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(Regd. No - MBA/BAU/3921/2008)

Year – 2010

Faculty of Agriculture
Center for Agribusiness Management

Date: …………………….


This is certify that the work recorded in the project report entitled “Study Of
Manufacturing And Quality Control of Sudha Dairy Products” Submitted in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION IN AGRIBUSINESS of the Faculty of Post- Graduate Studies Birsa
Agricultural University, Ranchi (Jharkhand) is the record of the bonafide Project work
carried out by Praveen Kumar Mishra under my guidance & supervision. No part of the
report has been submitted for any other Degree or Diploma.

It is further certified that such helps or information received during the course
of this investigation & preparation of the report have been duly acknowledged.


Major Advisor
(Dr. Niva Bara)

Center for Agribusiness Management

Ranchi – 834006 (Jharkhand)
(Certificate of the Advisory committee members &
Endorsement of Dean, Agriculture)

I, the undersigned, as Major Advisor of the student for the Degree of
through the manuscript of the report & agree that the project entitled “Study of
Manufacturing and Quality Control of Sudha Dairy Products” may be submitted by Praveen
Kumar Mishra in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree.

Dr. Niva Bara

Major Advisor of the student

Dr. B.k Jha Dr. R.P.Singh Dr. V. Dhar


Dr. A. K. Sarkar Dr. R. P. Singh

Dean Director
Faculty of Agriculture Center for Agribusiness
Birsa Agricultural University, Birsa Agricultural University,
Ranchi Ranchi


(Certificate of approval by the Chairman of the

Advisory Committee and External Examiner)


This is to certify that the thesis entitled “Study Of Manufacturing And Quality Control Of
Sudha Dairy Products” submitted by Praveen Kumar Mishra in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the Degree of Master of Business Administration in Agribusiness of the
Faculty of Agriculture, Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi was examined and approved
on …………...

Dr. Niva Bara Dr. B.k Jha External

(Major Advisor)

Dr. R.P.Singh Dr.V.Dhar

Center for Agribusiness Management

Dean DRI-cum-Dean PG
Faculty of Agriculture Birsa Agricultural
Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi Ranchi


I wish to express my indebtedness, gratitude & special thanks to Dr.A.K Sarkar, Dean
Faculty of Agriculture, BAU Kanke, Ranchi for allowing me to carry out my industrial training
at Ranchi Dairy (Sudha plant).

It is my glowing feeling to record my best regards, deepest sense of gratitude to Dr. R.P
Singh, Director, Centre for Agribusiness Management for his judicious & precious guidance
which were extremely valuable for my studies both theoretically and practically.

I express my gratitude to Dr. Niva Bara, major advisor and my advisors Dr.B.K Jha, Dr.
R.P Singh, and Dr. V.Dhar for providing relevant information & co-operation during the

I wish to express my indebted gratitude & special thank to Mr. A. K Sinha Manager, Mr.
D.K.Singh Dy. Manager, Mr. Arvind Kumar, and R.K.Tiwari, Sr.Tech. Supervisor of Ranchi
Dairy for their kind support into work and encouraged me in my endeavor and consented to
spend their valuable time to complete this job training.

I wish to express my heartfelt appreciation to my parent and friends for their constant
unending blessing, inspiration and sacrifice in the completion of this thesis.

Above all I bow down my head and offer my heartfelt devotion to the “Almighty God”
for his sacred blessing and enlightment in my life.

Praveen Kumar Mishra



5. FINDINGS 14-45


Dairy Industry is the most ancient industry in our country. Dairy is boon for the farmers
of our country farmer. Thousands of farmers and milk producers in and around the dairy have
benefited from the white revolution triggered by Sudha Dairy co-operative movement in
Jharkhand. The Integrated Dairy Development project or Operation Flood is being implemented
in three level co-operative societies. Producer‟s Dairy co-operative societies at village level,
Milk union at District level, and Milk Federation at State level.

HACCP (Hazard analysis and critical control point) and ISO 9001, 2000 certification
given by international standard organization engaged in food product manufacturing activities as
per international food safety need. Cooperative Dairies started this activity only to find
remunerative market for rural milk producer members. Mnemonic symbol is allotted by
NATIONAL DAIRY DEVELOPMENT BOARD (NDDB) the national level organization for
dairy related activities only after satisfactory implementation of quality assurance norms.

Deshratna Dr. Rajendra Prasad Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Limited is the largest milk
union in the eastern part of India an industrially deprived region. DRMU has created modern
value - added processing and production facilities, it has a range of delicious Indian sweets under
the brand name of “SUDHA” in its fold. Viz Rassogulla, Gulab-Jabun, Peda, Kalakand, Misti
Dahi, Milk cake Sweet and condensed milk Product called Sudha Special, Paneer, Mango lassi
now “SUDHA” has been synonymous of quality in the area of milk and milk products and has
become household name in the eastern part of the country.

Today there are more than sixty five thousand farmers who are members of 980 village dairy
cooperative societies offer variety of value – added dairy products through the milk union in
competition in the open market and enjoying good margin out of dairy business. From a total
procurement of 0.90 million tones from our DCS (District Co operative Society) in the year of
1992, the production has gone up to more than 4.9 million tones in the last nine years or so.

Dairy products by 2011, dairy India projects the value of the industry to more than
double to Rs.520, 780 crore, which includes Rs.159, 600 crore from liquid milk, Rs.42, 680 crore
from ghee, Rs.50, 500 crore from khoa /chhena /paneer, Rs.9, 100 crore from milk powder Rs.2,
250 crore from table butter, Rs.6, 150 crore from cheese/edible casein and Rs.25, 050 crore from
other products. The India food industry is estimated to be worth over US$200 billion and
according to the confederation of India Industry (CII) is expected to grow to US$310 billion by
2015. India is one of the world‟s major food producers but accounts for less than1.5 percent of
international food trade.

India is the world‟s second largest producer of food next to China, and has the potential of being
the biggest with the food and agricultural sector. India is world‟s largest producer of cereals and
milk, Second largest producer of rice, wheat, sugar, fruit and vegetables, and inland fish and
third in cotton, Seventh largest producer of fish. Ranchi Dairy Ranchi (Sudha plant) was
established in March1991. It has proved itself as a lifeline of Ranchi in concern with milk and its
various products. Ranchi at present supplies, composition wise two different types of milk:-

Items Fat% Solid non fat %

Toned Milk 3.0% 8.5%

Standard Milk 4.5 % 8.5%

And Sudha Dairy Products like - Mango lassie, Sudha Special, Paneer, Missti dahi, Peda,
Ghee, Butter table, Flavor milk, Fitness curd and Pasteurized milk etc. Fulfillment of consumer‟s
demand is not sufficient but the dairy products should be qualitative. In order to assess the
quality of Sudha Dairy product this study entitled “Study of Manufacturing and Quality control
of Sudha Dairy Products” has been planned with the following objectives:


 To study the organizational infrastructure of Sudha Dairy.
 To study process of preparation of various Sudha products made by Ranchi Dairy,
i.e. - Paneer, Mango lassie, Sudha Special, Misti Dahi, Peda, Fitness Curd &Milk.
 To study quality control of different types of milk products.


Location – Ranchi Dairy Ranchi H.E.C., sector –II Dhurwa, Ranchi, Bihar State Co - operative
Milk Producers Federation Ltd. (COMFED) Patna.

Data collection- The study is limited to Ranchi Dairy. Data Processing is done by using
appropriate statistical tools.

Sampling Technique – Simple random technique was used for examining quality control of
milk and milk products of Ranchi Dairy:

1. Moisture test for these products i.e. - Paneer, Mango lassie, Sudha Special, Misti
Dahi, Peda, Fitness Curd & Pasteurized Milk.
2. Acidity test for Fitness Curd, Mango Lassie and Sudha Special.
3. Fat test for Paneer, Sudha Special, Misti Dahi, Peda, and Fitness Curd.

The present study suffers from limitations of time and money and other constraints usually faced
by a student researcher. However considerable care and thought have been given in making the
study as systematic as possible.



Fig.1. Ranchi Dairy (Sudha)

Ranchi Dairy is a unit of Bihar State Co- operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd.
(COMFED) Patna. The COMFED was the implementing agency formed for Operations Flood
programme in the undivided Bihar. It was found in survey that North Bihar districts were surplus
in milk production where the production was more than consumption. But the then South Bihar
(Now Jharkhand) towns were deficit in milk, i.e. the demand for milk is more than the
production. Thus it was decided that the surplus milk will be collected from North Bihar districts
and would be send to South Bihar Towns of Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Bokaro. According Ranchi
dairy was established under the supervision of National Dairy Development Board, Anand, and
Gujarat and started its operations in June 1984 from an old small plant at Hotwar, Ranchi. This
organization started its operation from its new modern plant of installed capacity of 80,000 liters
per day from1991. Before the establishment of this plant in HEC campus, Ranchi, dairy was
located Hotwar farm area Ranchi. This plant has taken over the Ranchi dairy on June 1984 by
State Co-operative Milk producer Federation Ltd. (COMFED), Patna. The capacity of this dairy
plant was only 8,000 liters per day.



The present chapter is devoted to review of related literature, for this an attempt in this
section has been made to review the available and relevant literature pertainting to the study.

Rathore (2006) in his study entitled “Dairy industry and it‟s by product” found the Dairy
Industries on one end producing value added Dairy Products and at the same time the by
products of Dairy Industries can also be used in number of ways for human beings. The Dairy
Business is quite profitable, if an integrated approach for utilization of main products and by
products is attempted. This not only supplies nutritional Dairy Products but at the same time
more earning to entrepreneurs.

Mathur and Mujumdar (2008) today, only about 15 percent of the milk produced in India are
processed. It has been shown that increased consumption of processed food led by, investment in
processing results in better remuneration to farmer. Presently only 12-14 percent of the milk
market is represented by packaged and branded pasteurized milk. Important sub sectors in food
processing, fish processing, milk processing meat & poultry processing, packaged/convenience
foods, alcoholic beverages soft drinks and grain processing etc.

Santos and Barbano (2006) in his study stated that the influence of raw milk SCC (Somatic
Cell Count) on pasteurized fluid milk quality is caused by increasing levels of heat-stable
proteases and lipases originating from the cow with increasing milk SCC. A row milk SCC of
100, 000 cell/Ml should be achievable at the farm level with appropriate financial incentives for
producers. High-quality, low - SCC row milk is a critical part of producing HTST milk with a
shelf life of 30 to 90 day.

Von bockelmann and Von bockelmann (1986) in his study “Aseptic packaging of liquid food
products” implies three different steps sterilization of the packaging material food contact
surface, creating and maintaining a sterile surrounding in the area where the sterilized product
and the sterilized packaging material/package are brought together, production of containers that
are tight enough to prevent entry of spoilage organisms. As far flexible and semi rigid packaging
materials are concerned, the following systems have entered the market of aseptic filling pouches
or bags, prefabricated cups, from fill seal cups from roll- stock material, plastic bottles,
prefabricated, paper- based laminated cartons, cartons produced from roll- stock material of
paper- based laminates.

Kansal (2006) in his study “Nutritional Qualities of Milk” examined that milk is a rich source of
all Vitamins, especially Vitamin A, Riboflavin and Vitamin B 12. Milk is a richest natural source
of calcium in the best available from. Milk contains. Several extra -nutritional constituents such
as conjugated linoleic acid spingomylins, butyric acid, myristic acid, and β-carotenes, which
protect against cancer, cardiovascular diseases enteric infection and diabetes, besides, having
immunomodulatory and slimming effect. Mother‟s milk contain large amount of several
antimicrobial substances such as immunoglobulin‟s, lactoferrin, lysozyme, lacto peroxides and
vitamin B12 binding protein that protect infants against enteric infection. Milk contains serum
cholesterol lowering factors. Lactic acid produced from milk sugar, lactose, inhibits the growth
of proteolytic and putrefying bacteria in the large intestine. There is no scientific base for
implicating milk cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers etc, and all such concerns are

Kumar and Baskarn (2006) prepared “strategies for development of dairy food parks” by
established such dairy food parks, we intend to improve the livelihood of the farmers through
cost effective pricing of milk, provision of employment opportunities and availability of milk
products at village level, there by the milk produced in large quantities at villages, will be
properly utilized without spoilage.


4.0 Research Methodology

Products test for simple random technique
4.1 Moisture & Total Solid Test for paneer

 Wt. of aluminium dish - (A) 14.25gm

 Wt. of aluminium dish + Sample - (B) 24.25gm

 Wt. of Sample taken - 10gm

 The sample in the aluminiumdish is kept in the hot air oven maintained at temp
100 +/-° C for 2 hours.

 Wt. of sample after cooling - ( C) 5.1gm

Wt. of dried paneer
% T.S = ----------------------------- × 100
Wt. of sample taken
= ---------- × 100 = 51% moisture = 100 –T.S 100 - 51= 49

4.2 Fat Test of Paneer

 Chop the paneer

 Pour 10 ml of Gerber acid in butyrometer

 Transfer weighed amount into the butyrometer

 Add 1 ml of amyl alcohol and close it with lock stopper

 Mix properly

 Centrifugal it for 3.4 minutes

 Butyrometer reading = 4.0

B.R × 11.25
% Fat = -------------------
Wt. of sample Where, B.R (butyrometer reading)

Result: - Fat percentage in paneer = 26.47%

4.3 Moisture Test of Peda
A) Moisture content of peda

 Weight of aluminum dish = 14.4gm

 Weight of sample taken = 10gm

 Aluminum disk with sample are kept in hat air oven & maintained by
temperature 100 ± 2° for 2 hour.

 Weight of sample taken after cooling = 8.4

Wt. of dried peda

% T.S = ----------------------- × 100
Wt. of sample taken

= ----------- × 100 = 84%

% Moisture = 100 - % T.S 100 – 84 =16

Result: - The T.S present in peda is 84% & moisture contain is 16%.

4.4 Fat Test for Peda

 Take sample of peda &chop it.

 Weight of chopped peda in a Aluminium dish

 Take 10 ml of gerber acid in milk butyrometer

 Weight of chopped peda transferred in butyrometer is1 gm.

 Net weight of peda transferred = 1gm

 Add 1ml of Amyl alcohol in butyrometer

 Lock with stopper and mix it properly

 Centrifugal it for 3-4 minutes

 Butyrometer reading( B.R) = 1.7

B.R × 11.25
% of fat = ---------------------------
Wt. of chopped peda taken in butyrometer

Result: - Fat percent in peda is 19.12%

4.5 Moisture test of misthi dahi
T.S & Moisture content of Mishti Dahi

 Weight of aluminium dish lid = 15gm.

 Weight of sample taken = 10gm

 Aluminium dish with sample are kept in hot air oven & maintained the
temp.100 °C for 2 hour

 After cooling weight of dried sample = 3.15gm

Wt. of dried mishti dahi

% T.S = --------------------------- × 100
Wt. of sample take

= ---------------- × 100 = 31.5%

% Moisture = 100 - % T.S = 100 – 31.5% 68.5%

Result: - The T.S present in mishti doi is 31.5% & moisture present in Misthi dahi is 68.5%

4.6 Fat test for mishti dahi

 Take small quantity of sample & mix it thoroughly in 50ml beaker

 Wt. of beaker = 30gm

 Wt. of beaker & sample = 38.6gm

 Take 10 ml of Gerber acid in butyrometer

 Wt. of sample transferred in butyrometer in approx 3gm

 Wt. of rest amount of sample & beaker = 34.8gm

 Net weight & sample transferred 38.6 – 34.8 = 3.8gm

 Add 1ml of Amyl alcohol in butyrometer

 Close it with lock stopper & mix it properly

 Centrifugal it for 3 - 4 minutes

 B.R = 1.4

B.R × 11.25
% Fat in Mishti Dahi = -----------------------------
Wt. of Mishti Dahi transferred in butyrometer

1.4 × 11.25
= ------------------------- = 4.14%

Result: - Fat present in Mishti Dahi was 4.14%

4.7 Acidity test of mishti dahi

 Weight of sample of Mishti Dahi taken in dry & clean beaker = 10gm

 Make solution of the sample by 10 ml distilled water

 Titrate till the colour of sample turn to slightly pink

 Reading of burette i.e. NaO H consumed =10 ml

 Acidity of Mishti Dahi = Vol. of (N) NaOH consumed

Calculation: - Acidity = 0.9× 0.9 = 0.81%

Result: - Acidity of Mishti Dahi = 0.81%

4.8 Test of Sudha Special

Moisture and solid test of Sudha Special

 Weight of Aluminium dish =14gm

 Wt. of sample taken = 10gm

 Aluminium dish with sample taken are kept in hot air oven and maintained the
temperature 100 ± 1°C for 2 hours. After 2 hours cool the Aluminium dish and
sample in desieator.

 After cooling weight of dried sample = 6.4gm

Wt. of dried sample
% of T.S = --------------------------- × 100
Wt. of sample taken

= ------------ × 100 = 64%

% of moisture = 100 - T.S = 100 – 64 = 36 %

Result: - The total solid percent in Sudha Special = 64% and T.S is 36%

4.9 Fat test of Sudha Special

 Mix sample of sudha special properly

 Weight of sample taken in 50 ml of beaker

 Take 10ml of Gerber acid in butyrometer =2gm

 Add 1 ml of Amyl alcohol in butyrometer

 Lock with stopper and mix it properly

 Centrifugal it for 3-4 minutes

 BR = 1.7

Calculation: -

BR × 11.25
% of fats = -----------------------
Wt. of sample taken
1.7 × 11.25
= -------------- = 9.5

Result: - Fat percentage in Sudha Special is 9.56%

4.10 Test for fitness curd

Fat test for fitness curd
 Mix the fitness curd sample properly

 Weight of sample taken in 50 ml beaker is 4gm

 Take 10 ml of Gerber acid in butyrometer

 Wt. of the sample of fitness curd transferred in butyrometer is 2.2gm
 Add 1 ml of amylalcohol in butyrometer

 Cock with stopper and mix it properly

 Centrifugal it for 3- 4 minutes

 BR- 0.05

Calculation: -
BR × 11.25
% of fat = -----------------
Wt. of sample taken in butyrometer

Result: - Fat percent in fitness curd is 0.25 %

4.11 Acidity test for fitness curd

 Weight of sample of fitness curd taken in clean and dry beaker = 10 gm

 Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator

 Take solution of N/1 NaOH in burette

 Titrate with N/NaOH

 Titrate till the color of sample of fitness curd changes to slightly pink

 NaOH consumed = 1.2

Acidity = Volume of N/1 NaOH consumed × 0.9

= 1.2 × 0.9 = 1.08%

Result: - Acidity of fitness curd is 1.08 %

4.12 Moisture test for fitness curd

 Wt. of aluminium dish (A) = 13.49 gm

 Wt. of aluminium dish + fitness curd ( B ) = 23.49gm

 Wt. of sample taken = 10 g

 Aluminium dish with sample are kept in hot air oven & maintained the
temp.100 °C for 2 hour

 After cooling weight of dried sample ( C) =15.00gm

 Wt. of moisture in fitness curd ( B- C) = 23.49 -15.00 gm = 8.49gm

% of moisture in fitness curd (B - C)
= -------------- × 100 = 84.9% gm
(B- A)
Result: T.S = 100-84.9% gm = 15.1% gm

4.13 Moisture test for mango lassie
1. Wt. of Aluminium dish = 14.2gm

2. Aluminium dish with sample taken are kept in hot air oven and maintained the temperature
100 ± 1°C for 2 hrs. After 2 hrs. Cool the Aluminium dish and sample in desieator

3. After colling wt. of dried sample = 1.8 gm


Wt. of dried sample

% of T.S = ---------------------------- × 100
Wt. of sample taken

= -------------- × 100 = 18%

Moisture: - 100 –T.S% = 100 – 18 = 82 %

Result: - The T.S of lassie is 18% and Moisture is 82%

4.14 Acidity test of Mango Lassie

 Wt. of sample of lassie taken in dry and clean beaker = 10 gm

 Add 10 ml of distilled water to make solution of sample

 Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator

 Titrate with ( N) NaOH

 NaOH consumed = 0.6


Acidity = Vol. of N/NaOH consumed × 0.9

= 0.6 × 0.9

= 0.54 %
Result: - Acidity of Mango Lassie is = 0.54 %


It was observed that Ranchi Dairy has an area of 6 hectares. It is divided into 6
sections Plant processing section, i.e. Marketing section, Account section, Quality control
section, engineering section, and Store section.

5.1 Hierarchy of the organizational man power

Manager is supreme authority assisted by four Deputy Managers, eight
Supervisors, ten technicians, and one hundred forty five workers. The milk and the milk
products being marketed by COMFED have been done through the trade name

5.2 Electric and water facilities

The main source of water for unit is Public Health and Electric Department (PHED) water
supply. Water is pumped from the intake pump house to the storage inside the plant through
pipeline. The storage capacity is 2, 00,000 litres.

 Electricity dependency is on
• External sources
• Generator facility

5.3 Technical features

The Ranchi Dairy plant capacity is 80,000 litres of milk per day. This plant has been
installed with modern machines and equipment. The technical features of plant facilities in unit
are as follows:-

Table no. 1: Technical features of plant facilities

Serial No. Plant facility Capacity Quantity

1 Plate chiller 20,0000 lt./h 1

2 Pasteurizers 10,000 lt./h 2

3 Milk Separator 10,000 lt/h 2

4 Homogenizer 10,000 lt/h 1

5 Refrigeration Compressor 40 TR/h 3

6 Booster (defreeze 10 TR/h 2

7 Boiler capacity 1.5 T/h 2

8 Packing machine 1000 - 15000lt. 5


9 Paneer vat 500 lt. 2

10 Mango lassie packing 1200 - 1800 pkd./h 1


11 Milk Silo Tank 1,40000 lt. 6

Altogether eleven types of technical features/facilities were observed during the study.

5.4 Sources of milk collection Milk

Milk for Ranchi Dairy are collected from various route in Ranchi, road tanker from other States
i.e. Barauni Dairy, Bhagalpur Dairy, Samastipur Dairy, Ara Dairy, within the local city areas and
other unions. And according to it dairy providing them charges.



5.4 A. Local Collections

Route: - Bero
Society: 1) Harhi

2) Masu

3) S.T.G.S
4) Mohegan

5) Treo

Route: - Pithoria
Society: 1) Hesalpiri

2) Turmuli

3) Bagda

4) Gesway

5) Urguttu
6) Meri

7) Manatu
8) Lowgada

Route: Meshra
Society: 1) Chutu

2) Meshra

3) Chetanbari
4) Khatanga

5) Badgari

Route: Mandar
Society: 1) Soba

2) Korabar

3) Barbary
4) Kharkutola

5) Daria

Route: Hocher
Society: 1) Hocher
2) Ekamba

3) Purnadih
4) Sangrampur
Route: Within city (Local)

Society: 1) Dahtola

2) Hatia

3) Gulamtoli

4) Kutee

5.4 B Through road tanker

1. Shahabad Milk Union (Ara dairy)

2. Barauni dairy
3. Mithila Milk Union (Samastipur dairy)

4. Bhagalpur dairy

5.4 C. Other Unions

1. Lohardagga Milk Union

2. Hazaribagh dairy

5.4 D Through road tanker from other states

1. Ahmednagar dairy

2. Bhubaneswar dairy

5.5 Raw - milk tank
Raw milk tank -The quality control takes the sample of milk for testing and sampling. Milk is
graded in to three categories i.e. “A”, “B”, “C”, then after milk which is stored in raw – milk
tank goes for the next process.

Fig. 2. Raw - milk tank

5.6 Silo – milk tank

Silo milk tank – After the completion of all the process, the milk is ready to be packed for
manufacturing, that milk is stored for the time – being in Silo. The capacity of this silo – milk
tank was only1, 40 000 liters.

Fig. 3. Silo – milk tank

5.7 Pasteurization
The process of pasteurization was named after Louis Pasteur who discovered that
spoilage organization could be inactivated in wine by applying heat at temperature bellow its
boiling point. The process was later applied to milk and remains the most important operation in
the processing of milk. Pasteurization is the process through which milk is treated at the
temperature of 80˚c ± 2˚c and it is done for destroying all pathogens and 99 % of non- pathogens
present on each and every ml. of milk.

The heating of every particle of milk or milk product to a specific temperature for a
specified period of time without allowing recontamination of that milk or milk product during
the heat treatment process.

Purpose - There are two distinct purposes for the process of milk pasteurization .
Public Health Aspect - To make milk and milk products safe for human consumption by
destroying all bacteria that may be harmful to health (pathogens)

Keeping Quality Aspect - To improve the keeping quality of milk and milk products.
Pasteurization can destroy some undesirable enzymes and many spoilage bacteria. Shelf life ca n
be 7, 10, 14, or up to 16 days.

The extent of micro- organism inactivation depends on the combination of temperature and
holding time. Minimum temperature and time requirements for milk pasteurization are based on
thermal death time study for the most heat resistant pathogen found in milk, Coxelliae Burnet.
Thermal lethality determinations require the applications of microbiology to appropriate
processing determinations. An overview can be found here:
To ensure destruction of all pathogenic microorganisms, time and temperature
combinations of the pasteurization process are highly regulated.

Pasteurization Regulations -
Milk: - 63°C for less than 30 minutes.
72° C for less than 15 seconds.

Fig. 4. Pasteurization

Methods of Pasteurization:-
There are two basic methods i.e. batch and continuous.

Batch methods: -
The batch method uses a vat pasteurizer which consists of a jacketed vat surrounded by either
circulating water, steam or heating coils of water or steam.

Continuous Method: -
Continuous process method has several advantages over the vat method. The most important
being time and energy saving, for most continuous processing, high temperature short time
(HTST) pasteurization is used. The heat treatment is accomplished using a plate heat exchanger.
This piece of equipment consists a stack of corrugated stainless steel plate clamped together in a
frame. There are several flow patterns that can be used. Gaskets are used to define the boundaries
of the channels and to prevent leakage. The heating medium can be vacuum steam or hot water.

5.8 Chiller
Chilling – Chilling is started after sampling that is only cold – treatment of milk which is done
with the help of running cold water.

Fig. 5. Chiller

5.9 Homogenization
Homogenization is the process to break down less digestible larger fat globules to smaller and
easily digestible one.

Fig. 6. Homogenization

5.10 Packaging - Machine
Packaging – Machine – From the Silo tank the milk comes to the packaging machine where the
milk is filled in packets of one liter and half liter respectively.

Fig. 7. Packaging - Machine

5.11 Cold - storage

Cold storage – The milk packets are stored in the cold storage having temperature – 4˚c to 6˚c
till it is dispatched to the retailers. Its capacity is 80,000 liters/day.

Fig. 8. Cold Storage

Process of preparation of various Ranchi Dairy products.

5.12 Milk
Milk is one of the important items of Ranchi Dairy.

“Milk a complete food"

Milk is defined as the fluid secreted by the female for nourishment of their young ones.
For a dairyman milk is defined by the prevention of the Food Adulteration Act as “Milk may be
defined as the whole, fresh, clean, lacteal secretion obtained by complete milking of one or more
healthy milk animals excluding that obtained within 15 days before or 5 days after calving or
such periods as may be necessary to render the milk practically colostrums - free and containing
the minimum prescribed percentage of milk fat and milk solid non - fat. In India the term „milk‟
when unqualified, renders to cow or buffalo milk or a combination of the two.

Composition of milk
Milk is complex substance processing a number of physical and chemical properties. The
chemical compounds in milk include water, fat, nitrogenous compounds, sugar, vitamins,
mineral maters and other minor constituents in varying proportion. For details of constituents
and composition of different species, reference table s as follows:-

Table no. 2: Composition of milk of different species

SL. No. Species Fat Proteins Lactose Ash Total Solids Water

1. Cow 4.9 3.4 4.6 0.74 13.64 86.36

2. Buffalo 7.3 3.8 4.9 0.78 16.78 83.22

3. Goat 4.0 3.7 4.5 0.85 13.05 86.95

4. Sheep 6.2 5.2 4.7 0.90 17.00 83.00

5. Camel 3.0 3.9 5.4 0.74 13.04 -

6. Human 3.5 2.0 6.8 0.30 12.60 -

Ranchi Dairy at present supplies, composition wise two different types of milk. The following
are fat% and SNF% (solid not fat) of the two types of Milk:-

Toned milk 3.0% and 8.5% solid non fat, Standard milk 4.5% fat and 8.5% solid non fat.

Toned milk contain/Liter

Fat ------------------ 30.0gm

Protein ------------------ 36.0gm
Lactose ------------------ 48.0gm
Potassium ------------------ 16.0gm
Calcium ----------------- 1350mg
Zinc ----------------- 4.6 gm
Iodine ----------------- 17.5gm
Sodium ----------------- 600mg
Phosphorous ----------------- 1100mg
Vitamin-A ----------------- 270mg
Vitamin-B6 ---------------- 0.70mg
Vitamin-B12 ---------------- 7.0 mg

Price of Sudha milk and milk products are shown in table no.3

Table no. 3: Prices of different milk products are as follows


1 Toned Milk Lt. 24
2 Standard Milk Lt. 26
3 Fitness Curd 1kg 65
4 Ghee 1Kg 240
5 Mango lassie 200ml 10
6 Peda (250 gm) 1kg 168
7 Missti Dahi 100gm 07
8 Paneer 1kg 155
9 Butter Table 1kg 220
10 Sudha special 100gm 08
11 Flavor milk 200ml 13

Constituents of Milk


Solid Non
Fat Water Fat

Lactose proteins Phosphate Minor
True Associated & other citrates of Na, Constituent
Fats Substances Nitrogenous Ca, Mg, Cu,
products Fe, I, etc
Lecithin Dissolved Gases


Casein Whey Proteins
Vitamins- B, B12&C
Vitamins A,
D, K&E


Production of mango lassie

Standardized milk (fat - 4.6 +/- 0.2%, snf - 8.6 +/- 0.2%) in storage tank

Heating to 82 +/- 5°c for 15 - 20 minutes

Mother culture cooling to room temp Sugar syrup
↓ ↓ ↓
Prepared culture → Inoculation of culture @ 1-2% heating to 82+/-5°C for

Breaking of curd at acidity 0.4 - 0.6% - L.A cooled down to 55° C

Additions of sugar@20-25% of milk volume ← Filtration

Additions of pasteurized chilled water

Additions of mango flavor @ 0.6 ml/per lt. of milk

Additions of mango pulp 16 %

Addition of colour







Total solids not less than 15%
Fat not less than 2.0%
Acidity not more than 0.85%
It has shelf life of 7days under refrigerated conditions

5.14 Production of pasteurized milk

Unloading of cans and tankers

Inspection → sampling and testing


Dumping, straining and pumping


Raw milk storage tank ← Reconstitution of SMP/WMP and chilling

Recombination → Pasteurization → Clarification
(78+/-2°C for 15 seconds)

Outlet < 6°C

Cooling of milk to < 6°c

Pasteurized milk storage tank

Market milk storage tank → sampling and testing

Pouch machine balance tank

Pouch filling


Cold storage → sampling and testing

Dispatch → sampling and testing

Distribution → consumption

Standard of pasteurized milk:-

Items Fat % SNF %
Standard milk - 4.5 % 8.5 %
Toned milk - 3.0 % 8.5 %

5.15 Production of paneer
Standardized milk (fat- 4.6%, snf- 8.7%)

Heating up to 80+/-2°C

And cooling to75°C

Coagulation with 1- 2% citric acid solution

Collection of solid mass in hoops ← cleaned hoops

Pressuring under 5 - 6 kg/ for 10 mins

Pasteurized chilled water → cooling for 30 mins


Transfer to cutting table and slicing


Transfer to cold store

Storage (8° C or below)

Fat not less than 50% of dry matter
Moisture not more than 70%
It has shelf life of 10 days under refrigeration.

5.16 Production of Peda

Standardized milk (13% T.S. minimum)

Heating up to 48 -52% T.S

Preparation of khoa by constant stirring

Addition of sugar @50% of milk T.S

Working of Khoa by constant stirring

Making peda mass

Peda shaping machine

Drying peda at ambient room temp.

Packing materials → packing in 250 gm and 100 gm packs

Storage at room temp.



Total solids should not be less than 80%
Fat should not less than 14%
It has shelf life of 17 days at room temp.

5.17 Production of Sudha Special
Standardized milk

Boiling for 25 -30 minutes.

Sprinkling of citric acid solution with brisk stirring

Addition of sugar, corn flour, coconut powder

Addition of colour

Making Sudha Special mass

Cooling Sudha special mass below 40°C

Cup filling and sealing

Transfer to cold store for storage below 10°C



Total solids should not less than 40%
Fat should not less than 6.0%
It has shelf life of 7 days under refrigerated conditions.

5.18 Production of dahi fitness curd and mishti dahi
Pasteurized Milk

SMP/WMP→ Standardization and Homogenization of milk ← Sugar in Misti doi

Heating milk

Culture 1-2% → Cooling to39 +/-°C inoculate and mix

Filling dahi cups

Place in tray and transfer to incubators maintained at 39 +/-2°C

Transfer trays to cold storage maintained at <10°C

Fixing lids or sealing


Storage at < 10°C



Fat %( min.) SNF % (min.) Sugar % (min.)
Fitness curd - 0.05 13.5 Nil
Mishti doi - 4.5 13.5 18.0

Acidity % should be less than or equal to 12% L.A. for both.

They have a shelf life of 5 days if stored under hygienic refrigeration condition at 4°C.

5.19 Marketing
Ranchi Dairy fulfills the demand of milk for a large part of Ranchi. Data of sales are
collected from the areas Ashok Nager, Pandra ,ITI, Piska More, Upper Bazaar, Firayalal, Ratu
road ,The data of sales collected are following:-

Table no. 4: Area wise sale

SL.No. Area Sales (in liters)

1. Ashok Nagar 1425

2. Pandra 1280

3. ITI 320

4. Piska More 1240

5. Upper Bazaar 1417

6. Firayalal 435

7. Ratu road 3450

The management should take into consideration the 4p‟s of Marketing mix that are Product,
Price, Place, Promotion.

1. Product - Product is something that can be offered to the market to satisfy the need or
the want of the customers.
2. Price - It is the cost that customer is willing to bear for the product. Marketers need to be
very careful while deciding the price of the product.

3. Place - It involves decisions concerning with distribution channels to be used the location
of the outlets methods of transportation and the inventory used for the product promotion.

4. Promotion - Decision have to be made with respect to promotional mix (advertising,

personal sale, sale promotion etc.) by these means the target audience is made aware of
the existence of the product and the benefit that the costumers will receive from the

The milk market is dominated by a large number of small local milk farmers
known as “Khatal” milk. There are more than 200 local unorganized Khatals in Ranchi
Town. There are 5 other competitors of Sudha present in the market namely Shyam,
Nand, Megha, Dairy Fresh, and Mother Dairy. They act as a substitute of Sudha. Mother
Dairy is providing tough competition to Sudha in terms of quality.
Distribution Circle
Sudha Distributors Retailers


Sudha distribution chain typically consists of the direct or one level channel. It has its own out
lets, which is provided by the District Development Board in the important places, sudha has
acquired those outlets to the retailers. Again the areas where the out let of the sudha is not
present, It distributes is milk for sale is through mini buses and jeeps which make the product
available to them on the prespecified time and takes the order from the retailers for the next

Retail outlet -
They not only provide efficient sales channel but also provided safe storage. Sales for
the unit takes place the retailers take possession of the goods. The unit doesn‟t provide any
replacement policy so its increase cash circulation and also make calculation overall sales easy.
The outlet must be equipped with the freezing facility.

Convenience store -
It the retailer outlet is not available with in the 1km, range then the distribution is
performed by the convenience store .The retailing authority is given to those store, which have
the freezing facilities

5.20 Commission paid to the retailers selling other brands of milk

In was revealed the study that the commission paid to the retailers selling other brands
of milk i.e., the competitors of Sudha namely Megha, Nand, Mother Dairy Fresh, and Shyam is
much more than the retailers selling Sudha. The commission paid to them is presented in
following table-

Table no. 5: Commission paid to retailers as per brand name

SL. No. Brand Name Commission Paid

1. Meghan Rs. 0.90

2. Nand Rs.1.50

3. Mother dairy Rs.1.00

4. Dairy fresh Rs.1.40

5. Shyam Rs.1.50

C. Quality control
Quality control includes a wide range of and scope of activities to be carried out
regularly. The ultimate task of quality control is to provide the plant management and persons
responsible for quality with information of fulfillment of previously defined quality critical and
standards at every stage of process as early as possible. Early warning about failures and inability
to meet quality standards at any stage of processing helps correct the situation in time and
decreases losses caused by irrelevant quality of the end product.

The planning and establishment of quality control for a milk plant includes the following: -
1. Organization and staffing of the quality control activity within the dairy plant.
2. Training the quality control personnel.

Definition of quality standards takes into account also the legal requirements for raw
materials, ingredients, packaging materials, processing line and equipment, end products,
storage, handling during distribution etc. Laboratory and methods for testing and analyzing for
the quality parameters includes organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological methods-
sampling methods and schedules.

The laboratory should be able to control the following:

 Row milk quality during collection and at reception.

 Various quality aspects related to processing.

 Quality of finished milk products.

 Quality of milk products during storage/distribution.

 Cleanliness and hygiene at the milk processing plant.

5.21 Detection of adulterant in milk

1. Nitrate Fertilizer/ pond water Detection

Procedure Result

Take 1ml of milk. Then add 1ml Nitrate Blue Ring at the junction gives the positive test
Reagent along the side of tube. means that pond water added to milk.

2. Urea Detection

Procedure Result

Take 2ml of milk .Then add 2ml Urea Reagent Distinct yellow Colour formed. Urea has been
into it and mix well. added to milk.

3. Ammonia Fertilizer Detection

Procedure Result

Take1ml of milk .Then add 2ml Ammonia Brownish colour formed. Ammonia Fertilizer
Reagent and mix well. has been added to milk.

4. Starch and cereal Flours Detection

Procedure Result

First boil 5ml of well mixed milk. Then cool it Blue colour formed. Starch and cereal flours
and add few drops of starch Reagent into it. has been added to milk.

5. Sugar Detection

Procedure Result

Take 1ml milk. Then add 1ml Sugar Reagent Red colour formed .Sugar/ Sucrose has been
and place it in boiling water for 3-5 minutes. added to milk.

6. Glucose Detection

Procedure Result

Take 1ml milk. Then add 1ml Dextrose Deep Blue colour formed .Glucose has been
Reagent 1 and place it in boiling water for 3 added to milk.
minutes. Then cool it and 1 ml Dextrose
Reagent 2.

Detection of adulterant in milk
7. Salt detection

Procedure Result

Take 5ml salt Reagent -1 and add few drops Yellow colour formed. Salt has been added to
salt Reagent 2 red colour will develops .Then milk.
add 1ml milk and mix it well.

8. Neutralizers Detection

Procedure Result

Take 5 ml of milk and add 5 ml Neutralizers Rose Red/ pink colour formed. Neutralizer has
Reagent 1 .Then add few drops of Neutralizer been added to milk.
Reagent 2 and mix well.

9. Hydrogen peroxide Detection

Procedure Result
Take 1 ml of milk .Then add few drops of Development of Pink/Red colour indicates the
Hydrogen Peroxide Reagent into it and mix presence of Hydrogen Peroxide in milk.

10. Formalin Detection

Procedure Result
Take 10 ml of milk. Then add 5 ml Formalin Development of deep Purple/Violet ring at the
Reagent along the sides of the tube. junction indicates that Formalin added in milk.

5.22 Bacteriological analysis of milk

Bacteriological analysis of milk is intended to obtain information regarding:-
1. The degree and type of bacterial contamination in milk.

2. The physical and chemical changes produced in milk due to bacterial growth. Such
information is useful for a variety of purpose e.g. Market milk control and grading,
improvement of farm and dairy sanitation practices for production of safe milk, screening
of milk supplies for their suitability for processing or manufacture of milk products and
detection of disease producing bacteria in milk.

The sampling procedure differs according to the purpose for which the sampling is
collected and the tests which are to be carried out. Samples should truly be representative of

Since milk fat is of lower density than the other milk constituents, it tends to rise to the
surfaces. Thorough mixing of milk is essential to ensure a 26.5 - 29.5° C and agitation around
this temperature should be avoided. The sample is preserved with formalin or potassium
dichromate solution. From a single container: - It Involves mixing and then immediate sampling.
Mixing can be done either by using a plunger, which can be moved up and down in the milk
about 10 times. If it is small container it should be poured from one vessel to another. Care
should be taken to avoid fat separation.

From storage tanks and road milk tankers: - Mix the milk thoroughly using a large plunger or by
bubbling compressed air (aeration). Insert the plunger through the manhole move it downwards,
backwards and each time bring it the surface. Transfer 100 - 250 ml of the mixed milk with a
suitable dipper to the sample bottle.

5.23 The bacteriological tests carried out in Ranchi dairy quality control
1) Rapid plat from tests
A number of tests based on the rapid assessment of the changes brought about in milk as
a result of bacterial growth are performed. These tests are generally used for screening of
milk supplies on the receiving platform they are:-

A) Organoleptic Test: - judging the milk organolepticcaly by its flavor and odour
requires considerable skill which can be acquired only by practice. An experienced
person can pick out a bad sample of milk merely by tasting or smelling it with a fair
amount of accuracy.

B) Clot- on- boiling Test (COB): - This test is based on the observation that milk
samples having high - developed acidity due to bacterial growth are coagulated when
heated to boiling temperature. Milk acidity (lactic acid %) usually ranges from 0.126 to
0.144%. If acidity exceeds 0.153% the milk coagulates. Milk sample that coagulates
on heating are thus considered to have a high microbial load and hence are considered
to have reached the end point of keeping quality.

C) Alcohol Test
The stability of milk to alcohol is considerably affected by:

o Developed acidity as a result of bacterial growth

o Disturbance in normal salt balance

o Abnormal chemical composition (e.g. colostrums, late lactation and

mastitis milk).

The quality of milk is judged on the basis of formation of flakes and cots also the
colour of the mixture. Presence of flakes or clots indicates poor heat stability and
unsatisfactory quality of milk.

5.24 MBRT Test (Methylene Blue Reduction Test)

This test was employed by Barthel and Orla - Jensen in 1900. The majority of
organisms in milk are capable of altering the oxidation potential of the liquid. This
change in red ox potential is indicated by Methylene blue which is blue in colour in
oxidizing environment, and becomes colorless under reduced conditions. The rate at
which the colour changes take place varies considerably. This is related to the species
of organisms present, their rate of growth and their activity at any one temperature.
The greater the number of organisms in a given quantity of milk and the greater their
activity the shorter the time required for the dry to be reduced.

 A thermostatically controlled water bath maintained at 37- 38° C. It is referred to
as a surgical box.

 Sterile screw capped test tubes possessing an etched marked at 10 ml level.

 Sterile pipettes

 Sample

 Methylene blue

Preparation of methylene blue solution: - A standard methylene blue tablet is

dissolved in 200 ml of sterile distilled water. It is mixed well. It is diluted to 800 ml mark using
sterile distilled water. The stock solution can be kept in the refrigerator for one month.

1. The sample is aseptically added to the sterile screw capped test tube with
the help of sterile pipettes up to the 10 ml mark.
2. 1ml the dye is added aseptically.

3. The test tube is capped and the contents are cyclomixed.The tubes are kept
in the surgical box.

4. Controls are also kept for each sample. In the controls 1 ml of sterile
distilled water is added instead of the dye.
The tubes are inspected at intervals of 30 minutes. The sample is considered decolorized if the
blue colour disappears up to 5 mm from top.

The longer the time for methylene blue reduction the better is the quality of the milk. ISD
Standards of MBRT test is shown in the following table-

Table no. 6: ISD Standards of MBRT Test

SL. No. MBRT Time Quality of milk

1. 8 Hours and above Very good

2. 8 Hours not less 6 Hours Good

3 6 Hours not less 2 Hours Fair

4. Below 2hours Poor

Phosphates Test
Principle: - Micro - organisms produce an enzyme phosphate which decolorizes the dye
disodium paranitropheny phosphatase.Thus more the microbial load more will be the
decolourisation. This test is done to check the efficiency of pasteurization.

1. 3.5 gm of Sodium carbonate, 1.5 gm of Sodium bi carbonate in 1 liter of distilled water-
solution A.
2. Disodium paranitropheny phosphate.

1.) 100 ml of solution A is added to 0.15g of Disodium paranitrophenyl phosphate.
2.) 5 ml of the above solution mixed with 1ml of milk. Mix well and keep it in a water
bath at 37° C. Keep for 30 minutes.

If there is a color change after 30 minutes the milk is not pasteurized properly.

5.25 Standard plate count method
Various dilution of the sample is prepared and pour plate technique is carried out. Plates
containing 30 to 300 colonies are counted. The colonies multiplied by dilution factor given the
number of colony forming units (CFU) per ml of bacterial population in the sample.

1. Sterile Petri plates and pipettes.

2. Sterile diluents blank.

3. Sterile medium, the medium used in Ranchi Dairy is Dehydrated Nutrient media.

4. Agar media from HI-Media M001.

Table no. 7: Agar media from HI-Media M001 (food)

SL. No. Ingredients Grams/Liter

1. Peptic digest of animal 5.00

2. Sodium chloride 5.00

3. Beef extract 1.50

4. Agar 15.0

p.H (at 25°c) 7.0 ± 0.2

Plate count agar 17.5 Gms of powder is suspended in 1000 ml distilled water, heat to boiling to
dissolve the medium completely. Sterilize by autoclaving at 15 lbs pressure (121°c) for minutes.

1. 1 ml of each dilution usually (1/10 & 1/1000) is transferred to the petriplates in

2. About 10 ml of molten media is added to each plate and plates are swired. On
solidification the plates are kept for incubation at 37°c for 24 hours.

After incubation for 24 - 72 hours the plate are checked for the presence of pink colored
colonies. The presence of colifroms indicates faucal contamination. ISD Standards for SPC of
Raw milk is shown in the following table:

Table no. 8: ISD Standards for SPC of Raw milk.

SL. No. SPC Per Colony Grade

1. Not exceeding 200,000 Very good

2. 2,00 000 - 10, 00000 Good

3. 10,00 000 - 50.00 000 Fair

4. More Than 50,00 000 Poor

5.26 Detection of colifroms

Mac Conkey‟s agar is both selective and differential for growing coliforms.The bile salt present
in the medium inhibits the growth of gram-positive bacteria. The coliform grow and change and
the coliform colonies appear pink in color.

1. Sterile petriplates and pipettes.

2. Sterile dilute, blanks.

3. Sample milk and all the milk products.

4. Molten sterile medium. The medium is prepared from dehydrated powder. Ingredient of
Manconkey Agar (food) is shown in the following table-

Table no. 9: Ingredients in Manconkey Agar (food)

Serial No. Ingredients Grams/Liter

1. Peptic digest of animal tissue 17.0

2. Protease peptone 3.0

3. Lactose 10.0

4. Bile salts 1.50

5. Sodium chloride 5.0

6. Neutral red 0.03

7. Agar 15.0

p.H-7.1 ± 0.2

51.53 grams of powder in 1000 ml distilled water and boiled to dissolve the medium completely.
Sterilize by autoclaving at 15 lbs pressure (121°c) for 15 minutes mixed well before pouring.

1. 1ml of each dilution usually (1/10 & 1/100) is transferred to the petriplates in triplicates.

2. About 10ml of molten media is added to each plate and plates are swirled. Solidification
the plates are kept for incubation at 37° C for 24 hours.

After incubation for 16 - 24 hours the plate are checked for the presence of pink colored
colonies. The presence of colifroms indicates faucal contamination. (No. of colonies Nil)

5.27 Detection of yeast and moulds

Yeast and mould grow in high sugar containing medium. Thus the quality control of lassie, sweet
curd, butter and peda includes this test. The apparatus required and procedure followed remains
the same as above mentioned test, the only difference being in the medium used from. Potato
dextrose agar from HI-MEDIA is used MO96 .

Table no. 10 Ingredients of yeast and moulds

SL. No. Ingredients Grams/liter

1. Potato infusion 200.0

2. Dextrose 20.0

3. Agar 15.0


39 g of the powder is added to 1000 ml of distilled water, boiled to dissolve completely and
autoclaved. The plants are incubated at 20°C for 72 hours and the plates are examined for yeast
and mould.

Introduce molten Mac Conkey‟s Agar medium aseptically at 42 - 44°C into the dishes mix by
rotating and tilting dishes without spreading over the edges. Allow to solidify invert the plates
and incubate at temperature 37 ± 0.5°C for 24 hours.

Yeast and mould count

1. Warm the butter sample to about 40°C in sterile container, by keeping in the
water bath at 42 - 45°C maximum for 15 minutes.
2. Agitate well to get a uniform mixing of water and fat.

3. Transfer 1ml of required dilution of melted butter into a sterile Petridis in


4. Add to each Petridis, 15 ml of potato dextrose agar, previously melted and

acidified with 10% tartaric acid (sterilized) to get the PH of medium 3.5 ± 0.1.
5. Add tartaric acid just before medium is poured to the petridishes.

6. When the contents are properly set, the petridishes are incubated for 5 days at
room temperature.

7. Count the yeast and mould colonies developed.

Standard Sanitary index is shown in the following table-

Table no. 11: Standard Sanitary index

SL. No. Colony Forming Unit (CFU) / Ml Sanitary Index

1. Below – 20 Good

2. 21- 50 Fair

3. 51 – 100 Poor

4. Over 100 Very poor

5.28 Swab test for checking the sanitary condition of plant equipments
including pipelines
The sanitary conditions of the plant and equipments including storage tanks, vat, coolers,
pipelines, heat exchangers, agitators etc. is tested using the swab technique.

In this method a sterile cotton or wire gauge - swab (wetted with buffer solution) is
rubbed over the surface of the equipment and the bacterial cells removed from the surface are
transferred into the sterile buffer solution and their numbers estimated by S.P.C.

1. Apparatus and materials for taking S.P.C.

2. Test tube containing 25 ml stock buffer solution ( pH-7.2)

3.) Swab consisting of cotton wool or wire gauze.

4.) Tank or Vat.

Preparation of swab
The wire gauge consists of cotton wool wound around the end of a metal wire. Take a
piece of metal wire (35 cm long, 2.6 mm in diameter) formed into a loop at one end leaving a
straight length of 30 cm and notched at the other end to hold the gauge or cotton wool round the
notched end of the metal wire over a length of 50 mm. Place the swab in 25 ml phosphate buffer
solution in the test tube plug with cotton wool and sterilize.


1. Press the swab with rolling motion against the wall of test tube to remove excess liquid
and take it out of the tube.
2. Rub the swab with heavy pressure back and forth over the to be examined so that all parts
of the surface area are treated twice. The swabbing should be repeated over 9 spots, of
10×.5 cm area in different parts of the surface so that the total area comes to 900 cm². To
facilitate swabbing over required area a thin rod with a cut out area of 10×5 cm in the
center is sterilized and used for guidance.

3. After rubbing the required area return the swab to the solution in the tubes in which it
was originally placed.

4. Mix the solution well.

5. Prepare 1/10 dilution of the sample.
6. Transfer 1 ml portion of the swab as well the 1/10 sample into duplicate plates and add
agar 48 hours.

7. Incubate the plates at 37°C for 48 hours.

8. The counts of plates having 30 to 300 colonies are counted. The count multiplied by 25
gives the colony count per 900 cm² of the surface examined.

Preparation of swab as shown following table-

Table no. 12: Preparation of swab

SL. No. Test Dilution Result Expected

1. Coli form count 1/25 Nil

2. Standard plate count 1/10 5000 (very good)

3. Standard plate count 1/10 25,000 ( good)


Summary and Conclusion

Dairy Industry is the most ancient industry in our country. Dairy is boon for the
farmers of our country. Thousands of farmers and milk producers in and around the
dairy have benefited from the white revolution triggered by Sudha Dairy co-operative
movement in Jharkhand. The Integrated Dairy Development project or Operation
Flood is being implemented in Village, District and State level co-operatives. Ranchi
Dairy Ranchi (Sudha plant) was established in march1991. It is a unit of Bihar State
Co- operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd. (COMFED) Patna. The COMFED was
the implementing agency formed for Operations Flood Programme in undivided
Bihar under the supervision of National Dairy Development Board (NDDB). Ranchi
Dairy has proved itself as a lifeline of Ranchi in concern with milk and its various
milk products. Dairy Co-operative societies have to sale the milk in Ranchi and its
neighboring towns. Ranchi Dairy is well equipped with all necessary automatic
machines in its plant such as- Homogenizer, Pasteurizers, Milk Separator,
Refrigeration compressor, Packing machine, Boiler capacity, Booster compressor,
Plate chiller etc. With these equipment Ranchi at present supplies, composition wise
two different type of milk toned milk 3.0% and 8.5% solid non fat, Standard milk
4.5% and 8.5% solid non fat. It also supplies Sudha products like- Mango Lassie,
Sudha Special, Paneer, Peda, Ghee, Butter Table, Missti dahi, Flavor milk, Fitness
Curd, and Pasteurized milk etc.The consumer‟s demand in urbanized area has been
fulfilled by growing supply of milk, to fulfill their need the milk is collected from
different sources such as through road tanker from other States i.e. Barauni Dairy,
Bhagalpur Dairy, Samastipur Dairy, Ara Dairy, and within the local city areas. Over
all Sudha Dairy is doing good and efficient work in the field of production in milk
and its related products. There is a huge demand of milk and milk products in
Jharkhand and to fulfill the State demand, Sudha Dairy has to enhance the production
of milk and its related products using good management and technology.



 There is requirement of better communication & Co- ordination among the different

 They need to hire skilled personnel to enhance efficiency.

 They need to diversify their business in different processed food products.

 They need to install latest machinery to enhance efficiency of production.

 There is requirement of better implementation of “Total Quality Management” (TQM).

 There is need of improvement in supply chain process of Ranchi Dairy products.

 Human Resource Management should be more skill development and incentive payee.

 They should diversify their product line to be more competitive.

 The retailing outlet must be equipped with the freezing facility.

 The retailing authority should be given to those stores, which have the freezing facilities.



Barbano, D.M and M.V Santos (2006), Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life,
J.Dairy Sci.89 (E.Supp.): E15-E19.

Bernhard A.H von Bockelmann and Irene L.I von Bockelmann (1986), Aseptic packaging of
liquid food products, J. Dairy food chem, page no.-384-390.

Mathur, B.N and A.S Mujumdar (2008), Value addition and product diversification, Indian Dairy
Man page no. 61- 82.

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