
the aerobic layer and dissolved and suspended organics in bottom layers
undergo stabilization through conversion to methane which escapes the
pond in form of bubble. For each kg of BOD ultimate stabilized 0.25 kg or
0.35 m3 of methane is formed.
7.4.1.4. DISADVANTAGES

 The facultative ponds shall be located far away from habitations or


any area likely to be built up within a reasonable future period.
 The pond shall be located such that the direction of prevailing wind
is towards uninhabited areas.
 The pond location shall be away from ground water source to avoid
chemical or bacterial pollution.
 It creates mosquito nuisance and hence adversely affects public
health.
 The system is unable to take care of shock loads.
 If the normal working is upstate it creates sight and foul small
nuisance.
 The effluent quality from stabilization pond is poor, it has high values
of total suspended solids and total BOD5.

72
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 It requires very high area i.e. around 12 to 13 Hectare for 12 MLD so


in view to above disadvantages and limitation for availability of
land this method of treatment is not suitable for such towns.
7.4.2. AERATED LAGOONS

Aerated lagoons are simple earthen basins with inlet at one end and
outlet at the other end. The mechanical aerators are designed to stabilize
the organic matter into CO2 and H2O. The biological process does not
include algae, and organic stabilization depends on the mixed liquor that
develops within the lagoon. There is no provision for setting and returning
activated, sludge. BOD removal is a function of aeration period,
temperature and nature of wastewater. Aerated lagoons are of two
types,
a) Aerobic Flow Through with partial mixing
b) Facultative Aerated Lagoons.

7.4.2.1. AEROBIC LAGOONS

This are fully aerobic from top to bottom as the aeration power input is
sufficiently high to keep all the solids in suspension and meeting the
oxygen demand of the microbes. No solids settlement occurs in the
lagoons and under equilibrium conditions the new microbial solids
produced in the system equal the solids leaving the system. Thus, the solids
concentration in the effluent is relatively high and some sedimentation
facility has to be provided after lagoons.
Disadvantages
 Problems of odors and low efficiency result when aerated lagoons
are improperly designed or poorly operated.
 Deposition of solids and reduced oxygenation can result in
anaerobic Decomposition which leads to foul odor.
 Temperature changes affect the overall performance of the
lagoon.

7.4.2.2. FACULTATIVE AERATED LAGOONS

In such types of lagoons some solids may leave the effluent stream and
some settle down in the lagoon as the aeration power input is enough for
oxygenation and not keeping all solids in suspension. Because the energy

73
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

input will not maintain the solids in suspension, a portion of the incoming
solids will settle along with a portion of the biological solids produced from
conversion of the soluble organic substance. The settled solids will undergo
anaerobic decomposition. In such types of lagoons lower part may be
anoxic or anaerobic and upper layers are aerobic. Facultative lagoons
must be dewatered and the accumulated solids must be removed. Where
a discharge limit has to be met reliably facultative lagoons are not being
used.
Comparison of Various Types of Lagoons

Parameters Facultative Aerobic Lagoons


TSS, mg/L 40-150 150-350
BOD Removal 80-90% 50-60%
Sludge Accumulated internally in Accumulated in
the lagoon external
sedimentation
facility
Power Less More
Consumption

Total area required for facultative aerated lagoons are very high i.e. 12 to
13 Hectare for 12 MLD and in view to above disadvantages and limitations
of availability of required huge land it is not advisable to adopt this
technology.

7.4.3. UPFLOW ANAEROBIC FILTER PROCESS (UASB)

This is based on anaerobic process. Raw effluent after screening and grit
removal is directly fed into UASB reactors. The reactor maintains a high
concentration of anaerobic biomass through formation of highly settle
able microbial aggregates. Untreated sewage inside the reactor flows
upward through a layer of sludge while getting treated for organics,
converting them into methane gas. At top of the reactor, phase
separation between gas solid liquid takes and treated water is taken out
form the reactor.
This process is very sensitive to operating conditions like temperature, pH,
incoming load and recirculation rate hence treatment efficiency keeps
fluctuating. At best operating conditions, the process offer 50 – 70%
treatment efficiency, therefore requires second stage biological treatment
down stream. Anaerobic process has very slow growth rates of micro

74
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

organism and hence these systems have poor treatment efficiencies of


only 50-70%. In order to achieve disposal outlet quality of treated sewage,
second stage aerobic biological units are required. Typical outlet quality
from anaerobic reactors is suspended solids 50 ppm, COD: 200 ppm, BOD
100 120 ppm for an inlet quality of TSS 300 ppm, COD 400 ppm and BOD
300 ppm. The system generates bad odor, as process releases gases like
H2S and methane. Anaerobic process is very difficult to control. It requires
consistent feed quality as well as flow rates. The process of degradation is
a 3 step fermentation process comprising different sets of bacteria, to
generate methane gas and CO2
 Hydrolysis
 Acidogenisis
 Methanogenisis
It requires constant monitoring of acidogenesis and methano genesis
phases in the anaerobic reactor.
The process is pH sensitive. Methanogenisi reaction occurs in a pH range
of 6-7.5 only, while during acidogenisis phase the ph may drop to 2.0 also
due to formation of complex acids. This disturbs the complete equilibrium
and further reduces treatment efficiency. Temperature dependent: The
process works in the range of 18 –38 deg centigrade. During winter season
when ambient temp Drops to 1 2 degree, provision has to be made to
heat the entire contents of the reactor or else treatment efficiency drops
drastically. There is No control on any process parameters. The plants run
continuously at all times including low flow/ Nil flow conditions. Plant is
manually controlled and difficult to monitor. It is susceptible to variation in
inlet conditions BOD, COD, sulphide levels, pH and temp condition, which
directly influences treatment efficiency as well as quantity of gas
generation. Since It is a point load design cannot handle sudden peak
flow variation, which is expected for any large scale city sewage system.
Normally 0 250% flow variation is present for any sewage treatment plant.
Gas can be generated, however process is not economical for low
strength effluents like sewage where input BOD is less than 300 ppm.
Further more for financial viability it is important to utilize the gas either
directly in boilers or house holds. In case power is to be generated it again
requires capital investment by putting duel fuel engines. Also provision has
to be made for gas storage facility with flare system installed at site. Gas
production is not consistent, and varies in case there is any disruption in

75
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

the process. Due to Process chemistry acids are generated, pH in


anaerobic reactors varies from 2-7, which essentially requires SS domes
and FRP lining of complete tank internals. Problem of internal corrosion is
very high and cost of maintenance is very high. More technical data have
been compared with aerobic process in separate sheet..
7.4.4. ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

Activated Sludge Process (AEROBIC PROCESS) is the most used biological


waste water treatment process in the developed and developing
countries. Due to aerobic process in Activated Sludge Process, plant has
less odor/vector nuisance in compare to anaerobic type process as
mentioned above. The conventional activated sludge processes are of
three types,
a) Conventional System
b) Complete Mixed
c) Extended Aeration
a) Conventional System
This type of system consists of an aeration tank, a secondary settling tank,
a sludge recirculation system and sludge withdrawal system. About 85-92%
of BOD removal can be achieved. The sewage and mixed liquor are input
at the head of the tank and withdrawn at the end. Air is supplied at
uniform rate throughout the length of the tank.
b) Completely Mixed
In a complete mixing is achieved by distributing the sewage and return
sludge uniformly along one side of the tank and withdrawing the aerated
sewage uniformly along the opposite side. The complete mix system has a
high capacity to hold a high MLSS level in the aeration tank enabling the
aeration tank volume to be reduced. The plant has high operational
stability at shock loadings and also increased capacity to treat toxic
biodegradable wastes.
Limitations
BOD Removal is 85 92. In complete mix activated sludge process
operation of anaerobic digestion requires a more skill labor here primary
settling and anaerobic digestion of the sludge are omitted. The process is
susceptible to filamentous sludge bulking.
c) Extended Aeration

76
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

The extended aeration process is little change of the activated sludge


process which employs low organic loading, long aeration time, high MLSS
concentration and low F/M. Other way which provides a biological
treatment for the removal of biodegradable organic waste under aerobic
condition. Air may be supplied by mechanical or diffused aeration to
provide by aeration or mechanical means to maintain the microbial
organisms in contact with the dissolved organics. In addition PH must be
controlled to optimize the biological process and essential nutrients must
be present to facilitate biological growth and the continuation of
biological degradation. Sewage after primary treatment enters to the
aeration chamber, where it is mixed and oxygen is provided to the micro
organisms. The mixed liquor then flows to a clarifier of secondary settling
tank where most micro organisms settle to the bottom of the clarifier. The
sludge from clarifier is recycled back to aeration tank and remaining part
is withdrawn from the system. Because of the long detention time in the
aeration tank,organic solids undergo considerable endogenous
respiration and get well stabilized. So the excess sludge from clarifier dose
not require separate digestion and can directly dried on sand beds. The
clarified waste water flows over a weir used for sewage farming purpose.
The BOD removal efficiency is high i.e. (90 95) compare to Completely
Mix Methodology.
Limitations
This treatment requires a slightly larger area than the complete mix
activated sludge, Here waste water is brought directly to aeration basin
after screening and grit removal. Aeration energy used is high and
relatively required large aeration tanks, adaptable mostly to very small
plants. However this is better in conventional range of process.
Importance of Secondary Settling Tank in Activated Sludge Process
Secondary settling assumes considerable importance in the activated
sludge process. The secondary settling tank of activated sludge process is
particularly sensitive to fluctuation in flow rate and on this account it is
recommended that the units be designed not only for average flow rate
but also for peak flow rate. The high concentration of suspended solids in
the effluent requires that the solids loading rate shall also be considered.
7.4.5. CYCLIC ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS/SEQUENTIAL BATCH REACTOR
(CASP/SBR)

77
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

This is the most improved and scientific version of activated sludge process
which gives excellent treated water quality in sewage treatment plants,
requires less area, less energy etc. Batch Operation of the activated
sludge process is nothing new as already mentioned in CPHEEO. A
Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) is a fill and draw activated treatment
system. As such, SBR are capable of handling all waste waters commonly
treated by conventional activated sludge plants. Municipal and industrial
waste waters have both been successfully treated in SBR systems. The unit
process involved in the SBR and conventional activated sludge systems
are identical. Aeration and sedimentation/clarification are carried out in
both systems. However, there is one important difference. In conventional
plants, processes are carried out simultaneously in separate tanks,
whereas in SBR the processes are carried out sequentially in the same
tank.
The Process
CYCLIC ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT process provides highest
treatment efficiency possible in a single step biological process. The
system is operated in a batch reactor mode this eliminates all the
inefficiencies of the continuous processes. A batch reactor is a perfect
reactor, which ensures 100% treatment. Four modules are provided to
ensure continuous treatment. The complete process takes place in a
single reactor, within which all biological treatment steps take place
sequentially.
The complete biological operation is divided into cycles. Each cycle is of 3
– 5 hrs duration, during which all treatment steps take place.
Explanation of cyclic operation:
A basic cycle comprises:
1) Fill- Aeration (F/A)
2) Settlement (S)
3) Decanting (D)
These phases in a sequence constitute a cycle, which is then repeated.
During the period of a cycle, the liquid is filled in the Basin up to a set
operating water level. Aeration Blowers are started for aeration of the
effluent. After the aeration cycle, the biomass settles, No extra settling unit
is required after the aeration basin.
The Cyclic Activated Sludge Process/SBR comprises the following features,

78
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

1. Biological Selector zone: ENSURES NO FOAMING AND BULKING


PROBLEMS
2. Oxygen Uptake rate control “OUR”: ENSURES 40 - 50% POWER SAVINGS
3. Co Current Nitrification and De nitrification, Phosphorous removal: THIS
FEATURE ENSURES MORE THAN 80% NITROGEN AND PHOSPOROUS
REMOVAL WITHIN THE SAME BASIN WITHOUT NEED OF ANY EXTERNAL UNITS,
MIXERS, and RECYCLE PUMPS ETC.
4. Decanter assembly in Stainless steel: ENSURES NO CORROSION, LONG
EQUIPMENT LIFE, NO MAINTENANCE
5. Diffusers, Blowers and Aeration grid: THE DIFFUSERS AND BLOWER
ARRANGEMENT ENSURES MAXIMUM POSSIBLE AERATION EFFICIENCY AND
MINIMUM POWER USAGE.
6. Submersible pumps for return sludge (RAS) recycle and Surplus sludge
(SAS) pumps for sludge wasting: REDUCES SPACE REQUIREMENT, NO
SECONDARY CLARIFIER IS USED WHICH DRASTICALLY REDUCES CIVIL COST
7. PLC unit for complete automatic cycle control and operation:
REDUCES MANPOWER COST COMPLETE OPERATION CAN BE HOOKED TO
CENTRAL CONTROL DESK
Schematic drawing of Cy.ASP/SBR basin

Biological SELECTOR zone


The incorporation of a biological SELECTOR in the front end of the Cyclic
Activated Sludge process/SBR distinguishes it from all other technologies.

79
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

The raw effluent enters the SELECTOR zone, where ANOXIC MIX conditions
are maintained. Part of the treated effluent along with return sludge from
the aeration basin is recycled in here, using RAS pumps. As the micro
organisms meet high BOD, low DO condition in the SELECTOR, natural
selection of predominantly floc forming micro organisms takes place. This
is very effective in containing all of the known low F/M bulking micro
organisms, eliminates problems of bulking and sludge foaming. This
process ensures excellent settling characteristics of the bio sludge. SVI of
treated effluent of less than 120 is achieved in all seasons. Also due to the
anoxic conditions in the SELECTOR zone, De nitrification and phosphorous
removal occurs in case the Ammonical nitrogen and phosphorous levels
are high in the effluent. The figure below shows the experience with SVI
developments in parallel operations with a wastewater that traditionally
favours sludge
Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) Control
The process uses measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the
basin to provide a full scale control of the activity level in the aeration
basin. The DO concentration profile is automatically ramped to operate at
slightly higher DO concentrations at the end of the cycle. This feature
prevents low dissolved oxygen type filaments from proliferating. Once DO
level is measured in the basins, the rate of drop in DO level is calibrated to
know the actual oxygen uptake rate (OUR) of the biomass. In this way, the
metabolic activity of the biomass is measured within the actual process
basin and is subsequently used as a control parameter to automatically
regulate the duration of the aeration sequence and/ or the rate of
aeration. Aeration Cycle time can be altered automatically, or else a
variable frequency drive automatically alters the aeration blower rpm. This
methodology provides a true in basin method for the efficient use of
energy.
Decanter Assembly in Stainless Steel
The clean supernatant is removed from the basin using a Decanter
assembly complete in stainless steel construction. During decanting there
is no inflow to the basin. The moving weir DECANTER is motor driven and
travels slowly from its “park” position to a designated bottom water level.
Once the Decanting phase sets in, the decanter automatically lowers to
the required bottom level. Variable frequency drives are provided to
control the rate of movement of the Decanters. After the required level of
supernatant is removed the Decanter is returned to its “park” position

80
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

through reversal of the drive. The basin is now ready for the next cycle to
begin.

Operational Simplicity - Fully PLC based intelligent control


The complete plant operation is controlled automatically thro a PLC
system, which is a major factor in reducing operating costs. This also
prevents mal operation of the various set process parameters within the
plant. All key functions like, RAS, sludge wasting, aeration intensity, cycle
time control, decanting rate etc are automatically controlled as well as
data logged. Complete historical records of plant operation are available
on touch of a button. Using suitable modem, these plants can be
monitored and controlled thro Internet from anywhere in the world.
7.4.6. CONCLUSION

A comparison of various treatment technologies is as below:


Item Conventional Extended UASB followed Cyclic
Activated Aeration by Facultative Activated
Sludge Aerobic Sludge
Lagoon Process/SBR
Performance Mostly Stable Mostly Stable Varying with Completely
(Typical) Temperature Stable
Variations
BOD removal,% 85 – 92% 90 – 95% 85 – 90% >98%
In-built Nutrient No No No Yes
removal for N & P
Outlet Quality
BOD <30ppm <30ppm <30ppm <10ppm
COD <250ppm <250ppm <250ppm <100ppm
Suspended Solids <50ppm <50ppm <100ppm <10ppm
Total Nitrogen No Treatment No Treatment No Treatment < 10ppm
Total Phosphorous No Treatment No Treatment No Treatment < 2ppm
Coli form removal, 60 – 90 60 – 90 – 99.999%
%

81
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Item Conventional Extended UASB followed Cyclic


Activated Aeration by Facultative Activated
Sludge Aerobic Sludge
Lagoon Process/SBR
Re-use Options Can only be Can only be Can only be Can be used
used for low used for low used for low for low end
end usages end usages end usages usages as well
like flushing like flushing like flushing as for high end
and and and usages without
gardening. gardening. gardening. any tertiary
Tertiary Tertiary Tertiary treatment
Treatment Treatment Treatment
Required for Required for Required for
high end high end high end
usages like usages like usages like
Construction Construction Construction
water, water, water,
Industrial Industrial Industrial
usages, usages, usages,
cooling water cooling water cooling water
etc. etc. etc.
Land requirement 0.1 – 0.18 0.08 – 0.15 0.2 – 0.25 0.035-0.07
(m2/person)
Process Power 12 – 15 16 – 19 4-5 6-8
Requirement
(kWhr/person/year)
Sludge Handling Sludge needs Digested Digested Digested
Digestion prior Sludge, Dry on Sludge, Dry on Sludge, Dry on
to drying on beds or use beds or use beds or use
beds or use mech. mech. mech. Devices
mech. Devices Devices Devices
Equipment Aerators, Aerators, Nil (gas Diffused
Requirement Recycle Recycle collection Aeration
(excluding Pumps, Pumps, Sludge optional) System,
screening and grit Scrapers, scrapers, (for Recycle
removal) thickeners, large settlers) Sludge and
Digesters, Waste Sludge
Dryers, Gas Pumps,
Equipment Decanters
Operational Skilled Simpler than Simpler than Complete
Characteristics Operation Activated Activated Automatic
required sludge Sludge operation by
Computer and
PLC. Negligible
manpower
intervention
required.
Special Features Considerable BOD removal Minimal to Highest
equipment high, effluent negligible Treatment
and skilled nitrified, power Efficiency with
operation relatively high requirement crystal clear
required, power of the system water quality.
especially if requirement. makes it an Power
gas collection Favoured for economical requirement is
and usage small and alternative if 50% of
involved. medium sized gas revenue is conventional

82
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Item Conventional Extended UASB followed Cyclic


Activated Aeration by Facultative Activated
Sludge Aerobic Sludge
Lagoon Process/SBR
Method plants. neglected. technologies.
considered Land Land
mainly for requirement is requirement is
large sized also relatively less than 50%
plants. small but of
depends on conventional
type of post technologies
treatment
adopted.

Activated Sludge Process (AEROBIC PROCESS) is the most used biological


waste water treatment process in the developed and developing
countries. Due to aerobic process in Activated Sludge Process, plant has
less odor/vector nuisance in compare to anaerobic type process as
mentioned above.
Since Cyclic Activated Sludge Process/SBR is found most improved version
of Activated Sludge Process through Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR)
mode controlled by PLC and its proven across the world including In India
hence Cyclic Activated Sludge Process/ SBR technology has been
selected.
Basic key criteria for selection of SBR.
 Requires Minimum Space & Requires Minimum Energy for treatment
of sewage.
 This technology offers in built co current nitrification, de nitrification
and bio – phosphorous removal mechanism that differentiates it
from other technologies.
 Requires Minimum Man Power for treatment of sewage & Minimum
Maintenance Cost.
 Excellent Treated water quality can be recycling.
 Controlled system provided high flexibility and simplified potential of
expansion.
 A special ability to handle extremely high organic and hydraulic
shock loads, No washout of biomass, More than 95 % BOD removal.
In built Nitrogen/Phosphorous removal to prevent the natural
resources from algae and other problems.
 Further SBR process is also recommendation for sewage treatment in
CPHEEO Manual, but due to the advancement in technology in last

83
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

decade, these plants are very favorable for medium to large scale
sewage treatment applications. Many large scale plants working
efficiently around the world including India based on cyclic
activated sludge process/SBR.

84
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 8. Treatment Plant Design

8.1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION

8.1.1. RECEIVING OF RAW SEWAGE (INLET CHAMBER)

Raw Sewage from gravity outfall sewer is proposed to be collected into a


Receiving Chamber. The function of the Receiving Chamber is to reduce
the incoming velocity. Receiving Chamber shall be of adequate size to
meet the requirements of workability inside it & can handle the designed
flow of main sewer. The Receiving Chamber shall be water tight to
prevent seepage of the sewage out of the Receiving Chamber. It is
proposed that provision of gates for future balance capacity can be
diverted in the STP for future expansion of STP.
8.1.2. COARSE AND FINE SCREENING

Coarse screens are to be provided for removal of floating and oversized


material coming with the sewage. The coarse screens should be capable
to screen out most of the medium & large floating and oversized material
such as plastic rags, debris, weeds, paper, cloth, rags etc which could
clog the waste water pump impellers. The coarse screen shall be inclined
bar screen. It should be of sturdy design to take care of all sorts of
materials envisaged in the gravity sewer. The screenings shall be dropped
on conveyor above the top of the screen channel. A conveyor system of
suitable width shall be provided which shall be adjacent to the screens.
The screening material as collected will drop automatically into a
wheelbarrows for its disposal. There shall be 2 nos. of screen one

85
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

mechanical & one Manual operated. The floating material above 50 mm


size can be arrested in the screen.
8.1.3. RAW SEWAGE PUMPING AREA

Screened sewage after coarse screening enters into wet well of the
pumping station. The capacity of the wet well should be kept such that
adequate detention time is available during average and peak flow
conditions. The effective liquid volume shall be provided below the invert
level of the incoming sewer after leaving provision for freeboard. The
capacity of the sump is to be so kept that with any combination of inflow
and pumping the operating cycle for any pump will not be less than 5
minutes.
Suitable combination of submersible pumps has been provided in the
sumps to cater the pumping requirements at average and peak flow
conditions. Based on incoming flow conditions, adequate no. of pumps
shall operate automatically to cater the pumping requirements.
Pumping area should have adequate covered area for installing electrical
panels along with suitable arrangement for lifting of pumps.
The pumped flow from the pumps shall be taken to the elevated head
works Inlet channel above the sump from where sewage will gravitate to
fine screen channels.
8.1.4. FINE SCREENING CHANNELS

Fine screens Channels to be provided before Grit removal system to arrest


the fine floating material. The fine screens should be capable to screen
out most of the small floating material above 6mm size. The fine screen
shall be of mat type. The screenings shall be dropped on conveyor above
the top of the screen channel. A conveyor system of suitable width shall
be provided which shall be adjacent to the screens. The screening
material as collected will drop automatically into a wheelbarrows for its
disposal.
8.1.5. DE-GRITTING

Screened Sewage will gravitate to Grit separator tank for removal of grit
and small inorganic particulate matter of specific gravity above 2.65 and
particle size above 100 microns. The Grit separator tank shall be of RCC
construction complete with mechanical internals and square in size. The
grit separated shall be properly collected and be transferred for disposal.

86
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

The de-gritted sewage shall flow through open channels from the grit
separators and confluence into a single channel of suitable width.
8.1.6. FLOW MEASUREMENT

Online Flow measurement shall be done by installing an ultrasonic level


measurement device on the common Discharge header of Raw Sewage
Pumps.
8.1.7. SBR / CYCLIC ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

Screened, de-gritted sewage shall be fed into the Cyclic Activated Sludge
Process / SBR Process Basins for biological treatment to remove BOD, COD,
Suspended Solids, Biological Nitrogen and Phosphorous.
SBR / Cyclic Activated Sludge Process shall work on Cyclic / Batch mode
in single step. It shall perform biological organic removal, Nitrification, De-
nitrification and Biological Phosphorous removal. It shall be capable of
simultaneous sludge stabilization. The oxygen required shall be supplied
through fixed type fine bubble diffused aeration system with auto control
of oxygen level in tank. The system shall have a SVI < 120 for higher settling
rates and should be designed in such a way that growth of filamentous
bacteria is restricted. Complete operation of SBR / Cyclic Activated
Sludge Process including decanting rate, sludge recirculation and wasting
of excess sludge shall be controlled by PLC. Treated Sewage from SBR /
Cyclic Activated Sludge Process units shall be collected in Chlorination
tank for its disinfection.
8.1.8. CHLORINATION SYSTEM

Treated Sewage from SBR / Cyclic Activated Sludge Process units will be
collected in a chlorination tank where disinfectant will be added for
disinfection at suitable dosing rate. Baffle walls shall be provided in the
tank to facilitate hydraulic mixing of treated sewage. Adequate reaction
time shall be considered for while selecting the chlorination tank volume
to ensure proper disinfection of treated sewage.
The treated sewage is to be disposed suitably into Perennial River/ can be
utilized for agriculture preferably by gravity.
8.1.9. SLUDGE HANDLING SYSTEM

The sludge from the SBR / Cyclic Activated Sludge Process basins is
withdrawn through sludge withdrawal system and collected in the sludge
sump. The sludge shall be then pumped to Solid Bowl Centrifuge for
dewatering of sludge.

87
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Centrifuge feed pumps shall be of positive displacement type screw


pumps. Dewatering Polymer shall be dosed online prior to centrifuge feed.
The dosing system shall include one solution preparation and one solution-
dosing tank equipped with slow speed mixers and metering type positive
displacement pumps.
The sludge in form of wet cake from centrifuges will be collected and
disposed off.
Interconnection of various units shall be made through piping or RCC
channels. Piping will be preferred over RCC channel wherever possible but
the Engineer-in- Charge reserves the right to select any option.

8.2. TREATMENT PLANT CAPACITY

The designed population of the town comes to be 221740 souls as


described in chapter 5 of this report.
As per recommendations of Manual of Water Supply published by
CPHEEO, the per capita water supply for the town is adopted as 135 LPCD
and the portion of this supply which contributes to wastewater generation
has been adopted as 80%. The wastewater generated per capita comes
to be 108 LPCD.
The total wastewater generated in design year will be 23.95 mld. With
infiltration equal to 0.71 mld, the total wastewater volume in design year
comes to be 24.66 mld. The capacity of treatment plant for design year
comes to be 25 mld.
It is proposed to develop the designed capacity of treatment plant in
modular way with inlet chamber, screens, wet wells & pumping station
proposed to be developed for designed capacity. The rest of the STP units
are proposed to be developed for intermediate flow of year 2021. For
corresponding population of year 2021 i.e. 146055, the wastewater flow
comes to be 15.77 mld. With infiltration of 0.71 mld, total wastewater
volume in year 2021 comes to be 16.48 mld. It is proposed to construct STP
of capacity 17 mld under this project.

8.3. STP UNITS

The different components/process units to be covered at each location


are as follows:

88
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

1. Receiving Chamber (Inlet Chamber for ultimate


capacity i.e. 25 MLD).

2. Mechanical and Manual Coarse Screens.

3. Raw Sewage Sump, Pump.

4. Inlet Channel over sump

5. Mechanical Fine Screens.

6. Mechanical Grit Chambers.

7. Flow Measuring unit

8. Cyclic Activated Sludge Process / SBR Process Units.


9. Chlorine Contact Tank.

10. Chlorine House.

11. Sludge Sump, Pump and Pump House.

12. Mechanical Sludge Dewatering System.

13. Administration Building.

14. Transformer Yard and MEP Room, Electrical Works for STP
15. Interconnecting Piping & Appurtenances

16. Plant Utilities.

8.3.1. RECEIVING CHAMBER

The deep gravity outfall sewers will discharge the raw sewage into a
Receiving chamber. The function of the Receiving chamber is to distribute
the flow for process units. The Receiving Chamber is designed for peak
flow. The Receiving chamber consists of sluice gates on upstream and
downstream for flow regulation. In the sidewall of the Receiving chamber,
sluice gates are installed such that it is possible to operate them manually,
inspection as well as operation by standing on a platform constructed at
a suitable elevation adjoining and circumventing the inlet chamber. The
inlet chamber is of adequate size to meet the requirements of workability
inside it. The receiving chamber is open to sky and shall be water tight to
prevent seepage of the sewage out of the inlet chamber. The entire
construction is in M30 grade concrete and as per IS 3370. RCC access
platform minimum 1000 wide with railing as per specifications shall be
provided on one side of the chamber:

89
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Total Average flow : 25 MLD

Peak factor : 2.25

Design Flow : 56.25 MLD

Number of Units : 1 (one)

Detention period : 12 sec.

Min Free board : 0.5m

Size : 4m x 1.5 m x 1.50 m SWD

Minimum volume of the Receiving chamber shall be 7.81 m3.


There is a provision of one bye pass channel along with gates.
Alternatively, plant bypass can be provided from existing / proposed
manhole before pumping station.
8.3.2. COARSE SCREEN CHANNELS

One mechanical screens working and one manual screen standby of 50


mm clear spacing and of peak flow capacity shall be provided.
The manual bar screens shall be made of 20 mm thick Stainless Steel (SS
304) flats respectively. The mechanical screens is of Inclined Rake Type of
50 mm opening. Conveyor Belt and chute arrangement is provided to
take the screenings to the screenings dropped from chute will be
collected in a wheel burrow. Manually operated CI gates are provided at
the upstream and downstream ends to regulate the flow.
Adequate RCC Platforms is provided at the upper level to enable
operation. Railings is provided around the entire periphery of the platform.
The entire structure is to be M30 concrete and as per IS 3370 including the
platform. RCC staircase 900 mm wide is provided for access from the
ground level to the top of the unit & to the operating platform.

Total Average flow : 17 MLD

Peak factor : 2.25

Design Flow : 38.3 MLD

Number of Units : 1 Mechanical

90
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

(Working)+ 1(manual
stand bye)

Approach Velocity at Average : 0.3


Flow (m/sec.)

Velocity through Screen at Average : 0.6 maximum (M/sec.)


Flow

Velocity through Screen at Peak : 0.8 maximum


Flow (m/sec.)

Min Free board : 0.3 m

Wheeled Trolley : 1 No.

Minimum size of each screen channel shall be 10m long x 0.85 m wide x
0.9 m SWD.
8.3.3. RAW SEWAGE PUMPING
8.3.3.1. SUMP AND PUMPS

Sewage enters into sump after screening. The sump is kept as circular in
shape and shall be designed for an average flow. The capacity of sump is
such that the detention time in the sump shall be minimum 5 minutes of
peak flow and the maximum detention time shall not exceed 20 minutes
at average flow. Following criteria’s has been considered to size the sump:
1. That the pump of the minimum duty/ capacity would run for at least 5
minutes considering no inflow or
2. The capacity of the sump is to be so kept that with any combination of
inflow and pumping the operating cycle for any pump will not be less than
5 minutes and
3. The arrangement of the submersible pumps as per pump
manufacturer’s data i.e. spacing between pumps, minimum space
between pump and wall etc.
4. The side water depth (live liquid depth) is minimum 2.5 meter. In
addition to the above liquid depth an additional depression is provided to
ensure adequate submergence of the pump as per the manufactures
recommendations .A operating platform above sump duly covered is

91
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

proposed for installing electrical panels. Suitable arrangement is to be


provided for lifting of pumps.
5. The effective liquid volume below the invert level of the screen
chamber after leaving provision for a minimum of 0.3 m is 4.00 mtr.
Pumping arrangement

Total Average flow : 17 MLD

Minimum Retention Time : 20 minutes minimum at


Avg. flow.

No. of pumps : 708.4 m3/hr (1W + 1S)


for Avg. flow
443.75 m3/hr (2 W + 1 S)
(lean flow)
For peak flow one
pump of Av. flow + 2
pumps of lean flow
(2064.20 m3/hr )

Head : 13.00 mtr.

Type of pumps : Submersible type non-


clog design

Solid passage size through pumps : 100 mm max.

Insulation : Class F

Protection : IP-68

Sump Specific Requirement, Material of Construction and Accessories:


i. Number of Units (1) One designed for peak flow
ii. Construction material RCC
The size of the sump having diameter of 9 mtr is suitable to accommodate
the number of pumps required for operation with easy maneuverability.
Following accessories is proposed to have with sump:
Hoist - comprising of I-Girder and a 1½ ton or more chain pulley (the chain
pulley block capacity to be 1½ Ton or 1.5 times the maximum single unit/

92
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

weight that may be required to be removed for maintenance) with


horizontal travel on the I-beam.
A collecting channel above sump is proposed to collect the pumped
waste water
8.3.4. MECHANICAL FINE SCREEN AND CONVEYOR

One mechanical working with one mechanical standby screens are


proposed in the screen chamber. The screen channel is designed for peak
flow.
The clear opening for mechanical screen shall be 6 mm for mechanical
fine screens. The mechanical bar screens shall be of 2 mm thick Stainless
Steel (SS 304) flats. Conveyor Belt and chute arrangement is provided to
take the screenings to the screenings dropped from chute will be
collected in a wheel burrow. Manually operated CI gates are provided at
the upstream and downstream ends to regulate the flow.
Adequate RCC Platforms are provided at the upper level to enable
operation. Railings are provided around the entire periphery of the
platform. The entire structure is to be M30 concrete and as per IS 3370
including the platform.

Total Average flow : 17 MLD

Peak factor : 2.25

Design Flow : 38.3 MLD

Number of Units : 1 Mechanical (Working)


+ 1 Mechanical
(standby) capacity

Approach Velocity at Average : 0.3


Flow (m/sec.)

Velocity through Screen at Average : 0.6 maximum (m/sec.)


Flow

Velocity through Screen at Peak : 1.2 maximum


Flow (m/sec.)

Min Free board : 0.3m

93
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Wheeled Trolley : 1 No.

Minimum size of each screen channel shall be 5.50 m long x 0.70 m wide x
0.90 m SWD.
One mechanical working with one standby screens are proposed in the
screen chamber. The screen channels shall be designed for peak flow.
8.3.5. GRIT REMOVAL UNIT

One mechanical grit chamber of peak flow capacity is proposed after


fine screen units. The mechanical grit chambers is Square Mechanical
Detritus Tank designed for average flow of 17 MLD with a peak factor of
2.25.
Detritus tank chamber shall have the following:
• One tapered inlet channel running along one side with deflectors for
entry sewage into the grit chamber. The minimum SWD of the units shall be
0.8m.
• One tapered outlet channel for collecting the de-gritted sewage,
which overflow over a weir into the outlet channel. Outlet channel of
adequate size and she to ensure that no settling takes place.
• One sloping grit classifying channel into which the collected grit will
classified.
• The grit from classifier will be collected in a wheeled trolley.
• A grit scraping mechanism.
• Adjustable influent deflector.
• Reciprocating rake mechanism to remove the grit.
• Organic matter return pump
CI gates are provided at the entrance and at the outlet of the chamber.
To enable easy operation of the gates, RCC platforms with Gl railing are
provided at the upper level. Also access is provided from this level to the
mechanism support beam of the grit chamber. The entire construction
shall be M30 grade concrete and as per IS 3370.

Total Average flow : 17 MLD

Peak factor : 2.25

94
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Design Flow : 38.25 MLD

Number of Units : 1 (One) Working of


peak flow capacity

Type : Mechanical

Size of grit particle : 0.10 mm

Specific gravity of grit : 2.65

Maximum Surface Overflow Rate : 960 m3/m2/day

Free Board : 0.3 m

Side Water Depth : 0.8 m

Wheeled trolleys : 1 No.

Minimum size of the mechanical grit chamber shall be 4.50 m x 4.50 m x


0.8 SWD.
8.3.6. FLOW MEASUREMENT

Flow measurement shall be done using a Parshall flume with throat width
of 18 inches. The Parshall flume shall be installed before SBR system.
An additional Ultrasonic flow meter mounted on concrete channel shall
also be provided having digital type Indicator, Integrator and Recorder
fixed in the control room.
8.3.7. DIVISION BOX

Division Box receive the flow from the grit chamber. The 38.25 MLD peak
flow is then be equal parts with help of overflow weir channels and
distributed to Cyclic Activated Sludge Process/ SBR Process units via pipe /
channel. Motorized Sluice gates including all specials is provided on all
weirs for isolation. RCC access platform, staircase, railing and covers over
division boxes are provided as per requirement.

8.3.8. CYCLIC ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS / SBR PROCESS WITH DIFFUSERS AND
AIR BLOWERS

95
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

8.3.8.1. PROCESS DESIGN

The biological treatment section comprising SBR/ cyclic activated sludge


process has to be installed and equipped for average flow of 17 MLD.
The complete biological system has to be designed for handling peak
flow capacity.
2 nos. tanks with minimum total volume of 12996 m3 shall be provided. In
addition, 0.5 m free board shall be provided to each tank. Maximum liquid
depth of tank shall be restricted to 4.0 m.
- Cyclic Activated Sludge Process / SBR Process basins will be
constructed in M30 grade concrete and as per IS 3370. RCC staircase 900
mm wide is provided to each basin for access from the ground level to the
operating platforms. All platforms and walkways shall be provided hand
railings as per tender specifications of 1.2 m width. Plinth protection along
periphery shall be provided as per technical specifications.
- The system should work on a continuous gravity influent condition. No
influent / effluent equalization tanks or flash filling is accepted.
The system should be designed for maximum F/M ratio between 0.1 - 0.25
kg BOD/kg MLSS day.
MLSS maintained in the basin should range from 2500 to 5000 mg/l;
SBR/ Cyclic activated sludge cycle times shall be selected adequately
considering min. 12 hrs/day basin of aeration and not exceeding
decanting of 2.2 m liquid depth at any time with preferred cycle times
containing max. 50% not aerated portion.
The excess sludge produced shall be fully digested. Sludge production
(including percipients) rate shall be about 0.6 – 0.8 kg / kg of BOD
removed.
In the SBR / cyclic activated sludge basins the NO filling during settling or
decanting will be acceptable.

8.3.8.2. DECANTING DEVICE

The decanting device shall be rotating moving weir arm devices of


Stainless Steel 304 with top mounted gear box, drive, scum guard, down
comers, collection pipe, bearings. The following type of decanter
assemblies are not acceptable,
 Rope driven decanters.

96
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Floating decanters.
 GRP products.
 Valve-arrangement.
The maximum design travel rate shall be 60 mm/min. with proven
hydraulic discharge capacity of the decanter proportional to the selected
basin area. Bidders to provide sample graphs of executed projects with
such decanting speeds with decanters of min. same size (length).
There should be Maximum 1 decanter per basin.
The hydraulic design based on design flow rates as given above shall not
exceed flow speeds of 1.3 m/s.
Flexible rubber hose kind of decanter sealing is not acceptable.
Each Decanter mechanism shall be inclusive of local control boxes with
manual operation selection and function buttons, communication to main
PLC by DH485 or Ethernet.

8.3.8.3. AERATION SYSTEM

The Aeration facility shall be installed for 17 MLD average flow.


- Minimum installed aeration equipment design capacity per day per
basin for 17 MLD average flow shall be 149554 Nm3 per day per basin on
the basis of 12 hrs aeration per day per basin.
- Only fine bubble EPDM / PU membrane diffusers shall be acceptable
with minimum membrane diffuser to floor coverage area of 5%. Diffusers
shall be submerged fine bubble / fine pore, high transfer efficiency, low
tow maintenance, non-buoyant type. Diffusers shall be tubular
(membrane) type. Material of construction for (entire under water system
including accessories shall be of non corrosive Complete diffuser as a unit
shall be assembled at the manufacturing factory level. The grid supports
shall of adjustable type made of SS 304.
The air blower arrangement shall be capable of handling Total Water
Level and Bottom Water Level operation conditions, controlled by process
sensors such as DO, temperature and level.
Each set of blower shall have dedicated standby. Minimum One working
air blower in each set shall operate via VFD into each tank while others
may be operating at a fixed constant speed on soft starter configuration.

97
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

- The blowers for air diffuser system shall be positive displacement (roots)
type, and head for blowers shall be decided on the basis of S.O.R. of
diffusers and maximum liquid depth in tank duly considering the losses
governing point of delivery (diffusers) and the blowers. Blowers shall be
complete with motor and accessories like base frame, anti vibratory pad,
silencer, non return valve, air filter etc. as per requirements. Further,
blowers shall have acoustic to ensure that the noise level at 1 m from
blowers is below 80db. The blower room shall have sufficient ventilation,
lighting and working space. The room will be equipped with sufficient
capacity EOT (Min 2 T or 1.5 times the weight of blower, whichever is more)
to facilitate removal of blower/motor etc. for repairs. The room will also
have rolling shutter.
- The operation of aeration system shall include PLC based control. The
operation and speed of blowers shall be automatically adjusted using
parameters like Oxygen Uptake Rate, Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature
and liquid level in the basin such that the DO is supplied as per demand
and power utilisation for operation of blowers is optimised.
The main air header/ring main shall be in MS as per relevant IS painted
outside with corrosion resistant paint as per manufacture's
recommendations. The header / ring main shall be supported on saddles
at suitable intervals or will be protected against external corrosion in case
they are laid below ground. The header shall have auto valves to facilitate
switch over aeration cycle from one basin to other by PLC operation. The
header shall supply air to diffuser grids at various locations through air
supply pipes. Air supply pipe above water level shall be in Gl and below
water level it shall be in Imported PVC as per relevant standards. All under
water lateral pipes shall be of Imported PVC. Junction between air header
and air supply pipe shall be suitably protected against corrosion due to
dissimilar materials.
- All other accessories, whether specified or not, but required for
completeness shall form part of contractors scope.

8.3.8.4. RETURN SLUDGE AND EXCESS SLUDGE PUMPS

Dedicated Return sludge and excess sludge pumps shall be provided for
each basin. The pump shall be of submersible / horizontal centrifugal type
suitable for handling biological sludge of 1 – 2% solids consistency.
Capacity and heads shall be decided based on SBR / Cyclic Activated

98
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Sludge Process requirements. Each SBR / Cyclic Activated Sludge Process


basin shall be provided with suitable lifting arrangements to facilitate lifting
of pump, if required for maintenance.
a. Return Sludge Pumps

Pumps Capacity and Head : As per SBR / Cyclic


Activated Sludge
Process requirements

Type : Submersible / Horizontal


Centrifugal

Liquid : Bio-sludge of 1 – 2%
solids consistency

Specific gravity : 1.05

Solid size : 100mm (Maximum)

Temperature : Min. 20° C

Efficiency : more than 40%

Installation : Fixed.

Quantity : 1 No. per Basin + 1 Store


Standby

b. Excess Sludge Pumps

Pumps Capacity and Head : As per SBR / Cyclic


Activated Sludge
Process requirements

Type : Submersible / Horizontal


Centrifugal

Liquid : Bio-sludge of 1 – 2%
solids consistency

Specific gravity : 1.05

99
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Solid size : 100mm (Maximum)

Temperature : Min. 20° C

Efficiency : more than 40%

Installation : Fixed.

Quantity : 1 No. per Basin + 1 Store


Standby

8.3.8.5. AUTOMATION AND CONTROL

PLC based automation system with application software based on


Rockwell hardware or equal to control Raw Sewage Transfer Pumping
Station, Primary Treatment Units and SBR System including all pumps,
valves, blowers, VFD, decanters, limit switches and probes as per bidder’s
design including I/Os with 20 % spares, power supplies, UPS.
HMI Panel to comprise up-to-date standard PC with monitor, printer,
mouse, internet connection, RS-view, RS-links (gateway version), entire
process and operator software with dynamic flow charts, pictures,
screens, alarms, historical trends, reports etc.
SACDA based Automation system to monitor continuously in each SBR
tank the followings:
a. Filling volume
b. Filling quantity
c. Discharge quantity
d. DO-level
e. Temperature
f. Oxygen Uptake Rate
g. Blower speeds
h. Decanter speed
8.3.9. SLUDGE HANDLING SYSTEM
8.3.9.1. SLUDGE SUMP AND PUMP HOUSE

Sludge sump shall be provided to collect the excess sludge from Cyclic
Activated Sludge Process/SBR Process Basins. There shall be one common

100
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

sludge sump for all basins. There shall be auto gate valves on discharge
sludge pipe of each Cyclic Activated Sludge Process / SBR Process basin.
Sludge tank shall be constructed in M30 grade concrete and as per
IS3370. The sump shall be equipped with coarse bubble air grid made from
HDPE / PVC pipes and Air Blower Assembly to facilitate mixing of contents
of sludge sump on continuous basis.
Above sludge sump there shall be pump house. This shall be RCC frame
brick masonry structure. Minimum height of the pump house shall be 4.5 m
form the plinth level. It shall be provided with rolling shutter and doors and
windows as per technical specifications. EOT of minimum 1.5 T capacity
shall be provided in the pump house to lift the pump assembly.
Flooring of the pump house shall be IPS flooring. Pump house shall be
plastered from inside and from outside as per tender specifications. Entire
pump from inside and from outside shall be painted with approved colour.
Sludge sump shall be painted inside with bituminous paint.

Number of Units : 1 (One) No.

Free Board : 0.5 m

Minimum SWD : 3.0 m

Detention time : 4 hrs.

Minimum size of the sludge sump in shall be 5.4 m x 4.2 m x 3.0 m SWD.
8.3.9.2. SLUDGE TRANSFER PUMPS AND MIXING BLOWERS

Sludge Transfer Pumps shall be provided in Sludge Pump House to feed


secondary Sludge to Mechanical Dewatering Device. The pump shall be
of screw type suitable for handling biological sludge of 1 – 4% solids
consistency.

Pumps Capacity and Head : 8.0 m3/hr @ 15 MWC

Type : Screw Type

Liquid : Bio-sludge of 1 – 4%
solids consistency

Specific gravity : 1.05

101
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Temperature : Min. 20° C

Efficiency : more than 30%

Installation : Fixed.

Quantity : 3 Nos. (2W + 1S)

The blowers shall be positive displacement (roots) type, and head for
blowers shall be decided on the basis of maximum liquid depth in tank
duly considering the losses governing point of delivery and the blowers.
The number of standby blower shall be 100% of the number of working
blowers. Blowers shall be complete with motor and accessories like base
frame, anti vibratory pad, silencer, non return valve, air filter etc. as per
requirements.

Air Mixing Rate : 1.0 m3/hr/m3 of liquid


volume

Blower Capacity and Head : 75.0 m3/hr @ 0.4 bar


(minimum)

Type : Twin Lobe, Root

Installation : Fixed.

Quantity : 2 Nos. (1W + 1S)

8.3.9.3. MECHANICAL DEWATERING UNIT:

The mechanical dewatering units shall be solid bowl centrifuge designed


so as to give a 100% trouble free operation at all times and the sludge
dewatering plant should operate for designed flow and capacity
conditions and be sized as per the following guidelines.
i. The de-watering system should be so located that the de-watered
sludge can be loaded into trolleys / drums / bins directly - preferably the
de-watering unit shall be so located that the de-watered sludge falls into
the containers/ bins without requirement of another material handling unit.
ii. The de-watered sludge should be truck-able & be suitable for disposal
by open body truck and should have a minimum solid concentration of
20% or more (measured as dry solids w/w basis)

102
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

There shall be one Centrifuge building in framed structure construction,


the first floor will house centrifuges. The configuration shall be such that the
wet cake discharge will be discharged through single central chute to the
parked trailer/lorry below.
The centrifuge shall be solid bowl centrifuge of co-current/counter current
design. The centrifuge shall have sufficient clarifying length so that
separation of solids is effective. The centrifuge and its accessories shall be
mounted on a common base frame so that entire assembly can be
installed on an elevated structure.
Suitable drive with V- belt arrangement and turbo-coupling shall be
provided along with overload protection device. Centrifuge shall be with
SS304 wetted parts.
Differential speed and bowl speed should be adjusted by changing the
pulleys; differential speed may be adjustable by use of epicyclical-gear.
The bowl shall be protected with flexible connections so that vibrations are
not transmitted to other equipment. The base frame shall be in epoxy
painted steel construction and provided with anti-vibration pads. All steps
necessary to prevent transmission of structure borne noise shall be taken.
The drive motor shall be of 1450 rpm. The noise level shall be 85 dB (A)
measured at 1m distance under dry run. The vibration level shall be below
50 micron measured at pillow blocks under dry run condition. Adequate
sound proof shall be carried out for the housing the centrifuges to ensure
that the noise level at 5 m distance from the enclosure is less than 75 dB
(A).
A hoist shall be provided above centrifuge for maintenance purpose. The
hoist shall be such that it shall be possible to erect or de-erect the
centrifuge while one centrifuge is in operation.

Number of Centrifuges : 2 Nos. (1 Working+ 1


Standby)

Type : Horizontal

Capacity of each unit : 32 m3/hr

Operating Hours : 20 hrs per day maximum

Mixing arrangement of Polyelectrolyte and sludge: online-mixing


8.3.9.4. POLYELECTROLYTE DOSING:

103
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

The polyelectrolyte will be dosed online at the centrifuge inlet. Minimum


dosage of polyelectrolyte shall be 1.2 kg/T of dry solids in sludge at 0.5%
solution strength. There shall be two poly-dosing tanks each suitable for
minimum 8 hrs. of operation. Each-tank shall be equipped with slow speed
mixer (100 RPM) to prepare polyelectrolyte solution. The solution will be fed
using positive displacement metering type dosing pumps. There shall be
dedicated dosing pumps to each centrifuge with one common standby.
The pumps shall be interlocked with centrifuge so that it can only be
running in auto when centrifuge is on and should shut down when
centrifuge stops. The dosing system shall be housed in centrifuge house
itself.
8.3.10. DISINFECTION SYSTEM
8.3.10.1. CHLORINATION TANK:

Treated sewage from STP shall be taken to chlorine contact tank by RCC
channel/pipe. Chlorine Contact Tank is provided for dosing of chlorine.
The tank is constructed in M30 grade concrete and as per IS 3370.
Baffle walls are provided to achieve proper disinfection. The baffle walls
shall be constructed in M30 grade concrete and 20 mm thick plaster in
CM 1:3 on either side.

Design Flow : 17 MLD

No. of Units : 1 No.

Detention Time : 30 minutes of average


flow or 30 minutes of
decant flow, whichever
is higher

Freeboard : 0.5 m

Minimum size of Chlorine Contact Tank shall be 13.0 m x 8 m x 3.5 SWD


8.3.10.2. CHLORINATION SYSTEM:

Average Flow : 17 MLD

Number of Units : 2 (1W + 1S)

Type : Vacuum Type

104
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chlorine Dosing : 3 ppm max.

Capacity of Chlorinator : Minimum 5 kg/hr

Chlorination system covering chlorine tonners (2 Nos.), chlorinator, water


feed pumps, piping, booster pumps, ejector, trunions, lifting device with
weighing scale, leak detection and leak absorption system, safety
equipments like canisters, gasmasks etc. and other ancillary shall be
provided in the chlorine house. Chlorine house of minimum 60 sq. m. plinth
area shall be provided. It is proposed to have sufficient ventilation as per
the latest norms for safety purpose with necessary lifting arrangement and
EOT of minimum 2 T capacity etc. complete.
8.3.11. DISPOSAL PIPE/CHANNEL

Treated sewage after chlorine contact tank shall be disposed into River
Ganga through a RCC Pipe 1100 mm dia and 2.7 kms length from
treatment Plant to the river.
8.3.12. SBR AIR BLOWER CUM ADMINISTRATIVE CUM MCC & CONTROL BUILDING

The SBR Air Blower cum Administrative cum Control Building shall be G+1
structure. Ground Floor shall be SBR Air Blower Room and first floor shall be
Admin Block with 240 m2 area at each floor. SBR Air Blower Room shall
comprise Air Blower Room, Tool Room and Work shop. The Admin Block
shall comprise Office, Laboratory, Conference Room, MCC Room and
Control Room. The proposed building shall meet the following minimum
carpet requirements.

SBR Air Blower Room : 15 m x 12 m

MCC Room : 10 m x 5 m

PLC & Control Room : 5 m x 5m

Office Block & Laboratory : 15 m x 5 m

Conference Room : 5mx5m

Toilet Block : 5 m x 2.5 m at each


Floor

8.4. PROPOSED DISPOSAL METHOD

105
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

The treated effluent is proposed to be carried through a RCC pipe 1100


mm dia from Treatment Plant near village wajidpur upto River Ganga. The
treated effluent shall be religiously monitored for its polluting nature before
discharging in drain.
A part of the treated effluent shall be utilized for agriculture purposes in
non-rainy periods.

8.5. ANCILLARY FACILITIES

8.5.1. SECURITY ROOM

The security room at entry to the STP shall be a ground floor construction
with 3m X 5m carpet area and be of RCC roofing and shall be provided
with glass panels on three sides and an air cooler. Necessary fans and
lights shall be provided.
8.5.2. PMCC ROOM

There shall be 1 room strategically / appropriately sized to meet statutory


and functional requirements.
8.5.3. CONTROL ROOM

There shall be 1 control room strategically / appropriately sized (6m X 4m)


to meet the functional requirements. Two no. 1.5 TR air conditioners shall
be provided. The wall on all sides shall be glass panelled above 1 m wall.
Necessary lighting and fans shall be provided as directed by the
employer's representative.
8.5.4. REST ROOM

There shall be 1 rest room of size 4m × 5m with toilet facility. Necessary light
fans furniture and air coolers shall be provided. An attached toilet with
water facility shall be provided.
8.5.5. WORKSHOP CUM STORE

There shall be a room of size 12m X 4m divided into two equal portions.
Necessary light fans furniture and air coolers are proposed to be provided.
Necessary facilities for drilling welding machining etc shall be provided to
shit the maintenance work involved in the pant, a wide rolling shutter shall
be provided for shop and also for store with ramp.
8.5.6. OPEN STORE YARD

This shall be of a floor area of 100 sqm fenced with GI barbed wire of 4m
tall and RCC posts. The security for stored materials shall be provided with

106
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

gates that produce audible alarms whenever opened and closed. Rollers
moving on rails/flats shall be provided.
8.5.7. COVERED VEHICLE PARK

There shall be provision to park 2 numbers four wheelers, 6 numbers of two


wheelers and 10 numbers of cycles for which an area of 60 sqm is
adequate with concrete flooring, ramp and FRP roofing.
8.5.8. LANDSCAPING

The landscaping of the woks/STP site is also proposed to be taken up


under this project. The open area within the campus after construction
sewage treatment plant shall be developed through adequate greenery
comprising flowering bushes, thickets and trees. Treated sewage shall used
for the development. At least 33% of the open area shall be converted to
a green belt/garden. Dense plantation shall be used for control of noise
around the blower buildings. Plantation of large trees and green belt
including creepers shall be used in the campus to ensure that odours, if at
all emitted, get diluted and diffused and a visual barrier is created.

107
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 9. Project Cost

9.1. SOURCES

The rates for different unit works/Material/Supplies for building, Electrical,


Electromechanical, Instrumentation & other components appearing in
scope of work of this project have been adopted from number of sources
as detailed below:
The rates of items such as RCC Non Pressure pipes, uPVC Pipes, Manhole
Covers, Ferro Cement Steps Bedding, Manhole, vent-shafts etc have been
inquired from manufacturers and rate analysis has been carried out for
arriving at on site rates.
Schedule of Rates (SoR), Building Construction Department: The rates for
almost all the civil works have been taken from Schedule of Rates
effective from 01-07-2008 as published by Building Construction
Department , Government of Bihar.
Schedule of rates of WRD: The rates of some of the items have been
adopted from Schedule of rates effective from 01-10-2007 as published by
Water Resources Department, Government of Bihar.
Schedule of Rates of Road Construction Department: The rates of items for
cutting & restoration of roads and other related items have been adopted
from Schedule of Rates effective from 24.03.2008 as published by Road
Construction Department, Government of Bihar.

108
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Vendors: Some rates have been enquired from vendors, manufacturers


etc.

9.2. SEWERS

With the objective of ease of record measurement, verification & other


book keeping procedures, the cost estimates for sewers have been
categorized depending upon main parameters of Diameter of sewer and
Average Depth of invert of sewer. Rate analysis for these categories have
been prepared and are used in cost estimates.
The major cost items for sewer are as follows:
 Dismantling & restoration of Road Surface
 RCC NP Pipe with bitumastic anti corrosive painting
 Earthwork
 Timbering
 Laying & Jointing
 Bedding
 Barricading
 Well Point System & Dewatering
 Vent Shafts

9.3. MANHOLE

Manholes are proposed to be constructed in Brick Masonry and RCC


depending on invert depth as explained in Design Criteria Chapter.
With the objective of ease of record measurement, verification & other
book keeping procedures, the cost estimates for manholes have been
also categorized depending upon main parameters of Diameter of sewer
and average depth of Manhole. Rate analysis for these categories have
been prepared and are used in cost estimates. Rate analysis for both Brick
Masonry & RCC have been prepared separately.
The major cost items for manhole construction are as follows:
 Dismantling & restoration of Road Surface
 Earthwork
 Timbering
 Shuttering
 Brick Masonry/Reinforced Cement Concrete

109
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Plastering/Pointing
 Ferro Cement Manhole Covers
 Cast Iron Foot Steps
 Barricading

9.4. PUMPING STATIONS

The major cost items for proposed pumping stations are as follows:
 Mechanical Screens
 Wet Well
 Pump sets with prime movers and control equipment
 Electric Panel Rooms
 Power Connections
 DG Sets

9.5. TREATMENT PLANT

The major cost items for proposed Sewage Treatment Plant are as follows:
 Preliminary treatment units i.e. Screen Chamber & Grit Chamber
 Civil Works related to Different Units
 Electromechanical & instrumentation equipments for different units
 Pipes/Channel/Pumps to carry wastewater in between units
 Cost of land

9.6. PROPERTY CONNECTIONS & SEWERS IN NARROW LANES

The major cost items for sewers in narrow lanes are as follows:
 uPVC pipe 100 mm with chambers for property connections
 HDPE pipes of size 160 mm
 Chambers

9.7. OTHER ITEMS

The following items have been used for arriving at the total cost of the
project:
 Jetting Machine & Tractor with trolley for sewer flushing
 Cost of preparation of Detail Project Report (DPR)

110
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

9.8. ABSTRACT OF COSTS

The Abstract of Cost for the sewerage project of town of Begusarai is as


below:

S.NO. PARTICULARS AMOUNT (Rs.)

1 PART--"A"
Earthwork, Timbering and Barricading 66,620,215
2 PART--"B"
Providing and Laying of Sewer lines with 112,287,407
bedding works
3 PART--"C"
Construction of Manholes, Vent-shafts and 174,553,032
uPVC pipe laying
4 PART--"D"
Dismantling and Restoration of Roads, 43,619,667
structure and Railway & NH crossing by
Trenchless technology etc
5 PART--"E"
E. Miscellaneous Items like encasing, 16,849,448
equipments for flushing of sewer lines etc
6 PART--"F"
Provision for 2 nos pumping station, rising 35,579,658
main and pumping machineries and for
dedicated HT & LT feeders.
7 PART--"G"
Provision for STP (Sequential Batch Reactor) 167,000,000
17 MLD in PHASE I including SCADA
8 TOTAL "A" to "G" 616,509,427
9 PART--"H"
Provision for Land Acquisition 22,100,000
Provision for IEC activities 5,000,000
10 PART--"I"
Centage charges @ 8.0% (excluding land 49,720,754
acquisition cost)
GRAND TOTAL 693,330,181
SAY RS. Crores 69.33

Detailed estimates & rate analysis based on prevalent Schedule of rates in


State of Bihar are available at Annexure A-9.

111
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 10. Funding & Implementation

10.1. IMPLEMENTING AGENCY

With a view to accelerate infrastructure development activities across all


ULBs and assist the ULBs in developing, augmenting, financing and
maintaining municipal services, Government of Bihar has established Bihar
Urban Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd. (BUIDCo), a Govt. of
Bihar Undertaking registered under the Company’s Act 1956 (Act 1 of
1956) on 16th June, 2009.
Govt of Bihar has decided Bihar Urban Infrastructure Development
Corporation Ltd. (BUIDCo) to act as Execution Agency for all Projects
sanctioned under JNNURM / UIDSSMT /NGRBA.,
There shall be tripartite contract agreements between BUIDCo, ULB and
Contractor for capital works and for O&M of assets created.

10.2. AGENCY RESPONSIBLE FOR OPERATION & MAINTENANCES

After successful testing and commissioning of all components, the assets


will be transferred to ULB for taking care of O&M responsibilities.
Considering the financial, technical & human resource constraints of
Municipal Council, it is proposed to club the operation & maintenance of
the sewerage system with STP in first five years with Capital works contract.

112
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Later, with gradual capacity building of Municipal council, the O&M of the
system may be taken over by Municipal council or outsourced to some
private operator.
The operation & maintenance of the project will be responsibility of Urban
Local Body (ULB) i.e. Municipal Council of Begusarai Town. This is in line
with the 74Th Constitutional Amendment Act and also confirms the
requirement of NRCD guidelines. NRCD guidelines recommends following;
“Operation and Maintenance in all its facets is the responsibility of the local
body aided and supported by State government. A firm commitment will be given
by the local body that it agrees to bear the entire cost of O & M. The State
Government shall give an undertaking that it will ensure that assets are properly
operated and maintained and any short fall in resources will be met by them.
The agency for O & M of the assets created will also be clearly mentioned in the
DPR.”

10.3. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

The major activities proposed for implementation of this project are


identified as follows:
i. Appointment of Construction Supervision Consultants : It is proposed to
appoint Construction Supervision Consultants to assist the executing
agency for smooth & timely implementation of Project. Construction
Supervision Consultants will have primary responsibility for supervision
of project construction activities & to ensure quality assurance &
quality control etc.
ii. Public awareness activities : A comprehensive programme will be
framed and implemented with required assistance with local NGOs
for taking up Information, Education & Communication (IEC) activities
for the project. Active Public participation is of paramount importance
for success of any projects
iii. Preparation of Bid Document: Project management consultants will
prepare the bid documents, technical specifications etc.
iv. Bidding Process & Award of Contract: It is proposed to invite
competitive bids at national level. The bid will be evaluated for
technical competence and work will be awarded to lowest bidder
among already qualified bidders in technical evaluation stage.

113
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

v. Project Execution: The project will be executed by the contractor to


whom the work is awarded. The supervision of construction work will
be done by Construction Supervision Consultants.

10.4. IMPLEMENTATION PERIOD

The initial nine months will be taken up by preliminary activities like


identification & allotment/transfer of land for STP & Pumping Stations,
appointment of Construction Supervision consultants, Preparation of bid
documents, Bidding process & award of Contract. Afterwards the project
execution period is taken up as 15 months.

10.5. PACKAGING

The whole project is proposed to be executed in a single package


including sewerage network, pumping stations, sewage treatment plant
etc.

10.6. IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE

The detailed implementation schedule of various packages is available on


the next pages in the form of Gantt Chart.

10.7. FUNDING PATTERN

The funding pattern for the project will be in accordance with NRCD
guidelines as determined by Ministry of Environment & Forest, Government
of India. The guideline of NRCP programme recommends following:
The National River Conservation Authority (NRCA) has decided that the
Financing pattern of schemes of the NRCD for the conservation of rivers and
lakes will be as follows:-
 Government of India (NRCD) to bear 70% of the project cost,
 States and the local bodies to bear 30% of project cost of which Share of
the public shall be a minimum of 10%.
 O & M shall be a part of the project and the costs thereon shall be borne
entirely by the state and the local bodies for which additional resources
have to be demonstrably raised and committed to O & M.
 The Local Bodies may raise loans from Financial Institutions such as
HUDCO to contribute their share,

114
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 If for any reason such as delay, wrong design or estimation, omission of


items, inflation etc., there is cost overrun in any project, the central share
in the total cost will be limited to the ceiling amount approved by the
CCEA. Balance, if any, is to be borne by the respective state Government.
It is, therefore, necessary to prepare the DPR accurately after
investigation and survey and taking all factors into account that can
influence the cost of the project.
The State Governments should make all efforts to obtain larger plan allocations
for such programmes.
The contribution of 10 % from the beneficiaries and stakeholders can be raised
in one or more of the following forms.
 additional development charges, water and sewage cess
 fair assessment, levy and recovery of property tax
 house connection charges
 contribution from Development Funds of local MPs and MLAs
 Fines on polluters
 Taxes from pilgrim/tourist/floating population visiting the town
 Donation from industry, business associations, voluntary agencies such as
Rotary and Lion’s clubs and philanthropists.
 Any other mode.

The funds required from different sources for the project are as follows:

S.No. Funding Source Share(%) Fund


Required
(Rs Crores)
1 Central Government 70 48.53
2 State Government & Local Bodies 30 20.80

Out of State Government & Local bodies share of Rs 20.80 crores, as per
the guidelines of NRCD, the minimum share of public shall be 10% i.e. Rs
2.08 crores. This contribution is proposed to be generated through House
connection charges, fine imposed on polluters and water & sewage cess.
As required by NRCD guidelines, the quarterly requirement of funds from
different agencies as project shall be as follows:

115
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Funding Fund Quarterly Fund Requirements


Source Required Pre Construction Phase Construction Phase
(Rs
Crores) I II III IV V VI VII VIII
Central
Government 48.53 0.10 0.39 5.63 4.35 10.87 15.22 8.71 3.26

State
Government & 20.80 0.04 0.17 2.41 1.86 4.66 6.52 3.73 1.40
Local Bodies
Total 69.33 0.14 0.55 8.05 6.21 15.53 21.75 12.44 4.66

Quarterly Funds requirement (Rs Crore)


25.00
21.74

20.00
15.53
Rs in Crores

15.00 12.45

8.04
10.00
6.21 4.66
5.00
0.56
0.14
0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Quarters
Central Government State Government & Local Bodies Total Funds

116
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 11. Operation & Maintenance

11.1. INTRODUCTION

The lack of proper maintenance has resulted in deteriorated sewers with


subsequent backups, overflows, cave-ins, hydraulic overloads at
treatment plants, and other safety, health, and environmental problems in
several cities across the world. As one of the most serious and
environmentally threatening problems, sanitary sewer overflows—or
SSOs—are a frequent cause of water quality degradations and are a
threat to public health as well as the environment. Flooded surroundings
and overloaded treatment plants are some symptoms of collection
systems with inadequate design capacity and improper management,
operation, and maintenance.
The poor performance of many sanitary sewer systems and resulting
potential health and environmental risks experienced frequently in
developing countries highlight the need to optimize operation and
maintenance of these systems.
Commonly accepted types of maintenance include three classifications:
corrective maintenance, preventive maintenance, and predictive
maintenance. Thus in case like this project town of Begusarai, where
entirely new system are to be put in place, predictive maintenance
assumes the greatest importance. Schedules for regular preventive
maintenance also needs to be developed.

117
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

It is of note that comprehensive specifications & construction practices go


a long way in ensuring an easy & trouble free operation & maintenance
for example, ise of SFRC in manholes and sewers where appropriate,
laying of adequately designed sewers at recommended grades and
selection of robust plant & equipment such as pumps, blowers, aerators
etc.
11.1.1. CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE

Maintenance classified as corrective, including emergency maintenance,


is reactive. Only when the equipment or system fails is maintenance
performed. Reliance on reactive maintenance will always result in poor
system performance, especially as the system ages.
11.1.2. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

Maintenance classified as preventive is proactive and is defined by a


programmed, systematic approach to maintenance activities. This type of
maintenance always results in improved system performance except in
the case where major chronic problems are the result of design and/or
construction flaws that cannot be completely corrected by O&M
activities. Proactive maintenance is performed on a periodic (preventive)
basis or as needed (predictive) basis. Preventive maintenance can be
scheduled on the basis of specific criteria such as known problem areas
(for example—a siphon that often gets clogged, a low point that is often
first to overflow in a storm event, or even an area prone to blockages),
equipment operating time since the last maintenance was performed, or
passage of a certain amount of time (calendar period).
11.1.3. PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE

The third type of maintenance is predictive. Predictive maintenance,


which is also proactive, is a method of establishing baseline performance
data, monitoring performance criteria over a period of time, and
observing changes in performance so that failure can be predicted and
maintenance can be performed on a planned, scheduled basis. It is often
said that predictive maintenance begins at the conceptual stage and is
half done by the time detailed designs are finalized. Such conceptual and
design interventions aim at framing rigorous specifications for each and
every component so that it functions with the desired efficiency at-least till
the end of design life.
Some pointers to predictive maintenance for sewerage system are:

118
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Use of proper design years and flows based on scientific town


planning principles & regulations.
 Building necessary redundancies, back-ups into the system
including use of appropriate factor of safety, especially in regard to
mechanical equipment.
 Creating/planning bye-pass/overflows arrangements at Sewage
Treatment Plant and for various units of STP
 Specifying adequate spares and maintaining proper inventory of
chemicals/fuel and other perishables considering delivery time, shelf
life and criticality of the spares/chemicals etc for units/STP.
 Adopting detailed design of units so that O&M is simplified and
facilitated (eg elevated disposal conveyers, chutes capable of
discharging to containers/trolleys etc. for grits, screenings etc)
 Specifying chemical resistant paint for metal parts/components/
structures subject to corrosion
 Specifying adequate instrumentation to inform on health of the
system, units, equipment.
System performance is frequently a reliable indicator of how the system is
operated and maintained. Agencies that historically rely primarily on
corrective maintenance as their method of operating and maintaining
the system are seldom able to focus on preventive and predictive
maintenance since most of their resources are consumed by corrective
maintenance.
11.1.4. FLUSHING PLAN

As there are in all 1210 links in the sewerage network and out of which
approximately 157 pipes in the initial stretches of network are having
velocities less than 0.3 m/s for peak flow in first year of operation.
These pipes will require regular flushing as a preventive measure, as these
shall have a higher probability of tendency to choke. A provision of one
jetting machines and two tractor with trolley have been taken in the
estimates for both corrective and preventive maintenance. It is proposed
to employ one tractor with trolley for corrective maintenance for
attending complaints as & when received and balance one jetting
machines & one tractor with trolley shall be employed for flushing all these
identified sewers with higher tendency to choke.

119
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

The whole of the town may be divided in two zones with a view that each
jetting machines/tractor with trolley is equally work allotted.
Assuming six working days in a week and one day assigned for workload
of corrective maintenance and repairs, it is assumed that each jetting
machine/tractor with trolley shall effectively take up work of flushing for
five days in a week. Assuming a one week cycle and five working days in
a week, each flushing unit will flush 16 pipes each working day. So, a one
week program will be chalked out for each flushing unit to flush these
sewers at least ones in a three week time.

11.2. BENEFITS

The benefits of an effective operation and maintenance program are as


follows:
 Ensuring the availability of facilities and equipment as intended.
 Maintaining the reliability of the equipment and facilities as
designed. Utility systems are required to operate 24 hours per day, 7
days per week, and 365 days per year. Reliability is a critical
component of the operation and maintenance program. If
equipment and facilities are not reliable, then the ability of the
system to perform as designed is impaired.
 Maintaining the value of the investment. Wastewater systems
represent major capital investments for communities and are major
capital assets of the community. If maintenance of the system is not
managed, equipment and facilities will deteriorate through normal
use and age. Maintaining the value of the capital asset is one of the
major responsibilities. Accomplishing this goal requires ongoing
investment to maintain existing facilities and equipment and extend
the life of the system, and establishing a comprehensive O&M
program.
 Ensuring full functionality of the system throughout its useful life.
 Collecting accurate information and data on which to base the
operation and maintenance of the system and justify requests for
the financial resources necessary to support it.
 Planned maintenance and repairs are much more cost effective
both in the long and short term because the work can be done with
the proper materials during normal working hours and under

120
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

preferred working conditions. Besides this, they have potential for


significant savings in fuel & power by maintaining requisite
efficiencies.

11.3. TECHNICAL & MANAGERIAL CAPACITY

Certainly, the operation & maintenance responsibilities are to be


shouldered by one or a combination of stakeholders especially the user
group or nodal agency. Municipal Council is expected to be responsible
for operation & maintenance of the proposed sewerage system or at-least
overseeing the O&M if some PPP model is adopted for O&M of the
proposed system. .
As the town does not have sewerage facilities till now, Municipal council
does not possess the tools & plant, equipment and manpower required for
operation & maintenance of sewerage system. Municipal council is
having regular Engineering staff primarily responsible for civil works e.g.
buildings, roads, street drains etc. but the capacities & human resources
required for efficiently carrying out the O&M are lacking to a large extent.

11.4. OUTSOURCING :

Looking to constrained capacities of Municipal Council in regard to


financial, human & equipment resources, it may not be prudent for
Municipal Council to shoulder this additional responsibility atleast in the
near future. The recommended approach is to
• Club the operation & maintenance for certain period with the
capital works. This will enable the municipal council to get fully
acquainted with the sewerage system for taking up the work in
future, if required.
• In future the operations could be outsourced to private sector.
• Alternatively, if the Municipal Council decides, intensive training in
O&M of the system can be imparted to identified personnel.
However, such experiments in other cities have been less successful
over a period of time.

11.5. SEWERAGE O&M MANAGEMENT PLAN

A comprehensive Sewerage System Management plan is required to be


put in place for safe & reliable performance of the proposed system & to

121
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

enable the sewerage system to deliver its intended objectives. The major
components of such management plan are as follows:
 Provide adequate operation and maintenance of facilities and
equipment.
 Maintain an up-to-date map of the collection system showing all
gravity line segments and manholes, pumping facilities, pressure
pipes and valves. This could be preferably GIS based.
 Maintain relevant information to establish and prioritize appropriate
Wastewater Collection System Management Plan activities (such as
the immediate elimination of dry weather overflows or overflows into
sensitive waters, such as public drinking water supplies and their
source waters), and identify and correct/rectify after assessing the
causes & selecting appropriate corrective action.
 Routine preventive operation and maintenance activities by staff
and contractors, including a system for scheduling regular
maintenance and cleaning of the collection system with more
frequent cleaning and maintenance targeted at known problem
areas as well as a tracking system for work orders. Special mention
need to be made for flushing of starting sewers in developing areas.
A regular schedule of flushing needs to be developed & enforced
for say first 5 years after commissioning.
 Identify and prioritize structural deficiencies and implement short-
term and long-term rehabilitation actions to address each
deficiency. This shall include a rehabilitation plan including
schedules for the entire system. As with the preventative
maintenance program, sewer rehabilitation and replacement is
crucial for the prevention of spills.
 Provide supervision training on a regular basis for staff in collection
system operations, maintenance, and monitoring, and determine if
contractors’ staffs are equipped with adequate skill sets.
 Provide equipment and replacement parts inventories, including
identification of critical replacement parts.
 Establish an implementation plan and schedule for a
comprehensive IEC aimed at educating public that promotes
proper disposal of wastewater and inculcate civic sense.

122
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Describe financial resources necessary to ensure system operation,


including fee structure, actual and projected five-year budget
expenses for staffing, operation, system extension projects, and
reserves.
 Describe staffing available to ensure effective
supervision/overseeing system operation (identifying individuals and
titles) including developing, implementing, and revising the
Wastewater Collection System Management Plan. Include an
organizational chart, duties, and training frequency.
There shall be an Overflow Emergency Response Plan that identifies
measures to protect public health and the environment. At a minimum,
this plan should provide for the following actions.
 Ensure proper notification procedures so that the primary
responders are informed of all overflows in a timely manner (to the
greatest extent possible).
 Ensure that all overflows are appropriately responded to, including
ensuring that reports of overflows are immediately dispatched to
appropriate personnel for investigation and appropriate response.
 Ensure immediate notification of health agencies and other
impacted entities (e.g., agencies responsible for water suppliers etc)
of all overflows.
 Ensure that appropriate staff and contractor personnel are aware of
the plan, follow the plan, and are appropriately trained.
 Provide emergency operations, such as traffic and crowd control,
and other necessary emergency response as necessary in case of
corrective maintenance.
 Take all reasonable steps to contain untreated sewage, prevent
sewage discharges to surface waters, and minimize or correct any
adverse impact on the environment resulting from the overflows,
including additional monitoring as may be necessary to determine
the nature and impact of the discharge.
 Develop and implement a plan to respond in a timely manner to
spills and other emergencies. Collection system staff should be able
to respond to a sewage spill in less than an hour from the first call.
The Authorities must own or have ready access to spill and
emergency response equipment such as vacuum trucks,

123
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

hydroflushers, pumps, temporary bypass hoses, and portable


generators of adequate number and capacity to operate pump
stations.

11.6. O&M COSTS

Looking to the financial resources available with municipal Council, It is


not sustainable for the project to have municipal Council to bear the
operation & maintenance of the proposed system.
11.6.1. PROVISION FOR SEWERAGE CHARGES IN BIHAR MUNICIPAL ACT, 2007

Section 216 of Bihar Municipal Act,2007 stipulates the sewer charges to be


collected from property owner connected to public sewers and is
reproduced below:
216. Sewerage charge and sewerage cess.- (1) The Municipality shall levy
sewerage charge on the owners of premises for connection of such premises to
sewerage mains, such amount being not less than one-half of the amount
chargeable for water-supply under sub-section (2) of section 171 or sub-
section (2) of section 172, as the case may be, as may be determined by
regulations from time to time.
The provision for water charge in the Bihar Municipal Act,2007 is as follows:
171. Supply of water to connected premises.- (1) The Chief Municipal Officer
may, on an application by the owner, lessee or occupier of any building,
either on his own or through any other agency, arrange for supply of water
from the nearest main to such building for domestic purposes in such quantity
as may be deemed to be reasonable and may, at any time, limit the quantity of
water to be supplied whenever considered necessary:
Provided that the Chief Municipal Officer may, by order in writing, delegate
the responsibility of receiving the application to any other agency.
(2) For the water supplied under sub-section (1), payment shall be made at
such rate as may be fixed by the Municipality from time to time:
Provided that such rate shall, as far as practicable, cover the costs on account
of management, operation, maintenance, depreciation, debt servicing, and
other charges related to waterworks and distribution costs, including
distribution-losses, if any.

Section 172 of Bihar Municipal Act, 2007 contains similar provision for water
supply for Non Domestic purposes.

124
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

At present, a holding tax of 9% of total rental value of property is being


levied from property owners in municipal area. Out of this holding tax,
water charges in lieu of supply of drinking water constitute 2%.
11.6.2. MODALITIES FOR SELF SUSTAINING SYSTEM

Some arrangement of sharing of cost between Municipal Council and


user in initial phases and gradually shifting the full O&M cost to the user is
the preferred choice.
The sewerage charges from the consumers could be collected by one of
the following methods:
 Sewerage charges may be charged as a %age of water charges
and will be collected with water bill. This method is adopted in other
towns also.
 Sewerage charges may be charged on basis of Plot size & locality
and could be collected with land & property taxes.
11.6.3. SUSTAINABILITY

For successful implementation and operation of project, it is imperative


that project should be financially and economically sustainable. The
benefits accrued from the project should be able to offset the capital and
O&M expenses incurred on the project and possible will also provide
finances for creating new assets required for future.
Sewerage projects are capital intensive. The prevailing mindset among
community is that the state is responsible for providing the basic civic
amenities and shall bear the costs involved in implementation & operation
of such projects. Presently there is increasing stress that a gradual shift is
being made to made the beneficiaries bearing the financial burden for
development projects. As a first move, it is expected the beneficiaries shall
bear the cost to the extent that O&M costs are recovered with gradual
realization of capital costs from the beneficiaries.
It has sometimes been suggested that financial viability not be made a
concern because as long as a project is economically sound, it can be
supported through government subsidies. However, in most cases,
governments face severe budgetary constraints and consequently, the
affected project entity may run into severe liquidity problems, thereby
jeopardizing even its economic viability.
Expenditures

125
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Cost involved in Operation & maintenance of this project have been


categorized in four major divisions; namely
 Power Charges: For operation of twelve pumping stations at
different locations and thirteenth at STP.
 Repair & maintenance Charges: For Sewerage system & Sewage
treatment Plant and are adopted as %age of total capital costs.
 Salary Charges: For salaries & wages for the operating &
maintenance staff. The staff at STP & Sewer network adopted
looking to the requirement of respective zone.
 Chemical Charges : For STP, lump sum cost of the chemicals is
adopted.
Analysis

A detailed analysis of projected operation & maintenance costs for this


project has been carried out for the entire project period i.e. from 2012 to
2041.
Base Data & Assumptions:
The various parameters adopted are as follows:

S.No. Particulars Adopted Values


1 Start Year 2012
2 Project Period 30
3 Efficiency of P/Sets 50%
4 Power Charges 4.5
5 LPCD 135
6 Wastewater Contribution 80%
7 Maintenance Cost Civil 0.20%
8 Maintenance Cost Mechanical 1.00%
9 Annual increase 0.00%
10 Discount Rate 10%

The details of various staff for purpose of arriving at cost for salary & wages
at Sewage treatment Plant & Sewer Network is as follows:
Sewer Network
Monthly
S.No. Particular Numbers
Salary
1 Supervisors 2 20000
2 Labour, Sweepers 9 8000
3 Drivers 3 10000

126
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Pumping Stations
Monthly
S.No. Particular Numbers
Salary
1 Pump Driver 6 8000
2 Labour 6 5000

Sewage Treatment Plant


Monthly
S.No. Particular Numbers
Salary
Plant Supervisor Cum Chemist and
1 2 20000
SCADA Operator
2 Pump Driver/Mechanic 9 8000
3 Lab Assistant 1 8000
4 Labour 9 5000
5 Security Guard 3 5000

The analysis results are available at Annexure A-11. The results of this
analysis are as follows:
In the analysis the price escalation and annual increase in sewer charges
has not been considered to keep the parity between O&M costs and
revenues.
Annual O&M Cost for this project comes to be Rs 116.07 lacs in year 2012
and increased to Rs 150.02 lacs in year 2042. Price escalation has not
been considered while arriving at future O&M costs.
The total O&M cost for the entire project period comes to be Rs 4070.07
lacs. Discounted value of these O&M cost for entire project period is Rs
1292.73 lacs at year 2012 prices with a discount rate of 10%.
Sewer charges required to be levied from the user to offset the
undiscounted operation & maintenance cost comes to be Rs 1.95 per
cu.m.
Sewer charges required to be levied from the user to offset the discounted
cost of O&M comes to be Rs 2.10 per cum. It is proposed to charge Rs 2.10
per cum for ensuring long term sustainability of the project.

11.7. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL BEGUSARAI

11.7.1. BACKGROUND

The Urban Local Bodies of State of Bihar are governed by The Bihar
Municipalities Act, 2007. Municipal Council, Begusarai was established in
year 1972.

127
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

11.7.2. ADMINISTRATIVE SETUP

Municipal Council is governed by an elected board with Chairman as its


head. Administrative function for the council are carried out by Executive
Office assisted by support staff. The various sections in Begusarai Municipal
Council for discharging its duties are as follows:
 General Administration Section
 Revenue Section
 Public Health Section
 Epidemic Section
 Public Works Section
 Drain cleaning section
 Street Cleaning Section
 Market & slaughterhouses Section
ULB, Begusarai has staff strength of 79 numbers. The list of various
sanctioned positions is as follows:
S.No. Position Number of Post
Sanctioned

1 Junior Engineer 1
2 Head Clerk 1
3 Cashier 1
4 Senior Assistant 1
5 Clerk 1
6 Tax Inspector 1
7 Tax collector 1
8 Peon 3
9 Waterman 2
10 Sanitary Inspector Conservatory 1
11 Inspector 1
12 Driver 2
13 Ward Jamadar 8
14 Cleaner \ Sweeper 55
Total 79

The Municipal Council carries out the following core functions either
directly & independently or with support of other support
agencies/contractors:

128
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

i. Water-supply for domestic, industrial, and commercial purposes,


ii. Drainage and Sewerage,
iii. Solid Waste Management,
iv. Preparation of plans for development and social justice,
v. Communication systems, construction and maintenance of roads,
footpaths, pedestrian pathways, transportation terminals, both for
passengers and goods, bridges, over-bridges, subways, ferries, and
inland water transport system
vi. Transport system accessories including traffic engineering schemes,
street furniture, street lighting, parking areas, and bus stops,
vii. Community health and protection of environment including
planting and caring of trees on road sides and elsewhere,
viii. Markets and slaughterhouses,
ix. Promotion of educational, sports and cultural activities, and
x. Aesthetic environment.

11.7.3. TOOLS & PLANTS

ULB, Begusarai has following vehicles, equipment to carry out its


responsibilities:
S.No. Particular Qty.
1 JCB 1
2 Syal Tanker 1
3 Water Tanker 1
4 Tractor with Trolley 4
5 Road Roller 1
6 Fogging Machine 1
7 Gator Machine (Mosquito) 2
TOTAL 11

11.7.4. INCOMES & EXPENDITURES

The incomes & expenditures of Municipal Council, Begusarai as obtained


from its office is available at Annexure ‘A-11’. The incomes and
expenditures for item related to Water Supply & Sanitation are as below:
Incomes

129
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Income Estimate for Actual Actual Revised


the Next Year Income for Income Budget for
2007-08 Last year Current Year Current Year
2005-06 2006-07 for 9 2006-07
Month

1 2 3 4 5
Revenue from
Transportation of
Sewage
a) Fertilizer Sale
b) Wastage Sales
c) Workshop Rent
Watering

a) Water Connection Fee


330.00 1,236,076.00
b) Fee for Inspection of
Water Connection
Municipal Tax
a) Toilet Tax - Due
2,436,744.00 1,802,254.00
- Current 386,008.00
1,020,498.00 530,789.00 1,520,498.00
b) Water Charges - - -
Dues 3,012,490.00 2,304,544.00
- 448,032.00
Current 1,155,978.00 451,144.00 1,655,978.00
Subsidy from 12th
Finance Commission
by the Govt.
a) Public Toilet - -
Implement 400,000.00 400,000.00
Realisation of Payment
for Toilet
Water Consumption
Scheme
Sanitation of Dig 23,780.00
200,000.00 122,500.00 150,000.00
Water Supply Scheme
Construction of Dig -
40,000,000.00 18,200,000.00 35,000,000.00
Land Acquired
TOTAL INCOME 48,225,710.00 1,104,763.00 20,293,896.00 42,833,274.00

Expenditures
Expenditure Estimate for Actual Actual Revised
the Next Year Income for Income Budget for
2007-08 Last year Current Year Current Year
2005-06 2006-07 for 9 2006-07
Month

1 2 3 4 5

130
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Expenditure Estimate for Actual Actual Revised


the Next Year Income for Income Budget for
2007-08 Last year Current Year Current Year
2005-06 2006-07 for 9 2006-07
Month

1 2 3 4 5
Water Recharging and
Leach Pit Work
a) Basic Work
b) Maintenance
c)Construction Charge
Water Supply and Water
Works
a) Basic Work
11,000,000.00 65,638.00 152,535.00 12,300,000.00
b) Maintenance

c)Construction Charge
Transporation for Sewage
a) Public Toilet Construction
400,000.00 400,000.00
b) Community/Pvt. Toilet
Construction
c) Tractor and Trailor
d) Watering on the Road

e) Land Acquired
Sulabh Complex
TOTAL EXPENDITURE 11,400,000.00 65,638.00 152,535.00 12,700,000.00

11.7.5. POWER OF MUNICIPALITIES FOR SEWERAGE CONNECTION

The various provisions in Bihar Municipal Act, 2007 are adequate enough
to motivate the household to take house sewer connection and to
discharge the property generated wastewater in public sewers in safe &
environmentally friendly manner. The Act also includes provisions to deal
with defaulters. The various related provisions are reproduced below:
Article 201
201. Premises not to be erected without drains.- (1) It shall not be lawful to
erect or re-erect any premises in the municipal area or to occupy any such
premises unless -
(a) a drain is constructed of such size, materials and description, at such
level, and with such fall, as may appear to the Chief Municipal Officer to be
necessary for the effectual drainage of such premises,

131
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

(b) there have been provided and set up on such premises such appliances and
fittings as may appear to the Chief Municipal Officer to be necessary for the
purposes of gathering or receiving the filth and other polluted and obnoxious
matters, and conveying the same, from such premises and of effectually
flushing the drain of such premises and every fixture connected therewith.
(2) The drain so constructed shall empty into a municipal drain situated at a
distance of not exceeding thirty metres from the premises, but if no municipal
drain is situated within such distance, then, such drain shall empty into a
cesspool situated within the distance to be specified by the Chief Municipal
Officer for the purpose.

Article 216
216. Sewerage charge and sewerage cess.- (1) The Municipality shall levy
sewerage charge on the owners of premises for connection of such premises to
sewerage mains, such amount being not less than one-half of the amount
chargeable for water-supply under sub-section (2) of section 171 or sub-
section (2) of section 172, as the case may be, as may be determined by
regulations from time to time.
(2) Where the owner of any premises in a locality where sewer is laid by the
Municipality has not taken connection from the sewerage mains, he shall be
liable to pay a sewerage cess of such amount, not being more than one-half of
the amount chargeable as sewerage charge under sub-section (1), as may be
determined by regulations from time to time.
(3) Where the owner fails to pay the sewerage charge or sewerage cess, such
sewerage charge or sewerage cess, as the case may be, shall be realized from
the occupier, and the occupier shall be entitled to recover the amount from the
owner.
(4) The connection of premises to sewerage mains shall be provided within a
period of thirty days from the date of receipt of an application in this behalf
from the owner of the premises.
(5) The charges received by the Municipality from the owner or the occupier
for connecting the premises to sewerage mains shall be spent only for the
works relating to the sewerage system.

11.8. SPECIFIC O&M REQUIREMENTS

The specific O&M requirements for the proposed infrastructure for


sewerage & Sewage Treatment Plant are listed below:
Regular Basis
 Remove weeds from facility areas & keep the area tidy & clean.

132
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Check/service/repair/rebuild electrical as necessary including


wiring, circuit breakers, starters, capacitors, circuit boards, switches,
motors, DG Sets, diesel inventories etc.
 Inspect Manholes for deposition of silt, flow, damaged manhole
cover & steps specifically during making new connections & Clean
out if debris found
 Inspect the sewers between successive manholes for deposition of
silt & flow and if required, clean manually or flush hydraulically the
sewer line, if required.
 Check air release valves in force mains, sluice gates or stoppages in
the sewers.
 Check for any harmful or extraneous matter entering the sewer lines.
 Shutdown, Start and test lift stations and cycle pumps by lifting floats
on regular basis
 Report any adverse conditions, such as spills, illegal dumping, out of
compliance conditions to the authorities.
Emergency Repairs
 Repair sewer line breaks, blockages. Pump out & safe disposal of
wastewater in case of overflows.
 Repair/replace lift station pumps/ pump house/other equipment
 Pull & remove debris plugging lift station pumps when plugged
 Respond to emergency/trouble calls

11.9. O&M EQUIPMENT

The equipment normally required for operation & maintenance of


sewerage system are as follows:
 Portable Pump Sets & hose pipes for effective & quick pumping out
the impounded overflows
 Bamboo Sticks, Manila rope & cloth balls for manual cleaning of
small sewers up to 300 mm dia sewers
 Sewer cleaning bucket machine for cleaning a section of sewer.
 Dredger (Clam Shell) for removing debris from manholes

133
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

 Roding machine with flexible sewer rods for mechanical removal of


blockages
 Scraper for removal of silts usually in large diameter sewers
 Jetting machines for removal of obstructions using high velocity
water jets
 Suction units for siphoning of slurry material from manholes, catch
pits etc
 Pneumatic plugs for sectionalizing the sewer lengths
 Safety equipment for O&M requirement such as half & full face
masks, gum boots, safety lamps, harnesses, hard hats and
communication systems.

134
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

Chapter 12. IEC Activities & Capacity


Building

12.1. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

Information sharing & Communication Planning is an integral part of


planning for sustained development. The development of human society
has largely been due to its ability to communicate information and ideas
with each other and to use such information and ideas for progress. This
project being implemented by the Municipality aims at sustainable holistic
development in Sanitation Sector. The success of this project is heavily
dependent on the participation of the people, in the implementation
process. To enable people to participate in the development process, it is
necessary that people have adequate knowledge about the nature and
content of these projects. Information Education and Communication,
therefore, assumes added significance in the context of the this project.
The feedback received on the implementation of such projects in the field
indicate that these projects are critically dependent on the awareness
level about them, transparency in the implementation process at the field
level, participation of the people in the development process and
accountability of different groups of stakeholders with different stakes e.g.
Municipality, beneficiaries, contractors etc.
In this context it is proposed to adopt a 4- pronged strategy of creating
Awareness about the project, ensuring Transparency in the

135
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

implementation, encouraging People’s Participation in the development


process and promoting the concept of Social Audit for ensuring
Accountability. All the four elements of the above strategy are
complementary to each other and appropriate IEC activities are an
essential part of actualizing this strategy.
Information, Education and Communication plays a pivotal role in
creating awareness, mobilizing people and making development
participatory through advocacy and by transferring knowledge, skills and
techniques to the people. It is also critical for bringing about transparency
in implementation of the project at the field level and for promoting the
concept of accountability and social audit.
It is proposed to formulate appropriate IEC strategy in tune with the
communication needs of the this project. The IEC activities are to be
undertaken through the available & effective modes of communication in
order to inform the people with messages and details on Sewerage
Project. Dissemination of information has to be sustained over a period of
time and also that in order to make communication effective, it has to be
in the language and idiom of the target groups.
Accordingly, efforts are required to be made through Electronic Media
and Print Media to disseminate information in regional languages and
dialects, besides Hindi and English. In addition, the Action Plan also
envisages IEC activities through other modes of communication, outdoor
publicity and other conventional and non-conventional modes of
communication for reaching out to the people in project areas.

12.2. PRINT MEDIA

The power of the press arises from its ability of appealing to the minds of
the people and being capable of moving their hearts. Despite the fast
growth of the electronic media, the printed word continues to play a
crucial role in disseminating information and mobilizing people. It is
required to ensure that the Project is portrayed in proper perspective,
several steps need to be taken to sensitize the media about health &
sanitation issues. During the implementation period, it is proposed to
organize press conferences, press tours and workshops, so as to sensitize
press persons about these issues. It is also proposed to issue advertisements
at regular intervals in State and Regional Press. It is also proposed to
publish booklets, leaflets providing information about the project & need
for proper health & sanitation simple language in Hindi and Regional

136
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

languages. The other possible means for publicity could be printing &
distribution of wall calendars, desk calendars.

12.3. ELECTRONIC MEDIA

An intensive IEC campaign over the Electronic Media (Radio and TV) is
also required for optimum dissemination of information on these issues.
In order to meet the area and region specific communication needs of
this project, audio and video programmes of suitable time period shall be
produced and broadcast/telecast over local and primary stations of All
India Radio and Regional Kendras of Doordarshan. In addition short
duration spots on different themes relating to health & sanitation shall
need to produced in different languages and broadcast over AIR and
Doordarshan.
Synergies between different media can be exploited to great advantage.
For meeting expenditure on IEC activities, a suitable provision in cost
estimates has been taken.

12.4. CAPACITY BUILDING

Capacity building often refers to assistance which is provided to entities,


usually lacking in resources to achieve required objectives, which have a
need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading
of performance ability.
UNDP defined 'capacity building' as the creation of an enabling
environment with appropriate policy and legal frameworks, institutional
development, including community participation (of women in particular),
human resources development and strengthening of managerial systems,
adding that, UNDP recognizes that capacity building is a long-term,
continuing process, in which all stakeholders participate (ministries, local
authorities, non-governmental organizations and user groups, professional
associations, academics and others).
Capacity Building is much more than training and includes the following:
 Human resource development, the process of equipping individuals
with the understanding, skills and access to information, knowledge
and training that enables them to perform effectively.
 Organizational development, the elaboration of management
structures, processes and procedures, not only within organizations

137
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

but also the management of relationships between the different


organizations and sectors (public, private and community).
 Institutional and legal framework development, making legal and
regulatory changes to enable organizations, institutions and
agencies at all levels and in all sectors to enhance their capacities
The capacity building measures proposed under this project are
summarized below:
 Human Resource Development
Human resources development is very essential for internal
capacity building for any organization. Training, motivation,
incentives for outstanding service and disincentives for those who
fail to perform are essential for human resources development.
This includes:
Training
Management of sewerage system is a new responsibility with
Municipal Council. Integrated & comprehensive systems have
to be developed to operate & maintain the sewerage system
effectively. Knowledge of new technology and methods
coupled with training at all levels is necessary. Short and
medium term courses should, therefore, be designed for the
sanitation workers and supervisory staff. Special training and
refresher courses may also be conducted as under:-
• Special Training To Unqualified Staff
• Refresher Courses For All Levels of Staff
o Roles & Responsibilities
o Jurisdiction
o Training on use of new equipment
o Safe way to work
• Exposure to Municipal Commissioner/ Chief Executives
• Exposure to Elected Members
In this connection, CPHEEO sponsored training programmes in
different institutions can impart much needed knowledge.
 Data acquisition & retrieval

138
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

It is proposed to equip the Municipal Council with tools that will


ease the collection, analysis and retrieval of all system data in
timely & economical manner. The tools proposed to be provided
under this project are:
• Computers
• Printers
• Plotter
• Operating System Software
• Office Software
• CAD Software
• Geographical Information System (GIS) : (may be implemented to
begin with and should be hosted centrally for use of different agencies,
proper authorization levels for access & modifications to database
need to be decided at al services.
• A toll free and automated response phone number goes a long way in
facilitating transmittal of advance warnings on system health,
emergencies, failures (e.g. pipe bursts or overflows) which may be
useful in reducing response time.

 Involvement of Voluntary organization/ NGO/ Private Sector


Participation
Management of Sewerage system services is highly labour intensive on
account of increased wage structure of the Government and municipal
employees this service is becoming more and more expensive. Besides,
the efficiency of the labour force employed in the urban local bodies is far
from satisfactory. High wage structure and inefficiency of the work force
results into steep rise in the cost of service and yet the people at large are
not satisfied with the level of service being provided by the urban local
bodies.
Efforts to increase the efficiency by Human Resource Development and
institutional strengthening will, to some extent improve the performance
but that may not be enough. It is proposed to involve Voluntary
Organisations/NGO/Private sector participation in Sewerage System
management. Private sector participation or public private partnerships
are proposed to be considered for this project by clubbing O&M of system
for five years with civil contract.

139
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

12.5. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION UNITS

For successful implementation of project and its consequent efficient &


uninterrupted operations, the active participation of all the stakeholders is
of utmost importance which includes the actual users. The primary task is
to educate, inform and enlighten the public for do’s and don’ts for
effective utilization of sewerage system. The required do’s and don’ts are
as below:
 For connecting the property to Public Sewer as soon as the system is
commissioned.
 To Connect all the sullage disposal units to Sewers
 Not to dump any solid waste in property connection to manholes
 Not to discharge any objectionable liquid in public sewers
 Not to connect rain spouts to sewers
To achieve these objectives, it is proposed to setup a community
participation unit which will perform following activities:
 Devise & implement a Communication Plan
 Implement a Media Plan for dissemination of information
 Catalyze formation of user groups, resident welfare association for
effective involvement of users
The various components for these activities shall be as follows:

S. No. Activity Remark

1 Engagement of Public relation To be done with


Consultants specific objectives

2 Social Surveys For ascertaining level


of awareness and
willingness to pay for
improved services

3 Advertisement in TV, Radio, For enhancing


Newspapers in vernacular awareness &
sensitization of all
stakeholders

140
NGRBA Detailed Project Report
Sewerage Project, Begusarai (Bihar)

S. No. Activity Remark

4 Publication & Distribution of - do -


Booklets, Pamphlets etc in
vernacular

5 Engagement of NGOs for Street - do -


Plays, Kathputli shows, Local
cultural communication
techniques

141