You are on page 1of 2

Chapter 26: CLARIFICATION - Use: removal of bacteria and fibers from

parenteral preparations
Removal or separation of a solid from a fluid/ fluid from
another fluid (Fluid means both liquids and gases) 2. IMPINGEMENT
- Use of a filter fiber
Achieved by filtration or centrifugation - Attractive forces between the particle and
fiber retain suspended solids instead of
⇒ Main Reasons for Clarification: following the fluid path
- Remove unwanted solids - Also known as: depth filters
- Collect the solid as the product instead - Larger pores bet. Filter fiber can cause small
following crystallization particles to follow the fluid streamline and
miss the fiber
- Thick fiber: must be used to remove every
v Solid/fluid filtration: single unwanted material
- Use: for the removal of materials from gases
most common type of filtration; separation of insoluble
solid from fluid using a porous medium; it retains the 3. ATTRACTIVE FORCES
solid, but allows the passage of fluid. - electrostatic forces
- can cause the attraction of particles
Subdivided into Solid/Fluid, Solid/Liquid and Solid/Gas - air can be filtered by passing bet. Highly
Filtration charged surfaces to remove dust particles

1. Solid/Liquid Filtration: gives a sparkle or brightness to 4. AUTOFILTRATION

mouthwashes - Filtered material or filtered cake acts as its
own filter medium
- removes potential irritants for eye preps; produces water - Use of metafilter
of appropriate quality

-recovery of desired solid from suspension/slurry after FACTORS AFFECTING RATE OF FILTRATION
1. The Buchner Funnel and Flask - factors
-removes turbidity of vegetable extracts affecting rate of filtration:

-detects microorgs to check if preservatives work a. Area available for filtration

b. Pressure differences across filter bed
2. Solid/Gas Filtration: For: c. Viscosity of fluid passing through the filter
(inverse relationship bet. Viscosity and
-removal of suspended solids from air to supply air of the
filtration rate)
required standard (using: fluidized bed processors)
d. Thickness of the filter medium and cake
-prevents particulates to be vented to the atmosphere by (the cake inc. as filtration goes on). In a
removal (using: fluidized bed and coating processes) large pan, add the ingredients and lightly
stew until meat is tender and soft. Serves
v Fluid/Fluid Filtration
2. Darcy’s Equation - the permeability of filter
- removal of turbidity in flavoring oils by passing oil medium; cake will increase as porosity of bed
droplets through an appropriate filter increases

- removal of oil or water froplets from compressed air;

used for film coating spray guns and bottle cleaning METHODS USED TO INCREASE FILTRATION RATE
1. Increase area available for filtration
MECHANISMS OF FILTRATION: 2. Increase pressure differences across filter
1. STRAINING/SIEVING 3. Decrease filtrate viscosity
- The material is retained by passage of fluid 4. Decrease filter cake thickness
through filter medium; also known as 5. Increase cake permeability
membrane filters
- The filter is very thin (100 mcm)
- Used for small volume fluids with low
contaminant levels


Filtration Equipment: 3. Pressure Filters - most common type

1. Equipment Selection - metafilter can be used for separating coarse

- Ideally, should allow fast filtration rate to particles for finer particles
minimize production costs, be cheap, easy to
clean, resistant to corrosion, capable to filter - pack of rings serves as a base
large volumes of the product.
Factors affecting:
ü Strength and High Pressure
- Chemical nature of the product ü Economical af
- Volume to be filtered and the filtration rate. ü Metafilter can be made from stainless steel;
- Operating pressure needed provides excellent resistance to corrosion and
- Amount of material to be removed avoids contamination
- Degree of filtration required
- Product viscosity and Metafilters are used for clarifying liquids where
- Filtration temperature contaminant level is low; suitable for viscous liquids

Industrial Filtration Equipment: classified by method Centrifugation: centrifuges are used to separate solid
used to drive the filtrate through filter medium. Divided from a liquid
into three classes:
Industrial centrifuges
1. Gravity Filters: generate only low operating
pressure Types: perforated baskets and solid walled vessels:
- Simple and cheap; frequently used in
1. Perforated baskers- perform filtration type
laboratory filtration where the volume is small
operation, working like a spinning dryer
and low filtration rate is unimportant
2. Solid walled vessels, where particles
sediment towards the wall
2. Vacuum filters: rotatory vacuum filter; difficult to
3. under the influence of centrifugal force
-continuous in operation and has a system for Centrifugal filter: used for separating crystalline materials
removing the cake from the prep liquor and for removing precipitated proteins
-cake compression rollers are often fitted to
improve efficiency of washing and draining if the Advantages: compact, efficient, can handle con. Slurries
cake on the drum becomes dry
-small rotary (around 120 mm long and 75 mm in Tubular Bowl Centrifuges- to separate immiscible
diameter) are simpler in construction; they do not liquids
have cake washing facility but has disposable
filler drums - the inlet rate needs to be controlled so that the
-these drums can filter batchers around 100-700 sufficient time for sedimentation to occur before
L at 1-3 L/min product leaves the bowl


ü Automatic and continuous - liquid/liquid separation

ü Variation of speed and control - removal of very small particles
ü Large capacity - removal of solids that are compressible or slimy
- separation of plasma
DISADVANTAGES: - separation of diff. particle size fractions
- examining stability of emulsions
× Expensive
× Cake tends to crackerlacker because of air drawn -compact, has high separating efficiency and good for
through vacuum system separating troublesome solids
× Pressure difference is limited
× Suitable only for straightforward slurries - has limited capacity and are hard to construct