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Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 175 (2019) 338–351

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/petrol

Classification of reservoir facies using well log and 3D seismic attributes for T
prospect evaluation and field development: A case study of Sawan gas field,
Pakistan
Umer Ashrafa, Peimin Zhua, Qamar Yasinb, Aqsa Aneesc,∗, Muhammad Imrazd,
Hassan Nasir Mangic, Saiq Shakeela
a
Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China
b
School of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, 266580, China
c
Faculty of Earth Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China
d
School of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China

A R T I C LE I N FO A B S T R A C T

Keywords: The Sawan Gas Field is one of the most promising gas fields of Middle Indus Basin in Pakistan with a cumulative
Facies production of 850 BCF. In the reservoir interval, the thin shale sequence is interbedded and dispersed resulting in
Gamma-ray log extreme heterogeneity. Consequently, conventional seismic amplitude interpretation fails to delineate the sand-
Seismic attributes shale facies distribution. In this case study, the depositional facies of the reservoir C-sand interval with the
Delta
integration of electrofacies analyses, historical production data, and seismic attribute analyses using 3D seismic
Lower Goru formation
and well log data were analyzed for prospect evaluation and field development plan to achieving maximized
production. The electrofacies analyses show that the reservoir C-sand interval falls in funnel-shaped, bell-shaped,
and cylindrical-shaped trends. The obtained results suggest deposition of C-sand in proximal delta front to pro-
delta settings with medium to fine grain pore size distribution. Conversely fine grained lime mud, silt, and shale
with poor-sorting fall in the irregular-shaped trend which suggests deposition in pro-delta settings. C-sand in-
terval was evaluated using multiple seismic attributes including relative acoustic impedance, root mean square
amplitude, envelope, sweetness, instantaneous frequency, structural smoothing, and phase shift. The results of
all the seismic attributes demarcate the transitional boundary between the delta front sand facies and pro-delta
sandy-shale facies. The calibration of electrofacies analysis with 3D seismic attributes indicates an appropriate
agreement between them. This study effectively predicted the spatial distribution of sweet spots in the het-
erogeneous reservoir using 3D seismic attributes analysis, which can provide valuable guidance for the devel-
opment of the area.

1. Introduction hydrocarbon exploration (Michelena et al., 2010; Saraswat and Sen,


2012; Zeng, 2004). Electrofacies is an effective way to divide the for-
The evaluation of hydrocarbon production from extremely hetero- mation into facies based on well log responses. These authors con-
geneous or poor–quality reservoir rocks in Pakistan is common (Yasin sidered the shapes of well log curves as an elementary tool to deduce
et al., 2017). It is essential to understand the depositional environ- depositional facies, as the nature of log is directly related to the grain
mental and geological impacts on these poor-quality reservoir rocks to size of rock sequences (Cant, 1992; Chow et al., 2005; Rider, 1999;
the economic appraisals (Ashraf et al., 2016). Selley, 1985). Several case studies have been effectively applied to
In recent years, lithological information was obtained from well log study the depositional sedimentary environments of reservoirs for field
responses including pattern recognition and pattern classification exploration and development (Verma et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2017). A
(Ghazi and Mountney, 2010). In order to increase the benefits of con- better classification of the depositional setting of the sand-shale facies
ventional well logs, we have incorporated the Gamma-Ray (GR), centered on coupling well log facies analysis with seismic attribute
Spontaneous Potential (SP), and resistivity logs response to analyze the association is crucial for prospect identification, evaluation, and field
depositional settings and the correlation between depositional facies for development (Raef et al., 2015).


Corresponding author.
E-mail address: aqsaanees01@outlook.com (A. Anees).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2018.12.060
Received 12 August 2018; Received in revised form 22 November 2018; Accepted 23 December 2018
Available online 24 December 2018
0920-4105/ © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
U. Ashraf et al. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 175 (2019) 338–351

Fig. 1. Location of Sawan gas field along with basemap

Fig. 2. Stratigraphic chart of the Sawan gas field is highlighting the petroleum play. The C-sand interval highlighted by red color is the reservoir zone in the study
area (modified after (Anwer et al., 2017)). (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.)

Seismic attribute analysis is an interpretation technique used to potential remains unexploited due to inadequate consideration of the
improve the spatial prediction of structural and stratigraphic features dispersal of reservoir sands. Moreover, the seismic amplitude reflection
from seismic data (Maleki et al., 2015). To a seismic attribute specialist, observed at the reservoir sands of Lower Goru Formation on conven-
the most critical petrophysical property is acoustic impedance because tional seismic emerge as composite reflection due to low-velocity shale
reflected amplitudes displayed on seismic sections are produced by overlying it, resulting in ambiguity for the interpretation of data (Krois
differences in elastic/acoustic impedances of sub-surface rocks et al., 1998). Therefore, high-resolution seismic data is significant to
(Karbalaali et al., 2013; Prskalo, 2004; Torres-Verdin and Sen, 2004; differentiate the interbedded shale from sand bodies. Many previous
Yilmaz, 2001). The usage of multiple seismic attributes helps in vividly attempts of reservoir characterization and classification have only fo-
identifying sand facies zones (Suarez et al., 2008). Post-stack seismic cused on reservoir parameters estimation based on the petrophysical
attributes, i.e., relative acoustic impedance, Root Mean Square (RMS) analysis (Ali et al., 2016; Azeem et al., 2017; Naeem et al., 2016) and
amplitude, envelope, sweetness, instantaneous frequency, phase shift, have not included necessary electrofacies analysis. A most recent study
and structural smoothing are used by seismic interpreters to delineate (Ali et al., 2018) evaluate the use of different post-stack inversion al-
and quantify fluid-rich zones in the reservoir interval. Incorporating gorithms to characterize the reservoir properties of the Lower Goru
seismic attributes analysis from well logging outcomes permits cross- Formation.
validated interpretation. The current research aims to the classification of the heterogeneous
Multiple studies were carried out to characterize and quantify re- reservoir with the integration of electrofacies analyses, historical pro-
servoir properties of the Lower Goru Formation, but the substantial duction data and seismic attribute analyses using 3D seismic and well

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Fig. 3. Workflow adopted in the current study for the classification of the facies.

Fig. 4. (a) 3D subsurface structural models of the marked horizons within the study area; (b) Seismic section showcasing seismic-to-well tie of Sawan-07 and Sawan-
08 at crossline 932.

log data. In this study, we delineate the lateral and vertical facies dis- 2. Background geology
tribution and their paleo-environments of Lower Goru Formation. We
also integrate well log facies analysis with 3D seismic attributes to 2.1. Study area
identify the sand-shale facies distribution and their depositional en-
vironment primarily in the reservoir C-sand interval of Sawan gas field The Sawan gas field is one of the significant gas producing areas
and its comparison with the recent production data to make a com- with early–late Cretaceous Lower Goru Formation acting as the po-
prehensive prospect evaluation method. 3D seismic slices and well log tential reservoir. The study area is located in the Thar Desert, in the
data are also incorporated for effectively predicting the spatial dis- Middle Indus Basin of Pakistan (Fig. 1). Sawan Gas Field was discovered
tribution of sweet spots. in 1997 which consists of a 103 m thick gas-bearing reservoir zone at a

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Fig. 5. Well log correlation of Sawan-01, 07 and 08 showing the thickness of the reservoir zone in the study area.

depth of around 3250 m (Ahmed et al., 2010). It hosts 15 Wells, out of feldspathic litharenites, and litharenites, whereas diagenetic compo-
which 14 are in production. nents as quartz cement, chlorite cement, carbonates, and glauconite
(Berger et al., 2009). The upper Goru member consists of reservoir
2.2. Structural evolution and stratigraphic characteristics basinal shales and marls, which are settled from shoreface to foreshore
(high energy) facies of the prograding shoreline and are acting as the
The study area borders marginal zone of the Indian plate, with the regional seal (Munir et al., 2011).
Kirthar range in the West: Jacobabad-Khairpur High in the Northwest,
Mari Khandkot high in the North: offshore Murray ridges-oven fracture 3. Material and methods
plate boundary in the South and Indian shield in the East (Afzal et al.,
2009; Kadri, 1995). Khairpur's High uplifting places the non-reservoir- The log data from five wells (Sawan-01, 07, 08, 14, and Sawan-
quality distal portions of the Lower Goru depositional system into a WDW-01) and the 3D post-stack seismic data were used for depositional
structurally upper location than the more proximal, reservoir quality facies and attribute analysis in the C-sand interval of Lower Goru re-
(Krois et al., 1998) and played a significant role in the formation of the servoirs. Gamma ray (GR), Spontaneous Potential (SP), Micro
structural traps in the Miano, Kadanwari and Sawan gas fields (Ahmad Spherically Focused Resistivity (MSFL), Shallow Laterolog Resistivity
and Chaudhry, 2002). Deposition of these reservoir intervals took place (LLS) and Deep Laterolog Resistivity (LLD) logs were incorporated to
in deltaic, shallow marine environments during sea-level low-stand, analyze the interbedded sand and shale facies. Sawan-14 well has an
when detached medium to coarse-grained sediments was deposited on incomplete suite, whereas the Sawan-WDW-01 was a disposable water
top of the distal (shale and siltstone) sediments of the previous high- well. Information regarding the core data in the study area from the
stand systems tract (Berger et al., 2009). The majority of the Cretaceous literature (Berger et al., 2009) was used, which proved to be quite
system in the study area is not disturbed by the orogenic movement and helpful in delineating the electrofacies and depositional environments.
is relatively stable (Abbas et al., 2015). The presence of an extensive Initially, the workflow (Fig. 3) adopted for this research in-
Cretaceous deltaic system and similar shelf margins have already been corporated the calculation of the lateral and vertical thickness of the
reported by many authors (Ahmad et al., 2004; Khan et al., 2012). reservoir C-sand using wireline logs. Later, identification of the elec-
The Sember formation is the major hydrocarbon source rock in the trofacies and the depositional environment was made by gamma-ray
middle Indus basin (Kadri, 1995), and is covered by the Lower Goru log shapes analysis. In the second stage, synthetic seismogram was
Member of the Goru Formation which is the proven reservoir interval in generated based on seismic-to-well tie; four reflectors were marked as
the Sawan gas field (Ali et al., 2018). Sembar-Goru is a sequence of Upper Goru, Lower Goru, X1 and Y1 (Fig. 4) which further shows that
various progrades which pass from shallow marine facies to basinal the area is tectonically stable. Two horizons X1 and Y1 having time
facies (Khalid et al., 2014). The subordinate portion of the Lower Goru window value of 75 ms at Sawan-07, were marked as a reference of
Formation is classified into A, B, C and D intervals (Fig. 2). Petro- Lower Goru Formation based on strong reflection continuity. Thickness
graphically, D-interval mostly consists of black shales, whereas A and B map between X1 and Y1 horizons estimated the topography of the study
intervals have mostly quartz arenites. The C-sand interval has a sig- area. In the third stage, 3D post-stack seismic attributes and production
nificant amount of altered volcanic rock fragments (VRF) and pore data was analyzed to correlate the well logging outcomes and to in-
lining iron chlorite cement (Mcphee et al., 2004). The sands of this terpret the sand-shale facies units within the targeted formation. Fi-
interval can be classified as subarkoses, lithic arkoses, sublitharenites, nally, sweet spots were predicted using 3D time slices of seismic

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attributes for prospect evaluation and field development.

hummocky cross-bedding. The size of the sediments is evenly distributed with thin laminations of the clayey

Very fine-grained sediments with uniform intercalations of thin laminated beds of silts, lime mud, and clay.
Medium-to-coarse sandstone with lime mud laminated moderately sorted grains having small-scale ripple

Coarse-to-fine sandstone and interbedded with finely grained siltstone, lime mudstone and cavity filling
The following sections give a brief overview of the electrofacies

Thick beds of medium-to-fine sandstone with good sorting and sub-angular to sub-round shapes having
identification, geological modeling and seismic attributes methods used
in this work.

3.1. Facies identification

Rocks emit an enormous amount of gamma radiation, which can be


used as a proxy for lithology interpretation (Hampson et al., 2005;
Rider, 1990). Gamma-ray trends are used as an essential tool for the
identification and interpretation of the subsurface sedimentary facies,
even when the well core data is not present (Chow et al., 2005).
Therefore, gamma-ray log shape patterns were used in this study for the
identification of the lithofacies and depositional environments in the
reservoir sands of the Lower Goru Formation.

3.1.1. Electrofacies analysis


Fine grained transgressive shelf black shales.
marks followed by the trough cross-bedding.

The steps for an accurate electro-sequence analysis are essential for


the interpretation of facies. Electro-sequence must follow a route for
limestone with planar cross-bedding.

facies interpretation, i.e., the depositional environment comes last, and


a lithological pattern comes first. The gamma-ray log, spontaneous
potential, and resistivity logs of the three wells were first placed at an
equal depth to facilitate correlation. The depth measurement was
considered in Measured Depth (MD) value. Matching of similar lithol-
ogies was then carried out from well to well using the top and bottom
horizons as controls. In this analysis, similar features of gamma-ray
Lithofacies

signatures were marked to interpret facies. The value of gamma-ray


commonly ranges from 0 to 150 American Petroleum Institute (API)
silt.

(Rider, 2002), and the gamma-ray value of reservoir sands within the
Sawan gas field is about 80 API (Azeem et al., 2017). Henceforth, the
selected value of gamma-ray ranges from 0 to 150 API and the baseline
Average GR

is selected at 80 API due to the presence of K-feldspar and mica within


the sandstone which tend to record relatively high gamma-ray values to
50–80

40–80

45–80

80–90
(API)

95+

interpret the facies and their depositional environment.


Summary of gamma-ray trends with their depositional environments & lithofacies of Sawan gas field.

3.2. Geological modeling


3260-3270 & 3292-
Average Depth (m)

Isopach map was developed via seismic interpretation of the tar-


3301–3308

3270–3335

3347–3355

3356–3370

geted horizons XI and Y1 to interpret the topography and the thickness


of the reservoir zone. Thickness map is a geological map of subsurface
3297

strata showing the variable thickness of a given formation.


Coarsening upward/funnel-shape

Even block (serrated) with sharp

3.3. 3D seismic attribute extraction


Fining upward/bell-shape

The practice of seismic facies classification from 3D seismic attri-


butes analysis has been efficiently applied in the exploration and pro-
duction (E&P) sector for decades (Wang et al., 2017). Numerous volume
Irregular shape

Irregular shape

attributes were computed to analyze the facies. The attributes which


top and base
GR Trends

gave the best results were selected in this research to classify the facies
distribution and their paleoenvironments. These include relative
acoustic impedance, RMS amplitude, envelope, sweetness, in-
stantaneous frequency, phase shift, and structural smoothing. All these
volume attributes were extracted at the time slice of Z = 2176, on the
Depositional Environment

targeted X1 horizon that lies at a depth of C-sand, which was confirmed


Debris flow and slope

from seismic-to-well tie. The resultant attributes were also shown on 3D


Transgressive shelf
Prograding delta
Deltaic channels

map and their corresponding vertical seismic section at crossline 932.


distributaries
Delta front

deposits

3.3.1. Relative acoustic impedance


It computes the sum of the calculated traces which results as a
simple integration of the complex trace followed by passing the low-cut
Electrofacies

filter. Relative acoustic impedance attribute is an indicator of im-


pedance changes, sequence boundaries, porosity content, unconformity
Table 1

Ef-1

Ef-2

Ef-3

Ef-4

Ef-5

surfaces, and discontinuities in the reservoir (Subrahmanyam and Rao,


2008).

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Fig. 6. The direct correlation among various facies and other log shapes about the sedimentological relationship (Modified after (Cant, 1992; Chow et al., 2005;
Nazeer et al., 2016; Selley, 1978)).

3.3.2. RMS amplitude 3.4. Sweet spot prediction


It is quite helpful in assisting and establishing boundaries for var-
ious facies types and the depositional environments (Sahoo et al., Sweet spots are the reservoir zones having high porosity and per-
2014). The relative high RMS amplitude attribute values are usually meability values in comparison with their surrounding tight sands
connected with lithological changes, sand-rich shoreward facies, bright (Hart, 2006) and plays an important role in prospect evaluation and
spots, and especially gas saturated sand zones. Whereas, low amplitudes field development plan (Khalil, 2012). The integration of electrofacies
values indicate the zones of sandy-shale, shale and pro-delta facies (Hu analyses, seismic attribute analysis, historical gas production, and
and Zhu, 2013). sweet spot evaluation allows improved prediction and classification of
hydrocarbon reservoirs (Javier Carrasco, 2015).
3.3.3. Envelope
It is independent of the phase and highlights the total energy of the 4. Results and discussion
analytic signal. Trace envelope highlights the amplitude anomalies
(bright spots) irrespective of the polarity (Pigott et al., 2013). High 4.1. Facies interpretation
reflections are associated with possible gas accumulation, lithological
and depositional environment changes, unconformities, bright spots, Geophysical log analyses were conducted on three wells (Sawan-01,
and thin-bed tuning effects (Azeem et al., 2016). 07 and 08). The thickness of the C-sand interval within the study area
was evaluated by the petrophysical parameters. Fig. 5 shows that the
3.3.4. Sweetness reservoir C-sand interval has low shale volume, high matrix content and
It can distinguish the sand bodies from the shales as the acoustic good porosity. Shale content is high above and below the C-sand in-
impedance contrast between the sand bodies and the shales are higher terval.
especially in the clastic environments. Moreover, it is used for the
identification of the stratigraphic features, channel identification, and 4.2. Facies identified from gamma-ray logs
hydrocarbon reservoirs (Ahmad and Rowell, 2012; Hart, 2008).
Based on gamma-ray log shapes, facies analysis using electrofacies
3.3.5. Instantaneous frequency was concluded to mark several environmental interpretations (Cant,
It was applied to analyze the thickness of the reservoir zone. Low 1992; Chow et al., 2005; Ghazi and Mountney, 2010; Martinius et al.,
frequencies are connected with thick hydrocarbon saturated reservoirs 2002; Posamentier, 2001; Serra, 1985; Serra and Abbott, 1982). Thor-
predominantly with gas saturated sands while high-frequency zones are ough gamma-ray log analysis of three wells (Sawan-01, 07 and 08) in
linked with sharp interfaces which may exhibit thinly laminated shales the Sawan gas field has permitted a five-fold facies scheme to be de-
(Taner et al., 1979). veloped (Table 1). Fig. 6 shows the sedimentological relationship of
various facies and gamma-ray log shapes.
3.3.6. Phase shift
It is mostly used to enhance the matching of a dissimilar version of 4.2.1. Electrofacies-1 (funnel-shaped successions)
the seismic data. Phase shift attribute is helpful to investigate the lateral Electrofacies (Ef-1): Electrofacies 1 showcases 10% of the total
bedding continuity, fluid content, porosity, productive zones, and de- series and is categorized by a funnel-shaped sequence. The gamma-ray
positional environments. log trend consistently decreases upward showing the decrease of the
shale content, thus making the coarsening upward trend and high-
3.3.7. Structural smoothing lighting the increase in grain size. The thickness of this trend is
It uses the input signal guided through the local structure to increase 3 m–18 m. The funnel motif with coarsening upward sequence is de-
the continuity of the reflectors by using the gaussian smoothing algo- posited in clastics with thick sediments (Chow et al., 2005). According
rithm (Fang et al., 2017). High smoothing values represent sand while to the well data, the primary lithology of this facies is largely medium-
low values represent shale. to-coarse grained sandstone with the interbedded cementing

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Fig. 7. Gamma-ray log correlation of depositional environments and electrofacies classification in the C-sand interval of Lower Goru Formation of Sawan gas field.

carbonaceous material in places. Depositional Environment: The trend towards the sand-shale base-
Depositional Environment: The pattern away from the sand-shale line with fining upward trend represents the deltaic channel (Cant,
baseline with coarsening-upward trend represents the delta front (Cant, 1992; Nazeer et al., 2016). The bell-shaped successions with carbo-
1992; Nazeer et al., 2016). Delta successions formed by mixed-load naceous detritus are deposited in deltaic channels (Selley, 1978).
systems have relatively straight, bifurcating distributaries feeding Therefore, the sediments which form the reservoir having finning up-
mouth-bars that makes an overall delta front. Therefore, the sediments ward trend is suggesting deltaic channel settings.
which form the reservoir having coarsening upward trend is suggesting
proximal delta front settings. 4.2.3. Electrofacies-3 (cylindrical-shaped successions)
Electrofacies (Ef-3): Electrofacies 3 showcases 40% of the total
4.2.2. Electrofacies-2 (bell-shaped successions) series and is categorized by a cylindrical-shaped succession. These
Electrofacies (Ef-2): Electrofacies 2 showcases 15% of the total successions are indicated by sharp top and base with the consistent
series and is categorized by a bell-shaped sequence. The thickness of trend which highlights a relatively consistent grain size. The cylinder-
this trend is 2 m–12 m. The gamma-ray log trend consistently increases shaped gamma-ray log is serrated rather than blocky and is dominant in
upward showing the increase of the shale content, overall making the the reservoir units of the Sawan gas field with 2 m–25 m thickness
fining upward trend and highlighting the decrease in grain size. (Fig. 7). According to well data, the main lithology of this facies is
According to the well data, the main lithology of this facies is coarse-to- medium-to-fine grained sandstone.
fine grained sandstone with the interbedded carbonaceous material in Depositional Environment: The gamma-ray log trend of cylindrical-
places. The presence of interbedded carbonaceous material likely con- shaped successions is characterized by sharp top and bottom bound-
tributes to the irregular (serrated) form of the bell-shaped gamma curve aries, and indicate prograding delta distributaries as the favorable se-
(Rider, 1990). dimentary environment in clastics (Nazeer et al., 2016). Moreover, the

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Fig. 8. 3D Isopach map between X1 and Y1 horizons.

Fig. 9. Geological model showing the major stratigraphic features of Lower Indus Basin with an area of interest highlighted by red color (Modified after (Krois et al.,
1998)). (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.)

cylindrical trends with a greater range of thickness, like those of C-sand extend to a deeper environment. Therefore, it suggests interfingering of
in the study area, indicates prograding delta distributaries (Emery and the clastic shelf with the marine offshore depositional environment.
Myers, 1996). Therefore, the sediments which form the reservoir These trends may represent the gentle slope deposits, which may also
having cylindrical-shaped trend is suggesting prograding delta dis- be interpreted as a flow of debris along the slope (Nazeer et al., 2016).
tributaries settings. The presence of interbedded mica and pebbles has likely contributed to
the irregular form of the gamma-ray curve (Chow et al., 2005; Rider,
4.2.4. Electrofacies-4 (irregular log-trends/serrated-shaped successions) 1990).
Electrofacies (Ef-4): Electrofacies 4 showcases 10% of the total
series and is categorized by the irregular log trend. The average 4.2.5. Electrofacies-5 (irregular log-trends)
thickness in this trend is 2 m–5 m. These successions are indicated by Electrofacies (Ef-5): This trend also has no character with very high
irregular spikes of the gamma-ray log which highlights a relative de- gamma-ray values. The average thickness of this facies is about
crease in the grain size. Irregular log trends can be interpreted as ag- 2 m–5 m at the bottom of the C-sand and have thick beds of shales in D-
gradation of silts with a variation of lithology in laminated beds of interval. According to well reports, the main lithology of this facies is
siltstone, lime mud, and some claystone (Emery and Myers, 1996). black shales.
According to well reports, the main lithologies of this facies are lime Depositional Environment: Black shales are formed during the rapid
mudstone and siltstone. transgression when basinal deposition expanded to cover basin-margin
Depositional Environment: Inter-bedded siltstone, lime mudstone areas which are generally characterized by shallow water-deposition
indicates below-wave base deposition under low energy conditions that (Wignall, 1991). This trend is present at the bottom of C-sand and is

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Fig. 10. Depositional model for the Lower Goru Formation presenting a sequence of delta. (a) & (b) is showing the planar view, while (c) is showing the cross-section
view of the depositional environment of Sawan gas field.

Table 2 dipping and prograding towards East (Fig. 9), which shows the transi-
Production of the Sawan wells. tional and basin-ward deposition of facies. These results also support
Well Name Production (MMscf) the outcomes of the depositional environment deduced from the elec-
trofacies analysis.
Sawan-01 12.779 The reservoir depositional environments identified by gamma-ray
Sawan-07 24.428
log signatures are suggesting deltaic channel, prograding delta dis-
Sawan-08 13.760
Sawan-14 4.703
tributaries, and delta front as favorable depositional environments of
reservoir sands within the Sawan gas field. Deltas are modified in shape
by waves, tides, and stream forces, but produce the same general facies
also dominant in the D-interval of the Lower Goru Formation. The re- (Fisher, 1969). Deltas build seaward, or prograde (Fig. 10 a & b). Lower
servoir interval of C-sand is directly overlain and sealed by these Goru horizons A-interval, B-sand interval, and C-sand interval, are also
transgressive shales (Khalid et al., 2014). dominated by progrades (Munir et al., 2011). The Lower Goru sand
bodies are prograding from East-West (E-W) direction (Shahid et al.,
4.3. Geological modeling and depositional environment 2008), and are forming coarsening-upward shoreline packages
(Wandrey et al., 2004). In the Lower Goru Formation, micas are present
The results of the isopach map show that the C-sand are dipping and as igneous rock fragments (Berger et al., 2009), and within the delta
prograding towards Northeast (NE) and the trapping mechanism of the sequences, micas sediments represent the deposition of the sediments
reservoir sands are stratigraphic (Fig. 8). The regional geological model from prograding distributaries channels into distributary mouth bars.
shows an overall stratigraphic tilt towards the Eastern side. The re- Therefore, these settings indicate an overall coarsening upward trend of
servoir C-sand of the study area lies in the transitional zone between delta front settings. The sediments above 3340 m in every well, which
shallow marine and marine region. Duo isopach map and geological form the reservoir (C-sand interval) in the study area, are also of a very
model are suggesting the low-lying topography in the Eastern region shallow marine origin from a proximal delta front setting.
than the Western region, which indicates that the reservoir sands are The C-sand thicknesses of Sawan-01, 07 and 08 wells are 107.05 m,

Fig. 11. (a) Time slice of the relative acoustic impedance at X1 horizon. The dotted line demarcates the transitional boundary (b) The corresponding seismic section
at crossline xy-932 (c) 3D map of relative acoustic impedance attribute of the targeted area.

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Fig. 12. (a) Time slice of the RMS amplitude at X1 horizon. The dotted line demarcates the transitional boundary (b) The corresponding seismic section of RMS
amplitude attribute at crossline xy-932 (c) 3D map of RMS amplitude attribute of the targeted area.

Fig. 13. (a) Time slice of the envelope at X1 horizon. The dotted line demarcates the transitional boundary (b) The corresponding seismic section of envelope
attribute at crossline xy-932 (c) 3D map of Envelope attribute of the targeted area.

96.35 m, and 94.85 m, out of which the cumulative sandstone thick- siltstone represents the interaction of shallow marine and marine de-
nesses within these wells are 82.25 m, 67.89 m and 67.19 m (Fig. 7) positional realm with changing depths of water and distance from the
which shows that the sandstone thickness is decreasing from Sawan-01 shoreline. Moreover, it may also represent gentle slope deposits. Pre-
(South West) to Sawan-08 (North East) direction whereas the shale and sence of glauconite, at specified intervals, also demonstrates the pre-
silt content is increasing in this direction. High frequency of thick valence of mid-shelf marine influence.
sandstone beds between 3250 m and 3330 m in Sawan-01, and between
3270 m and 3340 m in Sawan-07 and Sawan-08 represents prograding
delta associated with the sea level fall. Therefore, these sand intervals 4.4. 3D seismic attribute analysis
possess significant reservoir potential within Sawan gas field. In addi-
tion, less occurrence of sandstone, and the regular presence of marine Relative Acoustic Impedance: The time slice of relative acoustic
shales and lime mud siltstone/claystone in all wells at the bottom of the impedance contrast attribute differentiated the sand zone (blue) and
C-sand suggest the deposition of lower shoreface to offshore fine sedi- shale zone (red) and was helpful for demarcating the transitional
ments that represent the transitional and basin-ward depositional en- boundary between the delta front and pro-delta facies. The shales were
vironment. These shales, silts and tight sands within the C-sand bottom deposited in pro-delta environments whereas the sands were deposited
also act as lateral and bottom seals. The progradation that created the at proximal delta front settings. Sawan-01, 07 and 08 wells are located
C-sand tends to highlight a noticeable downward and basin-ward shift within the high relative acoustic impedance zone whereas the Sawan-
in the depositional facies from delta front to pro-delta (Fig. 10 c). The 14 is situated where the value of the relative acoustic impedance is low
inter-bedded sequence of sandstone, claystone/shale, lime mud suggesting the that this well is not sited at an ideal location close to the
uplifted Khairpur High, which can be the possible reason for its

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Fig. 14. (a) Time slice of the sweetness at X1 horizon. The dotted line demarcates the transitional boundary (b) The corresponding seismic section of sweetness
attribute at crossline xy-932 (c) 3D map of envelope attribute of the targeted area.

Fig. 15. (a) Time slice of the instantaneous frequency at X1 horizon. The dotted line demarcates the transitional boundary (b) The corresponding seismic section of
instantaneous frequency at crossline xy-932 (c) 3D map of instantaneous frequency attribute of the targeted area.

minimum production (Table 2) (Fig. 11). Instantaneous Frequency: The time slice of instantaneous frequency
RMS Amplitude: The time slice of RMS amplitude shows that attribute indicates that productive wells (Sawan-01, 07 and 08) are
Sawan-01, 07, and 08 wells are located within the high amplitudes located in low frequency zone suggesting thicker sands, whereas low-
zones that indicates the presence of reservoir sand-facies, which are productive well Sawan-14 is located in the high-frequency zone im-
possibly associated with the prograding delta distributaries to proximal plying that this sand zone is highly interbedded with shale (Fig. 15).
delta front settings. Sawan-14 is located in the vicinity of moderately Structural Smoothing: The time slice of structural smoothing attri-
low amplitude zone that indicates the presence of the sandy-shale facies bute clearly distinguishes the sand and shale layers. The Eastern region
(Fig. 12). of the slice is highlighting the pro-delta shale facies while the middle
Envelop: It can be observed from the envelop slice that Sawan-14 is region is associated with delta front sand facies (Fig. 16).
present at relatively low reflection zone which causes this well to be less Phase Shift: The time slice of phase shift attribute shows a promi-
productive as compared to the Sawan-01, 07 and 08 wells, which are nent change in phase values, which suggests the variation of the bed-
present at a higher envelope amplitude zone that corresponds to the ding continuity of sediments (Fig. 17). The wells Sawan-01, 07 and 08
thicker sands (Fig. 13). lie in the negative phase values suggest that the sands in these wells are
Sweetness: The time slice of sweetness shows that Sawan-01, 07 and productive and have relative medium to good porosity and sorting.
08 wells are conformably seated at high sweetness zone suggesting sand These sands were deposited at proximal delta front settings. Sawan-14
reservoir zone, whereas Sawan-14 is located within relative low lies in the positive phase values which suggest the zones of poor por-
sweetness zone indicating sandy-shale facies. The time slice of sweet- osity, sorting and fluid content.
ness attribute is shown in Fig. 14, which highlights that the productive The associated vertical seismic section of the applied attributes and
area lies in the middle region. their 3D maps are showcasing that there is one massive reflector with

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Fig. 16. (a) Time slice of the structural smoothing at X1 horizon. The dotted line demarcates the transitional boundary (b) The corresponding seismic section of
structural smoothing attribute at crossline xy-932 (c) 3D map of structural smoothing attribute of the targeted area.

Fig. 17. (a) Time slice of the phase shift at X1 horizon. The dotted line demarcates the transitional boundary (b) The corresponding seismic section of phase shift
attribute at crossline xy-932 (c) 3D map of phase shift attribute of the targeted area.

Fig. 18. Time slices of (a) RMS amplitude attribute, (b) envelope and (c) sweetness attribute at Z = 2188 showcasing the sweet spots within the targeted area.

high relative acoustic impedance, high RMS, high sweetness, high en- interbedded between shale layers. The results of electrofacies analysis
velop, low instantaneous frequency, negative phase values and high also shows that the C-sand is interbedded between shale layers (Fig. 7).
structural smoothing suggesting the presence of C-sand interval In addition, relative acoustic impedance attribute was helpful in

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demarcating the transitional boundary between the sand facies of the Appendix A. Supplementary data
delta front environment and sandy-shale/shale facies of pro-delta. The
same marked boundary was overlapped on the results of all the applied Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https://
attributes, which further confirms the reliability of the transitional zone doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2018.12.060.
between sand and shale facies. The corollary, results of all the attributes
are in accordance with the electrofacies analysis. References
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