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• Mehrgarh is a famous Neolithic settlement in the Indian
In the world context, the New Stone age or the Neolithic subcontinent which is attributed to 7000 BC. It is situated
age began in 9000 BC which is when agriculture was in Baluchistan province, Pakistan.
developed in South west Asia.
• It is one of the largest Neolithic settlements between the
• The Neolithic settlers were the earliest farming Indus River and the Mediterranean Sea.
• It is located on the bank of the Bolan River in the Kacchi
• They domesticated cattle, sheep and goats in the initial plain which is called the bread basket of Baluchistan.
• The Neolithic people of Mehrgarh were more advanced.
• Subsequently, agriculture and other activities were They produced wheat and barley and lived in mud-brick
started with the help of both stone and bone tools. houses.
• People lived in circular or rectangular houses made of • In the dried basin of Hakra, a tributary of the Indus, many
mud and reed. It is held that the primitive people living in later Neolithic settlements have been found. Evidentally,
circular houses owned property in common. they paved the way for the rise of the Harappan culture.
• The Neolithic pottery included black-furnished ware, grey
ware and mat-impressed ware.
• The Neolithic people led a settled life and produced ragi
and kulathi and even rice.

►INDUS VALLEY • The Harappans were excellent city planners. The quality of
municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of urban
CIVILIZATION planning and efficient municipal governments which
placed a high priority on drainage.
• The Indus Valley Civilization was the Bronze Age
civilization (2500-1600 BCE) extending from what today is • The Harappan city was divided into the upper town called

northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. the Citadel (in citadel rich people lived) and the lower town.
Lower Town was the residential area where the common
• Since IVC preceded Iron Age, the Harappans were
people lived.
unaware of the use of iron but used copper, bronze, silver
and gold. • The city streets were based on a grid system and oriented
east to west. The roads and streets intersected at right
• Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of
three early civilizations of the world.
• There were covered drains along the road. Houses were
built on either side of the roads and streets. Each street

►HARAPPAN CITIES AND TOWN had a well-organized drain system.

• We find remarkable use of baked bricks.

• Indus Valley Civilization was the first urban centre in the




Harappa Punjab-Pakistan Ravi Fortified wall; R-37 cemetery; Copper Chariot with canopy; Evidence of pre-
Harappan to mature Harappan stage; Workmen’s quarter; Copper
specimen of bullock cart

Mohenjo-daro Sindh-Pakistan Indus Great Granary; A small fragment of cotton; The bronze dancing girl; Well
known for the Great Bath

Kalibangan Rajasthan Ghaggar Mud-brick fortification; Evidence of earliest datable earthquake; Discovery
of a plough field

Chanhu-Daro Sindh-Pakistan Indus A manufacturing site during the Harappan period

Banawali Haryana Saraswati Pre -Harappan and Harappan sites; Remain of streets and drains

Suktagendor Baluchistan Dasht Trade point between Harappa and Babylon situated on natural rock

Lothal Gujarat Bhogawa A coastal site, dockyard built with brick; Pottery with the painting of ‘clever

Surkotada Gujarat Flourishing urban centers; Fossils remain of horses

Rangpur Gujarat Bhandar Plant remains (rice, millets and possibly bajara)

Rakhigarhi Haryana Well-planned city

Dholavira Gujarat Unique water management: Largest Harappan inscription, use of fire-altar.

►TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION • The Harappans carried on long-distance trade in lapis

lazuli: lapis objects may have contributed to the social
FEATURES prestige of the ruling class.
• Granaries are found at Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, • The Mesopotamian records from about 2350 BC onwards
Kalibangan, and Lothal. refer to trade relations with Meluha, which was the
• Large granaries were located near each citadel, which ancient name given to the Indus region.
suggest that the state stored grain for ceremonial • The Mesopotamian texts speak of two intermediate
purposes and possibly the regulation of grain production trading stations called Dilmun and Makan, which lay
and sale. between Mesopotamia and Meluha. Dilmun is probably
• The Harappans conducted considerable trade in stone, identifiable with Bahrain on the Persian Gulf.
metal, shell, etc., within the Indus culture zone. However, • Archaeologists have discovered a massive, dredged canal
their cities did not have the necessary raw material for the and what they regard as a docking facility at the probability
commodities they produced. carried exchanges through a barter system i.e. coastal city
• They did not use metal money. of Lothal in western India (Gujarat).
• In weights and measures mostly 16 or its multiple were
• The furrows discovered in the pre-Harappan phase at
►TRADE LINKS Kalibangan (Rajasthan) indicate that the fields were
• The Harappans had commercial links with Afghanistan ploughed during the Harappan period.
and Iran. They set up a trading colony in northern • The Harappans probably used the wooden plough drawn
Afghanistan which evidently facilitated trade with Central by oxen and camels.


• Harappan villages, mostly situated near the flood plains, Harappan, therefore, looked upon the earth as a fertility
produced sufficient food grains not only for their goddess and worshiped her.
inhabitations but also the town’s people. • The male deity is represented on a seal. This god has
• The Indus people produced wheat, barley, ragi, peas etc. A three-horned heads, and is represented in the sitting
substantial quantity of barley was discovered at posture of a yogi, with one leg placed above the other. This
Banawali (Haryana). god is surrounded by an elephant, a tiger, and a
• In addition, sesamum and mustard were grown. rhinoceros and below his throne there is a buffalo and at
his feet two deer. It is identified as Pashupati seal.
• The Indus people were the earliest people to produce
cotton and because of this, the Greeks called the area • The people of the Indus region also worshipped trees. The
Sindon which is derived from Sindh. depiction of a deity is represented on a seal amidst
branches of the Pipal. This tree continues to be
worshipped to this day.
►HARAPPAN SCRIPT • Animals were also worshipped in Harappan times and
many of them are represented on seals. The most
• The Harappans invented the art of writing like the people
important of them is the one-horned animal unicorn which
of ancient Mesopotamia. However, the Harappan script is
may be identified with the rhinoceros.
yet to be deciphered.
• Evidence of fire altar at Kalibangan.
• The Harappan script is not alphabetical but largely
pictographic. • Despite the depiction of the divine on seals and figurines,
we find no architectural structure that can be pointed as a
• There are many specimens of Harappan writing on stone
place of worship.
seals and other objects. Most inscriptions were recorded
on seals and contain only a few words.

►ANIMALS • By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the
beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear,
• In Indus Valley Civilization, animals were raised on a large
standardized weights and measures used for trade and
scale. Oxen, buffaloes, goats, sheep and pigs were
taxation purposes fell out of use, and some cities were
domesticated. Humped bulls were favoured by the
gradually abandoned.
Harappans. There is evidence of dogs and cats, and asses
and camels being bred. • The reasons for this decline are not entirely clear, but it is
believed that the drying up of the Saraswati River, a
• Evidence of the horse comes from a superficial level of
process which had begun around 1900 BCE, was the main
Mohenjo-daro and from a doubtful terracotta figurine
cause. Other experts speak of a great flood in the area.
from Lothal. The remains of a horse are reported from
Either event would have had catastrophic effects on
Surkotada, situated in west Gujarat and relate to around
agricultural activity, making the economy no longer
2000 BC but the identity is doubtful. From the above facts,
sustainable and breaking the civic order of the cities.
we can interpret that Harappan people were aware
about Horse but they did not domesticate Horse. • Later, a large group of nomadic cattle-herders, the Aryans,
migrated into the region from central Asia. The Aryans
crossed the Hindu Kush Mountains and came in contact
►RELIGIOUS PRACTICES with the Indus Valley Civilization.
• This was a large migration and used to be seen as an
• In Harappa numerous terracotta figurines of women have
invasion, which was thought to be the reason for the
been found. In one figurine, a plant is shown growing out
collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization, but this hypothesis
of the embryo of a woman. This image probably
is not unanimously accepted today.
represents the goddess of Earth and was intimately
connected with the origin and growth of plants. The
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Rigveda Aaitreya, Aaitreya, Kaushthiki Aaitreya, Kaushthiki Ayurveda Hotra


Samaveda Jaimini Chandogya, Jaminiya Chandogya, Jaminiya, Ken Gandharvaveda Adharvyu

Yajurveda Dhanurveda Udgata

• Shukla • Shatapatha • Brihadaranyaka • Brihadaranyaka, Ish
Yajurveda • Taitriya • Taitriya • Kathopnishad, Taitriya,
• Krishna Maitriyani, Shvetashvatar

Atharvaveda Gopatha *none* Mundaka, Mandukya Shilpaveda Brahma

• It consists of 10 mandals and 1028 suktas. • It consists of charms and spells to ward of diseases.
• It is a collection of prayers offered to Indra, Agni, Mitra and • It is also known as Brahmaveda.
Varuna. • Its associated priest i.e. Brahma is considered highest of all
• The third mandala consists of Gayatri mantra dedicated to four Vedic priests.
the sun god. • It mentions the Vedic assemblies of Sabha and Samiti.
• Gayatri Mantra was composed by Vishwamitra.
• It mentions female goddesses such as Usha, Aditi, Surya.
Goddess Laxmi is also mentioned. ►VEDANGS
• Lord Shiva is referred as Rudra. We find reference to six vedangas in Mundaka Upanishads.
• Rigveda does not mention Lord Brahma. These include


Shiksha Vamajya
• It is an extension to Rigveda with 75 new suktas. Kalpa Gautam

• It is considered to be the oldest text on Indian music. Vyakarna Panini

• It mostly contains hymns dedicated to Sun God. Nirukta Yaska
• It talks about the appearance and disappearance of
Chanda Pingal
Sarasvati river.
Jyotisha Lagadha

• It contains yagya/rituals related suktas. ►IMPORTANT FACTS
• Rice is mentioned as Vrihi in this text. • Aaitreya Brahmana talks about the duties of all four
• It talks about Shunya. varnas.
• Mundaka Upanishad mentions the phrase Satyameva


• Shatapata Brahmana talks about ploughing rituals and the • In the later Vedic phase agriculture became the primary
concept of rebirth. source of livelihood and life became settled and sedentary.
• Chandogya Upanishad mentions three ashramas of Varna • In later Vedic times Rigvedic tribal assemblies lost
ashrama dharma. It also talks about Itihasa purana importance and royal power increased at their cost.
tradition which is mentioned as Panchamveda. Women were no longer allowed to sit in sabha.
• Shukla Yajurveda talks about the Rajasuya yagya. • The condition of women began deteriorating from the
later Vedic period and they suffered on account of
education and social roles which restricted them to be in

LATER VEDIC PERIOD • The later Vedic period saw the rise of four-fold varna
classification and the institution of gotra. The later
• Later Vedic period coincides with the Painted Grey
Vedic time also saw an established ashrama system.
ware sites. The later Vedic period people were acquainted
• The Rigvedic gods Indra and Agni lost relevance in later
with four types of pottery- black and red ware, black
Vedic period and Prajapati came to occupy supreme
slipped ware, painted grey ware and red ware.
• The Vedic people continued to produce barley but during
later Vedic period rice and wheat became their chief crops.

HETERODOX RELIGIONS • Buddha delivered his maximum sermons from Shravasti

and made Magadha his promotional center.

(BUDDHISM AND JAINISM) • Ashta-mahasthana refers to the eight significant

places associated with the life of Buddha. These
include: Lumbini, Bodh Gaya, Sarnath, Kushinagar,
Shravasti, Sankissa, Rajgriha and Vaishali.
• Gautama Buddha was born in the Lumbini village of
Kapilavastu, Nepal in 563 B.C, in the Shakya Kshatriya clan. BUDDHA VISITED
• His clan considered themselves to be the descendants of • Kapilavastu – Bodhgaya – Sarnath – Kushinagar
Ikshvaku dynasty.
• He died in 483 B.C near Kushinara and the event is known


• After leaving his home in search of enlightenment Buddha AJATSHATRU MAGADHA

visited Vaishali and learnt Sankhya darshan.
• He then went to Rajgriha and learnt yoga.
• He later went to Uruvela where he attained enlightenment.
This event is known as Sambodhi. AVANTI PUTRA SHURASENA
• He then went on to Sarnath where he delivered his first
sermon also called Dharmachakrapravartana.


►LATER RULERS WHO ADOPTED AND • Accomplishment: Compilation of Vibhashashastra by

Vasumitra, a commentary in Sanskrit on the difficult
PREACHED BUDDHISM aspects of Buddhist texts.
• Ashoka, Kanishka, Harshvardhana and Pala rulers. • Buddhists again broke into 2 schools i.e. Theravadi or
• Gautami was the first woman to enter Buddhist Sangha. Sthavira became Hinayana and Sarvastivadin or
Mahasanghik became Mahayana schools.

• Buddhism is based upon triratnas i.e. Buddha, Dhamma ►HINAYANA SCHOOL
and Sangha. • Hinayana is also known as Shravakayana.
• Buddha propagated Ashtangik marga also called Madhya • They saw Buddha as a great soul but not God.
margra. • They were orthodox in nature.
• He was always silent on the discussion of the existence of • Hinayana followers believed in helping themselves over
God but believed in rebirth. others in order to attain salvation.
• Buddha was against caste system and opened the gates of • They did not believe in Bhakti and idol worship.
Buddhism for all castes. • Their scriptures are written in Sanskrit.
• He gave women permission to be admitted in sangha. • It was later divided into 2 sects i.e. Vaibhashika and
• Buddha suggested that when desires are conquered the Sautrantika.
nirvana will be attained which means that a man will • Hinayana sect can be found in Sri Lanka, Burma and Java.
become free from the cycle of birth and rebirth.
• Buddha’s chief disciple was Upali and his most favorite
disciple was Ananda. ► MAHAYANA SCHOOL
• It was started by Nagarjuna with its prime center in
Andhra Pradesh.
►BUDDHIST COUNCILS • Its scriptures are written in Pali.
1 BUDDHIST COUNCIL • They see Buddha as incarnation of God and started his idol
• Place: Rajgriha, Bihar Ruler: Ajatshatru worship.
• Mahayana attaches importance to the role of
• Accomplishment: Buddha’s teachings were compiled into
Bodhisattvas who delay their own salvation in order to
Sutta Pitaka and Vinaya Pitaka
help others to its path.
• They believed in the concept of transmigration of soul
• Place: Vaishali Ruler: Kalashoka (Shishunaga dynasty) and rebirth.
• Accomplishment: Buddhist sangha was divided into • It was later divided into 2 sects i.e. Shunyavaad and
schools i.e. Theravadi or Sthavira and Mahasanghik or Vigyanvaad.
Sarvastivadin. th
• In the 8 century A.D Vajrayana School developed as an
• Theravadi is the oldest Buddhist school with its main offshoot of Mahayana school in which Tara is considered
centre in Kashmir. Mahasanghik’s main center was in as wife of Buddha.
Magadha. • In early medieval period a new form of Mahayana called
3rd BUDDHIST COUNCIL Mantrayana came up in which Bodhisattva
Avalokiteshwar began to be worshipped.
• Place: Pataliputra Ruler: Ashoka
• Accomplishment: Compilation of the third pitaka i.e.
Abhidhamma Pitaka which explains the tenets of
• Fa Hien: He visited during the reign of Chandragupta
during 399-414 A.D.
• Place: Kashmir Ruler: Kanishka


• Huan Tsang: He visited during the reign of Harsha and • Vajrapani is the personification of the Buddha’s power or
lived in India for 16 years. He studied in Nalanda capacity.
University. He is known as the Price of Pilgrims. • He is described as one of the 3 protective deities around
Buddha, other are Manjusri and Avlokiteshwara.
• Sadaparibhuta is a Bodhisattva which manifests never
►BUDDHIST LITERATURE: disparaging spirit.
Tripitakas are the oldest source of studying Buddhism which • Akasagarbha is the personification of the
includes: Buddha’s blessings.
• Sutta Pitaka: Encyclopedia of Buddhist thought and • He is boundless as space and has the perfect ability to
Buddhas religious ideas purify transgressions.
• Vinaya Pitaka: Rules of Buddhist Samgha
• Abhidhamma Pitaka: Buddhist principles and concept of
dhamma JAINISM
• Vishuddhimarga written by Ashvaghosha serves as a key
composition to tripitakas.
• Jainism believes in the existence of total 24 tirthankaras.
• Mahavastu (by Hinayana sect) and Lalitvistara (by
Mahayana sect) are biographies of Buddha. • The first tirthankara is considered to be Rishabhdeva who
was born in Ayodhya.
• Pragyaparimita Sutra serves as the most important text for th
Mahayana sect. It was written by Nagarjuna who is known • Mahavir Swami is considered to be the 24 and last
as the Einstein of India. tirthankara and the founder of Jainism.
• He was born in 599 B.C in Kundagrama, Vaishali and
passed away in 527 B.C in Pavapuri.
► BODHISATTVAS • He was related to Magadhan king Bimbasara by means of
• In Buddhism, a bodhisattva is an enlightened being. matrimonial alliances.

• Traditionally, a bodhisattva is anyone who, motivated by • He gave his first sermon from Vipulachal hill near Rajgriha.
great compassion, has generated Bodhicitta, which is a
spontaneous wish to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of
• Bodhisattva refers to all who are destined to become RULERS DURING MAHAVIR SWAMI’S
Buddhas in this life or another life.
• Avalokitesvara is the personification of the Buddha’s
compassion. He is the most universally acknowledged Bimbisara, Ajatshatru Magadha king
bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism and appears Udyana Vatsa king
unofficially in Theravada Buddhism in Cambodia under
the name Lokeśvara. Pradyot Avanti king

• Manjusri embodies wisdom and is the personification of

the Buddha’s compassion.
• Samantabhadra means Universal Worthy and is
associated with meditation. He is the personification of the
Buddha’s aspirations. JAINISM
• Ksitigarbha is the personification of the Buddha’s merit. Kalinga king Kharvela Noted from Hathigumpha
• Maitreya also known as Ajita Bodhisattva is the inscription
personification of the Buddha’s activity.
Rashtrakuta king Wrote Ratnamalika
• According to both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Amoghvarsha
Maitreya is regarded as the future buddha.
Chandana daughter of Champa king became the first woman
to be admitted to Jaina sangha.


►RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY • Mula Sangha is further divided into four major groups
known as Nandi Gana, Sena Gana, Deva Gana and Simha
• They believe in Triratnas i.e. Right faith, Right action and
Right character.
• Kashta Sangha too, has several orders including Nanditat
• Jains texts condemn the sanctity of Vedas and were against
gachchha, Mathura Sangha, Bagada gachha and Lata-
animal sacrifices in yagyas.
bagada gachha.
• They however were silent on the caste system.
• In north India, Ujjain and Mathura were important
• Most of the Jaina texts are written in Aradhamagadhi centers of Jainism.
• Kankali Tila of Mathura is associated with Jains.
• Jain monks and nuns practiced Sallekhana i.e fasting until
• The Chalukyan rulers of Gujarat gave shelter to Jainism
in early medieval period which led to its reach in Gujarat
• Jaina philosophy shares many ideals with the Sankhya and Rajasthan.
philosophy of Hinduism.
• Dilwara Temple in Mt. Abu is famous for temples of
Adinath, Neminatha and other tirthankaras.

• Jains are divided into 2 sects i.e. Shvetambar and ►JAINA COUNCILS
• Shvetambars are associated with the region of Magadha
• Place: Pataliputra Ruler: Chandragupta Maurya
who rose under the guidance of Sthalabahu.
• Accomplishment: acceptance of 12 angas by
• The sub-sects under Svetambaras include Sthanakavasi
Shvetambaras, Division of Jains into Shvetambar and
and Murtipujaka.
• Sthānakavāsī is a sect of Jainism founded by a merchant
named Lavaji about 1653 CE that do not pray to any
• Place: Valabhi, Gujarat
• Accomplishment: Compilation of main Jaina teachings into
• Śvētāmbarins who are not Sthānakavāsins are
called Murtipujaka (Idol-worshipers).
• The monks of Murtipujaka sect are divided into six orders
or Gaccha. These are: Kharatara Gaccha, Ancala
Gaccha .Tristutik Gaccha ,Tapa Gaccha, Vimala Gaccha,
Parsvacandra Gaccha. • Kalpasutra is considered to be the most important text of
Jaina literarure. It was composed by Bhadrabahu in
• The Digambars are associated with Shravanbelagola
(Karnataka) who rose under the guidance of Bhadrabahu.
Digambars do not wear clothes. • Bhagvati Sutra serves as Mahavira’s biography.

• Digambar tradition is divided into two main orders Mula • Chedasutras talks about Jaina monks.
Sangh and the Kashtha Sangh.

MAURYAN EMPIRE • James Princep deciphered Brahmi script and thus

Ashokan edicts.

►INTRODUCTION • Ashoka is referred to as Devanam Piyadasi in his edicts.

• Ashokan edicts are composed in Brahmi and written in • Ashoka chakra, a wheel made of 24 spokes is part of our
Prakrit language. In north western part they appear in national flag.
Aramaic language and Kharoshti script. • The Lion capital at Sarnath serves as our national
embelem. It is carved with considerable care—voluminous


roaring lion figures firmly standing on a circular abacus ►IMPORTANT TAXES IN MAURYAN
which is carved with the figures of a horse, a bull, a lion
and an elephant in vigorous movement.
• SITA: Tax on land
• BALI: Religious tax
►CLASSIFICATION OF EDICTS • BHAGA: Tax on agricultural land
They can be classified into:
• Major Rock Edicts
• Minor Rock Edicts
• Separate Rock Edicts • Stone pillars were erected all over the Mauryan Empire
with inscriptions engraved on them.
• Major Pillar Edicts
• The Mauryan pillars are rock-cut pillars which display the
• Minor Pillar Edicts
carver’s skills compared to the Achaemenian pillars which
are constructed in pieces by a mason.

►IMPORTANT EDICTS AND THEIR • The top portion of the pillar was carved with capital figures
like the bull, the lion, the elephant, etc.
• Some of the existing pillars with capital figures were found
EDICT PURPOSE at Basarah-Bakhira, LauriyaNandangarh, Rampurva,
Sankisa and Sarnath.
MAJOR ROCK EDICT 1 Ban on animal sacrifices
• With respect to popular art, large statues of Yakshas and
Ashoka’s ideal of kingship. Copies
MAJOR ROCK EDICT Yakhinis are found at many places like Patna, Vidisha and
found at Shahbazgarhi, Girnar,
14 Mathura. These monumental images are mostly in the
Sopara, Dhuali, Jaguda, Yerragudi
standing position.
Summary of Ashoka’s Dhamma.
• One of the distinguishing elements in all these images is
Copies at Bairat, Brahmagiri, Maski,
MINOR ROCK EDICT 2 their polished surface.
Rameshwar. The name of Ashoka is
found only in Maski version. • One of the finest examples is a Yakshi figure from
Didarganj, Patna, which is tall and well-built. It shows
Passages from Buddhism showing
BHABRU EDICT sensitivity towards depicting the human physique. The
Ashoka embraced it.
image has a polished surface.
Dedicated to the Ajivika sect
BARABAR CAVE • Terracotta figurines show a very different delineation of
suggesting Ashoka’s religious
INSCRIPTION the body as compared to the sculptures.
• Depiction of a monumental rock-cut elephant at Dhauli in
Located in Nilgiva and Rumminidei
Orissa shows modelling in round with linear rhythm. It also
TERAI PILLAR (birth place of Buddha) explains
has Ashokan rock-edict.
INSCRIPTION Ashoka’s respect for earlier
Buddhas. • The rock-cut cave carved at Barabar hills near Gaya in
Bihar is known as the Lomash Rishi cave.
• The facade of the cave is decorated with the semicircular
►MAURYAN MATERIAL CULTURE chaitya arch as the entrance.
• It was marked by an intensive use of iron, prevalence of • The elephant frieze carved in high relief on the chaitya
writing, punch marked coins, introduction of burnt arch shows considerable movement.
bricks and ring wells and Northern Black Polished ware.
• The cave was patronised by Ashoka for the Ajivika sect.
• The settlement of Sisupalgarh is ascribed to Mauryan
• It is important to note that the stupas were constructed
times and it contains NBPW, iron implements and punch
over the relics of the Buddha at Rajagraha, Vaishali,
marked coins.


Kapilavastu, Allakappa, Ramagrama, Vethadipa, Pava, • Patrons range from lay devotees to gahapatis and kings.
Kushinagar and Pippalvina. Donations by the guilds are also mentioned at several
• One of the best examples of the structure of a stupa in the sites.
third century BCE is at Bairat in Rajasthan. It is a very grand • However, there are very few inscriptions mentioning the
stupa having a circular mound with a circumambulatory names of artisans such as Kanha at Pitalkhora and his
path. disciple Balaka at Kondane caves.
• The great stupa at Sanchi was built with bricks during the • During the early phase of Buddhism, Buddha is depicted
time of Ashoka and later it was covered with stone and symbolically through footprints, stupas, lotus throne,
many new additions were made. Subsequently many such chakra, etc.
stupas were constructed which shows the popularity of • Gradually narrative became a part of the Buddhist
Buddhism. tradition. Thus events from the life of the Buddha, the
• The pattern of patronage to these stupas has been a very Jataka stories, were depicted on the railings and torans of
collective one and there are very few examples of royal the stupas.
patronage. • Among the Jataka stories that are frequently depicted are
Chhadanta Jataka, Vidurpundita Jataka, Ruru Jataka, Sibi
Jataka, Vessantara Jataka and Shama Jataka.

and in a few places, this phase persisted even as late as

MEGALITHIC CULTURES the early centuries of the Christian era.
• The Cholas, Pandyas and Keralaputras (Cheras)
mentioned in Ashokan inscriptions were probably in the
late megalithic phase of material culture.
• The term ‘megalith’ is derived from Greek words ‘megas’,
• Megalithic culture also finds several references in ancient
which means great and ‘lithos’ meaning stone. So,
Tamil Sangam literature.
‘megaliths’ refer to the monuments built of large stones.
• Manimekalai (5th century AD), the famous Buddhist epic,
• The term has a restricted usage and is applied only to a
refers to the various kinds of burials namely cremation,
particular class of monuments or structures with the
burying the deceased in a pit, urn burial encapped with lid
characteristic features, such as: those built of large
stones and have some sepulchral (grave like),
commemorative or ritualistic association.
• The urn or the sarcophagus containing the mortal ►FEATURES OF THE MEGALITHIC
remains was usually made of terracotta.
• In other words, the megaliths usually refer to the
burials made of large stones in graveyards away from the • The megalithic people used various types of pottery,
habitation area. Hence, all monuments constructed of big including red ware. But the Black and Red Wares (BRW)
stones are not megaliths. seems to have been popular with them.

• Mainly concentrated in the states of Maharashtra (mainly • It usage was so widespread and important that initially
in Vidarbha), Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra black and red ware was called megalithic ware by
Pradesh and Telangana. archaeologists.

• The beginnings of the megalithic culture can be traced to • The megalithic culture in South India was a full-fledged
c. 1000BC, though in many instances, the megalithic Iron Age culture when the great benefits of the use of this
phase lasted from about the fifth to the first century BC metal were fully realized by the people.


• The megalithic people preferred the slopes of hills for • This practice was based on the belief that the dead would
settlement and funerary structures. need all these in the next world.
• They generally did not settle on the plains or lowlands • Besides this, the megalithic people in the southern districts
due to their thick forest cover though they would have of Tamil Nadu buried the skeletons of the dead in urns
easily cleared them through their knowledge of iron. made of red pottery in pits, which is noteworthy.
• The megalithic people produced paddy and ragi, but the • However, in comparison to the number of agricultural
area of cultivable land used by them was very limited. tools that were buried, those meant for fighting and
• Megalithic people buried goods in graves with the dead hunting are larger in number. This would possibly indicate
bodies. that the megalithic people did not practise an advanced
type of agriculture.

►INDIAN PHILOSOPHICAL most well-known types of yoga are Hatha yoga and Rāja

SCHOOLS • International Day of Yoga is celebrated on 21st June

every year, since its inception in 2015.
By the beginning of the Christian era six schools of Indian
Philosophy developed. They were known as Samkhya, Yoga,
Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.
• Nyaya or the school of analysis was developed as a
system of logic. According to it salvation can be attained
through acquisition of knowledge.
• According to the early Samkhya philosophy the presence
• The veracity of a proposition or a statement can be tested
of the divine agency is not essential to the creation of the
through inference, hearing and analogy.
world. The creation is more owed to Prakriti.
• It was a rational and scientific view.
• Around the fourth century A.D. in addition to Prakriti, ►VAISHESHIKA
Purusha or spirit was introduced as an element in the
• It gives importance to the discussion of material
Samkhya system and the creation of the world was
elements or dravya.
attributed to both.
• This school propounded the atom theory and thus marked
the beginning of physics in India.

►YOGA • However, the scientific view was diluted with belief in God
and spiritualism, and this school put its faith in both
• Its foundation is based upon the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
heaven and salvation.
dated from the first half of the 1st millennium A.D
• According to it, a person can attain salvation through
meditation and physical application.
• Practice and control over pleasure, senses and bodily
• Mimamsa literally means the art of reasoning and
organs is central to this system.
• Exercises include physical and breathing exercises called
• According to it, the Vedas contain the eternal truth.
asanas and pranayam.
• The principal object of this philosophy was to acquire
• There is a broad variety of Yoga schools, practices, and
heaven and salvation.
goals in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Among the


• In order to attain salvation, it strongly recommended the • It propounded the theory of karma and the theory of
performance of Vedic sacrifices which needed the services rebirth.
of priests and legitimized the social distance between
various varnas.
• The schools of philosophy with emphasis on materialism
►VEDANTA developed in the period of expanding economy and
• Vedanta means the end of Veda. The Brahmasutra of society between 500 B.C. and 300 A.D. It is outside the
Badarayana compiled in the second century B.C. formed ambit of 6 major philosophical schools.
its basic text. • This view appeared in the doctrines of the Ajivikas, a
• Later famous commentaries include that of Ramanuja heterodox sect in the time of Buddha. But Charvaka was
(Brahma posse’s attributes) and Shankara (Brahma is the main expounder of the materialistic philosophy.
without attributes). • Charvaka’s philosophy came to known as Lokayata or the
• According to it, Brahma is the reality and everything else is ideas derived from common people.
unreal (maya). The self or atma is identical with Brahma. • Charvaka denies the operation of divine and supernatural
agencies and makes man the centre of all activities.

►SANGAM ERA & • Many of the Sangam texts were written by the Brahmana
scholars of prakrit or Sanskrit.
LITERATURE • The Sangam texts are different from the Vedic texts,
particularly the Rig Veda because they do not constitute
• The Sangam literature is a major source of information for religious literature.
the social, economic and political life of the people living
• The short and long poems were composed by numerous
in deltaic Tamil Nadu in the early Christian centuries.
poets in praise of various heroes and heroines and are
• What Sangam literature says about trade and commerce is thus secular in nature.
confirmed by foreign accounts and archaeological finds.
• They are not primitive songs but literature of high quality.
• The Sangam literature was produced over a period of
• Many poems mention a warrior or a chief or a king by
three to four centuries by poets who assembled in
name and describe in detail his military exploits. They are
colleges patronized by chiefs and kings.
compared with the heroic poetry of the Homeric age, for
• These colleges were called Sangam and the literature they represent a heroic age of warriors and battles.
produced in these assemblies was known as Sangam
• Some of the Chera kings mentioned in the Sangam texts
appear as donors in inscriptions of the first and second
• The compilation of the corpus is attributed to the first four centuries.
Christian centuries, although they were really completed
• The Sangam texts refer to many settlements as Kanchi,
by the sixth century.
Korkai, Madurai, Puhar and Uraiyur. Puhar or
• The Sangam literature comprises about thirty thousand Kaveripattanam was most important.
lines of poetry arranged in eight anthologies called
• Traces of early megalithic life appear in the Sangam
• The Sangam literature can be divided into two groups,
• They also speak of the Yavanas coming in their own
narrative and didactic.
vessels, purchasing pepper with gold and supplying
The NARRATIVE texts The DIDACTIC works are wine and women slaves to the natives. This trade is
are called Mekannakku called Kilkanakku (Eighteen known not only from Latin and Greek writings but also
(Eighteen Major Works). Minor Works). from the archaeological record.


• Important temples include Meenakshi temple, Madurai

►MAIN DYNASTIES OF and Nellaiappar temple on the banks of Tamirabarani in


• Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas were three important

dynasties in South India. ►CHERAS
• Their presence can be traced as early as the Mauryan • Their greatest king was Senguttuvan who was also known
times. as the Red or Good Chera.
• They were associated with the Megalithic culture. • They were known for their spices specially pepper.
• Other important dynasties include the Chalukyas of • Tondis and Muziris were important ports under them.
Badami, Pallavas of Kanchi and the Rashtrakutas of
• The founder of this dynasty was Simuka.
• Important rulers include Hala, Gautami Putra Satkarni,
• The Chola Kingdom was between the Pennar and Velar
Vashishthiputra Pulumavi.
• Gunadhya wrote a text known as Brihatkatha under the
• Its chief centre was Uraiyur which was famous for cotton
patronage of Hala.
• The best-known source to study about Gautami Putra
• Their firm history begins with the coming of ruler Karikala
Satkarni is the Nashik prashasti (eulogy) inscription,
in the 2nd century A.D.
inscribed by his mother Gautami Balashri, which credits
• Karikala founded Puhar also known as Kaveripattinam, him with extensive military conquests.
which also served as Chola’s capital.
• Satavahanas performed Ashvamedha and Rajasuya
• Puhar was a port city with a large dockyard. It also yields sacrifices as illustrated in Nanaghat inscriptions. They
evidences of roman trade being carried out. worshipped Vasudeva, Indra, Surya and Chandra.
• The Imperial Chola dynasty was started by Vijayalaya in the • They were succeeded by the Pallavas of Kanchi, Chalukyas
9th century A.D. of Badami and Pandyas of Madurai in south, Vakatakas in
• Prominent rulers of this dynasty were Rajaraja Chola and Maharashtra and Berar region and by the Ikshavkus on the
his son Rajendra Chola. eastern side of the peninsula in Krishna-Guntur region.
• Rajaraja built the famous temple of Brihadeesvara at
Thanjavur and Rajeshwara temple in Kerala.
• Rajendra Chola built a new capital at
Gangaikondacholapuram. • Their authority extended over Southern Andhra and
Northern Tamil Nadu with their capital at Kanchi.
• They were famous for the construction of stone temples in
►PANDYAS Tamil Nadu.
• They were first mentioned in the accounts of • Important rulers include Mahendravarmana I and
Megasthenes who says that their kingdom was celebrated Narasimhavarman. The latter defeated the Chalukyan
for pearls. ruler Pulakeshin II and occupied Chalukyan capital at
• It had matrilineal influence in their social setup. Vatapi.

• The capital of Pandyas was at Madurai. • An important port city under them was Mahabalipuram
where Narasimhavarman I got constructed the 7 ratha
• Sangams were held under the royal patronage of Pandyas
in Madurai.
• Other important temples of the Pallavas include the
• An important port of Pandyas was Korkai.
Kailashnath temple at Kanchi and Shore temple at


►CHALUKYAS OF BADAMI • Chalukyas were brought down in 757 A.D by the

• They set up their kingdom towards the beginning of the 6
century A.D in Western Deccan with Vatapi (modern day ►RASHTRAKUTAS
Badami) as its capital. • This dynasty was founded by Dantidurga with its capital at
• Pulakeshin II was a prominent ruler who is known to us Manyakheta.
by the eulogistic inscription of Aihole composed by • Important rulers include Govinda III, Amoghavarsha, Indra
Ravikriti. III and Krishna III.
• He conquered Vengi in 610 A.D and set up a new branch of • Amoghavarsha wrote a book on poetics in Kannada known
Chalukyas of Vengi. as Kavirajamarga.
• Another important ruler was Vikramaditya II who is said to • The famous rock cut temple of Shiva at Ellora was built by
have completely routed the Pallavas. Krishna I in 9th century A.D.
• They were famous for the construction of stone temples in • According to Arab writers ‘ladies did not veil their faces in
Karnataka. Some important temples include Papanatha the Rashtrakuta empire.
temple and Virupaksha temple.

IMPORTANT DYNASTIES IN • Palas were followers of Buddhism. The Sailendra dynasty

of Java also sent embassies to the Palas. They introduced

EASTERN INDIA Mahayana Buddhsim in Tibet, Bhutan and Mynamar.

• The founder of Pala dynasty was Gopala and their main
territory was present day Bengal. They also conquered • They ruled the area of Kalinga during the 11th to 15th
parts of Assam and Odisha. century, with its capital at Kalinganagar.

• Nalanda, an ancient study center was revived under • The founder of this dynasty was Anantavarmana.
Dharampala. He also founded the Vikramashila university. • King Narasimhadeva built the Konark temple at Odisha.
• Dharampala also built one of the best-known Buddhist
vihara i.e. the Somapura Mahavihara in Paharpur.

IMPORTANT DYNASTIES IN • An important temple belonging to this dynasty in the

Khajuraho temple in Madhya Pradesh which is a UNESCO

NORTH AND WESTERN INDIA World Heritage site.

• The founder of this dynasty was Harishchandra and they
ruled much of Northern India from the mid-8th to the 11th SOLANKIS
• The dynasty was established by one chief named Mularaja
• They ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj. who reigned from 942 to 996 AD.
• Important rulers of this dynasty include Nagabhatta II and • Solankis was a Hindu dynasty with its capital at Anhilwara
Bhoja (also known as Mihir Bhoja). which is now Sidhpur Patan.


• The Solankis were patrons of the Somnath Temple. They • One important ruler of this dynasty was Bhimdev I who
also built the famous sun temple at Modhera. reign saw the attack from Mahmud Ghaznavi on the
Somnath temple.

• Earliest temple structure includes Lad Khan temple,

TEMPLES AND Aihole which has a towering shikhara.

ARCHTECHTURE (HINDU, • There are 3 styles of Hindu temple architecture i.e. Nagara
(north), Dravida (south) and Vesara (mix of Nagara and
• Anomaly: Teli ka mandir situated in north India is made in
►HINDU TEMPLES Dravidian style with a Dravidian shikhara.
• Shikhara is a vital element of Hindu temples in both north • Many Hindu temples are made in the Panchayatana style
and south India. They are miniature temple towers placed i.e. a temple that has a central shrine surrounded by four
one on top of the other. other shrines. Examples include Brahmeshvara temple,
• Major elements of Hindu temple architecture are: Orissa, Deogarh, Jhansi and Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh.
• Grabhagriha : where the idol is placed • In Mahabalipuram rathas sculpture of Arjuna’s penance
• Mandapa: pillared hall which lies in front of Garbhagriha and descent of Ganga are depicted. A panel shows
Varaha avatar surrounded by Surya, Brahma, Rishis
• Ardhmandapa: lies next to mandapa
and Prithvi. A great masterpiece is the carving showing
• Antarala: joins Garbhagriha and Mandapa
goddess Durga engaged in a fierce battle with the buffalo
• Pradakshinapatha: it is a gallery which surrounds headed demon.
Garbhagriha meant for Parikrama.


NAGARA • Square Garbhagriha • Khajuraho temple complex built by Chandellas.

• Tapering Shikharas • Jagannath temple in Puri
• Sun temple in Konark built by Narsimha Deva 1.
• Jain temple at Dilwara
• Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneshwara

DRAVIDA • Square Garbhagriha • Brihadeshvara temple, Tanjavur built by Rajaraja Chola.

• Octagonal and pyramidal shikharas • Mahabalipuram temple, Tamil Nadu built by Pallavas.
• Gopurams (towering structures)
• Mandapa

VESARA • Star shaped Vimana Hoysaleshwar Temple, Halebid



Rock cut temples at Mahabalipuram Pallava rulers of Kanchipuram : Consists of Rathas named after Pandavas,
Narasimhavarman ; 7TH cen A.D. Draupadi, Dharamraja and Ganesha.

Shore temple at Mahabalipuram Narasimhavarman: Pallava Ruler ; 7th Outside walls consists of seated bull


cen A.D figurines.

Kailasanath temple at Kanchipuram Raja Simha: Pallava Ruler ; 8th cen Consists of Garbhagriha, Mandapa and
A.D. ambulatory.

Brihadesvara temple, Tanjavur Rajaraja: Chola ruler; 1010 A.D. Whole temple is made of granite and
consists of sculptures and frescos along with
temple architecture.

RajaRani temple, Bhubaneshwar 11th century A.D. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva.

Lingaraja temple, Bhubaneshwar Somavamsi and Ganga rulers; 11 It is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
century A.D.

Sun temple, Konark Narasimhadeva 1: Eastern Ganga It is also known as Black Pagoda.
ruler; 13 century A.D.

Kailasa temple, Ellora Krishna 1: Rashtrakuta ruler; 8th It is a mix of Pallava and Chalukyan
century A.D. architecture.

Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh Chandellas; 900-1130 A.D. Consists of Hindu and Jaina temples.
Virupaksha temple, Hampi Vijayanagar ruler; 7 century A.D. It is dedicated to Shiva and is an imitation of
Kailashnath, Kanchipuram.

Lad Khan temple, Aihole Chalukyan rulers; 5th cen A.D It is one of the oldest temples and dedicated
to lord Shiva.

Udayagiri cave temple at Vidisha Chandragupta: Gupta ruler; Contains a grand statue of the Varaha avatar
of Vishnu

►BUDDHIST TEMPLES • Vihara refers to the residence of monks. Ex: Junnar

viharas in Maharashtra
• Buddhist places of worship were known as Stupas which
• Chaitya refers to the place of worship for Buddhists.
were made in two styles i.e. Indian and Gandhar style.
• Chronologically significant Hinayana Chaitya include:
• Chronologically significant Indian style stupas include:
• Bhaja (oldest)
• Piprahwa, Nepal (oldest stupa)
• Ajanta (6 caves belong to Hinayana)
• Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh (built by Ashoka): We find
depiction of stories of Lord Buddha’s previous birth on its • Nasik
Toranas. • Karle, Maharashtra (built by Satvahanas in 1st century
• Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh (built by Ashoka and later by A.D; considered to be the best): It consists of dampati and
Shungas) :biggest stupa mithuna figures.

• Amaravati, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh (2nd cen B.C- 2nd cen • Kanehri
A.D. built by Satvahanas with use of white marble): Its • Chronologically significant Mahayana Chaitya include:
ancient name is Dhanyakataka. • Ajanta: It consists of total 29 caves. Under it Cave no. 9,
• Nagarjunakonda, Andhra Pradesh (2nd – 3rd cen A.D. 10, 19 and 26 are Chaitya and rest are Viharas. It was built
built by Ikshavakus) under Satvahanas and later Guptas and Chalukyas. They
• Dhamekh/Sarnath stupa (built during Gupta period by are primarily Buddhist caves.
use of bricks and stones) • Ellora: It consists of 34 caves dated between 7th – 9th
• Chronologically significant Gandhara style stupas century A.D. It has caves dedicated to Hindu, Buddhist
include: and Jaina faith.

1. Dharmarajika stupa, Takshila

2. Purushapur stupa, Peshawar (built by Kaniska)


►JAINA TEMPLES • In Udayagiri-Khandagiri caves in Odisha lie 35 Jaina

caves. Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela is found here.
• Gomateshvar in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka, built in
• Khajuraho temple complex also consists of Jaina temples
983 A.D. is the largest statue of Jaina tirthankara Bahubali.
dating from 10th and 11th century. Of significance is
• Dilwara temple, Mt. Abu built by Chalukyan ruler of
Parshwanath temple.
Gujarat, Bhimadeva (1031 A.D.) is one of the most
• Ellora caves too consist of Jaina caves. Indrasabha cave is

ANCIENT INDIAN PORTS • Bharuch had established trade relations with Arabs,
Greeks and Romans, Africans, Chinese and Egyptians.

►POOMPUHAR PORT • Bharuch was ruled by numerous powerful empires, such

as the Gupta dynasty, Rajputs and Mughals.
• Poompuhar, also known as Puhar, is believed to be the
Port town of Chola Empire.
• Located in the current Nagapattinam district in Tamil
Nadu, the ancient ports city, also named as
Kaveripattinam in historic documents, was reportedly • Calicut, also known as Kozhikode, was also one of the
situated in the mouth of the Kaveri River. busiest ports and trading centers in the extreme southern
region of the continent.
• Details about the port city have been found in several
historic documents including Periplus of the Erythraean • Located on the coast of Arabian Sea, this west coast port
Sea. was an important trading port especially for spices
including pepper, cloves and cinnamon.
• According to historians, the port witnessed the Indian
merchants trading their commodities, mostly spices, with • The history of the port city goes back to AD 1100 and it
other Asian countries as well as Arabs. began to grow as a notable trade center under the Chera
• However, the port city became one of the most important
►ARIKAMEDU PORT seaports in India after the arrival of the Portuguese sailor
Vasco Da Gama in the year 1498.
• Arikamedu is located in today’s Puducherry, a union
territory of India, was an important ancient port city. • The landing of the Portuguese sailor and his crew opened
the routes for a never-ending relation between east and
• It finds mention in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and
Tamil poems of the Sangam period.
• Arikamedu is believed to be an active trading port of the
region with the Roman Empire as early as second century
• Tuticorin or Thoothukudi port is one of the oldest seaports
• Excavations have revealed traces of Roman Arretine ware,
in India, with having been established as early as 6th
pottery, beads, intaglios, lamps, glass, and coins at this
• Located near Chennai, Thoothukudi was ruled by several
dynasties including the Pandyas and the Cholas in the
past, often using it as their important seaport.
• The most important trade in this region included fishery
• Bharuch, located in Gujarat, was a prominent port in the
and pearl.
Indian subcontinent region during ancient India.
• It was also known as Barygaza and Broach.


• The earliest mention of the port has been made in Periplus • According to the Mahavamsa, an epic history of Sri Lanka,
of the Erythraean Sea. it was the departure point of Prince Vijaya’s expedition to
• Currently, the Tuticorin port remains one of the 12 major colonize Sri Lanka (c. 500 BCE).
ports in India. • It was the departure point for the Buddhist missionary
expedition dispatched by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka to
Sri Lanka 250 years later.
►TAMRALIPTI • Tamralipti was also the port for trade with Southeast Asia.
• Tamralipti is located in the present-day West Bengal state. • The Chinese pilgrim Faxian visited the city in the 5th
It lies just south of the Rupnarayan River. century CE, and Xuanzang visited it in the 7th century.
• Archaeological excavations have revealed a sequence of • Xuanzang reported that there were 10 Buddhist
occupation going back to a period in which stone axes and monasteries and an Ashokan pillar there, and he referred
crude pottery were in use, with continuous settlement to Tamralipti as a thriving port for export of indigo, silk,
from about the 3rd century BCE. and copper (Sanskrit: tamra), from which it derived its
• Jain sources identify Tamralipti as the capital of the name.
kingdom of Vanga. It was long known as a port. • It was an important port under the Gupta empire.


Vish (Rigvedic period) Group of many villages headed by vishpati.

Sabha (Rigvedic period) Tribal assembly with judicial functions

Samiti (Rigvedic period) Tribal assembly

Bali (Rigvedic period) Tax voluntary paid by the people

Pautavadhyaksha (Mauryan period) Officer of Weights and Measures

Sannidhata (Mauryan period) Officer of state treasury

Pradeshtha (Mauryan period) Faujadari court

Rajuka (Mauryan period) Tax collector with judicial powers in villages

Pariharika (Mauryan period) Tax free villages

Ur (Sangam period) Town

Pattinam (Sangam period) Coastal town

Vikram samvat/Malav Samvat Dated 57-58 B.C. commemorating Vikramaditya’s triumph over

Saka Samvat Dated 78 C.E. was started by Kanishka and is the national era.

Gupta Samvat Dated 319-320 C.E. was started by Chandragupta 1.

Veena playing/Ashvamedha performance coins (Gupta period) Issued by Samudragupta


Mahasandhivigrahik (Gupta period) Foreign Minister, dealt with war affairs

Puga (Gupta period) Assembly of same jati traders in a town

Kula (Gupta period) Assembly of family members

Agrahara (Gupta period) Tax free land given to temples and brahmanas.

Araghatta (Gupta period) Irrigation device

Shreni (Gupta period) Assembly of traders from different jatis

Nigama (Gupta period) Assembly of traders from same town

Brahmadeya (Gupta period) Tax free land given to brahmanas.

Dinar (Gupta period) Gold coin issued by Guptas

Devadana (Gupta period) Tax free land given to temples.

Ghatikas (Pallava period) Schools/Colleges

Taniyurs (Chola period) Big villages

Ur (Chola period) Gram sabha

Sabha (Chola period) Assembly of eminent brahmanas

Shreni (Chola period) Trader’s assembly. Important were Manigramam, Nanadesi,

Anjuvannam etc.


Maurya Chandragupta Maurya Pataliputra

Shunga Pushyamitra Shunga Pataliputra

Kanva Vasudeva Pataliputra

Kushana Kadiphises 1 Purushapur (Peshawar)

Gupta Sri Gupta Pataliputra

Hunas Toramana Sailkot

Pallavas Simhavishnu Kanchi

Rashtrakutas Dantidurga Manyakheta

Pala Gopala Munger

Gurjara Pratihara Harishchandra Kannauj

Chola Vijayala Tanjore

Satvahanas Simuka Paithan

Vakataks Vindhyashakti Vatsagulma




Panchatantra Vishnu Sharma Animal fables in Sanskrit

Natyashastra Bharat Muni Treatise on dance, drama and music

Buddhacharita Ashvaghosha Biography of Buddha

Ashtadhyayi Panini Work on Sanskrit grammar

Mahabhasya Patanjali Work on Sanskrit grammar

Harshacharita Banabhatta Biography of Harsha

Rajatarangini Kalhana History of Kashmir

Meghdoot Kalidasa Lyric poem in Sanskrit

Lilavati Bhaskaracharya Mathematical treatise

Dasakumaracharita Dandin A tale of 10 men

Malvikagnimitra Kalidasa Love story of Shunga ruler Agnimitra


CURRENT affairs&
Archaeological excavations were undertaken in Kutch • Continuing excavations. Lothal is considered to be one of
(Gujarat) that have shed light on the custom and burial the oldest port cities in India, which was important
rituals that were prevalent during the early Harappan phase. trading centre during the Harappan civilization. Lothal
is located between the Bhogavo and Sabarmati rivers
near the Gulf of Khambat. The word Lothal, like Mohenjo-
• The excavations have unearthed several skeletal remains daro, means the mound of the dead.
from a cemetery-like burial site where 26 graves out of
• Lothal was discovered in Gujarat under a team led by
the nearly 300-odd ones were excavated.
archaeologist S.R. Rao in 1954-63.
• The graves were rectangular with varying dimensions and
were assembled using stones.
• The city was divided into two parts: the upper town and
• They contained the skeletons that were placed in a specific the lower town.
• It had a grid pattern with proper streets crossing at
• Skeletons were oriented east-west with the heads right angles and drainage system.
positioned on the eastern side.
• The discovery of toilets and lota-like jars from Lothal
• Next to the legs on the western side, the archaeologists suggests the emphasis people put on cleanliness
found earthen pots and pottery shards and other • Lothal also yielded the remains of a storehouse.
artefacts, including conch-shell bangles, beads made
• Bead making factory: Lothal was in the thick of Harappan
of stones and terracotta, numerous lithic tools and
maritime trade, and beads made from semi-precious
grinding stones.
stones, terracotta, gold, etc. were popular in areas as far as
• The presence of animal skeletons along with those of Sumer (modern-day Iraq), Bahrain and Iran.
humans were also recorded in a few graves. • Dockyard: A rectangular basin has been excavated in
• The researchers found the mode of burial to be non- Lothal which is said to be a dockyard. It is bound on all
uniform which is considered to be a unique feature. sides by baked bricks. It had gaps for a sluice gate and
• The researchers have also claimed that the mud pots inlet.

found in the graves bore similarities with those that were • Seals: Most famous discovery of Lothal is the Unicorn
unearthed from other Harappan sites in Kot Diji, Amri seal.
and Nal in Pakistan, Nagwada, Santhali, Moti Pipli and • A vase has also been discovered at Lothal which has
Ranod in North Gujarat, and Surkotada and Dhaneti in painting of a crow standing next to a pitcher with a deer
Kutch. looking back at it. It reminds one of the tales of the thirsty
crow in the Panchatantra which suggests an element on
• This in turn sheds light on the trade network that could
continuity from Harappan civilization till contemporary
have existed during the early phase of the Harappan
civilisation from 3300 BCE to 2600 BCE.


►HARAPPA: RAKHIGARHI 1984. In this respect, let us understand some main features
of this temple.
• A team of scholars from Deccan College, Pune, is on the
brink of recreating the faces of a few skeletal remains, • Konark Sun Temple, located in the eastern State of
dug up during the excavation of a Harappan site at Odisha near the sacred city of Puri, is dedicated to the
Haryana’s Rakhigarhi village in Hisar. The major sun God or Surya. It was given the tag of world heritage
objectives behind the excavation in Rakhigarhi, were to site in 1984.
trace the beginnings of this site and to study its gradual • The temple was built in A.D. 1250, during the reign of the
evolution from 6000 BCE to 2500 BCE. Eastern Ganga King Narasimhadeva-I (A.D. 1238-64).
• Scholars have also credited the Harappans with several • It is a monumental representation of the sun God Surya's
present-day traditions such as the folded hands greeting
chariot; its 24 wheels are decorated with symbolic designs
or namaste, chicken tandoor, use of the bindi and
and it is led by a team of six horses.
yoga, also seemed to have started the marriage system.
• The monument was also called the Black Pagoda'(Kaala
Pagoda) by the European sailors. In contrast, the
• Period -: Circa 2600-1800 BC (Harappa Culture)
Jagannath Temple in Puri was called the White Pagoda.
• The site of Rakhigarh is one of the five known biggest
• The temple was originally built at the mouth of the river
townships of Harappan civilization on Indian sub-
Chandrabhaga, but the waterline has receded since then.
continent. Other four are Harappa, Mohenjodaro and
Ganveriwala in Pakistan and Dholavira (Gujrat) in India. • The temple was made on the traditional style of Kalinga
architecture and is constructed from Khondalite rocks.
• Five interconnected mounds spread in a huge area form
the Rakhigarhi's unique site. • The wheels of the temple are sundials which can be

• The archaeological excavations revealed mature used to calculate time accurately to a minute including day
Harappan phase represented by planned township and night.
having mud-brick as well as burnt-brick houses with
proper drainage system.
• The ceramic industry included items of red ware. ►TAWANG MONASTERY
• Animal sacrificial pit lined with mud brick and triangular IN NEWS
and circular fire alters on the mud floor have also been The Incredible India campaign created a controversy by
excavated that signifies the ritual system of Harappans. goofing up the date of construction of the Tawang
• A cylindrical seal with five Harappan characters on one Monastery in Arunachal Pradesh.
side and a symbol of an alligator on the other is an
important find from this site.
• It is the largest monastery in India and second largest in
• The excavations have yielded a few extended burials,
the world after Potala Palace in Tibet.
which certainly belong to a very late stage, may be the
medieval times. • It is known in Tibetan as Gaden Namgyal Lhatse.
• It was founded in 1680-81 by a monk named Merag Lodre
Gyatso of the Gelug sect after the 4th Dalai Lama gave
►KONARK TEMPLE him a painting of goddess Palden Lhamo to be kept in the
IN NEWS monastery.

A feud has been going on between the state government of • An eight-metre high gilded statue of Lord Buddha
Odisha and ASI wherein the former has alleged irregularities dominates the sanctum of the monastery.
in the Archaeological Survey of India’s restoration of Konark • The Tawang Monastery was built according to the wishes
Temple, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in of the 5th Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso.


►BHITARGAON TEMPLE • It is important to note that prior to this, temples were

largely made of stone.
The Bhitargaon temple is considered to be one of the
oldest brick temples in India. ►DASAVATARA TEMPLE
KNOW MORE • Dasavatara temple is located in Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh.
• The Bhitargaon temple was first excavated by Alexander • The temple was discovered by Captain Charles Strahan
Cunningham. and was named so by Alexander Cunningham.
• It is the oldest and largest surviving brick temple of the • It depicts the 10 avatara of Vishnu.
Gupta period. • It is a large and elaborate edifice with typical temple art of
• Though Cunningham had placed it as belonging to the 7th Guptas (without Shikhara) and cubical Garbhagriha.
century, it has subsequently been identified as belonging
• This temple has also been linked to the “Sarvatobhadra
to the late Gupta period, to the 5th century.
temple” mentioned in the Vishnudharmottara Purana
• The village Bhitargaon had been part of an ancient city by several scholars.
called Phulpur.
• It is covered throughout with terracotta sculptures of
superb workmanship. ►DHAMEKH STUPA
• According to Cunningham, because of the Varaha • The Dhamekha stupa is located at Sarnath.
incarnation at the back of the temple, it was probably a • It marks the deer park or Rishipattana where Buddha
Vishnu temple. gave his first sermon.
• The temple faces east and has indented corners. • As per an inscription dated 1026 AD, recovered from the
• A unique feature can be seen in the entrance into the site, its older name is Dharmachakra Stupa.
sanctum which shows one of the first uses of a semi- • An inscription written in Brahmi script dated to 6th or 7th
circular doorway along with a corbeled or false arch century has been found at this site.
composed of bricks placed edge to edge instead of face to
• Below this, one more stupa made of Mauryan bricks has
been found which gives in indication that Asoka might
• Cunningham calls this the ‘Hindu arch’ which he writes is have commissioned it.
peculiar to India and is very different from true arch.
• The corbeled arch cannot support large domes whereas a
• The temple also has a tall pyramidical spire IN NEWS
(shikhara) above the inner sanctum (garbha griha).
A hill of Granite is being sculpted into a temple standing on
• This shikhara became the standard feature of the Nagara the hillock of Yadagirigutta. It is located near Warangal on
temple architecture of India. the hilltop of Yadagirigutta.
• The walls are decorated with terracotta sculptures on KNOW MORE
• The temple is dedicated to Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy.
• Some depictions include Shiva and Parvati seated
• Yadagirigutta’s hilltop already contains a small cave temple
together, Ganesha, an eight-armed Vishnu, a Mahishasura
dedicated to Narasimha along with a rock carving of
Mardini and many animal figures, flora and foliage.
• It was only in the middle of the 5th century that production
• The temple is entirely carved in Granite.
of brick masonry in large magnitude became possible.
• Its main attraction will be its seven storeyed
• Hence, the complete use of brick in Bhitargaon temple
Rajagopuram. Rajagopuram is a pyramidal tower located
makes it significant.
at the entrance of a temple.


• A gold Sudarshana chakra will serve as the finial for the • The beginnings of Satavahana ascendancy can be dated to
temple. late in the 1st century BCE, although some authorities
• An image of Alwar, a Vaishnavite saint, carved out a trace the family to the 3rd century BCE.
monolithic block will be placed in the temple. • This dynasty was founded by Simuka and some of its most
• The technique used in making sculptures in the Kakatiya important rulers include Gautamipurta Satkarni,
temples has influenced the sculptures of this temple. Vashishtiputra Pulumayi.
• Kakatiyas are known for their exquisite sculptures where • It also had traces of matrilineal influence.
even a paper can pass behind a dancing figurine. • An extensive system of currency was introduced
throughout the Satavahana empire. Coins were mostly
made of lead, potin, copper and silver.
• The Indo-Roman trade reached its peak in this period,
IN NEWS and the resultant material prosperity is reflected in the
The Department of Archaeology and Museums has found liberal patronage of Buddhist and
Buddhist remains under the ‘garbhagriha’ (sanctum Brahmanical communities.
sanctorum) of Sivalayam at Kondaveedu fort. These remains
• Nagarjunkonda and Amaravati became important
date back to later Satavahana period — 1st to 2nd century
Buddhist centres during the Satavahana Era.
• Kondaveedu Fort is located in Andhra Pradesh. ►ANGKOR
• It was built by Anapotha Reddy in 1250 AD and later
developed by Ana Venkata Reddy.
A recent study published in the Proceedings of the National
• Both of them were prominent rulers of the Reddy dynasty.
Academy of Sciences (PNAS), has shed light on the causes
Later the fort, was ruled by Gajapathis.
that might have led to the decline of Angkor.
• The fort went from ruler to ruler, and eventually was under
the control of Vijayanagar kings, Golkonda sultans, and
then the French, and British. • Angkor is one of the most important archaeological sites in
• However, the recent discoveries of Buddhist remain have South-East Asia.
challenged the time period ascribed to this fort. • It is located in Cambodia’s northern province of Siem
• These fortresses were once the capital of the Kondaveedu Reap.
province that was delimited between the south of • It was the capital of the Khmer Kingdom which lasted
the Krishna River and the Gundlakamma River and from 802 CE to 1431 CE.
located to the west of Guntur city.
• It was a Hindu-Buddhist empire.
• This historical fort has around 21 stupas and both Hindu
• Angkor is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
and Muslim architectural styles are seen in it.
• Angkor Archaeological Park contains the magnificent
• A petal design on railing piece, stupa, pillar etc were
remains of the different capitals of the Khmer Empire,
unearthed from the site which have pushed back the
from the 9th to the 15th century.
hoary past of the historic Kondaveedu fort to the
Satavahana period. • These include the famous temple of Angkor Wat which is
• One small fragment of Brahmi Inscription was found in considered to be the largest religious complex in the
the stupa remains which again emphasized that Buddhism world.
existed on Kondaveedu fort from Satavahana period. • Angkor Wat was initially dedicated to Lord Vishnu;
RELATED INFORMATION: SATAVAHANA DYNASTY however, it later became a Buddhist pilgrimage site.

• According to the Puranas, Satavahanas belonged to • Another important temple is the Bayon temple with its
the Andhra jati and was the first Deccanese dynasty to countless sculptural decorations located at Angkor Thom.
build an empire in daksinapatha—i.e., the southern region.


• Angkor’s temple construction began under the reign of • This port has been referred in the accounts of Italian
King Suryavarmana II and was completed under King merchant Marco Polo who visited the Motupalli in the
Jayavarmana VII. 13th century, when Rudramadevi, the Kakatiya
• In the 15th Century, the Khmer kings abandoned this city Empress, was ruling Andhradesa, according to
and moved to the coast. They built a new city, Phnom archaeologists.
Penh, the present-day capital of Cambodia. • He spoke about the finest quality of muslin and
• Different theories have been put forward by different diamonds exported from this area.
scholars with respect to the decline or desertification of • This port had been occupied by major south Indian
the Angkor area. dynasties including Satavahanas and Cholas, however it
• In this respect, the recent study by National Academy of gained major prominence under the Kakatiya dynasty.
Sciences has suggested the city of Angkor underwent a • The prominence of this port continued during the regimes
gradual decline in occupation rather than an abrupt of Reddy kings and also Bahmani Sultans.
collapse. • Motupalli declined gradually with the advent of the
• The study has pointed out that Angkor demise was not Britishers on the East coast who focused their trading
caused by the Ayutthayan (Siamese kingdom located in activities mostly from Machilipatnam (located in the
present day-Thailand) invasion or by infrastructural present Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh)
failure, but a gradual demographic shift by the urban • Excavations taken up by the Archaeology Department had
elite. led to unearthing of Chinese ware and copper coins of
the Ming dynasty.

►VEERABHADRASWAMY TEMPLE, • Coins belonging to the Chola era along with bronze
articles and pottery have also been unearthed.
The locals of Motupalli village have put forward a petition to ►RANI-KI-VAV
revive a historic temple of Veerabhadraswamy located in IN NEWS
their village.
The artists, academicians and residents of Gujarat have come
KNOW MORE together to save the deteriorating stepwells in their state,
• Veerabhadraswamy temple was built during the reign of particularly Rani Ki Vav.
Chola dynasty. KNOW MORE
• Veerabhadraswamy is a fiery form of Lord Shiva. • Rani-ki-Vav, or the ‘queen’s stepwell’ is located in Gujarat’s
• This temple contains inscriptions in Telugu and Tamil. Patan city.
• The temple also hosts Panchaloha idols of gods and • It is believed to have been built by Rani Udayamati, in
goddesses including that of Lord Nataraja in dancing memory of her husband Bhimdev I, the founder of the
posture and Bhadrakali. Solanki dynasty of Patan.
• This temple has remained closed after Archaeology Dept. • The construction began in 1063 AD and continued for
took it over for conservation and preservation. several years.
MOTUPALLI • The Vav was later flooded by the Saraswati River and
• Motupalli village is located in the coastal region of Andhra silted over until 1960s, when it was excavated by the
Pradesh in Chinnaganjam mandal of Prakasam district. Archaeological Survey of India.

• Motupalli has been an important port with flourishing • It is estimated that Vav had nearly 800 sculptures of which
trade with South Asian countries especially during the approximately 500 are found in pristine condition.
medieval period. • It is an architectural marvel so famous that it made it to
• The village is also referred to as ‘Mohanagiripuram’. the new ₹100 currency note last year.


• This 11th century subterranean water storage system ►HEMIS MONASTERY

happens to also be a World Heritage Site and has the
unique status of cleanest UNESCO site of India
India is the birthplace and a major centre of Buddhism. The
• Rani-ki-Vav is a highly decorated monument with
emergence and propagation of this religion has yielded many
ornamented panels of sculptures and reliefs representing
remarkable monuments. Among them is the Hemis
the height of Maru-Gurjara style of architecture.
monastery in Ladakh.
• Most of the sculptures are in devotion of Vishnu, in the
forms of Dashavatar, with eye-catching images
of Varaha, Narasimha, Rama and Kalki. • The Hemis monastery is situated near Leh.

• There is a particularly beautiful statue of Mahishasur- • It is located on a steep hill and has whitewashed walls and
Mardini -the Mother Goddess slaying wood. A colourful doorway leads into a courtyard that is
demon Mahishasur. Apsaras – the celestial beauties paved with huge stones.
showcasing 16 different styles of makeup (Solah Singar) is • A museum in the monastery houses many relics and
another highlight. statues related to Buddhism.
• Near the water level, there is a carving of Sheshashayi • The Hemis monastery belongs to the Drukpa sect of
Vishnu, in which the lord reclines on the thousand-hooded Mahayana Buddhism.
serpent Shesha. • It was built in the 11th century, and was re-established by
RELATED INFORMATION: STEPWELLS IN GUJARAT King Sengge Namgyal (1590–1620) in the 17th century.
• Gujarat once hosted thousands of stepwells, especially in • The monastery is divided into two parts: there is an
the arid areas where they were sources of life-saving assembly hall known as Dukhang and a temple called
potable water. Tshogkhang.
• Many of them were built on ancient trade routes. They • The main monastery contains rich murals and frescoes on
were also used to irrigate crops. the walls. The colourful paintings on the verandah depict
• The earliest stepwells can be found in Saurashtra, and the Buddhist kalachakra.
date back to the 4th or 5th century CE. • There are huge statues of the Buddha and Guru
• But the form got its full artistic voice during the 10th and Rimpoche.
15th centuries, when artisans of the Solanki and post- • There is a huge copper statue of a seated Buddha on the
Solanki era infused art forms of that time into opposite hill which overlooks Hemis.
• Sevasi Vav on the outskirts of Vadodara is more than 500 • The annual Hemis festival is celebrated on Guru
years old. Padmasambhav’s birth anniversary.
• It is seven-storeyed and its intricate design is barely visible • The festival has been a draw for locals and tourists alike
through the poorly maintained facade. for centuries. As it showcases masked dancers, it is a
• The pillars on which the structure stands bear delicate popular fixture in the Ladakh calendar.
designs, of deities, elephants, floral motifs. • It takes place on the ninth and tenth days of the fifth
• Other important stepwells include “Rudabai in Adalaj month of the Tibetan calendar, which usually falls in the
near Gandhinagar, which like Rani-ki-Vav, also has much months of June or July.
• At Junagadh, we find Adi-Kadi Vav which is built from the
rocks of the Girnar mountain. ►SARNATH STUPA
• The Bai Harir stepwell in Ahmedabad is octagonal and IN NEWS
reflects the medieval Sultanate architecture. Sarnath is one of the most important sites associated with
• The upkeep of the stepwells is the responsibility of the Buddhism. It was the place where Buddha delivered his
State archaeology department. first sermon.


KNOW MORE • The Dharmarajika stupa in Sarnath has been built by

• Buddha attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya and from Ashoka to commemorate Buddha’s first sermon.
there he went to the Deer Park (Mrigadava) in Sarnath. • He erected the famous pillar in Sarnath with the Lion
• It was there that he gave his first sermon, an event known Capital at its top and the Dharmachakra.
as the Dharma Chakra Pravarttana, or turning of the • The Lion Capital serves as the national emblem of India
wheel of law. since 1950.
• In his first sermon Buddha spoke of the Four Noble • The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang (602-664) left detailed
Truths and the eightfold path that frees people from accounts of the Dharmarajika stupa and Ashoka’s lion
suffering. pillar.
• It is in Sarnath that Buddha laid the foundation of his • He found 1,500 monks living there.
sangha, or organisation of monks. ο After Ashoka, the other rulers who added to Sarnath’s
• He also established an order of female monks, which was glory were the Kushans, the Guptas and
joined by his wife. Harshavardhana.
• The Mauryan emperor, Ashoka is credited with many of
the beautiful stupas and monasteries in Sarnath.

• Under the Guptas, the Dhamekh stupa was encased with stone-carved floral designs.
• The Chaukhandi Stupa was built during the Gupta period between the 4th and 6th centuries to mark
GUPTAS the site where Lord Buddha and his first disciples met traveling from Bodh Gaya to Sarnath.
• According to an inscription at Chaukhandi stupa, Humayun sought refuge in Sarnath when he was
escaping from the battle of Chausa.

HARSHA Harshavardhana restored some of the earlier buildings in Sarnath which were destroyed as a result of Huna

Sarnath also suffered when it was attacked by Mahmud of Ghazni. Its monuments were then restored by
Mahipala who was a Pala king.

• The last great monument of Sarnath, a monastery named Dharmachakra Jina Vihara was built in the
11th century by Kumaradevi, wife of Govindachanda of the Gahadavala dynasty.
• In ancient times, Sarnath was known by many names — Rishipatana, Mrigadava and Mrigadaya. The word
Sarnath comes from a corruption of the name Saranganatha which means Lord of Deer.

►LALITGIRI MUSEUM 5. “Huge sculptures of Buddha, architectural fragments of

Viharas and Chaityas arranged period-wise are found
Inaugurate an in-site museum at Lalitgiri which is one of
6. The central gallery is designed after a Buddha Mandala
the earliest Buddhist settlements in Odisha.
with a colossal Buddha image at the centre and six
KNOW MORE Bodhisattva images surrounding it.
1. It is located in Cuttack district and it will be the third site
museum of the Bhubaneswar circle of the ASI after
Ratnagiri and Udaygiri.
2. Lalitgiri was an important centre of Buddhism. IMPORTANCE
3. Excavations at Lalitgiri have yielded the remains of four IN NEWS
monasteries, showing cultural continuity from the post- The Archaeological Survey of India has declared six
Mauryan period till the 13th century CE. monuments of protected and national importance in
4. The centre of attraction is a relic casket containing 2018.
corporal remains found inside the Mahastupta.



NAME OF THE MONUMENT LOCATION • The story of Muziris starts from early 3000 BC when
Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians came to the Malabar
High court Building (125 years old) Nagpur, Maharashtra Coast in search for the spices.
Haveli of Aga Khan (Mughal period) Agra • Later these Middle-East groups were joined by Arabs and
Phoenicians. And gradually Muziris in Kodungallur entered
Hathi Khana (Mughal period) Agra
into the cartography of World trade map.
Neemrana Baori Alwar, Rajasthan
• Then onwards Muziris holds the key to a good chunk of
Ranipur Jharail group of temples Bolangir, Odisha Kerala's ancient history now the ancient trade route and
was the doorway for cultures, religions and races into
Vishnu Temple Kotali, Uttarakhand
• The last monument to be included in the list, in 2015, was • Spice City to the ancient reporters, Muziris was also known
the Vishnu Temple in Nadavayal in Kerala's Wayanad as Murachipattanam.
• In Ramayana, Murachipattanam is the place where
RELATED INFORMATION: MONUMENTS OF NATIONAL Sugreeva's (one of the Monkey King) sleuths scurried
IMPORTANCE through while looking for the abducted Sita.
• The Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 defines an • The name ‘Muciripattanam’ is mentioned fro Muziris in
“Ancient Monument” as any structure, erection or Sangam literature (which spans 300 BCE to 300 CE) as an
monument, or any tumulus or place of interment, or any affluent port and habitation on the western coast of
cave, rock-sculpture, inscription or monolith which is of ‘Tamizhagam’.
historical, archaeological or artistic interest.
• In Akananuru, a book of Sangam anthology, the poet
• It also says that the monument has to be in existence for describes Muziris as a prosperous town on the banks of
not less than 100 years old. river Periyar visited by the Yavanas or Greeks seeking
• The monument or archaeological site should not be less pepper in exchange of gold.
than 100 years old. • Muziris finds mention in the "Voyage around the
• It should possess special historical, archaeological or Erythrean Sea”, a work by a Greek speaking Egyptian
artistic interest, making it worthy of declaration as of merchant from the middle of the first century CE. It is
national importance. described as one of the four active ports which exported
• It qualifies under specified provisions of definition of the pepper and other goods.
Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains • Pliny the Elder, a Roman naturalist of the first century CE
Act, 1958. refers to Muziris, in his encyclopaedic work, ‘Naturalis
• With the addition of the 6 new monuments the sites under Historia’, as ‘the first emporium’ of India. ‘Emporium’ in
the ASI in the country has now increased to 3,693. ancient times was a place reserved for the business
interests of foreign traders.
• Uttar Pradesh (745 monuments/sites), Karnataka (506)
and Tamil Nadu (413) have the highest number of ASI- • Travellers such as Ibn Batuta and Marco Polo visited and
maintained sites. wrote accounts about the busy ports of Malabar.
• The Arabs continued their flourishing trade in spices and
the Chinese were frequent visitors.
►MUZIRIS PORT • It is believed that a devastating flood that changed the
IN NEWS course of the Periyar river or an earthquake in the 14th
century led to the decline of Muziris. But the Malabar
The prized archaeological remains of the ancient port town of
Coast remained a prime destination for foreign traders
Muziris on the Malabar coast faced considerable destruction
and visitors from different parts of the world.
as a result of the Kerala floods.


MUZIRIS IN CONTEMPORARY TIMES • In the first century C.E., the Andhra-Satavahanas, who
• The Government of Kerala has initiated the Muziris had extended their sway over eastern Malwa, constructed
Heritage Project to reinstate the historical and cultural the elaborately carved gateways to Stupas 1 and 3. The
significance of the legendary port of Muziris. gateways and the balustrade were built and painted. An
• The region is dotted with numerous monuments of a inscription on the top architrave of the southern gateway
bygone era that conjure up a vast and vivid past. The records that it was a gift of Ananda, the royal architect of
entire project is designed to involve and integrate the local king Satakarni.
community in all intended developmental initiatives. • The Mahastupa consists of a hemispherical mound
• The Muziris Heritage Project is one of the biggest (anda) built over a relic chamber (tabena). It has a
conservation projects in India, where the state and the truncated and flattened top on which rests a square
central governments have come together to conserve a chamber (harmika), which has a railing and a central pillar
rich culture that is as old as 3000 years or more.
(yasthi) supporting a stone triple-umbrella formation
►SANCHI STUPA • There are two circumambulatory passages. There is an

IN NEWS elevated terrace (medhi) enclosed by a three-bar railing

(vedika) and accessed by two flights of stairs (sopanas)
• Sanchi about 50 km from Bhopal, is a site known for its
from the southern gateway. The second circumambulatory
stupas, pillars, temples, monasteries and sculptural
wealth. It is a great place to see the beginnings, passage is on the ground surrounding the mound
efflorescence and decay of Buddhist art and architecture (pradakshinapath).
from the third century BCE to the 12th century A.D. In a • This whole structure has been put within a stone enclosure
way, Sanchi covers the entire period of Buddhism in India. with a similar three-bar railing with four carved gateways
• The Government of India has also issued a postal stamp (toranas) built in four cardinal directions. The ground
on Sanchi Stupa alongwith Po-minh Pagda of Vietnam. balustrade (vedika), in turn, consists of stone uprights
• Moreover, newly issued Rs. 200 note has the image of (stambha or thaba), horizontal crossbars (suchi) and
Sanchi Stupa. copings (ushnisha), most of which have inscriptions
• Recent archaeological and hydrological studies have mentioning the names of donors. The three umbrellas on
brought to light ancient irrigation works belonging to the summit symbolise the “Three Jewels” (tri-ratna) of
second or first century BCE. Buddhism—the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha.
• During the Buddha’s time, this area formed a part of the
mahajanapada (one of the great states) of Akara in the
western Malwa region.
• Sanchi is referred to as Kakanava or Kakanaya in early IN NEWS
Brahmi inscriptions found in the site. In the fourth century, • The archaeological site of Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda
it was known as Kakanadabota, while a late seventh University) in Bihar has been included in the UNESCO’s
century inscription refers to it as Bota-Shriparvata. World Heritage List.
• Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda
• Asoka built the core of Stupa 1, known as Mahastupa or University) comprises the archaeological remains of a
the Great Stupa, at Sanchi. The findings by archaeologists monastic and scholastic institution dating from the 3rd
indicated the fact that the level of the stupa’s floor is the
century BCE to the 13th century CE.
same as that of the Asokan pillar nearby. Further,
• The University was engaged in the organised transmission
fragments of the chunar sandstone umbrella over the
structure bear the characteristic mirror-like polish seen on of knowledge over an uninterrupted period of 800 years.
Asokan pillars. The historical development of the site testifies to the
development of Buddhism into a religion and the
flourishing of monastic and educational traditions.


KNOW MORE: NALANDA • Nalanda University Act, 2010: The Nalanda University
• Location: Nalanda was an acclaimed Mahavihara, a large Act, 2010.The University came into existence on 25
Buddhist monastery in the ancient kingdom of Magadha November 2010, when the Act was implemented.
(modern-day Bihar) in India. Historical sources indicate • International Linkages: The University has built close
that the University had a long and illustrious life which relations and collaborations with several local, national
lasted almost continually for 800 years from the fifth to the and international entities. To reinforce the university's
twelfth century CE. international character, an inter-governmental
• Patronage: Nalanda flourished under the patronage of Memorandum of Understanding came into force at the 8th
the Gupta Empire (Founded by Kumara Gupta) in the East Asia Summit in October 2013. Till date, 17 countries
5th and 6th centuries and later under Harsha, the have signed the MoU. They are (Australia, Bangladesh,
emperor of Kannauj. The subsequent centuries were a Bhutan, South Korea, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia,
time of gradual decline, a period during which the tantric Myanmar, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, Sri Lanka,
developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Brunei).
eastern India under the Pala Empire.
• Curriculum: Nalanda was a residential school, i.e., it had
dormitories for students. In its heyday, it is claimed to have
accommodated over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. IN NEWS
All students at Nalanda studied Mahayana as well as the The Ramappa Temple in Warangal, a Kakatiya era structure,
texts of the eighteen (Hinayana) sects of Buddhism. Their has been nominated for the UNESCO World Heritage site
curriculum also included other subjects such as the Vedas, selection process for 2019. It is also known as the
logic, Sanskrit grammar, medicine and Samkhya. Ramalingeshwara Temple, dates back to 1213 AD and was
• Impact: At its peak, the school attracted scholars and built by General Recherla Rudra, during the period of the
students from near and far with some travelling all the way Kakatiya ruler Ganapati Deva. This is also the only temple in
from Tibet, China, Korea, and Central Asia. Archaeological India which is named after the architect Ramappa.
evidence also notes contact with the Shailendra dynasty of KNOW MORE: FEATURES OF THE TEMPLE
Indonesia, one of whose kings built a monastery in the
• First of all, the roof (garbhalayam) of the temple is built
complex. The period from which Nalanda ceased to exist
with bricks which are so light that they can float on water.
was a time that the great universities of the western world
• The second is the sand box technology, which made it
came into being, marking the shift in knowledge
resistant to earthquakes and other natural calamities.
production and dissemination from the East to the West.
Depending on the size and area of the construction, the
Only Al Azhar in Cairo (972 A.D.), Bologna in Italy (1088
earth was dug three meters deep for the foundation. It
A.D.) and Oxford in the United Kingdom (1167 A.D.) had
was then filled with sand and for the sand mixture to
been founded before the destruction of Nalanda.
become strong, it was mixed with granite, jaggery and
• Information: Much of our knowledge of Nalanda comes
Karakkaya (Chebula).
from the writings of pilgrim monks from East Asia such as
• Thirdly, the temple is known for its intricate carvings, the
Xuanzang and Yijing who travelled to the Mahavihara in
most famous one being the flute at the entrance of the
the 7th century. Vincent Smith remarked that "a detailed
sanctum sanctorum, which when hit makes the sound of
history of Nalanda would be a history of Mahayanist
sa-ri-ga-ma. The temple was carved with dolomite rocks,
which are so intricate that even a hair can pass through it.
• Decline and Resurrection: Nalanda was very likely
The pillars have 13 significant carvings, probably indicating
ransacked and destroyed by an army of the Muslim
the thirteenth century during which the temple was built.
Mamluk Dynasty under Bakhtiyar Khilji. Systematic
• The fourth is the might of the structure, which despite
excavations commenced in 1915 which unearthed eleven
years of wear and tear, has not led to its collapse. There
monasteries and six brick temples neatly arranged on
are cracks from the beams on the temple floor but despite
grounds 12 hectares in area. Nalanda is now a notable
this, the structure has not collapsed. Such was the
tourist destination and a part of the Buddhist tourism


architectural marvel of the Kakatiya dynasty which still • It was demolished again during the rule of either Hussain
remains unique. Shah Sharqi (1447-1458) or Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517).
KAKATIYAS Raja Man Singh built the temple during Mughal emperor
Akbar's. Raja Todar Mal further re-built the temple with
• The Kakatiya dynasty was the famous dynasty of Telugu
Akbar's funding at its original site in 1585.
region or Andhra region. Earlier, the rulers like Betaraja I,
Prolaraja I, Betaraja II and Durgaraja were the feudatories • The last structure was demolished by Aurangzeb, the sixth
of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyana. It was Prola II, who Mughal emperor who constructed the Gyanvapi Mosque
established Kakatiya Dynasty as a sovereign dynasty. on its site. The current structure was built on an adjacent
site by the Maratha ruler, Ahilya Bai Holkar of Indore in
• Kakatiya temples and temple complexes include remains
of Swayambhu temple and Keerthi Thoranas at
Warangal fort, Rudreswara Temple, locally known as Veyi
Sthambala Gudi (Thousand pillars temple) at
Hanumakonda and Rudreswara (Ramappa) Temple, which
is located about 65 km from Warangal.
• Keerthi Thoranas is an example of distinct style for the
gateways to temple complexes, unique only to this region
and testimony to highly evolved proportions of aesthetics
in temple and town gateways in South India.
The Thoranas demonstrate both a creative masterpiece,
and a continuity and transformation through interchange
of cultural values like that of Buddhist art traditions from
2nd Century BC to 11th Century AD. The initiative and a
deviant path of experimentation of skill over dolerite by
the Kakatiya sculptors continued to be used by
subsequent Vijayanagara artists.


The Kashi Vishwanath Corridor Project’s foundation stone
was laid by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The project aims
at makeover of the holy shrine and neighbouring areas.
Through the project, a 50 feet corridor will ensure direct
connection from Ganga’s Manikarnika and Lalita Ghat to the
Kashi Vishwanath Jyotirlinga temple.
• Kashi Vishvanath Temple is one of the most famous Hindu
temples dedicated to Lord Shiva.
• The original Vishwanath temple was destroyed by the
army of Qutb-ud-din Aibak in 1194 CE, when he defeated
the Raja of Kannauj as a commander of Mohammad Ghori.
The temple was rebuilt by a Gujarati merchant during the
reign of Delhi's Sultan Iltutmish (1211-1266 CE).

A RT &



INDIAN DANCE FORMS • It is a blend of dance, music and acting based on Indian
Indian dance forms include classical and folk dances. • It includes hastamudras and facial expressions following
the verses (padams). The entire body is used during this
 CLASSICAL DANCES dance performance.

• Natyshastra written by Bharat Muni defines principles of • It gets its textual sanction from Balarama Bharatam and
Indian classical dance. All 4 vedas contribute towards this Hastalakshana Deepika.
art form. Pathya (words) are taken from Rigveda. Abhinaya • The characters in a Kathakali performance are divided into
(gestures) taken from Yajurveda. Geet (music) taken from satvika, rajasika and tamasika types.
Samaveda and Rasa (emotions) taken from Atharvaveda. • Kathakali music follows the traditional Sopana sangeet of
• It includes 2 basic aspects i.e. Tandava which is male Kerala.
characteristic of power and strength and Lasya which
comprises of grace, bhava, rasa and abhinaya.
• There are 108 mudras (poses) and 9 rasa. The following ►KATHAK
equation expresses complete dance: • Emergence of Raslila in the Braj region with Radha-
NRITTA + NATYA = NRITYA Krishna theme influenced this dance form.
(Basic dance) (Expressions) (Complete dance) • It is the only classical dance form which has links with
• Sangeet Nataka Academy has given status of classical Muslim culture. Under Mughals, a transition from the
dance to 8 dances. temple courtyard to the palace durbar took place which
changed its presentation and great stress was laid on
nritya and bhava.
• Golden age of Kathak began under the patronage of Wajid
(OLDEST) Ali Shah (last Nawab of Oudh). He established the
• It is a solo dance and is said to have evolved from Lucknow Gharana. The Jaipur gharana and Banaras
Devadasi system. gharana are other prominent schools of Kathak.

• Its movements resemble dancing flame/ elements of fire. • Movements include intricate system of footwork, torso
movements without any use of sharp bends or curves of
• Both basic aspects Tandava and Lasya are its part.
the upper or lower parts of body.
• It emphasizes on hand movements to convey emotions.
• It is the only classical dance form wedded to North Indian
One dancer takes many roles.
music. Musical instruments include: Pakhawaj, type of
• Bharatnatyam poses are found on the Gopurams of
Mridangam or a pair of Tabla.
Chidambaram temple.
• Musicians include vocalist, veena, flautist, cymbal
• The dance gives legendary references to the dances of
Shiva and Parvati and other gods and goddesses who
created the universe.
• The ritual performing arts of Koodiyattam, Krishnattam,
• Lai Harbola is the earliest form of dance which forms the
Ramanattam and Chakiarkoothu have direct influence
basis of all stylized dances in Manipur.
on this dance.
• With the arrival of Vaishnavism in 15th cen A.D. Radha
• For body movements and chorographical patterns, it is
Krishna theme was introduced. Rasleela dances originated
also indebted to the early martial arts of Kerala.
under King Bhagyachandra.
• Its poses are depicted on the frescoes of Mattancheri
• Its popular forms include Ras, Sankirtana and Thang Ta
temple, Kerala.
(martial dancers).


• Manipuri dance and music have a highly evolved tala • This dance form is influenced by earlier dance forms like
system. Devadasi and Ojapali. Assamese folk dances like Bihu,
• The Manipur classical style of singing is called Nat and Bodos etc also bear a influence.
main musical instruments include Pung (drum type), • The dance is governed by hastamudras, footworks and
Pena (stringed instrument), cymbals and flute. aharyas.


• Archaeological evidence dates it back to 2 cen B.C. with • It is a classical solo dance form. Mohini here refers to the
evidence found in Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves, celestial enchantress of Hindu mythology.
Bhubaneshwar. • It traces its origin to the temples of Kerala and was
• The dance is based on Natyashastra and Abhinaya performed only by women.
Darpana. • This dance from was structured into its present day
• Maharis were the chief repositories of this dance. They classical format by the Travancore Kings, Maharaja
were temple dancers. Later a class of boys called Gotipuas Tirunal and Maharaja Swati Tirunal (18th – 19th cen
was trained in the art. C.E.).
• Movement technique includes two basic postures of • The early specimens of this dance include Nangiars
Chowk (masculine) and Tribhanga(feminine). Hand (women of Nambiar community) and Dasiyattam.
gestures and torso movement are its vital part. • Mahakavi Vallatol a poet laureate of Kerala succeeded in
• An Odissi orchestra consists of Pakhawaj player, flutist, giving this art form a distinct classical solo style. He
sitar player, manjira player and a singer. established Kerela Kalamandalam (1930), a pioneer
institute for training in art forms.
• Movement technique includes feminine movements, hand
►KUCHIPUDI, ANDHRA PRADESH gestures and soft footwork.
• In the 17th century Kuchipudi style of Yakshagaana was
conceived by Siddhendra yogi, a Vaishnava poet. He had
a dream in which Lord Krishna asked him to compose a  FOLK DANCES
dancedrama based on the myth of bringing paarijaata
flower for Satyabhaama, the most beloved queen on DANCE STATE
Lord Krishna. He composed Bhaamaakalaapam. Bihu Assam
• Lakshminarayan Shastry (1886-1956) introduced many
Bhangra Punjab
new elements including solo dance and training of female
dancers in this style. Graba Gujarat
• By the middle of 20th century Kuchipudi fully crystallized as Jhoomar Punjab
a separate classical solo dance style.
Gidha Punjab
• There are now 2 forms of Kuchipudi; the traditional
musical dance drama and the solo dance. Kummi Tamil Nadu
• This form uses Carnatic music and instruments include Changu Odisha
mridangam, veena and cymbals.
Therukoothu Tamil Nadu

Chhau Odisha
Yakshagana Karnataka
• It was introduced in 15th century A.D. by Vaishnava saint
Sankaradeva. Jatra West Bengal


Bamboo dance/ Cheraw Nagaland Bhavai Rajasthan

Ghommar Rajasthan Kalbeliya Rajasthan

►INDIAN MUSIC • Thumri and Tappa are popular types of heard in concerts.
Thumri is a love song whereas Tappa consists of the song
Today, we recognize two systems of Classical music: uttered in a fast note patterns.
Hindustani and Carnatic. Carnatic music is confined to
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerela. The
classical music of the rest of the country goes under the
name, Hindustani Classical music. • The ancient Tamils of south India developed an highly
evolved system of music. Silappadhikaram (2nd century
A.D.) contains vivid description of music of this period.
►HINDUSTANI CLASSICAL MUSIC Tolkapiyyam and Kalladam are other sources of musical
• Important influence on music includes Rigveda, history.
Yajurvedic chants and Natya Shastra (gives information • Carnatic came into vogue after the advent of Muslims,
on scales, melodic forms, tala and musical instruments). particularly during the reign of the Mughal Emperors of
An important text includes Sangeeta Ratankara (13 Delhi. It developed along its own original lines.
century) written by Sarangadeva. • Annamacharya was a 15th-century Hindu saint, and is
• A characteristic contribution of India to musical rhythm is the earliest known Indian musician to compose songs
the Tala which is the cyclic arrangement of time units. called sankirtanas in praise of the god Venkateswara, a
• Musical forms can be divided into two broad categories form of Vishnu. He is the first known composer in Carnatic
anibadhha and nibaddha sangeeta. music. Other composers like Purandaradasa came after
him. The musical form of the keertana songs that he
• Anibaddha sangeeta is not restricted by meaningful words
composed, have strongly influenced the structure of
and tala. Its finest form is the alap.
Carnatic music compositions.
• Prabhandha is used as a generic term to indicate
• Purandaradasa (1484) termed as ‘Carnatic Sangeeta
nibaddha songs among which Jayadeva’s (12th century)
Pitamaha’introduced the Malavagowla scale as the basic
compositions are best known. His significant work was
scale for music instruction.
Gita Govinda and his songs are called ashtapadis.
• Venkatamahi introduced 72 Melakartas which was used
• Another formal aspect in Nibaddha Sangeet is met within
by Tyagaraja to invent many beautiful ragas.
the Dhrupad. Man Singh Tomar, the Maharaja of
Gwalior was responsible for the enormous vogue of • The birth of the musical trinity-Tyagaraja, Muthuswami
Dhrupad. The Been and Pakhwaj were closely associated Dikshitar and Syama Sastri at Tiruvarur between the
with Dhrupad but do not find any patronage these days. years 1750 to 1850 is an era of dynamic development in
Carnatic music. They were contemporaries of Beethoven,
• Today the pride in classical Hindustani music is occupied
th Mozart, Wagner and Haydn.
by the Khyal. It was given impetus in 13 century by Amir
Khusrau. It attained its maturity at the hands of Niyamat • Some musical forms of Carnatic music are Gitam,
Khan Sadarang and Adarang of the 18th century. Varnam, Jatiswaram, Kirtanam, Pada, Tillana, Pallavi
and Tanam.
• There are Gharanas in Khyal which are schools of singing
founded or developed by various individuals or patrons • Regional Music: Musical instruments differ from that of
such as king or noblemen. classical music. Cruder forms of table like dholak or nal
are used. Sitar is absent in folk music. Also the
• Important gharanas are Gwalior gharana (oldest), Agra
instruments of classical music are created by artisans but
gharana (founded by Khuda Baksh) and Jaipur gharana
folk instruments are crafted by musicians themselves.
(directly took off from Dhrupad), Rampur Saheswan
gharana (Uttar Pradesh).




Rasiya geet Uttar Pradesh Flourished in Braj

Pankhida Rajasthan Its literal meaning is lover and is sung by peasants.

Lotia Rajasthan It is sung during Chaitra month.

Pandavani Chhattisgarh Tales from Mahabharat are sung.

Songs deal with love, tragedy and political resistance during Portuguese
Mando Goa

It is a typical ballad of Bundelkhand which narrates the heroic deeds of

Alha Uttar Pradesh
Alha and Udal, two warrior brothers who served Raja Parmal of Majoba.

Chhakri Kashmir Most popular form of Kashmiri folk music.

Tappa Punjab They are the folk songs of camel riders.

Brought from Persia around 13 century. Amir Khusrau was an
important innovator.

It is meant as blessings for new year and the dance is associated with
Bihu Assam
ancient fertility cult.

Saikuti Zai Mizoram Mizo are traditionally a singing tribe.

Burrakatha Andhra Pradesh Tambura is palyed by main performer.

►MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Bismillah Khan is credited for popularizing this

instrument. Pt. Anant Lal and Pt. Daya Shankar are also
• In Natyashastra musical instruments have been divided
noted players.
into four main categories on the basis of how sound is
• The table is a set of two vertical Oordhwaka drums. The
produced. These include Stringed, wind, percussion and
right side is called tabla and the left is Bayan or Dagga.
solid instruments.
Prominent musicians are Ustad Alia Rakha Khan, Zakir
• Santoor a stringed instrument is very popular in Kashmir.
Hussain, Shafat Ahmed and Samata Prasad.
• The Kamaicha is a bowed lute played by the Manganiars
• In Sun temple, Konark a large scultpture of a female
of west Rajasthan.
Jhanj player, of nearly 8 ft. is found.
• The shehnai is a reed instrument and its use is known as
Mangal Vidya. In the early fifties of this century, Ustad

PAINTINGS • Other depictions include flying apsaras. The painting of

Bodhisatva Padmapani from Cave 1 is one of the
masterpieces of Ajanta paintings.
• Cave 17 represents Buddha’s visit to the door of
 WALL PAINTINGS Yashodhara’s abode.

• Early examples can be seen in Buddhist art such as • Ajanta also offers few Brahmanical figures of
painted cave temples of Ajanta dating from 2nd cen B.C. to iconographical interest. For e.g.: depiction of Lord Indra.
7th cen A.D. The subject matter is mostly associated with • The earliest Brahmanical paintings are found in Badami
the jatakas recording previous births of Lord Buddha. caves belonging to 6th cen A.D.


• The paintings of Sittannavasal are intimately connected • They majorly have secular themes.
with Jaina themes and symbology. • Tutinama kept in the Cleveland Museum of Art (USA)
• In Ellora, a number of Hindu, Buddhist and Jaina temples appears to be the first work of the Mughal School.
th th
were excavated between 8 – 10 cen A.D. Of significance • Hamzanama illustrations appeared on cloth. The Hamza-
is the Kailashnath temple, a free standing structure which nama illustrations are in a private collection in Switzerland.
is in fact a monolith. Ellora paintings are a departure from
• Famous painters of Akbar’s school include Dasvanath,
the classical norms of Ajanta paintings.
Baswan, Manohar, Daulat, Mansur etc.
• The most important wall paintings in South India are from
• Under Jahangir an animal fable book called Ayar-i-danish
Tanjore, Tamil Nadu. The dancing figures from
was prepared. Another famous painting of his reign
Rajarajeswara temples of Tanjore (11th cen A.D.) are
includes Jahangir holding a picture of Virgin Mary in his
beautiful examples of medieval paintings. The technique
right hand.
used here is a true fresco method over surface of the rock.
• Important illustrated manuscripts under Shah Jahan
• The last series of wall paintings are from Lepakshi temple
include Gulistan and the Bustan of Sadi.
(16 cen A.D.) which are pressed within broad friezes and
illustrate Saivaite and secular themes.
1800 A.D.)
Its early centers were Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Golconda.
►PALA SCHOOL (11TH – 12TH CEN) • AHMEDNAGAR: It was patronized by Nizam Shahi rulers.
• Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramsila and Somarupa were great The earliest examples of the Ahmednagar painting are
centers of Buddhist learning and art. contained in a volume of poems written in praise of
Hussain Nizam Shah I of Ahmednagar (1553-1565) and his
• They had workshops for casting of bronze images.
queen. This manuscript is known as the 'Tarif-in-Hussain
• The surviving examples of the Pala illustrated manuscripts Shahi. Some other fine examples of the Ahmednagar
belong to the Vajrayana School of Buddhism. painting are the "Hindola Raga" of about 1590 A.D. and
portraits of Burhan Nizam Shah II of Ahmednagar (1591-96
A.D.) and of Malik Amber of about 1605 A.D.
• BIJAPUR: It was patronized by Adil Shahi rulers mainly Ali
16TH CEN) Adil Shah I (1558-80 A.D.) and his successor Ibrahim II
• It comprised of the regions of Gujarat, Rajasthan and (1580-1627 A.D.). An encyclopaedia known as the Najum-
Malwa. al-ulum (Stars of Sciences), was illustrated in 1570 A.D. in
• It was influenced by Jainism and patronized by Chalukyas the reign of Ali Adil Shah I. This manuscript contains 876
who ruled these areas. miniatures. There is influence of the Lepakshi mural
painting on the female types.
• The Kalpasutra and Kalakacharya –Katha are two popular
Jaina texts illustrated with paintings. • GOLCONDA: It was patronized by the Qutub Shahi rulers.
The earliest paintings identified as Golconda work are a
group of five charming paintings of about 1590 A.D.,
►MUGHAL SCHOOL (1560-1800 A.D.) painted in the period of Muhammad Quli Quta Shah (1580-
• It began with Akbar under whose rule an atelier of painting 1611) Golconda. They show dancing girls entertaining the
was established under the supervision of 2 Persian company. Other outstanding example of the Golconda
masters, Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdul Samad Khan. painting are "Lady with the Myna bird", about 1605 A.D.,
an illustrated manuscript of a Sufi poem (1605-15 A.D.) in
• The Mughal style evolved as a result of a happy synthesis
the British Museum, London and a couple of portraits
of the indigenous Indian style of painting and the
showing a poet in a garden and an elegantly dressed
Safavid school of Persian painting. Later European
young man seated on a golden stool and reading a book,
influence can also be noticed.


both signed by a certain artist Muhammad Ali in the ο BUNDI: The Bundi style of painting is very close to the
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Mewar style, but the former excels the latter in quality.
• HYDERABAD: Painting in Hyderabad started with the Some examples are, an illustrated manuscript of
foundation of the Asafjhi dynasty by Mir Qamruddin the Bhagawata, Purana in the Kotah Museum and a
Khan (Chin Qulick Khan) Nizam-ul-Mulk in 1724 A.D. series of the Rasikapriya. A main feature of this painting
Influence of the Mughal style of painting on the already is a peacock dancing in the rain.
existing early styles of Deccani paintings, introduced by ο KOTAH: A style of painting very much akin to the Bundi
several Mughal painters who migrated to the Deccan style also prevailed in Kotah a place near Bundi, during
during the period of Aurangzeb and sought patronage the late 18th and 19th centuries. Themes of tiger and
there. bear hunt were very popular at Kotah. In Kotah
• TANJORE: A style of painting characterised by bold paintings, most of the space is occupied by the hilly
drawing, techniques of shading and the use of pure and jungle which has been rendered with a unique charm.
brilliant colours flourished at Tanjore in South India during ο MARWAR: One of the earliest examples of painting in
the late 18th and 19th centuries. Marwar is a series of the Ragamala in the collection of
Kumar Sangram Singh, painted by an artist named Virji
in 1623 A.D. at Pali in Marwar. The miniatures are
►RAJASTHAN AND CENTRAL INDIA executed in a primitive and vigorous folk style and are
• New schools of painting originated in Rajasthan and completely uninfluenced by the Mughal style. A large
central India in the 17th and 18th centuries. Their themes number of miniatures comprising portraits, court
included depictions from the Ramayana., the Mahabharata, scenes, series of the Ragamala and the Baramasa, etc.
the Bhagavata, the Siva Purana, the Naishadacarita, the were executed from the 17th to 19th centuries at
Usha Aniruddha, the Gita Govinda of Jayadeva, several centres of painting like Pali, Jodhpur and Nagour
the Rasamanjari of Bhanudatta, the Amaru Sataka, the etc. in Marwar. The Dhola Maru Style of painting
Rasikapriya of Kesavadasa, the Bihari Satasayee and belongs to the Jodhpur school.
the Ragamala etc. ο BIKANER: Bikaner was responsible for the introduction
• In the 16th century there already existed in Central India of a new style of painting having much similarity with
and Rajasthan the primitive art traditions in the form of the Mughal and the Deccani styles. One important
the 'Western Indian' and the 'Chaurapanchasika' styles artist Ali Raza "the Ustad (master) of Delhi", was
which served as a base for the origin and growth of employed by Raja Karan Singh of Bikaner in about 1650
various schools of painting during the 17th century. A.D. Some other noteworthy artists who worked at the
• Among these the important schools are Malwa, Mewar, Bikaner court were Ruknuddin and his son Shahadin.
Bundi-Kotah, Amber-Jaipur, Bikaner, Marwar and ο KISHENGARH: During the second quarter of the 18th
Kishangarh. century, there developed the most charming school of
ο MALWA: Some of the important paintings executed in Rajasthani painting in Kishengarh under the patronage
the Malwa style are a series of the Rasikapriya dated of Raja Savant Singh (1748-1757 A.D.) who wrote
1634 A.D., a series of the Amaru Sataka painted in 1652 devotional poetry in praise of Krishna, under the
A.D. at a place called Nasratgarh and a series of the assumed name of Nagari Das. Most of the available
Ragamala painted in 1680 A.D. by an artist named miniatures are believed to have been done by the
Madhau Das, at Narsyanga Shah. The art of painting in master painter Nihal Chand. It is famous for the Bani
Malwa continued till the end of the 17th century A.D. An Thani type of paintings.
example from a series of the Ragamala of 1680 A.D.
represents the Megha Raga. ►PAHARI SCHOOLS (17TH TO 19TH
ο MEWAR: The earliest example of Mewar painting is a
series of the Ragamala painted in 1605 A.D. at
Chawand, a small place near Udaipur, by Misardi. The Pahari region comprises of Himachal Pradesh, some
Another important series of the Ragamala was painted adjoining areas of Punjab, Jammu and Garhwal in Uttar
by Sahibdin in 1628 A.D.


Pradesh. Important centers of painting were Basholi, Guler, patronage in the Punjab under Maharaja Ranjit Singh and
Kangra and Kulu-Mandi. the Sikh nobility in the beginning of the 19th century and
• BASOHLI: The earliest center of painting in the Pahari executed portraits and other miniatures in a modified
region was Basohli where under the patronage of Raja version of the Kangra style which continued till the middle
Kripal Pal, an artist named Devidasa executed miniatures of the 19th century.
in the form of the Rasamanjari illustrations in 1694 A.D. • KULU – MANDl: It is a folk style of painting mainly inspired
The last phase of the Basohli style was closely followed by by the local tradition.
the Jammu group. of paintings mainly consisting of
portraits of Raja Balwant Singh of Jasrota (a small place
near Jammu) by Nainsukh, an artist who originally ►ORISSA
belonged to Guler but had settled at Jasrota. • The earliest surviving examples of miniature painting in
• GULER: At Guler, a number of portraits of Raja Goverdhan Orissa appear to belong to the 17th century A.D.
Chand of Guler were executed in circa 1750 A.D. in a style • Some good examples of the paintings of this period are
having close affinity with the portraits of Balwant Singh of manuscripts of the Gita Govinda an illustrated palm leaf
Jasrota. manuscript of the Ramayana.
• KANGRA: The Kangra style", represents the third phase of • In Orissa, palm-leaf continued to be used even upto the
the Pahari painting in the last quarter of the 18th century. 19th century.
The Kangra style developed out of the Guler style. • Important modern Indian painters include Raja Ravi
Paintings of the Kangra style are attributed mainly to the Verma, Abanindranath Tagore and Amrita Sher-Gil.
Nainsukh family. Some of the Pahari painters found

GEOGRAPHICAL • India, as a member of the World Trade Organization

(WTO), enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods

INDICATORS (Registration & Protection) Act, 1999 has come into force
with effect from 15th September 2003.
• A name or sign used on certain products which coincides • Geographical indications are typically used for
to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine and spirit
region, or country) is a geographical indication (GI). The drinks, handicrafts, and industrial products.
purpose of a geographical indication may act as
• Darjeeling Tea was the first Indian product to get the
admittance that the product possesses certain attributes,
geographical indication tag. In 2004, the famous
is made according to traditional methods, or enjoys a
beverage got the recognition.
certain prominence due to its geographical origin.



Handicrafts: Kalamkari, Shadow puppets, Jamdani, Venkatagiri and Mangalagiri Sarees

Food: Tirupati Laddu
Andhra Pradesh
Agriculture: Guntur Chilli
Textile: Pattu sarees

Handicrafts: Muga silk

Agriculture: Assam tea, Assam ginger, Tezpur Litchi


Arunachal Pradesh Agriculture: Arunachal orange

Bihar Handicrafts: Madhubani paintings, Bhagalpur silk

Chhattisgarh Textile: Champa silk saree fabrics

Goa Food: Fenni

Handicraft: Kutch embroidery and Shawls, Tangaliya Shawl, Surat zari craft, Sankheda furniture
Agriculture: Gir Kesar Mango

Haryana Handicraft: Phulkari (also in Punjab and Rajasthan)

Textile: Kullu shawl

Himachal Pradesh
Agriculture: Kangra tea

Jammu and Kashmir Handicraft: Papier Mache, Walnut wood carving, Pashmina

Handicraft: Mysore silk, Bidriware, Kasuti embroidery, Ilkal saree, Karnataka bronze ware
Karnataka Agricultural: Malabar coffee, Coorg green cardamom, Coorg orange
Food: Mysore Pak, Dharwad peda

Handicraft: Alleppey Coir Balaramapuram Sarees and Fine Cotton Fabrics Brass broidered coconut
shell craft of Kerala Kasaragod Sarees, Kuthampally dhoties and set mundu
Agriculture: Pokkali Rice, Vazhakulam Pineapple, Central Travancore Jaggery, Chengalikodan

Handicraft: Chanderi Fabric, Maheshwar Sarees & Fabrics, Bagh Prints, Bell Metal Ware of Datia
Madhya Pradesh
and Tikamgarh

Handicraft: Paithani Sarees and Fabrics, Solapuri Chadda, Puneri Pagadi

Agriculture: Nagpur Orange, Mahabaleshwar Strawberry, Nashik Grapes, Kolhapur Jaggery

Nagaland Agriculture: Naga Mircha

Manipur Textile: Shaphee Lanphee, Wangkhei Phee, Moirang Phee

Handicraft: Orissa Ikat, Konark Stone Carving, Pattachitra, Pipili Applique Work, Khandua Saree
Odisha and Fabrics, Sambalpuri Bandha Saree & Fabrics, Bomkai Saree & Fabrics
Agriculture: Ganjam Kewda Flower

Handicraft: Kota Doria, Blue Pottery of Jaipur, Kathputlis of Rajasthan, Sanganeri Hand Block
Printing, Bagru Hand Block Print
Food: Bikaneri Bhujia
Natural Goods: Makrana marble

Handicraft: Kancheepuram Silk, Salem Fabric, Thanjavur Paintings, Kovai Cora Cotton, Pattamadai
Tamil Nadu Pai, Toda Embroidery
Agriculture: Madurai Malli, Virupakshi Hill Banana

Handicraft: Pochampally Ikat, Silver Filigree of Karimnagar, Gadwal Sarees, Nirmal furniture,
Cheriyal Paintings,

Handicraft: Lucknow Chikan Craft, Banaras Brocades and Sarees, Handmade Carpet of Bhadohi,
Uttar Pradesh
Lucknow Zardozi, Farrukhabad Prints, Nizamabad black clay pottery


Food: Agra Petha, Mathura peda

Agriculture: Kalanamak Rice, Mango Malihabadi Dusseheri

Handicraft: Santipore Saree, Baluchari Saree, Nakshi Kantha

West Bengal
Agriculture: Darjeeling Tea, Fazli Mango, Himsagar(Khirsapati Mango), Laxman Bhog Mango

THEATRE AND PUPPET Theatre art forms in India include a framework of acting,
dialogue, poetry and music.




• Music includes surnai, nagaara and dhol.

Bhand Pather Kashmir
• Actors belong mainly to farming community.

Swang Haryana Its two important styles are from Rohtak and Haathras

• Popular centres are Haathras, Kanpur and Lucknow.

Nautanki Uttar Pradesh
• Important personality is Gulab Bai of Kanpur.

Rasleela • Exclusively based on Lord Krishna’s legends

• Main centres are Kutch and Kathiawar.

Bhavai Gujarat • Instruments used are Bhungal, table, flute, pakhwaaj, rabbab, sarangi and

• They are musical plays in fairs in honor of gods or religious rituals.

Jatra Bengal
• Krishna jatra became popular due to Chaitanya’s influence.

Maach Madhya Pradesh Songs are given prominence in between dialogues.

• It is a presentation of Ankia Naat.

Bhaona Assam
• There are cultural glimpses of Assam, Bengal, Orissa, Mathura and Brindavan.

• It evolved from the folk forms such as Gondhal, Jagran and Kirtan.
Tamaasha Maharashtra
• Here the female actress is the chief exponent known as murki.

• Performance shows the ten incarnations of Vishnu.

Dashavatar Konkan and Goa
• Performers wear masks of wood and papier mache.

• It came into existence in 17th cen under the patronage of King Manavada of
Krishnattam Kerela Calicut.
• It is a cycle of 8 plays performed 8 consecutive days.


• It is celebrated in the month of Vrischikam (nov-dec).

Mudiyettu Kerela • It is usually performed only in Kali temples.
• It depicts the triumph of goddess Bhadrakali over asura Darika.

Koodiyaattam Kerela It is based on Sanskrit theatre traditions.

• It is based on mythological stories and Puranas.

Yakshagaana Karnataka
• The most popular episodes belong to Mahabharata.

• It literally means street play.

• It is mostly performed at the annual temple festivals of Mariamman (Rain goddess)
Therukoothu Tamil Nadu
to achieve rich harvest.
• At its core there is a cycle of 8 plays based on the life of Draupadi.

►PUPPET FORMS survives in Orissa, Kerela, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,

Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
• The earliest reference to the art of puppetry is found in
• Karnataka: The shadow theatre of Karnataka is called
Tamil classic Silappadikaaram written around the 1st or
Togalu Gombeyatta.
2nd cen B.C.
• Andhra Pradesh: Here it is known as Tholu Bommalata.
• Stories adapted from puranic literature, local myths and
The puppets are large in sizes. The themes of the play are
legends usually form the content of traditional puppet
largely derived from Ramayana, Mahabharata and
theatre in India.
• There are four types of puppets.
• Orissa: Here it is known as Ravanachhaya.
They flourish in Rajasthan, Orissa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
They are an extension of Glove puppet but supported by rods
• Rajasthan: Here they are known as Kathaputli. They are
from below. This form is mostly found in West Bengal and
carved from a single piece of wood and wear medieval
Rajasthani style of dress.
• West Bengal: Here it is known as Putul Nautch. They are
• Orissa: Here they are known as Kundhei. They have no
costumed like the actors of Jatra, a traditional theatre
legs with long flowing skirts. Their costumes resemble to
form prevalent in the state.
those worn by actors of the Jatra traditional theatre.
• Bihar: Here it is known as Yampuri.
• Karnataka: Here they are known as Gombeyatta. They
are styled and designed like the characters of
Yakshagana, the traditional theater form of the region. They are known as hand, sleeve or palm puppets. The
tradition of glove puppets is popular in Uttar Pradesh, Orissa,
• Tamil Nadu: Here they are known as Bommalattam.
West Bengal and Kerela. In Uttar Pradesh, glove puppet plays
They combine the techniques of both rod and string
usually present social themes, whereas in Orissa plays are
puppets. The Bommalattam puppets are the heaviest and
based on stories of Radha and Krishna and the main
most articulate of all traditional Indian marionettes. A
instrument is Dholak.
puppet may be upto 4.5 feet and weigh 10 kgs.
Kerala: Here it is known as Pavakoothu. It came into
existence during 18th century due to the influence of
They are flat figures, cut out of leather and treated to make it
Kathakali. The theme of the plays is either Ramayana or
translucent. They are pressed against the screen with a
strong source of light behind it. Shadow puppets tradition


►CLASSICAL LANGUAGES • The literary tradition should be original and not borrowed
from another speech community.
Article 343 gave Hindi the status of official language of • The classical language and literature being distinct from
the Union. For Sanskrit, there is a special status modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the
mentioned in article 351, whereby Sanskrit was given a classical language and its later forms or its offshoots.
position of the primary source language for many languages
including Hindi.
►CRITERIA FOR CLASSICAL The following six languages are included in the list of Classical
1. Tamil (since 2004)
The government of India currently follows the following
2. Sanskrit (since 2005)
criteria to determine the eligibility of language to be
considered for classification as “classical language”: 3. Telugu (since 2008)
4. Kannada (Since 2008)
• High antiquity of its early texts/ recorded history over a
period of 1500-2000 years. 5. Malayalam (since 2013)

• A body of ancient literature/ texts, which is considered a 6. Odiya (since 2014)

valuable heritage by generations of speakers.

►MARTIAL ART FORMS • Silambam art also used animal movements of snake, tiger,
eagle forms and footwork patterns play a key role here as
Martial arts are a part of India’s ancient culture and well.
traditional games. Indian martial arts can be roughly divided
into northern and southern styles.
• Gatkais is a weapon-based Indian martial art basically
►KALARIPPAYATTU created by the Sikhs of Punjab.

• Kalarippayattu is a famous Indian martial art from • There are many weapons used in Gatka like Stick, Talwar,
Kerala and one of the oldest fighting systems in kripan and kataar.
existence. • The attacking and defense methods are based upon the
• It is practiced in most of the part of south India. positions of the hands feet and nature of weapons used.

• A kalari is the school or training hall where martial arts • The sport form is played by two opponents wielding
are taught. wooden staves called gatka. These sticks may be paired
with a shield. Points are scored for making contact with the
• It includes strikes, kicks and some weapon based
• It is based on the basic principle of unification of the mind,
• Footwork patterns are most important key in
body and spirit in a rhythm of life to train a saint-soldier to
be able to defend himself/herself.

• Silambamis is a weapon-based Indian martial art from
Tamil Nadu. • It is unarmed martial art from the oldest city of
India “Varanasi”.


• Techniques used in this martial art are punches, kicks,

knees and elbow strikes.

• Thang Ta is popular term for the ancient Manipuri
martial art also known as Huyen lallong.
• Manipuri martial arts with swords and spears, is a strong
yet gracefully sophisticated art.
• The armed component called thang-ta is named after the
system's main weapons, the thang (sword) and ta
(spear). Practitioners spar through cheibi gatka in which
a foam sword is used together with a shield.

• Lathi is an ancient armed martial art of India.
• It also refers one of the world’s oldest weapons used in
martial arts.
• Lathi or stick martial arts practiced in Punjab and Bengal
region of India.

• Mardani Khel is an armed method of martial art created by
the Maratha.
• This traditional martial art of Maharashtra is practiced in

• Pari-khandaa is a style of sword and shield fighting from
• This art is created by the Rajputs.
• Pari-khanda steps and techniques are also used in Chau


CURRENT affairs&
Behdienkhlam, one of the most colourful festivals of the The Budhamal festival was celebrated in Dhupguri village on
State, was celebrated in the Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya. the outskirts of Guwahati.


• Behdienkhlam is a major festival of the people in the • This festival is held once in five years.
Jaintia Hills. • During this festival people pray for well-being and a good
• It is celebrated to invoke the gods for a bumper harvest
and drive away plague.
• It is the ritualistic expression of the relentless struggle of ►GAJAPAYANA FETIVAL
mankind to overcome the destructive forces of nature, IN NEWS
including diseases, since the dawn of civilization.
Gajapayana is an age-old tradition of elephant marching
• During the festival, decorated and colourful raths are which was revived few years back. The festival was flagged off
immersed in ‘Wah Ainar,’ a muddy pool. at Veeranahosahalli on the outskirts of the Nagarhole
• The non-Christian ‘Pnar’ people who believe either in the National Park, Karnataka.
traditional faith of ‘Niamtre’ or Hinduism observe this KNOW MORE:
festival. • Gajapayana is an ancient practice that was in vogue during
the days of the maharajas.

►BAGWAL FESTIVAL • It is a traditional march of the caparisoned elephants from

the jungle camps to the City of Palaces ahead of Dasara
The Bagwal festival, was held in the Devidhura village of • The elephants participating the festivities would march the
Champawat district. entire stretch from the jungle camps to Mysuru.
KNOW MORE • The practice was disbanded and it had slipped out of
• The Bagwal festival, is a popular attraction of Raksha public memory until it was revived about 15 years ago.
Bandhan day in Uttarakhand. • However, the traditional march is now only symbolic as the
• The festival is famous for its annual ritual of ‘stone elephants march a short distance.
• However, after the intervention of the Uttarakhand high ►MONG MONG FESTIVAL
court in 2013, stones were replaced with flowers.
• It is celebrated by the members of the four clans of
• The Kiphire district where MongMong is celebrated has
Devidhura namely Gaharwals, Chamyals, Lamgharias
been cut off its supplies this year due to landslides caused
and Waliks.
by incessant heavy rainfall.


• Mongmong is a major festival of the Sangtam tribe in ►HAMPI UTSAV

Nagaland, the largest of the three principal tribes in
Kiphire district bordering Myanmar.
Karanatka government announced that Hampi utsav will not
• Mongmong is celebrated from September 1-6 every year
be held this year owing to a drought in Ballari.
as a festival of togetherness, forgiveness and prayer for
a bountiful harvest. KNOW MORE
• Hampi Utsav also known as the Viajya utsav is the largest
festival in Hampi. It has been celebrated since the time of
the reign of Viajaynagar empire.
• This event has been reiterated as the Nada Utsav by the
One person was killed and nearly 300 people were injured, Karnataka government.
during the annual “Gotmar” (stone-pelting) festival.
• This festival attributes to the mega cultural
KNOW MORE extravaganza.
• The annual “Gotmar” festival is a stone-pelting festival • Renowned artistes all over India come forward in bringing
and is considered as a 300-year-old festival. the grandiose days of the Vijayanagar Period to the
• It is celebrated at Pandhurna in Madhya Pradesh’s present day.
Chhindwara district. • The rich culture of Kannadigas in the fields of dance, music
• During this festival, people of Sawargaon and Pandhurna and art are thus showcased which complement the
gather on either side of Jaam River and, while throwing beautifully carved ruins of Hampi.
stones, race to snatch a flag hoisted on top of a dead tree
situated in the middle of the river.

IN NEWS Vrischikolsavam, the annual festival of Sree

Poornathrayeesa Temple was celebrated at Tripunithura in
Many North Indian states participated in the annual festival
the city of Kochi in Kerala.
of Salakatla Brahmotsavam.
• This festival lasts for 8 days with features of traditional
• It is the most important annual fête celebrated at Sri
folk-art forms such as Ottanthullal, Kathakali,
Venkateswara Temple in Tirumala-Tirupati of Chittoor
Thayambaka, Chenda melam, Kacheri.
District in Andhra Pradesh, India.
• It is the colorful procession of Lord Sree
• The event is conducted for nine days during Hindu
Poornathrayeesa, accompanied by 15 caparisoned
Calendar month of Āśvina which falls in between the
elephants and ‘panchari melam.
English months September and October.
• Sree Poornathrayeesa Temple is the only temple in South
• During the festival, the Utsava-murti (processional deity) of
India where an odd pose of Lord Vishnu can be seen,
the presiding deity Lord Venkateswara, along with his
sitting under the shade of five royal hoods of the divine
consorts Sridevi and Bhudevi, is taken on a procession on
serpent, Ananthan, whose folded body itself acts as the
different Vahanams on the streets (Madaveedulu)
throne for the God.
surrounding the temple.
• Besides ‘panchari melam’ other traditional orchestrations
• The celebration attracts pilgrims and tourists from all parts
like ‘maddala pattu’, ‘kombu pattu’, ‘kurumkuzhal
of India and across the world.
pattu’, ‘parisha vadham’ and ‘edakka pradakshinam’
• A Brahmotsavam is a holy cleansing ceremony in honour are also be held during festival days.
of Lord Brahma, and the one at Tirumala is by far the
• The festival also showcases carnatic music concerts,
thayamb, kathakali, ottanthullal, kurathiyaattom, kolkali
and aksharashlokam.


►MAKARAVILAKKU FESTIVAL Desibehera, dressed in his traditional attire, visits the

Budhi Maa Thakurani temple.
• He then invites the goddess to her parental abode at his
Amidst the controversy surrounding the Sabrimala temple, it
has been opened again to celebrate the Makaravilakku
• Berhampur is famous for its silk sarees and handloom
• The Berhampur patta sari and joda (dhoti) has been
• Makaravilakku is a 21-day annual festival celebrated in
accorded with GI tag.
• It is held on Makar Sankranti at the shrine of Sabarimala.
• The festival includes the Thiruvabharanam (sacred ►CHETAK ON THE TROT
ornaments of Ayyappan) procession and a congregation at
the hill shrine of Sabarimala.
The third edition of the Sarangkheda Chetak Festival 2018-
• Historically, Makaravilakku is the religious practice which
19 concluded.
was performed by the tribes in the forest of
• Sarangkheda Chetak festival is the oldest horse fairs in
• Once the Cyrus star (Makara Jyothi) appears in the sky
the country.
during the day of the Makara Sankranti festival, the tribes
perform their rituals in a temple at Ponnambalamedu • It is an annual fair and this tradition can be traced from
forest. about 350 years ago.

• As part of the ritual, the tribes perform aarati by lighting • This festival is named after the favourite horse of
camphor and ghee in a vessel and circling around the idol Maharana Pratap i.e. Chetak.
at the temple in the Ponnambalamedu forest 3 times. • This fair is organized in the Sarangakheda village in the
• This Aarathi performed by the tribes is referred to as Nandurbar district of the state of Maharashtra.
Makaravilakku. • Sarangkheda is located on the banks of river Tapi.
• This fair attracts horse traders and buyers from as far as
Arabia and Baluchistan.
►THAKURANI JATRA FESTIVAL • The horse breeds found in the fair are Marwari,
IN NEWS Kathiawadi, Punjabi and Sindhi.
The Thakurani jatra festival was celebrated in Berhampur.
• The Thakurani Jatra festival is celebrated biennially in
Berhampur Ganjam district, Odisha. MAHAMASTAKABHISHEKA
• The festival is celebrated in honour of Goddess Budhi IN NEWS
Thakurani who is considered as the istadevi of Silk city Prime Minister attended Jain ceremony of known as the
Berhampur. Mahamastakabhisheka, or the anointing of the statue of
• During the festival, Goddess Budhi Thakurani is taken from Gomateshwara/ Bahubali in the presence of Jain acharyas.
the main temple at Thakurani Temple Street to her KNOW MORE
temporary abode at Desibehera Street, where she stays till
• The Bahubali Mahamastakabhisheka Mahotsav is believed
the festival ends.
to be one of the most important religious occasions for
• Originally, the goddess was worshipped by the Dera Jains.
people, a weaver community of Rajmuhendry on their set
• It is celebrated every 12 years, wherein thousands of
up at Brahmapur in its early days.
pilgrims from around the world gather at the Jain
• The hereditary head of the festival, who is also regarded as pilgrimage site of Shravanabelagola near Bangalore.
the head of the weaver Dera community of the city,


• Jain poet Hemchandra had described the • The 29-tonne stone statue dedicated to him, is placed in
Gommateshwara statue as “verily the personification of the middle of ‘Padma Sarovar’, a large tank near
tranquillity”. Padmasambhava Mahavihara, the largest Buddhist
• Bahubali is a revered figure among the Jains as the son of ►DOUL UTSAV
the first Tirthankara of Jainism.
• Jain mythology holds up Bahubali as the one who
Doul Utsav is synonymous with Holi. It incorporates some
succeeded in attaining liberty from worldly desires through
unique rituals that sets it apart from the traditional features
a long period of sustained meditation.
of Holi celebrated in India.
• There are various other figures created of Bahubali at
Karakala, Dharamasthala, Venur and Gommatagiri.
• Holi which is ‘played’ in most parts of India but this festival
• His story is narrated in Sanskrit texts like the Adi Purana
is ‘sung’ in a part of Assam, where it goes by another
and the Bahubali charitra as well as in Kannada literary
name known as Doul Utsav.
texts and poems.
• Doul Utsav is celebrated at Barpeta in western Assam
• The Gomateshwara statue at Shravanabelagola was built
particularly in Barpeta Satra.
in 983 AD.
• Barpeta Satra is a Vaishnav monastery which was
• It is one of the largest free-standing statues in the world,
established by Madhabdev in 1583.
located on the Vidyagiri hills.
• Madhabdev was the prime disciple of Srimanta
• It is known to have been commissioned by the ruler and
Sankardeva, the saint-reformer who inspired the Bhakti
minister of the Ganga dynasty, Chamunda-Raya.
movement in Assam around the time Guru Nanak, Kabir
• Although, it is uncertain whether Chamunda-Raya actually
and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
got the statue built or whether it already existed at the site
• Madhabdev wrote a few Doul songs for ritualistic
and the minister discovered it through a divine
celebration of this festival.
• The traders of Barpeta (a major commercial centre for
• The 57-foot piece of granite has been meticulously
centuries) have made the common man’s Doul songs
carved out to produce a majestic figure with half-closed
eyes and a gentle, serene smile.
• These traders introduced Holi songs which were borrowed
heavily from Bengali folk music.
►GURU PADMASAMBHAVA • More than a century ago, a group of nationalist poets,
writers and musicians began writing Assamese Holi songs
that are divided into two categories of Holi songs — folk
Odisha Chief Minister unveiled a 19-foot-high statue of
and monastic — that people sing while playing with
Guru Padmasambhava, the founder of Tibetan Buddhism.
• However, the folk songs have no place in the Barpeta Satra
• Padmasambhava (Lotus-Born), also known as Guru where the monastic songs accompany rituals.
Rinpoche(precious master), was an 8th-century
• Doul generally lasts for three or five days, depending on
Buddhist master from the Indian subcontinent.
the Hindu month — Chaitra or Faagun — and planetary
• Historians claim that Guru Padmasambhava was born and positions.
brought up in Odisha before he left for Tibet.
• He is also known as the Second Buddha with respect to
his contributions in spreading Buddhism and Buddhist ►KULLU NATI DANCE
teachings across the Himalayan region including Northeast IN NEWS
India, Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet.
Kullu Nati is a folk dance of India which had been registered
• Thangka paintings, sculptures and photographs portray in the Guinness Book of World records in 2016.
the life and teachings of the Guru.


KNOW MORE disease and the worship of the Graamadevata or village

• Nati dance is a local folk dance of Kullu district of god, all are part of the Theyyam cult.
Himachal Pradesh. • Theyyams are performed in sacred groves and other
places usually once in a year and is known as Kaliyattam.
• The folk dance entered the Limca Book of Records in
That which is performed after many years is known
2014 and made it to the Guinness World Records Book as
as Perumkaliyattam.
the largest folk dance in the world in 2016.
• There has always been an unmistakable umbilical link
• This dance is performed during the Kullu Dussehra which
between Theyyam and nature.
is a centuries-old festival i.e. dedicated to the girl child.
• When the Theyyam was a sacred ritual, the forest, the
• It begins on Vijaya Dashami, the day when the festivities
deity’s domain, was the performance space.
end in rest of the country.
• A gradual Brahminisation of this art form has shifted the
• The dance depicts ras lila or dances concerning Hindu primal deities from the rock and the wood of the sacred
God Krishna and Gopis and the entertaining plays of groves they used to inhabit.
• They are now lodged in brick-and-mortar temple
• This dance was traditionally performed by men but now it structures outside the sacred grove along with the
has been performed by women mostly. Theyyams.
• This dance belongs from Lasya variety and considered as a • They are worshipped through rituals unfamiliar to the
dance of slow-movement. elemental deities, and their favour is mediated by the
• Earlier there were separate groups for men and women priestly classes which in turn has changed the basic
but now they are allowed to dance together. meaning behind this art form.

• Dancers clad in traditional dresses dance along with the

procession, on the tunes of musical instruments such as
Narsingha, Karnal, Shehnai, Dhol and Nagara.
During the Teej celebrations, Giddha dance is celebrated in
►THEYYAM DANCE Punjab every year. Teej is a generic name for a number of
IN NEWS festivals that are celebrated by women in some parts of India.

Theyyam is a unique pantheistic art form of Kerala. In KNOW MORE

contemporary times, it is facing increased threats of • Giddha is traditional pastoral dance performed by
gentrification and Brahminisation, thus paving the way for women of the Punjab, India, and Pakistan at festival
the destruction of the sacred groves where it was born. times and at the sowing and reaping of the harvest.
KNOW MORE • Patterned on a circle, it is notable for the bodily grace of
• A Theyyam is a ritualistic dance performance belonging the women’s movements (especially of the arms and
to the state of Kerala. hands) and for the charming melody that accompanies it.

• In this art form, pantheistic deities are summoned to the • Giddha dance is ceremonial in nature and performed on
body of the performing man, one who is almost always festive occasions such as marriages and the festival of Teej
from a subaltern community. or occasionally at the time of harvesting as well.

• This performing man himself is known as Theyyyam and it • It is very colourful and energetic just like Bhangra however
is believed that while performing deities possess his body. it beautifully manages to display the feminine grace and
• These performances are carried in the ancient sacred
groves of Kerala called kaavu, which is a small rainforest. • By this dance, the Punjabi women reveal their joy; expel
their suppressed feelings in a male dominated society
• The ritualistic art form is ancient, predating organised
through the performance of Giddha.
Hinduism and going back to a time of tribal animism.
• Since this dance has nothing to do with men, only women
• Spirit-worship, ancestor-worship, tree-worship, animal
can participate in it.
worship, serpent-worship, the worship of the goddesses of
• During performing Giddha, the leader of the chorus sings a
boli, repeated by other participants.


• These participants are accompanied by the beat of the KNOW MORE

dholak, ghada and taliyan (clapping). • "Burra" is referred to Tambura, a musical instrument.
• By singing bolian, the ladies outpour their feelings of "Katha" means story.
resentment, agony, pain, jealousy at their in-laws, and
• It started as devotional songs of nomadic people and
affection, warmth and love for their parental homes.
became a popular art form.
• It is a narrative entertainment that consists of prayers,
► LAKHON KHOL solo drama, dance, songs, poems and jokes.
IN NEWS • It preaches, entertains and provides relaxation to the rural
The art of Lakhon Khol was listed by UNESCO, the United folk.
Nations’ cultural agency, as an intangible cultural • It is performed in villages of Andhra Pradesh and
heritage, along with neighbouring Thailand’s version of the Telangana.
dance, known as Khon.
• The topic will be either a Hindu mythological story or a
KNOW MORE contemporary social issue.
• Lakhon Khol is the classical theatre tradition of • It played an effective role in conveying message to people
Cambodia which includes the tradition of masked dance. and awakening them during Indian Independence
• Lakhon Khol began in the early Angkor era. In accordance Movement.
with bas-reliefs on Angkor temple walls, it is believed that
• Most of the stories are in the form of a tribute to
the genre was first performed in the ninth century.
freedom fighters from Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
• In the past, there were eight professional Lakhon Khol
• A Burra Katha group consists of three artistes one being at
troupes but they were disbanded during the war under
the center and the other two acts as assistants under him
Khmer rouge and the only remaining troupe was Wat Svay
known as ‘Vantalu’.
Andet, where knowledge has been handed down from one
generation to the next. • The main storyteller (Kathakudu) narrates the story. He
• Two new troupes were formed since the war, in Kampong plays Tambura and dances to music. He also wears a metal
Thom and at the National Theater. ring called an ‘Andelu’ on his right thumb, holds another
ring in his other hand and adds more music by colliding
• Today, Lakhon Khol forms part of the curriculum of the
them frequently.
Royal University of Fine Arts.
• The co-performers play ‘Gummeta’, earthen drums with
• Lakhon Khol was developed as an entirely male version
of Khmer classical court dance. two heads. All three or only the Kathakudu wear anklets
which add even more music when they dance.
• Performances include storytelling accompanied by the
traditional Pin Peat orchestra. ABOUT HARIKATHA

• The Cambodian lakhon khol is clearly a sister form of • Harikatha is a form of Hindu religious discourse in which
Thailand’s khon mask-theatre. They both illustrate mainly the storyteller explores a religious theme.
the localized versions of the Indian epic Ramayana, which • It may be the life of a saint or a story from an Indian
is known in Cambodia as the Reamker and in Thailand as epic.
the Ramakien.
• It is a composite art form composed of storytelling, poetry,
• They are both regarded as national epics in their music, drama, dance and philosophy most prevalent in
respective countries and they are closely linked to the Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
royal courts and the god-king cult.
• At its peak Harikatha was a popular medium of
entertainment, which helped transmit cultural, educational
►BURRA KATHA and religious values to the masses.

IN NEWS • Harikatha commences with an invocation and the singing

of God's name. This introductory part of a katha also
Many stories of different traditions including Burra Katha and
contains a brief statement of the underlying philosophy of
Hari Katha have been narrated with a modern twist in the
the main story or of some general philosophical truth or
conducted Telugu Storytelling Festival.


• The second part, which is the main body, is the story itself. KNOW MORE
• The main aim of Hari Katha is to imbue truth and • Sungudi saris are traditionally handloom, woven on pit
righteousness in the minds of people and sow the seeds looms.
of devotion in them.
• With 100 warp and 80 weft counts, the pure cotton saris
• Another of the aims is to educate them about
come with plank-dyed contrast borders that often feature
knowledge of self (atman) through stories and show
them the path of liberation.
• The dots appear randomly done, but follow a grid to
achieve motifs.
►BATHUKAMMA SAREES • Madurai sungudi is inspired by kolam patterns and the
IN NEWS constellations.
The State government of Telangana had placed bulk orders • The Madurai Sungudi, produced in Madurai city, a cottage
for weaving 90 lakh Bathukamma sarees which will be industry product, is given protection under the
distributed during the Bathukamma festival. This decision of
Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration &
the state government is hailed as the migration of the power
Protection) Act (GI Act) 1999 of the Government of India.
loom weavers from Sircilla, Telangana to other parts of the
country like Surat in search of employment has stopped. • The GI tag was approved in December 2005.

• Bathukamma is floral festival celebrated predominantly
by the Hindu women of Telangana. ►CHIARALA TEXTILES
• It is the festival for feminine felicitation. On this special IN NEWS
occasion, women dress up in the traditional sari combining Weavers of Chirala in Andhra Pradesh feel a Geographical
it with jewels and other accessories.
Indication (GI) tag for their impressive silk sari can help
• In Telugu, ‘Bathukamma' means ‘Mother Goddess come them compete better and survive in the era of globalisation.
Alive’ and in this respect Goddess Maha Gauri (Life
Giver) is worshipped in the form of Bathukamma, the KNOW MORE
patron goddess of womanhood. • The textiles of Chirala are quite famous. The Chirala textile
• Bathukamma refers to a beautiful flower stack, arranged is made by using a large quantity of oil, which is used in
with different unique seasonal flowers most of them with preparing yarn for weaving. After the fabric is ready, it is
medicinal values, in seven concentric layers in the shape of wrapped with wax & clay before being dyed in selected
temple gopuram. colours.
• Every year this festival is celebrated as per the Saka • A Coastal town, situated in Prakasam District in the state of
calendar for nine days starting usually in September–
Andhra Pradesh called Chirala, this town was also known
October of Gregorian calendar.
as 'Kshirapuri'. Chirala town is renowned for
• Bathukamma is followed by Boddemma, which is a 7-day
• The name Chirala means saree in Telugu and so eventually
Boddemma festival marks the ending of Varsha Ruthu
whereas Bathukamma festival indicates the beginning of the name of the town got transformed to Chirala.
Sarad or Sharath Ruthu. • Main occupation of this village is handloom weaving and
paddy cultivation.

►SUNGUDI SAREES • The weavers of Chirala produce, cotton sarees, seico

sarees which are a fine blend of cotton and silk fibres
and kuppadam(Gadwal type).
8 February has been declared as Sungudi Day by the
Madurai district administration six years ago, in order to • Handloom fabrics of Chirala are soft and most comfortable
preserve this fading form of tradition cotton sarees. to wear which suites all the climate.



• The publication on the little-known puppetry from Nadia is
titled ‘The tale of a lost leg (Harano Payer Kissa)’.
The three graphic novels have been published on three
• The traditional rod puppet form of West Bengal is known
different art forms (Chhau, Raibenshe and Nadia) of the
as Putul Nautch. They are carved from wood and follow
Bengal in Bengali and English. Its excerpts have been
the various artistic styles of a particular region.
released by the state government, UNESCO and • In Nadia district of West Bengal particularly, rod-puppets
used to be of human size like the Bunraku puppets of
Japan. However, this form is now almost extinct.
• The graphic story on the Purulia’s famous Chhau dance is
• The music and verbal text have close similarity with the
called Experiencing Chhau (Dekhe Elam Chhau).
Jatra theatre.
• Chhau dance is a tradition from eastern India, popular
dance in Odisha, Bihar and Bengal.
• It enacts episodes from epics including the Mahabharata ►THANJAVUR DOLLS
and Ramayana, local folklore and abstract themes.
• Its three distinct styles hail from the regions of Seraikella,
Thanjavur dolls are an integral part of India’s tangible
Purulia and Mayurbhanj, the first two using masks.
heritage which has acquired world fame. In this respect, let us
• Chhau dance is intimately connected to regional festivals,
understand its basic features.
notably the spring festival Chaitra Parva.
• Its origin is traceable to indigenous forms of dance and
• The Thanjavur doll is a type of Indian bobblehead or roly-
martial practices.
poly toy made of terracotta material.
• Chhau is taught to male dancers from families of
• The doll is known as Chettiar bommai which is used
traditional artists or from local communities.
for golu during Navratri.
• Music is played on the reed pipes mohuri and shehnai
• They have been recognized as a Geographical
accompanied by drums.
Indication by the Government of India as of 2008-09.
• The dancers hold swords and shields and performing
• The centre of gravity and total weight of the doll is
vigorous movements and leaps.
concentrated at its bottom-most point, generating a
dance-like continuous movement with slow oscillations.
• The book on Raibenshe, folk martial dance form south
• These toys are traditionally handmade, finished with
Bengal is called Raibenshe Rocks ( Ajo Aache Raibenshe).
detailed, painted exteriors.
• It is a genre of Indian folk martial dance performed by
males only.
• This genre of dance was once very popular in West
Bengal. Presently, it is performed mostly in Birbhum IN NEWS
Bardhaman and Murshidabad districts. A famous modern era painting depicting the Delhi Durbar of
• Traditionally, this dance involves vigorous and manly 1903 has been restored and kept in the Victoria Memorial
movements of the body along with the acrobatics of a Hall in Kolkata.
raibansh (a long bamboo stick), from which its name KNOW MORE: PAINTING DEPICTING SECOND DELHI
originated. DURBAR,1903: PROFILE
• This dance is accompanied by dhols (drums) and Kanshis • It is titled State Entry into Delhi and the painting was
(cymbals). commissioned by the then British government.
• This dance was traditionally performed by Bagdi • It was painted by British artist Roderick Mackenzie and
community, who worked as the bodyguards of the the picture shows Viceroy Lord Curzon, seated on an
landlords in medieval Bengal.


elephant and leading the ceremonial procession of the • Portraits of kings, who were the patrons of these artists, as
Delhi Durbar followed by several Indian kings. well as priests and ordinary individuals also find a place in
• The procession goes past the north side of the magnificent these paintings.
Jama Masjid, rendered in splendour with its large dome • The most eye-catching and prominent feature of these
and towering minarets. paintings includes the relief decoration covered with gold-
• The 1903 Delhi Durbar, was held after the death of leaf or gilded paper.
Queen Victoria in 1901, and it also marked the
• We also find engraving of semi-precious stones in these
declaration of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra as the
Emperor and Empress of the country.
• The earliest paintings were done on wood, however in
later times glass was preferred.
• It is titled as The Prince of Wales at Jaipur, 1876 and was • The paintings had a vibrant palette with clear outlines and
done by Russian artist Vassili Verestchain. imposing figures.

• This piece of art is linked to the first Delhi Durbar, when • The background colours traditionally used were rich in
Queen Victoria was accorded the title of Kaisar-i-Hind tones which can be of both vegetal and mineral origin.
(Emperor of India). • Factory-made pigments from Europe, from the end of the
• It depicts a stately procession passing through the Ambar- 19th century, were also later used, providing the artists
Chaupar before the Hawa Mahal of Jaipur. with a larger variety of colours.
• This is the biggest painting in the collection of Victoria • Thanjavur Paintings were given a GI Tag in the year 2007-
Memorial Hall. 2008.

Thanjavur or Tanjore paintings is an integral part of the IN NEWS
cultural history of India. Dhokra art camp was conducted, let us understand some
KNOW MORE aspects of these sculptures.

• It is a classical style of South Indian paintings that KNOW MORE

developed in the region of Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu. • Dhokra Damar tribes are the traditional metal smiths of
• Its origin is considered to be in the reign of Marathas. West Bengal. Their technique of lost wax casting is
• Owing to certain influences it is also considered to be an named after their tribe, hence Dhokra metal casting. The
offshoot of Nayaka paintings which were prevalent in the tribe extends from Jharkhand to West Bengal and
Vijayanagar empire. Orissa.
• Thanjavur paintings also bore influences from the • Dhokra sculptures use an age-old wax-casting technique
Deccani and European styles. the oldest specimen using it, is the famous dancing girl of
• The time period ascribed for the development of this Mohenjo-Daro.
tradition is from 1676-1855 AD.
• The lost wax technique for casting of copper-based alloys
• This genre of art is essentially religious and broadly has also been found in China, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria,
comprises two essential themes. Central America, and other places.
• The first being scenes from the epics and the puranas as
• Dhokra horses, elephants, peacocks, owls, religious
depicted on the walls and pillars of temples.
images, measuring bowls, and lamp caskets etc., are highly
• Secondly, the images of deities consecrated inside appreciated.
temples, particularly popular among them are Srirangam
and Tirumala.




IN NEWS The legendary musician of Hindustani Classical music,

Annapurna Devi has passed away.
The U.S. returned two antique statues stolen from India.
These include Lingodhbhavamurti, a Chola era granite KNOW MORE
sculpture depicting an iconic representation of Lord Shiva, • Annapurna Devi was born in 1927 in Maihar, Madhya
and Manjusri, a phyllite sculpture depicting the Pradesh.
bodhisattva of wisdom, both dating back to the 12th • She was a famous Surbahar (bass sitar) player of
century. Hindustani Classical Music and belonged to the Senia
• The architecture in Chola Empire flourished and reached • She was born in an already famous musician family, with
its culmination post 850 AD. The most sophisticated her father, Ustad Allaudin Khan being the court musician
buildings in the form of temples were built during this era. of Maharaja Brijnath Singh.
• The Chola Temples had the Dvarapalas or guardian • Ustad Alauddin Khan is also credited with the foundation
figures at the entrance to the Mandapa (hall). The temples of Senia Maihar Gharana, to which Annapurna Devi
had fully developed Dravidian Style. belonged.
• Ganas were the most memorable figures made in the • As a recognition to her immense contributions in the field
temples. of art she was awarded the Padma Bhushan award in
• The Vijayalaya Cholisvara temple at Narthamalai was 1977 and Sangeet Nataka Academy award in 1991.
built during Vijayalaya Chola’s reign was dedicated to lord RELATED INFORMATION: SENIA MAIHAR GHARANA
Shiva. • It was founded by Alauddin Khan in Maihar, Madhya
• Koranganatha Temple, Srinivasanallur was built by Pradesh.
Parantaka Chola-I on the banks of River Cauvery. • Alauddin was a disciple of Wazir Khan and the latter
• It is located at Srinivasanallur. The mythical animal Yazhi, belonged to the Senia Gharana.
unique and recurring feature of Chola architecture has • It is due to this that Alauddin’s gharana is known as Senia
been sculpted at the base of the temple. Maihar Gharana.
• Chola bronze images are the most sought-after • Senia Gharana is associated with Tansen and his
collectors’ items by art lovers. For example: the Nataraja followers.
sculpture is world famous not only for its beauty but also
• Its compositions are a mix of Dhrupad aesthetics and
for its spiritual meaning.
Khyal style.
• A wide range of Shiva iconography was evolved in the
Tanjore region of Tamil Nadu.
• Lingodbhavamurti too, is an iconic representation ►AMITAV GHOSH
of Hindu god Shiva which is commonly seen in the South
Indian Hindu temples.
Amitav Ghosh, who is India’s leading contemporary writer
• The icon depicts the legend of the origin of the linga,
in English has been honoured with this year’s Jnanpith
Shiva's aniconic representation that is often used in his
Award, a literary award given to an author for “outstanding
contribution towards literature”.
• The Cholas made use of sculptures to decorate the walls,
pillars and roofs.
• Ghosh is the first Indian writer in English to have been
• Scenes of Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas along
chosen for this honour.
with Nayanars are sculpted in the narrative panels of the
Chola temples.


• His writing includes historical tales such as the subject matter. Usually they point up a moral or reveal a
forgotten Marichjhhapi massacre that he explored in single psychological truth.
The Hungry Tide (2004). • Premchand’s novels include: Premashram, Rangabhumi,
• Ghosh’s Ibis trilogy looks at the political economy of the Ghaban, Karmabhumi and Godan.
opium trade between India and China.
• At a time when culture has become viciously contested
• He explored the treachery of borders and maps in The territory and when a flourishing industry of hurt
Shadow Lines (1988), that won him the Sahitya Akademi sentiments mints political coin, Premchand remains a
award. moral sheet-anchor for writers and readers.
• Ghosh is also a recipient of the Padma Shri award.
• His most recent book was The Great Derangement
Climate Change published in 2016. ►ASEEL CHICKEN
The indigenous breeds of chicken have recently witnessed an
increased interest by breeders. The Aseel chicken in
particular is now being bred for its looks.
138th birth anniversary of Munshi Premchand was
celebrated across the country.
• The Aseel is an important native chicken breed in India.
• This breed is characterized by its hardiness and ability to
• He was author of novels and short stories in Hindi and
thrive under adverse climatic conditions, and its meat is
Urdu who pioneered in adapting Indian themes to
considered to have a desirable taste and flavour
Western literary styles.
• It is known for its stamina, pugnacity, majestic gait, and
• He was also known as Dhanpat Rai Srivastava.
dogged fighting qualities.
• Premchand worked as a teacher and he participated in
M.K. Gandhi’s Non-cooperation Movement. • For centuries, the ferocious Aseels were reared for their
fighting abilities during gladiator events and to inspire
• As a writer, he first gained renown for his Urdu-language
soldiers from retreating during a war.
novels and short stories.
• The pure breeds of Aseel are still found in its breeding
• His first major Hindi novel, Sevasadana, dealt with the
problems of prostitution and moral corruption among the tract, namely, in the state of Andhra Pradesh and in some
Indian middle class. areas of the states of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

• While Godan, which explores the lives of the rural poor, is • Aseel lovers now are more interested in the breed’s looks
his most famous work, his short stories and lesser-known and even hold beauty contests at periodic intervals.
works were committedly reformist, and took on live-wire RELATED INFORMATION: KADAKNATH CHICKEN
issues of the time, like widow remarriage.
• Kadaknath chicken is another important indigenous breed
• Premchand was also one of the first movers on corruption, in India. It is also known as Kalamashi in Hindi.
which is seen in the short story “Namak ka Daroga”,
• This breed is famous for its black-coloured meat.
about an inspector of the salt trade.
• It is being reared by tribal communities in its breeding
• Premchand’s works depict the social evils of arranged
tract of the Jhabua and Dhar districts in the western
marriages, the abuses of the British bureaucracy and
region of the state of Madhya Pradesh and in adjoining
exploitation of the rural peasantry by moneylenders
areas of the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan.
and officials.
• Much of Premchand’s best work is to be found among his • Chennai based Geographical Indication Registry and
short stories, collected in Hindi under the title Intellectual Property India has awarded Geographical
‘Manasarovar’. Indication (GI) Tag to Madhya Pradesh’s Kadaknath
• Compact in form and style, they draw, as do his novels, on
a notably wide range of northern Indian life for their


►SAHARIYA COMMUNITY d) Goa: Kolva Beach and

e) Bihar: Mahabodhi Temple
The Sahariya tribal community of Rajasthan is facing
poverty, starvation and unemployment despite government • The ‘Adopt a Heritage: Apni Dharohar, Apni Pehchaan’
support. This community is widely known for its tradition of scheme is an initiative of the Ministry of Tourism, in
mandana art. collaboration with the Ministry of Culture and the
Archaeological Survey of India. It was launched in
September 2017 on World Tourism Day.
• The Saharia also spelt as Sahariya and Seharia is the only
• Under it, the government invites entities, including public
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG) or Primitive
sector companies, private sector firms as well as
Tribal Group (PTG) of Rajasthan.
individuals, to develop selected monuments and heritage
• The term ‘Saharia’ is derived from the Arabic word ‘Sehara’
and tourist sites across India.
means wildness.
• Development of these tourist sites calls for providing and
• They are mainly distributed in Sahabad and Kishanganj
maintaining basic amenities, including drinking water, ease
Tehsil of Baran district of Rajasthan as well as Guna and
of access for the differently abled and senior citizens,
Shivpuri districts of Madhya Pradesh.
standardised signage, cleanliness, public conveniences and
• The Saharias speak Hadauti, an Indo- Aryan family of illumination, along with advanced amenities such as
languages. Their dialect is also influenced by Braj and surveillance systems, night-viewing facilities and tourism
Hindi to a large extent. facilitation centres.
RELATED INFORMATION: MANDANA ART • The sites/monument are selected on the basis of tourist
• The Saharias are highly acclaimed for their art work mainly footfall and visibility and can be adopted by private and
represented by the painting of Mandana. public sector companies and individuals — known as
• Mandana is drawn on wall, floor and sides as well as Monument Mitras — for an initial period of five years.
upper portion of the doors in houses. • The Monument Mitras are selected by the ‘oversight and
• The occasions include marriage, Holi, Diwali, Govardhan vision committee,’ co-chaired by the Tourism Secretary
Puja that is cattle caring ceremony and so on. and the Culture Secretary, on the basis of the bidder’s
‘vision’ for development of all amenities at the heritage
• Wide use of geometric design; floral and faunal pattern
are some of the speciality of their painting tradition.
• There is no financial bid involved. The corporate sector is
• Anthromorphic forms such as some human figures,
expected to use corporate social responsibility (CSR) funds
plants, natural scene, different birds, peacock, adobe of
for the upkeep of the site. The Monument Mitras, in turn,
deities, abstract designs etc. can also found in their
will get limited visibility on the site premises and on the
Incredible India website. The oversight committee also has
• Their wall painting depicts the scenario of Swang dance the power to terminate a memorandum of understanding
which is a typical dance of the Saharias. in case of non-compliance or non-performance.
• Under the scheme, the government has put up a list of
►ADOPT A HERITAGE SCHEME over 93 ASI monuments that can be bid for by private and
public sector firms, as well as individuals.
The government handed over a MoU to Resbird
Technologies, under the Adopt a Heritage Scheme Project for ►TANSEN SAMMAN
the development of mobile audio guide application for 5
iconic sites of
Noted sitar player Manju Mehta has been conferred with the
a) Rajasthan: Amer Fort
'Tansen Samman' for 2018 by the Madhya Pradesh
b) Assam: Kaziranga
government for her contribution in the field of music. The
c) Kerala: Kumarkom Tansen Music Festival is organised every year by the MP


culture department in the memory of Tansen, one of the ►RASHTRIYA SANSKRITI MAHOTSAV
greatest artists in Indian history.
KNOW MORE: TANSEN (1500- 1586 A.D.)
9th edition (2018) of ‘Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav’ under the
• Tansen also known to as Tan Sen or Ramtanu, learned
Ministry of Culture, was held in Tehri, Uttarakhand.
and perfected his art in the northwest region of modern
Madhya Pradesh.
• Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav was conceived by the
• Tansen is credited with the creation of the classical music
Ministry of Culture in the year 2015, when the Ministry
that dominates the north of India (Hindustani classical
decided to organize it with an intent to showcase the rich
music). Tansen was a vocalist and instrumentalist who
cultural heritage of the Country in all its rich and varied
created many ragas. He was initially the court singer of
dimensions, viz Handicrafts, Cuisine, Painting, Sculpture,
King Ram Chand of Rewa State.
Photography, Documentation and Performing Arts-Folk,
• Later, Emperor Akbar made him into his own musician
Tribal, Classical and Contemporary- all in one place.
after learning about his extraordinary musical skills. He
• Apart from this, Rashtriya Sanskrit Mahotsav is also used
went on to become one of the Navaratnas (Nine Gems) in
to promote Sanskrit Language.
the court of Mughal Emperor Akbar. The life of Tansen is
associated with many legends. Some of the most common
ones are his ability to create rain and fire by just using his
musical skills. Whatever the legends may be, there is no ►AMBUBACHI MELA
denying the fact that he was the greatest among all IN NEWS
musicians this country has ever produced. Ambubachi Mela is held in Guwahati after the Kamakhya
temple doors are closed.
• Ambubachi Mela, a four-day fair to mark the annual
IN NEWS menstruation of the goddess at Kamakhya temple.
It is a form of puppetry that is fighting for survival. It is still • Kamakhya, atop Nilachal Hills in Guwahati, is one of 51
popular in select rural pockets in the Prakasam district. shaktipeeths or seat of Shakti followers, each
KNOW MORE representing a body part of the Sati, Lord Shiva’s
• Tholu bommalata is the Telugu shadow theatre tradition companion.
of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and parts of Karnataka. • The architectural style of the temple is NAGARA and the
Tholu bommalata literally means the dance (atta) of the kingdom of Palas patronized the temple. There is no idol in
leather (tholu) puppets (bommalu). Among the many the temple and the temple’s sanctum sanctorum houses
traditions, tholu bommalata puppets are definitely the the yoni — female genital — symbolised by a rock.
most peculiar for their large size. • Temple priests said the ritualistic fair celebrating the
• The core of the performance is represented by epic stories goddess’ period is one of the reasons why the taboo
based on the Ramayana and to a lesser extent on the associated with menstruation is less in Assam compared
Mahabarata and some Vaishnava texts. with other parts of India. The attainment of womanhood of
• The performance includes comedy skits and is girls in Assam is celebrated with a ritual called ‘Tuloni Biya’,
accompanied by live music. On the stage the puppets meaning small wedding.
appear behind a white curtain, and the audience sees their
coloured shadows, not the actual puppets, enlivened by a
light source. ►PRAYAG RAJ
• Tholu bommalata includes many different arts: painting, IN NEWS
engraving, music, dance, acting, and storytelling. Despite The historic city of Allahabad is renamed as Prayagraj, Prayag
the efforts of some puppeteer families, shadow theatre in was the ancient name of this city. Rig Veda and some Puranas
India is an endangered traditional art. mention this place as Prayag giving it a high religious value in


India. The word Prayag in Vedas means "A Place of Sacrifice". ►DWIJING FESTIVAL
It is here the rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati meet.
Prayagraj is also called the "Emperor of Five Prayags" (Panch
Prayag). With an aim to provide livelihood opportunities to the locals
for better economic generation through rural tourism, the
3rd edition of 'Dwijing Festival' was celebrated in Chirang
• Akbarnama mentions that the Mughal emperor Akbar district of Assam on the bank of the river Aie.
founded the city of Allahabad. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni and KNOW MORE
Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar laid the
• Dwijing Festival is an annual river festival celebrated on the
foundations of an imperial city there which was called
banks of river AIE (Meaning mother in bodo language) in
Ilahabas or Ilahabad. Mughal ruler Akbar in 1575 named
the Bodoland Territorial Area Districts.
the city as Allahabad (Abode of Allah). He was said to be
• The festival included food carnival, exhibitions, games,
impressed by its strategic location and built a fort there,
sports, river campaigns and adventure activities among
later renaming it Ilahabas by 1584 which was changed to
other attractions.
Allahabad by Shah Jahan.
• The festival was initiated in the year 2016-17 under the
• Allahabad became the capital of the North-Western
moniker of "Aie River winter festival".
Provinces in 1858. The city was the capital of the United
Provinces from 1902 to 1920 and remained at the
forefront of national importance during the struggle for
Indian independence.
The annual Sangai Festival was celebrated in northeastern
►KAMBALA FESTIVAL state of Manipur.
The Supreme Court has refused to pass an interim order to • It is grandest festival of state named after state animal,
stay Ordinance allowing kambala, the traditional buffalo slush Sangai.
track race in Karnataka. The Karnataka HC had stayed these • Sangai is a medium-sized deer, with uniquely distinctive
traditional sports in view of Supreme Court’s ban on jallikattu. antlers, with extremely long brow tine, which form the
KNOW MORE main beam.
• Kambala is an annual buffalo race which is a tradition in • Status: Schedule-1 of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972,
the Karnataka's Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts' Endangered on IUCN Red List.
farming community. This area is called Tulunadu (Land of • As this festival is being celebrated to promote Manipur as
Tulu Language). a world class tourism destination, it showcases the states
• The festival was started by the Hoysala Kings to find out if contributions to art and culture, handloom, handicrafts,
the buffaloes could be trained and used during wars. fine arts, indigenous sports, cuisine, music, eco and
adventure sports, as well as the natural environment.
• The festival takes place in various categories, and the four
main categories are Negilu, Hagga, Adda Halage and Kene
• Negilu is the category where, while racing, the farmer
holds onto a plough which is tied onto the buffaloes. IN NEWS
• Hagga is the next category where the buffaloes have a This form is popular mainly in the Kannada-speaking areas of
rope tied onto them. Mysuru, Mandya, Kollegal, Chamarajanagara, Nanjangudu
• In the Adda Halage category, the buffaloes will have to and outskirts of Bengaluru.
race with a wooden plank tied on to them, on which the KNOW MORE
farmer would stand as the buffaloes race towards the • Kamsale refers to a brass made musical instrument. It is
finishing point. referred to as Batlu and Kaitala in ancient texts such as the
• Kene Halage, in which the farmer stands on top of a Basava Purana, Chennabasava Purana, Girija Kalyana. This
round-shaped block on a single leg.


is the main instrument used in the Kamsale dance, which Dham to differentiate it from this bigger circuit of Char
is named after the instrument. Dham sites.
• This form incorporates both the elements of dance and
martial arts.
• Kamsale is performed by the Haalu Kuruba / Kuruba
Gowda community who are devotees of Lord IN NEWS
Mahadeshwara. Google commemorated the 100th birth anniversary of
Mrinalini Sarabhai, a renowned Indian classical dancer, with a
IN NEWS • She was an expert on two south Indian dance forms of
Ghumot, Goa’s indigenous traditional percussion instrument Bharatanatyam and Kathakali, founded the Darpana
made from an earthen vessel, will be notified as a heritage Academy of Performing Arts.
instrument of Goa, Art and Culture. • In 1949, Mrinalini and her husband Vikram Sarabhai (a
KNOW MORE scientist considered to be the father of the Indian Space
• Traditionally, ghumot, a percussion instrument played Program), set up Darpana in Ahmedabad.
during Ganesh Chaturthi 'aarties' (prayers), is fashioned as • She received the Padma Shri in 1965, Padma Bhushan in
a designed clay pot, with the skin of the monitor lizard 1992, the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship in 1994 and
(locally known as 'gaar') stretched taut across the pot's the Nishagandhi Puraskaram, an annual award of the
mouth, forming a drumhead. Government of Kerala.
• Monitor lizards are classified as an endangered wildlife
species listed in Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection)
Act, 1972 because of which the ghumot was banned by
the state forest department.
• However, there has been a rise in interest in the musical
instrument after its makers started replacing monitor
lizard skin with the skin of a she-goat.


In November, amid prayers and chanting of Vedic hymns, the
annual Chardham Yatra in Uttarakhand came to an end with
the ceremonial closure of gates of the Badrinath temple. The
four pilgrim-destinations namely Yamunotri, Gangotri,
Kedarnath and Badrinath, collectively known as Chardham in
• The Char Dham ("four abodes") is a set of four pilgrimage
sites in India. Vaishnavite Hindus believe that visiting these
sites helps achieve "Moksha" (salvation).
• It comprises Badrinath, Dwaraka, Puri and Rameswaram.
• Another circuit of four ancient pilgrimage sites in the
Indian state of Uttarakhand viz. Yamunotri, Gangotri,
Kedarnath, and Badrinath is referred to as Chota Char





►SUFISM Khwaja Muinuddin
1. Ideology: Chisti, Ajmer
A) It was a liberal reform movement within Islam which Shiabuddin
spread into India in the eleventh century. Sufism stressed Suhrawardi
Suhrawari, Multan
the elements of devotion and love as a means of
realization of God. It recommended a Pir or spiritual Badruddin It was influenced by
guru to enhance spiritual development. It also Samaqandi, Bihar Suhrawardi order.
emphasized on meditation, musical performances Sheikh Ahmad
(Sama), fasting, charity and ascetic practices. Naqshbandi Khwaja Baqi Billah Sirhindi belonged to
B) Sufi silsilas were divided into two categories Ba-shara this school.
who followed Islamic tenets and Be-shara who did not
believe in Sharia.
2. Major Sufi Orders in India: ►BHAKTI MOVEMENT
1. Chishti Order: It is the oldest silsila of India established 1. Bhakti movement appealed to the masses due to its use
by Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti in Ajmer, who came to of regional languages. Bhakti saints condemned the caste
India during the reign of Muhammad Ghori. Iltutmish system and also gave importance to women.
built Muinuddin Chishti’s dargah at Ajmer. Chishti 2. The 12th century rise of Virashaivas or Lingayats in
saints led an austere life and did not accept private Karnataka who worshipped Shiva in his manifestation as
property and state assistance. Other notable saints of this a linga. They did not believe in the theory of rebirth,
order were Hamiduddin Nagori, Qutubuddin Bhaktiyar rejected caste hierarchy and advocated widow
Kaki, Baba Farid and Nizamuddin Auliya. remarriage.
2. Suhrawardi Order: It was brought to India by Bahauddin 3. The Nathpanthis, Sidhacharas and Yogis questioned
Zakaria who established this order in Multan. Unlike the authority of Vedas, criticized rituals and social order
Chishti saints, they lived a life of luxury and accepted state and used local language to win support. They condemned
assistance. idolatry and preached monotheism.


He was born in Tamil Nadu and had influence in Kanchi and Shrirangam. He was a Vaishnavite saint
Ramanuja (11th –
who believed in idol worship. He preached Visishtadvaita and emphasized on Bhakti over
12th century)
knowledge to attain God.

Nimabarka (12th He was a Vaishnavite saint and believed in the philosophy of dualism or Dvaita (creator is different
century) from creation). He worshipped Radha-Krishna and established his ashram in Vrindavana.

Madhvacharya (12th He was a Vaishnavite and believed in dualism. He was against the ideas of Shankara and Ramanuja.
– 13th century) He established Brahma Samapradaya.

He was the disciple of Ramanuja. He worshipped Rama instead of Vishnu. He preached in Hindi
Ramananda (15th over Sanskrit and taught people belonging to all varnas. However, he did not raise his voice against
century) the caste system. Adi Granth contains some of his preaching’s. Kabir and Ravidas were
Ramananda’s disciples.

He preached Hindu Muslim unity and did not believe in idol worship, caste system and
Kabir (15th – 16th
untouchablity. Adi Granth contains some of his preaching’s. Most of his teachings are compiled in

Ravidas He did not believe in idol worship. Adi Granth contains some of his preaching’s. Mira Bai was his



Guru Nanak (15th - Most of his teachings are similar to that of Kabir. He used to sing with a rabab in his hand and also
16th century) accompanied by a sarangi.

He was Kabir’s disciple and did not believe in idol worship and caste system. His main seat of
Dadu Dayal (16th –
influence was Rajasthan. He believed in leading a householder’s life and was once summoned by
17th century)
Akbar to Fatehpur Sikri for religious discussions.

Chaitanya He established Gaudiya Vaishnava dharma in Bengal and believed in advaita or non dualism. He
Mahaprabhu (15th – was among the few saints who did not oppose idol worship. He popularized the medium of Kirtana
16th century) in Bhakti.

Surdas 16th – 17th He was the contemporary of Akbar and Jahangir. He was a Krishna devotee and believed in idol
century) worship. His major composition Sur Sagar was completed during Jahangir’s reign.

Tulsidas 16th – 17th He was the contemporary of Akbar and wrote Ramacharitamanas in Awadhi language. His other
century) compositions include Dohavali, Gitavali and Kavitavali.
Vallabhacharya (15 He established Rudra Sampradyaya and was a contemporary of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. He
-16th century) propogated Pushti Marga and Bhakti Marga to attain God.

VIJAYANAGAR AND BAHMINI • There was constant conflict between VN Empire and
Bahamini kingdom over Raichur doab which was a fertile

KINGDOMS region between Krishna and Tungabhadra and also over

the fertile areas of Krishna-Godavari delta.
►VIJAYANAGAR KINGDOM • The Saluva dynasty was founded by Saluva Narasimha
and reined only for a brief period.
Four Dynasties- Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu
ruled Vijayanagar from A.D. 1336 TO 1672. • The Tuluva Dynasty was founded by Vira Narasimha. Its
greatest ruler was Krishnadevaraya. He was also known as
Andhra Bhoja. He had eight eminent scholars
• Srirangam Copper plates of Devaraya 2 provide the
Ashtadiggajas at his royal court. He built a new city called
genealogy and achievements of VN Empire.
Nagalapuram in memory of his queen Nagaladevi.
• Nicolo Conti, Venetian traveler visited the court of
• During the reign of Rama Raya, the combined forces of
Devaraya 1 and gave an account of VN Empire.
Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Golkonda and Bidar defeated
• Abdur Razzaq, Persian traveler stayed at the court of him at the Battle of Talaikotta in 1565 which marked an
Zamorin at Calicut and described the wealth and life of end of the VN Empire. The last ruler of VN Empire was Sri
VN Empire. Ranga 3.
• Domingo Paes and Barbosa, Portuguese travelers visited ADMINISTRATION
the court of Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagar.
• The empire was divided into different administrative units
POLITICAL HISTORY called Mandalams, Nadus, Sthalas and finally into
• It was founded in 1336 by Harihara and Bukka of the gramas. The governor of Mandalam was called
Sangama dynasty who originally served under the Mandaleshwar or Nayak.
Kakatiya rulers of Warangal. They later proclaimed their • Besides land revenue, tributes and gifts from vassals and
independence and founded a new city on the south bank feudal chiefs, customs collected at ports, taxes on various
of the Tungabhadra River named it Vijayanagar. Important professions were other sources of income to the
rulers of this dynasty were Devaraya 1 and 2. government.


• The army comprised of cavalry, infantry, artillery and scholar. His famous court poet Allasani Peddana wrote
elephants. The top grade officers of the army were known Manucharitam.
as Nayaks or Poligars. They were granted land in lieu of
their services which were called amaram.
• The Sangama rulers were chiefly Saivaites and Virupaksha
was their family deity. • The founder of the Bahmini Kingdom was Allaudin
Bahman Shah also known as Hasan Gangu in 1347. Its
• Diamond mines were located in Kurnool and Anantpur
capital was Gulbarga.
district. The chief gold coin was the varaha and chief item
of exports were cotton, silk, spices, rice, saltpeter and • Important rulers of this kingdom were Allaudin Bahman
sugar. The imports consisted of horses, pearls, copper, Shah, Muhammad Shah 3 and Firoz Shah.
coral etc. • Ahmad Wali Shah shifted the capital from Gulbarga to
• The art of shipbuilding had developed. Bidar.

CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS • The power of this kingdom reached its peak under
Muhammad Shah 3 as a result of the advice and services
• The most important temples of Vijayanagar style are found
of his minister Mahmud Gawan who was a Persian
in Hampi ruins. Vittalaswamy and Hazra Ramaswamy
temples are best examples of this style.
• By the year 1526 the Bahmini kingdom got divided into
• The peak of literary achievement was reached under
Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Berar, Golkonda and Bidar.
Krishnadevaraya who himself was a Sanskrit and Telgu

DELHI SULTUNATE also known as Shaista Khan. He established Diwan-e-

wakoof which was state expenditure department.
►SLAVE DYNASTY • Allaudin Khalji (1296-1316 A.D)- He forbade his nobles to
hold social gatherings like festive parties in order to stop
• Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-10 A.D)- The foundation stone
of Qutub Minar was kept under his reign to honor saint them from conspiring against him. He also banned wine
Qutubuddin Bhaktiyar Kaki. He also built the mosque and intoxicants. He reduced khuts and muqqadams to
Adhai Tin ka Jhonprah. ordinary cultivators. He introduced market control
measures by fixing prices of all commodities which were
• Iltutmish (1211-36 A.D)- He created a group of 40 of his
not allowed to be increased even by a dam during famine.
close associates known as Turk-e-chahalgani and
developed the Iqta system under which iqtas (piece of He created Diwan-i-Riyasat and Shabha-i-Mandi to
land) was given in lieu of cash salary. He introduced silver regulate fixed market prices. He also established Diwan-i-
tanka and copper jeetal. Mustakhraj for revenue administration. He was the first
sultan to pay his soldiers in cash. He introduced three
• Balban (1265-87 A.D)- He destroyed the chahalgani and
categories of soldiers: paidal, ek aspah and do aspah. He
introduced ceremonies like sijda, paibos and nauroz
(Persian new year) to emphasize noble’s inferiority to the introduced the dagh or branding system of horses so that
king. He created a department of spies and intelligence the soldiers may not bring horses of poor quality.
called Diwan-e-Barid and reorganized Diwan-i-arz (military Allaudin’s Chittor expedition got its mention a century late
department). in the work of Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s ‘Padmaavat’. He
built Siri Fort and Alai Darwaza.

• Jalaluddin Khalji (1290-96 A.D)- He overthrew the
successors of Balban to establish Khlji dynasty. He was • Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-25 A.D)- He established
Tughlaq dynasty.


• Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-51 A.D)- He transferred continued to prevail till modern times. He demolished
his capital from Delhi to Deogir. He introduced token many Hindu temples and imposed restrictions on Hindus.
currency and decided to introduce a bronze coin which • Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-26 A.D)- Ibrahim Lodhi’s arrogant
was to have the same value as silver tanka. He did not nature led Daulat Khan Lodhi (Punjab Governor) invite
reduce khuts and muqqadams to ordinary cultivators and Babur to invade India. Babur marched against Lodhi in the
set up an agricultural department Diwan-i-amir-i-kohi to first battle of Panipat (1526) and thus this Afghan kingdom
improve cultivation. was short lived.
• Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-88 A.D)- He made Jaziyah a
separate tax and set up a large department of public
works. He paid his soldiers in land revenue assignments. ► KASHMIR
• Sikandar Shah (1389-1413 A.D)- He vehemently
persecuted Brahmins in the valley and imposed Jaziya on
• Bahlul Lodhi (1451-89 A.D)- He established the Lodhi • Zainbul Abidin (1420-70 A.D)- He conciliated with the
dynasty. Hindus and restored their temples. He abolished Jaziya
• Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517 A.D)- He ruled from Agra and and cow slaughter and to respect the Hindu traditions
was a contemporary of Mahumud Beghara of Gujarat and withdrew the ban from Sati. He constructed Zaina Lanka,
Rana Sangha of Mewar. Under him highways were made artificial island on Woolur Lake on which he built a palace
free of robbers and dacoits. He established a new and a mosque.
measurement of yard called Gazz-i-Sikandari which

MUGHALS AND SURS decisive one was the Battle of Kannauj (1540) upon losing
which Humayun went into exile for 15 years.

► BABUR (1526-30 A.D) • He was able to recover his empire in 1555 following the
breakup of Sur empire.
• He was the founder of Mughal Empire in India. He was
related to Timur from his paternal side and Chengiz Khan
through his mother.
►SHER SHAH (1540-45 A.D)
• The Battle of Panipat (21st April, 1526) between Ibrahim
Lodhi and Babur led to the death of the former. Babur’s • He was the founder of Sur Dynasty and his original name
success is attributed to the use of gun powder and was Farid.
efficient cavalry. • He organized brilliant administrative system dividing his
• He defeated Rana Sangha of Mewar in the Battle of empire into sarkars further into parganas. Shiqdar
Khanwa in 1527 and secured his position in the Delhi Agra (military officer), Amin (land revenue), Fotedar (treasurer)
region. and Karkuns (accountants) were in charge of
administration in Parganas.
• He wrote Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki which provides a vivid
account of India. • He introduced a new silver coin called Dam which was in
circulation till 1835.
• He insisted on measurement of sown land and tax could
►HUMAYUN (1530-40 A.D) (1555-56 be paid in both cash and kind.
• He improved communication system and built the famous
Grand Trunk Road.
• He succeeded Babur and was defeated by Afghan ruler
• He borrowed the system of Dagh and Chehra from
Sher Shah at the Battle of Chausa (1539). However, the
Allaudin Khalji.


• He built a city near Yamuna of which sole survivor is • He maintained a large quota of troopers without raising
Purana Quila. their zat ranks known as Du-aspah and Si-aspah system.
• Malik Muhammad Jayasi completed his work Padmavat • Average salary to be paid to a sawar was reduced by
during his reign. Jahangir.

► AKBAR (1556-1605 A.D) • His wife Nur Jahan along with her father formed a junta
which managed Jahangir. She built Itimaduddauala tomb
• Hemu fought the Second Battle of Panipat (1556) against
in rememberance of her father which had pietra dura
Bairam Khan (Akbar’s regent) and was defeated.
• The Battle of Haldighati (1576) was fought between Raja
• Francisco Pelsaert came during his reign. He was a Dutch
Man Singh and Rana Pratap of Mewar where the latter was
merchant who worked for the Dutch East Indies Company.
• Ralph Fitch came during his reign.
• Todar Mal instituted a new system called Dahsala which ►SHAH JAHAN (1627-58 A.D)
calculated the average produce of different crops as wellas
• He was earlier known as Khurram.
prices prevailing over last 10 years. It was a reformed
• The area under cultivation and cash crop production
version of Zabti system of assessment.
increased during his reign.
• The land was divided into 4 categories Polaj (cultivated
• He stopped the practices of Sijda and Piabos.
every year), Parauti (once in two years), Chachar (once in
three or four years) and Banjar (once in five or more • Bernier, Tavernier and Manucci visited during his reign.
years). • He is credited with the architectural marvels like Taj Mahal
• Other methods of land assessment were Ghalla Bakshi made in white marble, Jama Masjid in Delhi built in red
(produce divided between state and peasant in fixed sand stone and Moti Masjid.
proportion) and Nasaq. • His reign saw a terrible war of succession between
• Under Mansabdari system a mansab/rank was assigned to Aurangzeb and his brothers Dara and Shuja.
the officer. The lowest rank was 10 and highest was 5000
for nobles. The ranks were divided into zat and sawar
which corresponded to personal status of the person and ►AURANGZEB (1658-1707)
number of cavalrymen required to maintain respectively. • He assumed the title of Alamgir. He used to issue secular
• The head of the military department was called Mir decrees called Zawabits.
Bakshi and Mir Saman was in charge of Imperial • He adopted a harsh religious policy, put a ban on sati,
household. destroyed Hindu temples and reimposed Jaziya.
• He built Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri where he called • He forbade music in the court practices like Nauroz,
theologians, mystics, intellectual nobles and courtiers. He Tuladan, Jharokha Darshna and discontinued celebration
promulgated a new religion called Din Ilahi which believed of Holi and Diwali in Durbar.
in one god and contained good points of all religions. He
• He executed the ninth Sikh Guru Tej Bahadur which led to
also the famous Red Fort in Agra , Humayun’s Tomb and
Sikh revolt and their turning into a warring community.
built Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri.
• He also faced Jat and Satnami uprising and turned
Marathas and Rajputs into the enemies of his empire.

► JAHANGIR (1605-27 A.D) • He constructed Moti Masjid and Rabia Durrani’s tomb.

• He beheaded the Fifth Sikh Guru Arjun.



• Managed to extend the Maratha territories into most of
►SHIVAJI (1674-80 A.D.) North-West, East and Central India.
• Aurangzeb sent Mughal governor of Deccan Shaista Khan • Lost the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 against Ahmad
against Shivaji whom he defeated. Shah Abdali.
• He attacked Surat the chief port of Mughals and plundered
• He was however defeated by Raja Jai Singh of Amber ►MADHAV-RAO I (1761-72 A.D.)
which led to the signing of Treaty of Purandhar in 1665. Fraught with internal dissensions and successful Wars with
• In administration, he was assisted by a council of ministers the Nizam.
called Ashtapradhan including Peshwa (finance and
general administration), Senapati (military commander),
Amatya (accountant), Waqeanavis (intelligence) etc. ►MADHAV-RAO II (1774-95 A.D.)
• He reduced the power of deshmukhs and kulkarnis and • First Anglo-Maratha War
appointed his own revenue officials karkuns.
• Dominated by the political intrigues of Nana Phadnis.
• Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were the taxes collected.
• Saw the resurgence of Maratha power in North India.
• His armyconsisted of cavalry supervised by havaildars and
infantry having Malvi foot soldiers as an important feature.
He also maintained a navy. ►BAJI RAO II (1796-1818 A.D.)
• Was defeated by Yashwantrao Holkar, ruler of Indore, at
the Battle of Poona.
• Fled to British protection, and in December 1802,
Assisted the Syed Brothers in deposing the Mughal Emperor
concluded the Treaty of Bassein with the British East
Farrukhsiyar in 1719.
India Company, ceding territory for the maintenance of a
subsidiary force and agreeing to treaty with no other
power. This provoked the Second Anglo-Maratha War
►BAJI RAO I (1720-40 A.D.) that began the breakup of the Maratha confederacy.
• Helped conquer Central India (Malwa) and Rajputana and • Third Anglo-Maratha War: After the defeat at the Battle
extended his dominions into Gujarat in the northwest and of Koregaon in January 1818, he was on the run from the
Deccan in the south. British. On 3 June 1818, Baji Rao surrendered to the
• Raided Delhi in 1738. He was the most powerful Peshwa. British; he was banished to Bithur near Kanpur.



Diwan-i-Arz (Delhi Sultunate) Military department

Ariz-i-Mamalik (Delhi Sultunate) Military head

Diwan-i-Risalat (Delhi Sultunate) Department of religious matters presided over by sadr who was
the leading Qazi

Diwan-i-Insha (Delhi Sultunate) State correspondence department


Barids (Delhi Sultunate) Intelligence agents

Wakil-i-Dar (Delhi Sultunate) Controller of Royal Household.

Amil (Delhi Sultunate) Head of Pargana (unit of land administration)

Khut (Delhi Sultunate) Land owner

Muqqadam (DelhSultunate) Village Headman

Zimmis Hindu subjects of the Islamic world who had to pay religious tax
of Jaziyah in order to get state protection

Charai (Delhi Sultunate) Grazing tax

Ghari (Delhi Sultunate) House tax

Zakat (Delhi Sultunate) Tax on flocks, herds, gold, silver, commercial capital and
agricultural produce.

Kharaj (Delhi Sultunate) Tax on land

Abwabs (Delhi Sultunate) Illegal/additional taxed which began in the reign of Muhammad
Bin Tughlaq

Diwan-i-Riyasat(Delhi Sultunate) Officials who supervised market affairs; appointed by Allaudin


Khalisa Land (Delhi Sultunate) The revenue earned from these lands goes directly in the
Imperial Treasury.

Inam Lands (Mughal) They were 50% cultivable wastelands and a holder was expected
to extend cultivation.

Madad-i-Maash (Mughal) Charitable grants

Araghatta (Mughal) Waterwheel used for Irrigation

Jama Dami(Mughal) Assessed income based on dams

Ahadis (Mughal) Gentlemen troopers

Baraq-andaz (Mughal) Musketeers

Walashahis (Mughal) Royal Bodyguards

Khudkasht (Mughal) Peasant who owned the land and paid revenue at customary

Muzarian (Mughal) Tenant farmers who paid revenue at a higher rate

Banjaras (Mughal) Traders-nomads as described by Peter Mundy in early 17th



• He was an Italian merchant.
Marco Polo • He visited Southern India during the reign of Rudramma Devi of the Kakatiyas.
• He talks about the economic conditions in the Pandyan kingdom.
Ibn Batuta • He was a Moroccan traveller.


• He visited India during the reign of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq.

• Rehla is the book written by Ibn Batuta in which he describes the socio-economic life of Mohammad
Bin Tughlaq.
• He particularly talks about the fertility of the soil.
• He was an Italian merchant from Venice.
Nicolo Conti • His work gives account of the Vijayanagar Kingdom.
• He visited India during the reign of Deva Raya I of Vijayanagar.
• He was a Persian scholar.
• He was also an ambassador of Persia.
Abdul Razzaq • He visited India during the rule of Deva Raya II of Vijayanagar.
• He also stayed at the court of Zamorin in Calicut.
• He talks about the wealth and life in the Vijayanagar kingdom.
• He was Russian traveller.
Nikitin • He visited the court of Mohammad Bahamani III.
• He talks about the class disparities in the Vijayanagar kingdom.
• He was a Portuguese traveller.
• He visited during the reign of Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagar kingdom.
• He was a Portuguese traveller.
Domingo Paes
• He visited the court of Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagar kingdom.
• He was a Portuguese traveller.
• He visited during the reign of Achyutdevaraya of Vijayanagar kingdom.
• He was a Persian scholar.
• He accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni and wrote a book titled ‘Tahqiq-i-hind’.
• He was the first Muslim scholar to study India.
• He is considered as the father of Indology.
• Al-Masudi was An Arab traveller.
• In his book Muruj-ul-Zehab he has explained about his journey.
• Captain William Hawkins led the first expedition of the English East India Company to India in 1609.
Captain William • He visited India during the reign of Jahangir.
Hawkins • He carried a personal letter from King James I of England.
• He did not succeed in getting Jahangir’s permission to start a factory.
• He was a Dutch merchant.
• He visited the court of Jahangir.
• Sir Thomas Roe was an English diplomat.
• He visited India during the reign of Jahangir in 1615.
Thomas Roe
• He came to seek protection for an English factory at Surat.
• His “Journal of the Mission to the Mughal Empire” is a treasured contribution to the history of India.
• He was a French physician and traveller.
• He visited India during 1658 and 1671.
• He was the personal physician of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.
• ‘Travels in the Mughal Empire’ was written by Francois Bernier.
Francois Bernier
• The book mainly talks about the rules of Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb.
• His book, Travels in the Mughal Empire mentioned the life of the peasantry, their poor conditions,
towns, industries, life in the countryside and the urban culture and, above all, the major
manufactures of India.
• He was a French merchant.
Tavernier • He visited India during the reign of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb.
• He has given an elaborate account about diamond and diamond mines in India.


• He was an Italian traveller.

Manucci • He visited during the reign of Shah Jahan.
• He got service at the court of Dara Shikoh.
• He was French traveller.
• He has given a good account of cities like Ahmedabad, Cambay, Aurangabad and Golconda.
Jean Thevenot
• He has graphically described the cultivation of indigo and the extent of its cultivation in his
book Remonstrantie.

• They also introduced gilding and painting in varied colours

►INDO-ISLAMIC and designs.

ARCHITECTURE • The Muslims, like the Romans, were also responsible for
making extensive use of concrete and lime mortar as an
Indo-Islamic architecture begins with the Ghurid occupation important factor of construction and incidentally used lime
of India at the close of the 12 century A.D. as plaster and a base for decoration which was incised into
►METHODS AND FEATURES OF it and held enamel work on tiles.

• The Muslim style of construction was based on arches, ►IMPORTANT MONUMENTS OF THE
vaults and domes, on columns and pyramidal towers
or slender spires, called trabeate.
• Quwwat-al-Islam: As the first - The Quwwat-ul-Islam
• Although there exists some evidence to suggest that the
Mosque was constructed by Qutub-ud-din Aibak around
true arch may have been known in India earlier, it is the
1197 A.D in Delhi. The building material obtained from the
Muslims who are believed to have brought the principle of
destruction of other buildings was used for this new
building a true arch so as to hold up the roof or ceiling or a
improvised building.
top part of a structure.
• Qutub Minar of Mehrauli: It was built around 1199 by
• The result was that flat lintels or corbelled ceilings were
Qutub-ud-din and finally completed by his son-in-law and
replaced by arches or vaults, and the pyramidal roof or
successor IItutmish (1210-35). Originally the minar had
spire by the dome.
four storeys, the uppermost of which was damaged by
• The mode, theme or motifs or ornamentation employed in lightning in 1373. Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351- 88) rebuilt its
Islamic buildings also made a departure from the earlier two storeys. This 72.5 m. high minar with 399 steps, is the
vogues. highest stone tower in India.
• The Hindu style or ornamentation is largely naturalistic • Arahi Din ka Jhopra: Another early mosque, is the well-
showing human and animal forms and the luxuriant known Adhai-din-ka-Jhonpra at Ajmer which was also
vegetation life. constructed from the material obtained after demolishing
• As among the Muslims the representation of living Hindu temples. This one is also laid on the same plan as
beings was taboo by way of decoration or ornamentation, the Delhi mosque constructed by Qutub-ud-din, with
they introduced geometrical and arabesque patterns, carved pillars used in colonnades.
ornamental writing and formal representation of plant
and floral life.
• Among the architectural features introduced by them ►IMPORTANT MONUMENTS OF THE
mention may be made of arches, domes, minars and
minarets, the pendentive, squinch arch, half domed
double portals, kiosks (chhatris) and the use of • Alai Darwaza: The Alai-Darwaza was, built by Allaudin
concrete as a factor of construction. Khilji by enlarging the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque's


enclosures of colonnades and providing them two ►IMPORTANT MONUMENTS OF THE

• In this and other buildings constructed by the Khiljis, the
true arch in the form of a pointed horseshoe, broad HUMAYUN’S TOMB
dome, recessed arches under the squinch, perforated • The first distinct example of proper Mughal architecture
windows, inscriptional bands and use of red sandstone inspired by Persian architecture, is the tomb of
relieved by marble are features characteristic of Khilji Humayun, in Delhi, built by his widow, Begha Begum. This
architecture. tomb has provided the prototype, followed by architects
who designed the Mausoleum of Jahangir at Shahdara,
Lahore, as well as the celebrated Taj Mahal, at Agra.
►IMPORTANT MONUMENTS OF THE • The square, red, sandstone, double storeyed structure of
TUGHLAQ DYNASTY the mausoleum rises over a high square terrace, raised
over a series of cells which are like a musical composition.
• The buildings constructed in Delhi by the Tughlaqs include
• The octagonal form of the central chamber containing the
the fortified town of Tughlaqabad and the tomb of
cenotaph, is inspired by Syrian and earlier Islamic
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq.
models. It is for the first time that pink sandstone and
white are used with admirable effect.
ARCHITECTURE • Akbar constructed his famous Fort at Agra which was
• In the course of the centuries after Khiljis and Tughlaqs made of red sand-stone. Its construction began in 1565
there was gradually a harmonious blending between the and completed in 1574.
Hindu and Muslim architectural styles and this new style • This was the first time that depressed stone was used,
of architecture is known as Indo-Islamic. also in the ramparts.
• It is entirely different in character from Muslim FATEHPUR SIKRI
architecture in other countries, incorporating the best of
• The Akbari Mahal and the buildings, along with the great
both Hindu and, Muslim styles, freely using Hindu
and original city of Fatehpur Sikri, are made under Akbar
brackets in an arcuate construction with a dome, with the
with the use of red sandstone with trabeated
difference that the Muslim dome now acquired a lotus
construction and restricted ornamentation. Jahangiri
design under its finial.
Mahal is also located here. The city of Fatehpur Sikri was
• Soon the local flavour was added of the provisional founded as a token of gratitude to Sheikh Salim Chisti.
kingdom of Bengal, Gujarat, Jaunpur, Golconda, Malwa
• The city was begun in 1569 and completed in 1574, the
and the Deccan to the Indo Islamic architecture.
same year in which the fort at Agra was completed. The
most typical and the most well-known building is Panch
Mahal, the highest and the most impressive structure,
►IMPORTANT MONUMENTS OF THE called the palace of five storeys. The Diwan-i-Khas or Hall
SURS DYNASTY of Private Audience, is of a unique design.

• Sasaram tomb: The tombs at Sasaram is located in Bihar. • The Jama Masjid at Fatehpur Sikri, besides being very
large and imposing, has also a high gateway on the south
• Another important monument is Sher Shah's own tomb.
side called Buland Darwaja, which was added after
The Purana Qila and the Quila Kohna Masjid inside, are
Akbar's victory over the Deccan. Only one building at
also ascribed to Sher Shah Suri.
Fatehpur Sikri is built of white marble, the tomb of
• The Surs made use of red and dark grey stone latticed
Sheikh Salim Chisti, Akbar's spiritual preceptor.
screens, decorative turrets, painted ceilings and
coloured tiles.


NUR JAHAN rather abruptly with the last of the great Mughals,
Emperor Aurangzeb.
• She is credited with the construction of Akbar's tomb at
Sikandara, and also the Musamman Burj, a double
storeyed pavilion on the Agra fort, with beautiful inlay.
• Nur Jahan, built the most important building in Agra the
tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula, her father and the Prime
Minister of Jahangir, by name Mirza Ghiyas Baig. On the
upper storey there is a pavilion with rectangular dome and
screens enclosing the false grave of Itmad-ud-Daula and
his wife.
• The structure is built of white marble and is richly
decorated with delicate inlay work and painting containing
the characteristic Persian motifs such as cypress trees,
vases fruits, winecups, etc.

• Shahjahan's buildings are full of delicate carvings in
marble, almost like filigree and inlay with pietra dura work.
• The arch used in his buildings became foliated, the dome
became bulbous with a constricted neck and pillars raised
with shafts capitals.
• He even demolished some of Akbar's simple pink
sandstone structures in the Agra Fort and replaced them
with more luxurious looking, magnificent marble building.
• Some lavishly decorated buildings credited to him are
Khas Mahal, Diwan-i-Khas, Moti Masjid, as well as the
Jama Masjid in Delhi.
• Shahjahan erected the most romantic and fabulous
building, the Taj Mahal, the tomb of his beloved wife,
Anjumand Bano Begum entitled Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj
is a square tomb built on a raised terrace, with graceful
tall minarets at its four comers. The dome has acquired
a lotus pattern below with the finial. Like Humayun's
tomb it was laid in a charbagh, or gardens with water
channels and full of flowers.
• In 1638 Shahjahan shifted his capital from Agra to Delhi
and laid the foundation of Shahjahanabad, the Seventh
City of Delhi, containing his famous citadel, the Red-Fort,
which was begun in 1639 and completed after 9 years. It
consists of a Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i-Khas.
• The luxury and love of constructing magnificent buildings,
patronised by Jahangir and Shahjahan came to an end


CURRENT affairs&
► SIKH GURU GOBIND SINGH • Its construction was completed in 1656.
• It primarily serves as a mausoleum. Mausoleum refers to a
stately building which houses one or more tombs.
A commemorative coin of Rs. 350 (Silver 50%, Copper
• The material used for construction of this monument is
40%, Zinck and Nickel 5% each) on Guru Gobind Singh was
dark grey basalt.
released to mark his birth anniversary.
• It is a great square hall enclosed by four lofty walls,
standby up octagonal towers at the corners, and the whole
• Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth and last Sikh Guru.
is surmounted by hemispherical dome.
• He was born in 1666 in Patna, Bihar and he was the son
• It is the largest single dome in India and second largest
of the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Teg Bahadur.
in the world.
• His literary contributions include texts like Dasam Granth
• This great compartment contains an elevated platform on
and Sarlobh Granth.
which five cenotaphs are placed.
• Dasam Granth is considered to be the next most
• Cenotaph is a monument dedicated to someone buried
important text in Sikhism after Guru Granth Sahib.
elsewhere, especially one commemorating people who
• He is credited with the formation of the Khalsa Panth died in a war.
(1699) which was a warrior community.
• He started the tradition of 5K’s which were five articles
• Jami Masjid: It was constructed by Ali Adil Shah I.
every Khalsa member must adorn.
• Naqqar Khana: Its architecture creates an optical illusion
• The 5k’s include Kesha, Kanga, Kara, Kirpan, Kacchera.
of being the Gol Gumbaz itself as the dome can be seen
• Khalsa tradition paved way to the formation of the Sikh rising over it.
empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1799.
• Whispering gallery: This gallery lies at base of the dome.
The acoustics of this gallery are so well planned that even
► GOL GUMBAZ the smallest sound made at one side is heard across the
other side of the Gumbaz.
Renovation work. Gol Gumbaz is the largest single dome of
India. It represents the essence of Decani Indo Islamic ►BADA IMAMBARA
Architecture which is very vital in understanding the artistic IN NEWS
history of the Deccan.
Bada Imambara is considered a landmark of Nawabi
KNOW MORE: architecture.
• It was built by Mohammad Adil Shah (1627-55) of the Adil KNOW MORE:
Shahi dynasty in Bijapur.
• It was built by Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth Nawab of Awadh,
• The dynasty was founded by Yusuf Adil Shah. who shifted the capital from Faizabad to Lucknow.
• They ruled the Western area of the Deccan region of • From 1775 to 1856, Lucknow was built by the Nawabs as a
Southern India from 1489 A.D. to 1686 A.D. unique architectural city with a syncretic culture.


• The Bara Imambara in Lucknow was built as a relief ► SHARQI ARCHITECTURE

measure for a populace stricken by famine in 1784.
• Nawab Asaf-ud-daula chose Kifayatullah as the main
Sharqis were an important ruling dynasty during Delhi
architect for making Bada Imambara.
Sultanate period and have contributed immensely in the field
• An Imambara is the place where congregational
of architecture.
assemblies are held to commemorate the sacrifices of
Imam Hussain, the grandson of Prophet Muhammad who
was martyred along with friends and male members of his • Sharqis were mainly known for construction of well-
family in the Battle of Karbala by Yezid, the ruler of Syria. known mosques in Jaunpur.

• Bada Imambara is constructed of brick lime and plaster • The architectural style is a union of Hindu and Muslim
as opposed to stone or marble, which can be considered architecture.
as a unique feature of this monument. • The main feature of Sharqi mosques is the huge
• Seven-level Shahi Baoli (stepwell): It was initially dug as rectangular pylon (gateway) with arches.
a well during construction. As it was a perennial source of • The mosques are also well known for their inclined walls
water, it was built as a guesthouse later. and square pillars.
• Asafi mosque: It is located on a raised plinth flanked by • They are made of stone and have fine carving and
minarets with an impressive flight of steps. It faces Mecca. latticework.
• Main hall: It consists of a vaulted roof which is one of the • Unlike the Delhi mosques of the same period, there are no
largest of its kind in the world. It is unsupported: no minarets.
column, pillars, wood or iron was used here. • The mosques at Jaunpur have cloisters for women to
• Bhool Bhulaiyya: The unique architectural design of the pray.
main hall gave birth to the famous bhool bhulaiyya, which • Atala Mosque: It was constructed during 1377-1408 AD
is above the hall and came about unintentionally to
• Jama Masjid: It was built by Hussain Shah Sharqi in 1417.
support the weight of the building. This is a labyrinth of
It is the oldest and biggest mosque in the area.
more passageways and identical doorways.
• Jhanjari Mosque: It was built by Ibrahim Shah Sharqi in
• It is among the few existing mazes in the world. Its
1430 AD. It was constructed on the model of Atala
acoustics are such that a match being struck on the other
side of the hall can be heard.
• Lal Darwaza: Its unique feature is the height of its
entrance gate which is less than its breadth.
• Use of Brick-lime plaster: The geography of Lucknow
meant that stone and marble, the main features of Mughal
architecture, had to give way to lakhauri brick-and-lime ► GOLCONDA FORT
plaster buildings which became its unique feature. IN NEWS
• Stucco ornamentation: the main improvisation given the Ruined structures of Golconda fort have been reconstructed
resources and the unavailability of stone was the beautiful under ASI.
stucco ornamentation on buildings along with plaster
decoration in the interior. It gave a deep relief even on flat
walls. • Golconda Fort is situated in Hyderabad, the capital of
Andhra Pradesh.
• Motifs: The variety of motifs includes floral designs, false
arches and false domes that produce an exceptional • The fort was built by the Kakatiya dynasty in the
surface articulation of walls, columns and ceilings. 13th century.

• Other main features of Nawabi architecture include: • Later, the Golconda fort came into the possession of the
bulbous domes, vaulted halls, chhatris and double arches, Bahmani dynasty.
with the inner one pointed and the outer one foliated. • Still later, the Qutub Shahi dynasty took over and made
Golconda its capital.


• In this respect, Golconda fort owes much of its present • He ruled only for a year as he was killed during the Battle
grandeur to Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah. of Giria in 1740, which he fought against Alivardi Khan.
• By the 17 century, Golconda was famous as a diamond
market. It gave the world some of the best-known
diamonds, including the 'Kohinoor'. ► CHOWMAHALLA PALACE
• The historic structures range from military and defensive IN NEWS
structures, mortuary baths, silos, mosques, gardens, The recent restoration of the Chowmahalla Palace in
residential quarters, pavilions and royal courts, Hyderabad has brought this heritage structure into limelight.
showcasing the entire range of structures that catered to
life in a medieval fortified town in India.
• Chowmahalla palace is palace of the Nizams of
• The magnificent architecture of the Golconda fort is as
Hyderabad state and seat of the Asaf Jahi dynasty.
imposing as ever, and this is evident from the colossal gate
• The palace was built by Nizam Salabat Jung.
at the entrance studded with long iron spikes, to deter
invading armies from battering it down. • Its construction began in late 18th century and
completed in mid of 19th century during reign of Asaf Jah
• The gate leads to the portico known as the Balahisar gate,
magnificent as the gate itself.
• Chowmahalla received the coveted UNESCO Asia Pacific
• It includes the modern acoustic system, which was so
Heritage Merit award for cultural heritage conservation
designed that a handclap sounded at the Balahisar gate of
in 2010.
the fort could be heard right up in the citadel.
• A memorable moment associated with this palace was the
coronation of Mukarram Jah Nizam VII in 1967.
The ruins of the Phuti Masjid lie as a lesser known example
of the Islamic architecture.
The grave of Yusuf Chak is under threat from land grabbers.
The caretakers of the grave have written to the government
• Phuti masjid is located in the city of Murshidabad, Bengal
seeking protection for this monument.
and it was built under the reign of Sarfaraz Khan (Ruler
of Bengal).
• He was the last native ruler of Kashmir who belonged to
• It is also known as Fouti Masjid wherein the term Fout
the Chak dynasty.
means death.
• He succeeded his father Ali Shah as the ruler of Kashmir
• Sarfaraz Khan died soon after the construction of Phuti
and ruled from 1579-1586 A.D.
masjid began. Hence, this is an incomplete monument.
• He was imprisoned by Mughal ruler Akbar and later exiled
ο The mosque consists of four cupolas at its corners,
to Bihar where he was given land in Nalanda district and
which are dome like structures.
permitted to maintain a cavalry of 500 soldiers.
ο The original plan of the mosque envisaged constructing
• This place where Yusuf settled din Bihar is known as
five domes, out of which only two are completed due to
Kashmir Chak.
the untimely death of the builder.
• He died in 1592 in Odisha but he was brought back to
• Sarfaraz Khan was the grandson of the famous Murshid
Bihar where he was cremated.
Quli Khan.
• Murshid Quli Khan founded the city of Murshidabad and
also founded the Nasiri dynasty. • It is located in Biswak, Bihar adjacent to Kashmir Chak
(place where Yusuf Chak settled in Bihar).
• Sarfaraz Khan ascended to the throne in 1739 with the title
of Alauddin Haider Jung.


• This place is famous for the celebration of Urs (death trade and association of hinterland people with seafaring
anniversary) of Yusuf Shah Chak, every year on 28th people.
December. • Other discovered artefacts include, glass bangle pieces of
• People pay their tributes by reciting verses from Quran, different designs and colours, sling balls, pestle, iron
offering Fateh Khani and by throwing light on his life. equipment like small wheel, ring, and arrow head.
RELATED INFORMATION: CHAK DYNASTY • These findings suggest the habitants were living in an
• It was the last native dynasty to rule independent Kashmir. urban settlement and had a materialistic lifestyle.

• The people of this dynasty belonged to Gurez in Kashmir.

• They were predominantly Sunni Muslims. ► CHISHTI SHRINE
• Kashmir was later annexed under the Mughal empire by IN NEWS
Akbar in 1589.
The historical Ajmer Sharif Dargah is all set to get a facelift.
This 13th century dargah has been included among the
► ASURGARH FORT Swachh Iconic Places, a clean-up initiative focused on iconic
heritage, spiritual and cultural places.
Archaeologists have unearthed artefacts believed to be
• Moinuddin Hasan Chishti was born in Sijistan (modern-
2,300-year-old while carrying out excavation at the Asurgarh
day Sistan) in Iran in 1141-42 CE.
Fort in Odisha’s Kalahandi district. The items excavated
date from Mauryan to the Kushan period. • After receiving Khilafat at the age of 52 from Sheikh Usman
Harawani, he went on Hajj to Mecca and Medina.
• While he was praying in the Prophet’s mosque in Medina,
• The term Asurgarh literally means fort of demons.
the Khwaja is said to have heard the Prophet telling him to
• It is believed that the fort was surrounded by moat on its go to Hindustan and to the city of Ajmer.
northern, eastern and southern sides.
• He proceeded via Baghdad and Herat to Lahore and
• Close to its western rampart, the river Sandul flows to the
thence to Delhi and Ajmer.
north thereby forming a natural moat on the western side
• Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti then started living and
of the fort giving it a natural defenses mechanism.
preaching in Ajmer.
• The fort had four wide gates in four cardinal directions
and at each gate was installed one guardian deity.
• The original dargah was made of wood and a stone
• These guardian deities are named as Ganga at the eastern
canopy was built over it later.
gate, Kalapat at the western, Vaishnavi at the northern
and Dokri at the southern gate. • The first concrete evidence of construction in the dargah
• A number of brick structures were revealed and Wedge- complex is the cupola of the shrine that was embellished
shaped bricks are also noticed in the circular structures. in 1532.
Most of the structures have terracotta tiles with groves • This is indicated in an inscription written in golden
and hole for socketing. letters in the northern wall of the tomb.
• This suggests that the Asurgarh people during that time
• The dargah hosts elements of Indo-Islamic architecture
probably used stone rubbles and tile fragments for
which includes a lotus motif that adorns the dome and a
flooring their houses and the streets.
golden crown offered by Nawab Haider Ali Khan of
• Silver punch marked coins, silver and copper toe ring
Rampur sits on top of it.
and ear rings, beads of carnelian, jasper, beryl, garnet,
agate and coral have been found. Interestingly, some of • Most of the additions made to the shrine were done
these artefacts were as old as 2,300 years. during the reign of Akbar, by the emperor himself.

• The findings of coral beads and imperial variety of silver • Akbar first visited the shrine in 1562. He then started his
punch mark coins strongly indicates about long distant annual pilgrimages to this shrine.


• In 1568, Akbar offered a degh (brass cauldron) for MAJOR TEACHERS OF THE CHISHTI SILSILA
cooking of langar.
• Another cauldron was offered by Jahangir in 1614 which is DEATH DARGAH
placed opposite the first cauldron. Both cauldrons are in Shaikh Moinuddin Sijzi 1235 Ajmer (Rajasthan)
use today.
Khwaja Qutbuddin
• A silver and mother of pearl canopy offered by Jahangir 1235 Delhi
Bakhtiyar Kaki
can be seen on four silver posts above the cenotaph of the
Shaikh Fariduddin Ajodhan
dargah. 1265
Ganj-i Shakar (Pakistan)
• A railing around the main shrine was offered by Jahanara
Shaikh Nizamuddin
Begum, the Sufi princess and daughter of Shah Jahan. 1325 Delhi
• Jahanara Begum also built a small platform known as Shaikh Nasiruddin
1356 Delhi
Begumi Chabutra after her title of Padshah Begum. Chiragh-i Dehli
• Akbar gave instructions to build mosques and khanqahs in
Ajmer in 1569 under which the Akbari mosque of red
sandstone was built.
• Shah Jahan also built a mosque in Ajmer in 1637 along
The Prime Minister visited Maghar in Sant Kabir Nagar district
with the Shah Jahani Darwaza.
of Uttar Pradesh and paid homage to the great saint and
• The entrance is adorned by the well-decorated Nizami poet, Kabir on the occasion of 500th death anniversary of
Gate which then leads to the Dargah bazaar. the great saint. The Prime Minister also visited the Saint
• This gate is yellow with floral designs and was built in Kabir Cave, and unveiled a plaque to mark the laying of
1911 by British engineers at the behest of the Nizam of Foundation Stone of Saint Kabir Academy, which will
highlight the great saint’s teachings and thought.
• The Naqqar Khana, or drum house, lies next to the Nizami
gate. A huge silver chandelier hangs here which was • Kabir was mystic saint and poet who emerged during the
Bhakti Movement in the region of Kashi and Maghar
presented by the Golden Temple committee to the dargah.
situated in present day Uttar Pradesh.
• The main shrine is located into the Ihaata Noorani, or
• The date of Kabir’s birth is a subject of debate, however it
Quarter of Light.
is estimated that he lived between 14th and early 15th
• This is one dargah where women are allowed, which century A.D.
makes it unique. • Kabir was a disciple of Ramananda along with Ravidas
• This shrine has been visited by Muhammad bin Tughlaq, (another famous Bhakti saint). Ramannda was
Sher Shah Suri, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, Dara Shukoh, Vaishnavite saint who worshipped Rama instead of
Jahanara Begum and Aurangzeb etc. Vishnu.
• Kabir was the contemporary of Sultan Sikandar Lodi.
• The Chishti order was started in India by Moinuddin
Chishti. • Guru Nanak Dev and Kabir too were contemporaries and
had several teachings in common including Nirguna
• They led an austere, simple life and conversed with
Bhakti, Rejection of Idol worship among others.
people in their dialect i.e. Hindawi or Hindi.
• Kabir propagated Nirguna Bhakti, monotheism and
• They made themselves popular by adopting musical Hindu Muslim unity. He vehemently opposed idol
recitations called sama. worship, untouchability and challenged the priestly
• Some of the famous disciples of this order include caste system among both dominant religions. He believed
Bhaktiyar Kaki, Farid-ud-Din and Nizamuddin Auliya. in a householder’s life and objected to asceticism.


• He preached the concept of oneness of God and, b) University Library and Convention Hall (1874-78),
according to him, the Supreme manifested itself in c) the Bombay High Court (1878),
d) the Public Works Department Office (1872),
• Rama was his personal God or rather, Rama was the name
e) Watson’s Hotel (1869),
given by him to the Supreme Self.
f) David Sasoon Library (1870),
• Some of his verses are compiled in Adi Granth.
g) the Elphinstone College (1888), etc.
• His main teachings were compiled in Bijak. Other works
The Art Deco styled buildings to the west of the Oval Maidan
attributed to him are Kabir Granthawali, Anurag Sagar,
were raised in early 20th century on the newly reclaimed
Sakhi Granth etc.
lands at Marine Drive and symbolised the shift in
• Kabir Panth is the huge religious community which
expression to represent contemporary aspirations.
identifies the Kabir as the originator of the Sant Mat
• Nirguna bhakti refers to devotion towards a formless
God even while calling him variously as Rama, Govinda,
Hari or Raghunatha.
• Saguna Bhakti refers to devotion towards a god with
attributes or in human form. Vishnu in its incarnations
as Rama, or Krishna, are most popular deities that were
worshipped by Saguna Bhakti saints.


The Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai
has been declared as a World Heritage Property by UNESCO
in Manama, Bahrain. The decision was taken at the 42nd
session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO at
Manama in Bahrain. As recommended by the World Heritage
Committee, India accepted the renaming of the ensemble as
“Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai”.
• The Ensemble consists of 94 buildings primarily of 19th
century Victorian Gothic revival and early 20th century Art
Deco style of architecture with the Oval Maidan in the
• Together, this architectural ensemble represents the most
remarkable collection of Victorian and Art Deco buildings
in the world.
• The 19th century Victorian buildings form part of the
larger Fort precinct situated to the east of the Oval Maidan.
a) the Old Secretariat (1857-74),






1608 William Hawkins went to Jahangir who appointed him as mansabdar and allowed to trade in India

1611 Started trading at Masulipatanam

1613 Thomas Best got permission to set up a factory at Surat

1615 Thomas Roe went to Jahangir and got permission to set up factories at Agra, Ahmedabad and Broach

1632 Golden Farman issued by Sultan of Golconda to trade free in the kingdom of Golconda for a fixed customs duty.

1633 Factories established at Balasore and Hariharpur, Orissa

1639 Ruler of Chandragiri permitted to set up fortified factory at Madras which later became Fort St. George

1651 Factories established at Hooghly, Kasimbazar, Patna and Rajmahal

1700 Fort William established with Charles Eyre as its first President

• Farrukhsiyar's granted a Farman to EIC which is regarded as Magna Carta for the company. Under this, Co.'s
imports and exports were exempted from additional custom duties in Bengal, Bombay and Madras.
• EIC was aso permitted to issue dastaks and was permitted to rent more land around Calcutta.
• The Company was also permitted to mint its own coins.

►EIC AND BENGAL: IMPORTANT districts of Burdwan, Midanpur and Chittagong. Mir Kasim
shifted capital from Murshidabad to Munger in Bihar.
• Alivardi Khan ruled till 1756 and he was succeeded by
• EIC heavily misused the dastaks granted by Farrukhsiyar
which led to a tussle between Mir Kasim and the company.
• The latter placed Mir Madan as Diwan at the place of Mir A conflict over transit duty led to outbreak of wars
Jafar. between English and Mir Kasim in 1763. The disputes then
• Mir Jafar thus conspired with the British. culminated into the Battle of Buxar wherein the combined
BATTLE OF PLASSEY armies of Mir Kasim, Nawab of Awadh and Shah Alam II
were defeated by Hector Munro at Buxar in 1764.
• The was fought in 1757 between Siraj-ud-daulah and the
Britishers who were led by Robert Clive. TREATY OF ALLAHABAD, 1765

• The latter won and made Mir Jafar the Nawab of Bengal • This treaty was consequence of the Battle of Buxar

and posted an English resident at the Nawab’s court. wherein Shah Alam II agreed to reside at Allahabad and
granted Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to British.
• Treaty of 1760: Mir Jafar was removed as the Nawab of
This led to dual government in Bengal controlled by EIC
Bengal and the English helped Mir Kasim to become
and Nawab at the same time, yielding losses to the public.
nawab. In return, he agreed to cede the Company, the
Warren Hastings did away with dual system in 1772.


►EIC AND MYSORE signed Treaty of Bassein (1802) with English in which he
surrendered city of Surat, gave up claims of chauth on
FIRST ANGLO MYSORE WAR (176-69) Nizam’s dominion.
The Nizam of Hyderabad, Marathas and English allied • After the Peshwa accepted subsidiary alliance, Sindhia and
together against Mysore’s ruler Haider Ali. This was ended Bhonsle attempted to save the Maratha kingdom.
with Haider Ali forcing the English to sign a humiliating treaty However, they were all defeated one after other.
with him in 1769 called as Treaty of Madras.
• Bhonsle defeat; Treaty of Devgaon; 1803
• Sindhia defeat; Treat of Surajiarjangaon; 1803
This war was concluded with the Treaty of Mangalore, 1784.
• Holkar defeat; Treaty of Rajpurghat; 1806
Haider Ali died and his son Tipu Sultan took his place.
3rd ANGLO-MARATHA WAR (1817-19)
• Bajirao II made a last bid to fight against British but he was
Tipu Sultan was defeated by EIC and the Treaty of
defeated at Khirki, Bhonsle were defeated at Sitavaldi and
Seringapatam was concluded. Under this treaty Tipu lost
Holkars at Mahdipur. Final annexations of their lands were
half of Mysore’s territory.
done under the following treaties.
• Treaty of Poona; Peshwa; 1817
This conclusive war led to the fall of Seringapatam. The
• Treaty of Gwalior; Sindhia; 1817
English chose a Hindu boy from earlier ruling royal family i.e.
the Wodeyars as the Maharaja and imposed subsidiary • Treaty of Mandasor; Holkar; 1818
alliance on him.
He was the pioneer of rocket technology. He introduced
the practice of sericulture and was a member of Jacobin • Sindh accepted subsidiary alliance in 1839.
club. He also planted a liberty tree at Seringapatam. • In 1843 under Governor General Ellenborough, Sindh
was finally merged into British empire and Charles Napier
was appointed as its first governor.
►EIC AND MARATHAS • Sindh also signed the Tripartite treaty with the English
• Marathas included several clans. Out of these prominent and Ranjit Singh.
were: Gaekwad of Baroda, Bhonsle of Nagpur, Holkars
of Indore, Sindhias of Gwalior and Peshwas of Poona.
• In 1775, Raghunath Rao signed Treaty of Surat with TREATY OF AMRITSAR (1809):
English wherein he ceded territory of Salsette and Bassein It was signed between Ranjit Singh and English wherein the
to English. This treaty was later ratified as Treaty of latter accepted Sutlej as boundary line for his dominion. He
Purandhar in 1776 with Raghunath renouncing regency was also compelled by the English to sign the Tripartite
with pension. treaty.
• The Treaty of Purandhar was violated by Nana Phadnavis FIRST ANGLO-SIKH WAR (1845-46):
which led to a war in Pune. As a result, the English
It ended with Treaty of Lahore (1846) in which J&K was sold
surrendered by 1779 and signed the Treaty of Wadgaon.
to Gulab Singh.
However, this treaty was rejected by Hastings who went on
to defeat the Sindhias and captured Ahmedabad and
Bassein. Sindhia then proposed a new treaty between Under this Lord Dalhousie proceeded to Punjab. A total of
Peshwa and English i.e the Treaty of Salabai (1782). three battles were fought between them and in the end,
Punjab was annexed in 1849.
2nd ANGLO-MARATHA WAR (1803-05)
• A tiff between Peshwa (Bajirao II) and Holkars happened
and as a reaction to this Bajirao II fled to Bassein and


►ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES USED TO 3. Doctrine of lapse: It was started by Lord Dalhousie

wherein adopted son of any ruler could not become the
ANNEX STATES heir of state. States annexed under this policy: Satara
1. Policy of ring fence: It was started by Warren Hastings, (1848), Jhansi and Nagpur (1854), Awadh (1856)
to create buffer zones in order to defend the Company’s Sambalpur (1849), Udaipur (1850).
frontiers. The states brought under this policy were
assured of military assistance but at their own expense.
2. Subsidiary alliance: It was started by Lord Wellesley ►FOREIGN POLICY OF BRITISH INDIA
wherein allying Indian states ruler was compelled to
Anglo Burma relations: 1st Anglo-Burma war happened
accept permanent stationing of British force within his
from1824-26; over with treaty of Yandbo (1826). 2nd A-B war
territory to pay subsidy for its maintenance. It was an
happened in 1852. Under the 3rd A-B war, Burma was finally
extension of the Ring Fence policy. States annexed under
annexed in 1885
this policy: Awadh (1801), Hyderabad (1800), Mysore
(1799), Tanjore (1799), Peshwa (1801), Berar (1803),
Sindhia (1804), Holkars (1818).

GOVERNOR & GOVERNOR- courts) at Calcutta. He also redefined Hindu and Muslim

GENERALS • Hastings was involved in the Rohilla War (1774),1st Anglo-

Maratha War (1776–82) and 2nd Anglo-Mysore War (1780–
►GOVERNORS OF BENGAL (1757–74) 84).

• ROBERT CLIVE: He became the Governor of Bengal during

1757–60 and again during 1765–67. He established the
Dual Government in Bengal from 1765–72. He is credited
as the true founder of British Political dominion in India. • He was the first person to codify laws in 1793. This code
separated the revenue administration from the
• CARTIER: He was the Governor during the infamous
administration of justice. He also created the post of
Bengal Famine that happened in 1770.
district judge.
• Cornwallis introduced Permanent Settlement in Bengal
• He is called ‘the father of civil service in India’.
• He also introduced Police Reforms with respect to Indian
 WARREN HASTINGS (1772–1785) administration wherein, each district was divided into 400
sq. miles and placed under a police superintendent
• He brought the Dual Government of Bengal to an end by
assisted by constables.
the Regulating Act, 1773.
• Cornwallis was involved in the 3rd Anglo-Mysore War.
• He wrote the introduction to the first English translation of
the ‘Gita’ by Charles Wilkins and also founded the Asiatic
Society of Bengal with William Jones in 1784.  SIR JOHN SHORE (1793–98)
• He divided Bengal into districts and appointed collectors
He introduced the 1st Charter Act of 1793.
and other revenue officials.
• He started the Diwani and Faujdari adalats at the district
level and Sadar diwani and Nizamat adalats (appellate


 LORD WELLESLEY (1798–1805) • Bentick abolished the provincial courts of appeal and
circuits set up by Cornwallis and appointed Commissioners
• He started the Subsidiary Alliance system to achieve British
of revenue and circuit.
paramountcy in India. The Madras Presidency was formed
during his tenure.  SIR CHARLES METCALFE (1835–
• He was involved in the 4th Anglo-Mysore War (1799 and 1836)
the 2nd Anglo-Maratha War (1803–05).
He passed the famous Press Law, which liberated the press in
 LORD MINTO I (1807–1813) India and due to this he is called ‘Liberator the Indian Press’.
• He concluded Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh (1809).
 LORD AUCKLAND (1836–42)
• Under Lord Minto the Charter Act of 1813 was passed.
• He was involved in the 1st Anglo-Afghan War (1836–42).
 LORD HASTINGS (1813–1823) • Under him the Tripartite treaty was signed between the
• He adopted the policy of intervention and war. East India Company, Maharaja Ranjit Singh and Shah
• He was involved in the Anglo-Nepalese War (1813–23) and Shuja.
the 3rd Anglo-Maratha War (1817–18).
• As a result of the 3rd Anglo Maratha War, Hastings forced
humiliating treaties on Peshwa and the Scindia. • He brought an end to the Afghan War.

• He introduced the Ryotwari settlement in Madras with • During his tenure, Sindh was annexed in 1843 under the
Thomas Munro. guidance of Charles Napier.

• He is known for the suppression of the Pindaris. • He abolished slavery in 1843.


• He was the most liberal and enlightened Governor-General • The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–46) (British Empire crushed
of India who is regarded as’ the Father of Modern the Sikh Empire and confiscated major portion of its
Western Education in India’. territory)
• He abolished Sati in 1829. • Treaty of Lahore (1846) (British confiscated Kashmir from
• He is credited with the suppression of thugees with the the Sikhs and sold it to Raja of Jammu for 75 lakh rupees)
help of Colonel Sleeman. • Establishment of Roorkee Engineering College.
• Under his rule Mysore was annexed in1831.
 LORD DALHOUSIE (1848–56)
• He concluded a treaty of perpetual friendship with Ranjit
Singh (1831). • He abolished Titles and Pensions.

• He passed the Charter Act of 1833, which provided that no • Under him the Widow Remarriage Act was passed in 1856.
Indian subject of Company was to be debarred from • He made Shimla the summer capital for British.
holding an office on account of his religion, place of birth,
• Under his tenure Gurkha regiments were raised.
descent and colour.
• He recommended the Thomsonian system of Vernacular
• On recommendation of Macaulay Committee, Bentick
education for the North western Provinces in 1853.
made English the medium of higher education in India.
• Charles Wood’s Educational Despatch of 1854 was passed
• He founded Calcutta Medical College in 1835.
which led to the opening of Anglo-Vernacular Schools and
Government Colleges in India.
• He is credited with the introduction of the first railway line
in 1853 (connecting Bombay with Thane).
• He also started the first electric telegraph service.
 LORD W. BENTICK (1833–35) • He is credited for laying down the basis of the modern
postal system (1854).
• Under the provision of the Charter of India act 1833 he
became the first Governor-General of India.


• A separate public works department was set up for the • He was also involved in the 2nd Anglo-Burmese War (1852)
first time under him. and annexation of Lower Burma or Pegu.
• He introduced the infamous Doctrine of Lapse. • Under him Berar and Awadh were also annexed on
• He was involved in the 2nd Anglo-Sikh War (1848–49) and charges of maladministration.
as a result annexed the whole of the Punjab in 1849.


India witnessed an upheaval of socio religious reform movements during the 19th century. The nature of these movements was
either reformist or revivalist.



• Roy supported monotheism. He set up Atmiya Sabha to

campaign against idolatry, caste rigidities and declared
Vedanta as basis of reason.
Atmiya Sabha (1815)
• He started an anti Sati struggle leading to regulation of
Calcutta Unitarian Committee
government in 1829 making Sati a crime.
Raja Rammohun • Calcutta Unitarian Committee was established by Raja
1 Vedanta College (1825)
Roy Rammohun Roy, Dwarkanath Tagore and William Adam.
Brahmo Samaj (1828)
• He established Vedanata college which offered both Indian
and Western courses.
• Brahmo Samaj was against image worship and prayers,
meditation and reading of Upanishads were part of daily

• He gave a new life to Brahmo Samaj.

Tatvabodhini Sabha Debendra Nath
2 • Tatvabodhini Sabha studied India’s past with rational
Brahmo Samaj Tagore

• Keshab Chandra Sen was a champion of women’s rights.

His ideology was mix of religious and social ideas. He
established the Nava Vidhan in 1881 along with the
newspapaer New Dispensation to disseminate his religious
ideas and philosophy.
Brahmo Samaj
Keshab Chandra • Keshab witnessed a split in Brahmo samaj with Keshab and
3 Prarthana Samaj (1863)
Sen his followers founding Adi Brahmo Samaj and setting up of
Indian Reforms Association
Sadharan Brahmo Samaj by his ex-followers.
• Prarthana Samaj was founded in Bombay by Atmaram
Pandurang with the help of Keshab Chandra Sen. Other
prominent leaders associated with it were M G Ranade, R G
Bhandarkar. It took up the issues of caste system rejection,


women education and widow remarriage.

• Keshab Chandra Sen was instrumental behind the
foundation of the Indian Refrom Association which aimed
at improving the life of peasants.

• Derozio taught in Hindu College, Calcutta.

Young Bengal Movement
4 Derozio • Surendranath Banerjee described Derozians as pioneers of
modern civilizations of Bengal.

• He became principal of Sanskrit College and opened it to

non Brahmins to break priestly monopoly. He also served
Sanskrit College Ishwarchandra as Secretary of Bethune School, Calcutta which was the
Bethune School Vidyasagar pioneer of higher education for women.
• His actions supporting widow remarriage led to its

• Phule was against brahamanical supremacy and promoted

women’s education and remarriage.
6 Satyashodhak Samaj Jyotiba Phule • His works Sarvajanik Satyadharma and Gulamgin were
inspiration for masses.
• He along with his wife opened a girl’s school in Pune.

The Servants of India Society The organisation’s aim was to train national missionaries for
7 G.K Gokhale
(1905) service of India.

Social Service League He founded AIUTC in 1920 and Social service League in
8 N M Joshi
All India Trade Union Congress Bombay.

• It was initiated to spread the message of Vedanta with its

Swami headquarters at Bellur, Calcutta.
9 Ramakrishna Mission (1897)
Vivekananda • Swami Vivekananda addressed Parliament of Religions at
Chicago in 1893.

• It was a Hindu revivalist movement. The samaj started a

Shuddhi Movement to covert non Hindus to Hindusim.
• It fixed the minimum marriageable age as 25 for men and
16 for girls and helped people in crisis like floods. The
10 Arya Samaj samaj also established DAV Schools with emphasis on
western education.
• Dayananda Saraswati’s views are collected in Satyarth
Prakash. He gave the slogan ‘back to the Vedas’ and said
they were infallible. He attacked hindu orthodoxy.

11 Seva Sadan (1885) Malabari It was established for welfare of women.

Dharma Sabha He was the founder President of British India Association in

12 Radhakant Deb
British India Association 1951.

Shiv Narayana
13 Deva Samaj

14 Bharat Dharma Mahamandala Madam Mohan It was an orthodox Hindu organization in Varanasi.



Narayana Guru Dharma

These were aimed at caste rigidities started among Ezhavas
15 Paripalana Movement Ezhava community
of Kerela.
Temple Entry Movements

16 Vokkaliga Sangha It was an anti Brahmin organization in Mysore.

Justice Movement C N Mudaliar, T M It began in Madras in order to secure jobs and representation
Nair, Tyagaraja for non Brahmins.

• Madras Presidency Association was founded in 1917 to

Madras Presidency Associatiom E V Ramaswamy
18 demand separate representation of lower castes.
Self respect Movement Naicker
• Self Respect movement was anti Brahmin in nature.

19 Vaikom Satyagraha (Kerela) K P Kesava It aimed at opening Hindu temples to untouchables.

M G Ranade and
20 Indian Social Conference Its first session was held at Madras in 1887.
Raghunath Rao

• It was an Islam revivalist movement.

21 Wahabi Movement Shah Walliullah • Other such movements include Faraizi and Ahmadiya

• This movement emerged as a liberal trend in Muslim

Sir Syed Ahmed intelligencia.
22 Aligarh Movement
Khan • Sir Syed’s progressive ideas are propogated through

Mohammad Qasim • The school aimed to train religious leaders for Muslim
Nanotavi and community.
23 Deoband School
Rashid Amhed • It was seen as a revivalist movement organized by the
Gangohi Ulema .

Naoroji Furdunji, K • It aimed at regeneration of Parsi’s and Zoroastrian religion.

R Kama, S S It also believed in upliftment of Parsi women.
24 Rahnumai Mazdayasnan Sabha
Bengalee and D. • The message of reform was spread by its newspaper Rast
Naoroji Goftar.

• This movement came to be allied with Hindu renaissance.

It accepted hindu beliefs such as reincarnation,
H P Blavatsky and Upanishads and Vedanta.
25 Theosophical Movement
M S Olcott • Annie Besant is associated with this movement and was
elected as the President of the Theosophical Society in

Shiv Narayana
26. Deva Samaj

Vishnu Shastri
27. Widow Remarriage Association




These declared infanticide illegal and it was followed by another act in

1. Bengal regulations of 1795 and 1804
1870 that made it compulsory for parents to register birth of all babies.

The practice was done away with under William Bentinck, as a result of the
2. Abolition of Sati (1829)
efforts of Rajaramohun Roy.

It was passed by the tremendous efforts of Ishwarachandra Vidyasagar

3. Hindu Widow Remarriage Act (1856)
and legalized marriage of Hindu widows.

4. Native Marriage Act (1872) The act prohibited child marriage.

This act forbade marriage of girls below 12 and Malabari took an active
5. Age of Consent Act (1891)
part in it.

6. Sarda Act (1930) This act pushed marriageable age to 18 for boys and 14 for girls.

Indian Women’s University, Bombay It was set up by D K Karve, who took up the women’s cause in Western
(1916) India and he himself married a widow.



Censorship of Press Act, 1799 It was enacted by Lord Wellesley.

Licensing Regulation Act, 1823 It was enacted by John Adams.

Press Act of 1835/ Metcalfe Act It was seen as the ‘liberator of Indian Press’.

Registration Act 1867 It replaced Metcalfe’s act. It was regulatory but not restrictive in nature.

Vernacular Press Act, 1878 It was nicknamed as ‘gagging act’. It came as a discrimination against vernacular press
over English press. No right of appeal was given to the Vernacular press. This act was
repealed by Rippon in 1882.

Officials Secret Act, 1904 It was enacted during Lord Curzon’s time mainly to restrict the freedom of press.

Newspaper Act, 1908 It was mainly aimed against extremist nationalist activity.

Indian Press Act, 1910 It revived the worst features of Vernacular Press Act.

Indian Press (Emergency Powers) Act, This act gave sweeping powers to the provincial government to suppress the Civil
1931 Disobedience Movement.


1. Bengal Gazette, 1780, Calcutta James Augustus Hickey (1st newspaper in India)


2. Bombay Times (from 1861 The Times of India), Thomas Bennett

1838, Bombay

3. Rast Goftar, 1851 Dadabhai Naoroji (Gujarati fortnightly)

4. Hindu Patriot, 1853, Calcutta Girishchandra Ghosh

5. Indian Mirror, 1862, Calcutta Devendranath Tagore (first Indian daily newspaper in English)

6. Shome Prakash, 1859 Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

7. Bengalee ( this along with Amrita Bazar Patrika Girishchandra Ghosh (taken over by S N Banerjea)
were the 1st vernacular papers), 1862, Calcutta

8. Amrita Bazar Patrika, 1868, Jessore district Sisirkumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh

9. The Hindu, 1878, Madras G.S. Aiyar, Viraraghavachari and Subba Rao Pandit

10. Kesari and Maharatta, 1881, Bombay Tilak, Chiplunkar and Agarkar

11. Swadeshamitram, Madras G.S Aiyar

12. Paridasak,1886 Bipin Chandra Pal (publisher)

13. Yugantar, 1906, Bengal Barindra Kumar Ghosh and Bhupendra Dutta

14. Bande Mataram, Paris Madam Bhikaji Cama

15. Bombay Chronicle,1913, Bombay Pherozshah Mehta

Editor: B.G Horniman

16. The Hindustan Times, 1920, Delhi K M Panikkar

17. Bahishkrit Bharat, 1927 (Marathi fortnightly) B R Ambedkar

18. Bandi Jivan, Bengal Sachin Sanyal

19. National Herald, 1938 Jawaharlal Nehru

►EDUCATION downward filtration theory and focused on educating the

masses. Grants were given for the same. It recommended
UNDER COMPANY’S RULE English as the medium of instruction for higher studies
• Calcutta Madarsah was set up under Warren Hastings in and vernacular at school level.
1781 for the study of Muslim law. Sanskrit College was • In 1857 universities were set up at Calcutta, Bombay
set up under Jonathan Duncan in 1791 for the study of and Madras. An agriculture institute was set up at Pusa
Hindu law. by Lord Curzon and an Engineering institute at Roorkee
• Fort William College was established under Richard was started in 1847.
Wellesley in 1800 to train civil servants of the company UNDER CROWN’S RULE
in Indian languages and customs.
• Hunter Commission (1882-83): It focused upon taking up
• Lord Macaulay’s Minute (1835): This was in favor of primary education in vernacular languages.
Anglicists over Orientals. It suggested that the limited
• Indian Universities Act (1904): It was based on the
resources of the government should be devoted to teach
recommendation of the Raleigh Commission (1902). With
Western sciences and literature in English alone, and thus
this act Curzon justified greater control over universities in
promoted ‘downward filtration theory’.
the name of quality and efficiency. Gokhale called it a
• Charles Woods Despatch (1854): It was a dispatch on the ‘retrograde measure’.
education system of India and considered as the Magna
Carta of English Education in India. It repudiated


• Saddler University Commission (1917-19): It was set up education. Zakir Hussain Committee formulated a detailed
to study and report on the problems of the Calcutta national scheme for basic education.
University but was applicable on other universities as well. • Sergeant Plan of education: It was worked out by Central
• Under Montague-Chelmsford reforms education was Advisory Board for education in 1944. It recommended
shifted to provincial ministries and government stopped free universal and compulsory elementary education for 6-
taking direct interest in educational matters. 11 years of age group.
• Wardha Scheme of Basic Education (1937): It was
introduced during the Congress national conference on

IMPORTANT • The Police Commission of 1860 led to the establishment

of Indian Police Act, 1861 which recommended inspector

ADMINISTRATIVE AND LAND general as head of province, deputy inspector general as

head of range and SP as head of district.
SETTLEMENT ACTS • In 1902 Police Commission recommended to establish CID
in provinces and CIB in centre.


►CIVIL SERVICES • Under William Bentinck, Persian was replaced by English in
Supreme Court.
• The Civil services were introduced by Cornwallis.
• In 1833, Law Commission under Macaulay led to
• Indian Civil Services act was passed in 1861 under which
codification of Indian laws and as a result Civil Procedure
the examination was conducted in England in English
Code (1859), Indian Penal Code (1860) and Criminal
based on classical learning of Greek and Latin. In 1863
Procedure Code (1861) were prepared.
Satyendra Nath Tagore became the first Indian to qualify
for Indian Civil services. • In 1865, Supreme court and Sadar Adalats were merged
into three High Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and
• The maximum permissible age was reduced gradually
from 23 to 19 years by 1878, to which INC objected after its
inception in 1885. It also demanded to hold the exams • Under GOI Act 1935, a Federal Court was established.
simultaneously in India and Britain.
• Later Aitcheson Committee on Public Services in 1886
raised age limit to 23.
• In 1791 Cornwallis organized a regular police force by
• It laid the foundation of central administration by British
modernizing the system of thanas in a district under a
in India.
daroga and SP at head of district.
• Governor of Bengal now became the Governor General of
• In 1808 Mayo appointed SP for each division helped by
Bengal (Warren Hastings was the first governor general),
making Governors of Madras and Bombay its
• William Bentinck abolished the office of SP and made subordinates. An executive council was created.
collector/magistrate the head of police force in his
• It led to the establishment of Supreme Court in Calcutta
in 1774.


►PITT’S INDIA ACT OF 1784 • It ended the dual government system by abolishing
Board of Control and Court of Directors.
The act distinguished the commercial function of the
company under Court of Directors and political functions
under the Board of Control (supervised all civil and military ►INDIAN COUNCILS ACT, 1861
operations) which consisted of chancellor, secretary of state
• The act initiated a process of decentralization by
and four members of Privy Council.
restoring powers to Bombay and Madras.
• It gave recognition to the portfolio system, introduced
►CHARTER ACT OF 1813 by Canning in 1859, under which a member of Viceroy’s
council was made in charge of one or more department of
It led to an end to the trading activities of East India
government and was authorized to issue final orders on
Company in India but it retained the trade with China and
behalf of council on matters of his department.
the trade in tea.


• The act made Governor General of Bengal as Governor ►PERMANENT SETTLEMENT
General of India (William Bentinck was the first
Governor General of India) and vested all civic and • Permanent settlement was introduced in 1793 by Lord
military powers in him. It further deprived Bombay and Cornwallis and covered around one fifth of British
Madras of legislative powers. territory in India, including Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, parts of
Northern Karnataka, Varanasi and some other areas.
• The act led to an end of the commercial activities of the
Company which now became a purely administrative body. • With the permanent settlement, the auctioning of land
Company’s trade with China and in tea also ended. (Izaradar system in Bengal) came to an end. The company
recognized Zamindars as owners of soil under this
• Territories in India were now to be governed in the name
system. They were given permanent hereditary rights to
of crown.
collect revenue. They were needed to pay a fixed amount
• As a result of this act slavery was abolished in 1843 by of land revenue on a fixed date every year. This amount
Ellenborough. could not be increased later; however, if the Zamindar
failed to pay the amount on fixed date, the Company
could sell their land via public auction.
►CHARTER ACT OF 1853 • Zamindars were allowed to keep force and maintain order
• The act separated the executive and legislative functions of in their districts. They were expected to improve the
the Governor General council. conditions of the tenants but the company would not
interfere in their internal dealings with the tenants so long
• It led to open competition in Civil services and thus
they paid the fixed land revenue.
covenanted civil services were now open to Indians.


• The Ryotwari system was introduced by Thomas Munroe
and Captain Reed first in Madras presidency. It was
• It led to the transfer of power from East India Company later extended to Bombay, Parts of Bengal, Assam,
to British crown. Coorg etc.
• The designation of Governor General was now called • Under this system the settlement was made by the
Viceroy (Lord Canning was the first viceroy) who was government directly with the cultivator (ryot) who
the direct representative of British crown. thus was the proprietor, but only for a period of time.
• A new office of Secretary of State was created. This time was fixed for thirty years after which it was
subject to re-assessment and re-settlement on new terms.


The government share was fixed at 55% of the produce, India, Punjab, parts of Gangetic valley etc. during
which was highest ever share. regime of Lord Hastings.
• Though the cultivator got security of tenure but was • Mahal refers to an estate with many cultivators. In
subject to a very heavy duty, thus leaving no motivation for Mahalwari system, all the proprieties of a Mahal were
cultivation. jointly and severally responsible, in their persons and
property, for the sum assessed by the government on that
• A third type of system called Mahalwari system was
introduced in Agra, Awadh (Oudh), Central parts of

PEASANT AND WORKING- growing tension between moneylenders and peasants

where the former was socially boycotted.

CLASS MOVEMENTS • As a conciliatory measure the Deccan Agriculturists

Relief Act was passed in 1879.


►INDIGO REVOLT (1859-60) • It was against the stronghold of taluqdars over agrarian
society. Majority of the cultivators were subjected to high
• In Bengal the European indigo planters forced the local
rents, summary evictions, illegal levies and nazrana.
peasants to grow indigo instead of high yielding crops. The
revolt was led by Digambar Biswas and Bishnu Biswas of • It was mailnly due to the efforts of the home rule activists
Nadia district. The revolt was also supported by Bengali that Kisan sabhas were organized in UP. The UP Kisan
intelligentsia. Sabha was set up in February 1918 by Gauri Shankar
• In November 1860 government issued a notification that Mishra and Indra Narayana Dwivedi. It was also supported
ryots could not be compelled to grow indigo and its by Madan Mohan Malviya.
cultivation wiped out by 1860 from Bengal. • The Awadh Kisan Sabha came into existence in 1920 which
asked the kisans to refuse to till bedakhali lands, not to
offer hari and begar (forms of unpaid labor) and solve
►PABNA AGRARIAN LEAGUES (1870’S- disputes through panchayat.

• The unrest was caused due to the oppressive practices of ►EKA MOVEMENT (1920’S)
the zamindars in Eastern Bengal.
• It occurred in some northern districts of United Provinces:
• The league organized rent strikes but their main form of Hardoi, Bahraich, Sitapur, as a result of high rents,
struggle was that of legal resistance. As a result, in 1885 oppression by thikadars (revenue officials) and the practice
Bengal Tenancy act was passed. of share rents.
• Young intellectuals like Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, R C • Important leader was Madari Pasi.
Dutt and S N Banerjea supported the peasants cause.


• The ryots of Deccan region had already suffered from • The Mappilas were muslim tenants inhabiting the Malabar
heavy taxes under Ryotwari system. In 1874, there was region where most of the landlords were Hindus. They


faced oppression from their landlords. The movement ►TEBHAGA MOVEMENT (1946)
merged with the ongoing Khilafat movement.
• In Sept 1946, Bengal Provincial Kisan Sabha gave a call to
• The anti-government and anti-British nature of this
implement through mass struggle the flood commission
movement later acquired communal overtones, but was
recommendations of 2/3rd share to the bargardars instead
repressed by 1921.
of one half share.
• The storm centre of the movement was north Bengal
principally among Rajbanshis (low caste tribals). Muslims
►BARDOLI SATYAGRAHA (1928) too participated in large numbers.
• The movement sparked off when authorities decided to
increase the land revenue by 30%. In 1926 Vallabhai Patel
was called to lead the movement. The women of Bardoli ►TELANGANA MOVEMENT (1946)
gave him the title ‘Sardar’.
• It was the biggest peasant guerilla war of modern India. It
• The movement was organized via chhavanai’s or worker
was against vethi or forced labor, excessive rents and
camps along with Bardoli Satyagraha Patrika to mobilize
forced exploitation by the landlords.
public’s opinion.
• The uprising began in July 1946. The peasants organized
themselves into village sanghams but had to face brutal
• The Telangana movement however yielded some results
(1936) such as disappearance of forced labor in guerrilla
• This sabha was founded in Lucknow in April 1936 with controlled villages, agricultural wages were raised and
Swmai Sahjanand Saraswati as the president and N.G illegally sized lands were restored.
Ranga as the general secretary.
• It held its session along with Congress at Faizpur in 1936.

 WORKING CLASS • The Chennai Labour Union, founded in 1918 by

B.P.Wadia was perhaps the first trade union

MOVEMENTS organization of Indian on modern lines.

• Gandhi founded Ahmedabad Textile Labor Association
►LEADERS AND ORGANIZATIONS also known as Majdur Mahajan in1918-20.

• The earliest labour leaders were Sasipada Banerjee of • In 1920, All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC), which
Bengal, S.S. Bengalee and N.M. Lokhanday of Mumbai. was influenced by the Social Democratic ideas of British
labor party was created by N.M.Joshi. The first session
• Sasipada Banerjee founded the first labor organization
of AITUC was held in Mumbai with Lala Lajpat Rai as the
Working Men’s Club in 1870 at Kolkata. She also
President & Dewam Cham Lal as the Secretary. The INC
published the journal Bharat Sramjeevi.
session at Gaya in 1922 welcomed the formation of AITUC.
• N.M. Lokhanday could be regarded as the first leader of
• A dip came in the working-class movement because of
the Indian workers. In 1890 he founded Mumbai Mill
split in 1931 in which corporatist trend led by N M Joshi
hands Association and protested against the poor
broke away from AITUC and formed All India Trade Union
conditions in the factories. He published the journal
Federation in 1929. V.V. Giri was its first president.


►LABOR LAWS PASSED DURING THE • Trade Dispute Act, 1929: Special courts were constituted
for settling dispute. Strike was made illegal in public utility
• First Factory Act, 1881: Commission for this purpose was
constituted in 1874. It prohibited child labor below 7 years,
fencing of dangerous machinery and fixed working hours ►LABOR CONSPIRACY CASES DURING
for child below 12 years.
• Second Factory Act, 1891: Commission for this purpose
was constituted in1884. It prohibited child labour below 9 • Kanpur conspiracy, 1924: Dange, Usmani, Nalini Gupta
years, fixed working hours for child below 14 years and and M. Ahmed were involved.
weekly holiday for women. • Meerut conspiracy, 1929: 31 leaders including 3 British
• Indian Trade Union Act, 1926: Legal status was given to Philip Sparts, Ben Bradely, Lester Hutchins along with
trade unions and rights of registered union were Dange, Muzaffar Ahmed, Jogelkar, Usmani etc. were
recognized. involved.


The Poligars of Dindigal and Malabar rose up against the
TRIBAL UPRISINGS oppressive land revenue system under British rule. Sporadic
risings of poligars in Madras Presidency continued till 1856.

► KUKA REVOLT (1840)
► AHOM REVOLT (1828) It was founded by Bhagat Jawahar Mal in W Punjab. Its basic
The revolt was against Britishers who had pledged to tenets were abolition of caste and similar discrimination
withdraw after first Burma War from Assam but instead among Sikhs, discouraging the eating of meat and taking of
attempted to incorporate Ahom’s territory in Company’s alcohol and drugs and encouraging women to step out of
dominion. seclusion.


It was a semi religious sect founded by Karam Shah in ►CHUAR UPRISING (1766-72; 1795;
northern district of Bengal. An activist fervor to this sect was
imparted by Tipu Sultan.
It was taken by the aboriginal tribesmen of Midnapore district
against famine, enhanced land revenue and economic
► FARAIZI REVOLT distress under British rule.
Faraizis were the followers of the Muslim sect founded by
Haji Shariat Allah of Faridpur in E Bengal. It advocated radical
religious, social and political changes. The revolt aimed to ►HO UPRISING (1820-22; 1831)
expel English from Bengal. They also supported the cause of
It was taken by the Ho and Munda tribesmen who rose up
tenants against zamindars.
against Company’s forces. Ho tribals were led by Raja Parahat
against occupation of Singhbhum by British.


►KOL MUTINY (1831) ►KUKIS REVOLT (1917-19)

It covered many parts of present-day Orissa and was led by It occurred in Manipur against British policies of recruiting
Buddho Bhagat. It began as a result of large-scale transfers of labor during the First World War.
land from Kol headmen to outsider Sikh and Muslim farmers.

►NAGA MOVEMENT (1905-31)

►SANTHALS UPRISING (1854-56) It was led by Jadonang in Manipur against British rule and
It was led by Sido and Kanhu in Bihar against the practices of setting up of Naga Raj.
zamindars and moneylenders, the rebellion later turned anti-
It was led by Gaidinuliu in Manipur which led to formation of
►KHASI UPRISING (1830’S) Naga Association in 1946.
EIC wanted to build a road linking Brahmaputra valley with
Sylhet in response to which Khasis, Garos, Khampis and
Singhpos organized themselves to revolt under Tirath Singh. ►BHIL UPRISING (1817-19; 1913)
Bhils were the aboriginal tribes around Khandesh who
revolted against EIC fearing agrarian hardships in 1817.
►MUNDA REVOLT (1899-1900) During 1913 revolt aim at forming Bhil Raj.
It was led by Birsa Munda with an aim to establish Munda
rule by killing thikadars (revenue farmers), jagirdars, rajas and
hakims. ►GOND UPRISING (1940’S)
Its aim was to bring together the believers of Gond dharma.

INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT: • The Indian Association of Calcutta, 1876: It superseded

the Indian League led by younger nationalists of Bengal S.

MODERATE PHASE Banerjea and Anand Mohan Bose.

• Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, 1867: It was established by M.G
►POLITICAL ASSOCIATIONS BEFORE Ranade as a bridge between people and government.

INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS • The Bombay Presidency Association, 1885: It was

founded by Badruddin Tyabji, Pherozshah Mehta and K
• Bangabhasha Prakasika Sabha, 1836: It was formed by
T Telang.
the associates of Raja Rammohun Roy.
• The Madras Mahajan Sabha, 1884: It was founded by M
• Bengal British India Society, 1843: It worked to collect
Viraraghavachari, B. Subramaniya Aiyer and P.
and disseminate the actual information of the condition of
people in British India.
• East India Association, 1866: It was established by
Dadabhai Naoroji in London.
• Indian League, 1875: It was founded by Sisir Kumar
• A. O Hume mobilized the leading intellectuals and
organized the first session of INC at Bombay in Dec 1885.


S. Banerjea and Anand Mohan Bose were main architects • A British committee of INC was established in London in
of the Indian National Conference. 1899 which had India as its organ.
• The first session of INC was presided over by W C • Early nationalists led by Naoroji, R C Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha
Bonnerjee. Other important presidents include Dadabhai and others put forward the drain theory and were able to
Naoroji (was elected 3 times as president), Badruddin create an all India opinion that British rule in India was the
Tyabji, Pherozshah Mehta, Sarojini Naidu among major cause of poverty. The moderated campaigned for
others. The first woman president of INC was Annie Besant Indianisation of government services on the economic
and first Muslim president was Badruddin Tyabji. grounds that British servants expected very high salaries
• Safety Valve theory: Hume argued that INC would prove which were remitted back to England, while inclusion of
to be a safety valve for releasing the growing discontent of Indians will be more economical.
Indians. To this end, he convinced Lord Dufferin not to • Lord Dufferin called Congress ‘a factory of sedition’.
obstruct the formation of congress. The government later used carrot and stick policy to pit
moderates against extremists.


• Main Leaders: Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozshah Mehta, D
E Wacha, W C Bonnerjee, S N Banerjea. This act was passed during the moderate phase of INC under
• Main ideas: Moderates believed in liberalism and which number of members in the Imperial and Provincial
moderate politics. They aimed at constitutional Legislative Councils were increased.
agitation and orderly political progress. They had a
narrow social base.

INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT: • Moderates took up the charge of the movement from

1903-05. They set up public meetings, signed petitions and

EXTREMISTS PHASE raised their propaganda through newspapers and

pamphlets. They resisted the idea of extremists to take the
►MILITANT NATIONALISM/ movement outside Bengal.
• Extremists took over the movement in 1905 as the
moderates were unable to achieve positive results. They
• By the dawn of the 20th century militant approach introduced methods like boycott of foreign cloth and
nationalists emerged. Its main leaders were Tilak, A K emphasis on self reliance. It launched programs on
Dutt, Raj Narain Bose, Bipin Chandra Pal, Vishnu Swadeshi and national education. The movement was
Shastri Pandit and Lala Lajpat Rai. joined by students, women and Muslims. The partition
• Main ideas: Extremists had hatred for foreign rule and was annulled in 1911.
believed in the capacity of masses. They saw Swarajya • A big step was taken at the Congress session held at
as the goal and advocated direct political action through Calcutta in 1906 under Dadabhai Naoroji where it was
self sacrifice. declared that the goal of INC was self government.
• The moderates and extremists had different ideas to go
about the movement which led to a split between the
►SWADESHI AND BOYCOTT party at the Surat session INC in 1907.
MOVEMENT • The movement saw the emergence of samitis such as
Swadesh Bandhab Samiti (Barisal) of A K Dutta which
• It began as a reaction to the proclamation of partition of
Bengal in 1905. The motive of partition was to weaken became strong instruments of mass mobilization.
Bengal which was the nerve of Indian nationalist activity. • Bengal National College inspired by Tagore’s
Shantiniketan was set up with Aurobindo Ghosh as its


principal. On August 15, 1906 a National Council of ►MORLEY MINTO REFORMS, 1909
Education was set up to organize a system of education
• The reforms were preceded by Shimla Deputation in
on nationalist lines.
October 1906 under which a group of Muslim elites led by
• Another important development was the propping up of Agha Khan met Lord Minto and demanded separate
All India Muslim League in 1906 as an anti- Congress electorates for Muslims.
front. Its main leaders were Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Aga
• Under these reforms in 1909, the number of elected
Khan and Salimullah of Dacca. The Muslim League
members in the Imperial Legislative Council and provincial
intended to preach loyalty to the empire and to keep
legislative councils were increased. Separate electorates
Muslim intelligentsia away from Congress. were introduced for Muslims and income qualification for
Muslim was kept lower than Hindus voters. One Indian
was to be appointed to the Viceroy’s executive council
►REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITIES (Satyendra Sinha was the first to be appointed in 1909).

BENGAL • From 1909 reforms people had expected self government

but they were given instead was benevolent despotism.
• The first revolutionary group was the Calcutta Anushilan
Samiti founded by Pramotha Mitter in 1902. He was
joined by Jatindranath Banerjee and Barindra Kumar
Ghosh among others. ►FIRST WORLD WAR AND
• In 1908, Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose attempted to REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITY
murder Muzzaffarpur Magistrate, Kingsford. In the
• The onset of First World War received a divided Indian
same year Barrah Dacoity was organized by Dacca
response. While the moderates and extremists supported
Anushilan under Pulin Das. In 1912 Rashbehari Bose and
the British in the war, the revolutionaries decided to utilize
Sachin Sanyal threw bomb at Viceroy Hardinge.
this opportunity.
• Important revolutionary papers were Sandhya and
• America: Earlier activists set up Swadesh Sevak Home at
Yugantar (1906, started by Bhupendra Dutta and Barindra
Vancouver and United India House at Seattle.
• The Ghadr party began in 1913 and carried out
revolutionary activity in North America. It organized a
• In the 1890’s Tilak began propogating militant ideas weekly newspaper The Ghadr with its headquarters at San
through his journals Kesari and Maharatta. In 1897 two Francisco. Important members were Lala Hardayal,
of his disciples, the Chapekar brothers killed Rand the Bhagwan Singh, Barkatullah, Kartar Singh, Bhai
plague commissioner of Poona and Lt. Ayerst. Parmanand etc. Defense of India Act was passed in
• In 1899 Mitra Mela a secret society was organized by March 1915 primarily to smash Ghadr movement.
Savarkar and his brother which later merged with • Europe: Berlin Committee for Indian independence was
Abhinav Bharat in 1904. established in 1915 by Virendranath Chattopadhyaya
PUNJAB and Bhupendra Dutta.
1. Here revolutionary activity was carried out by Lala Lajpat
Rai who brought out Punjabee. Ajit Singh organized the
extremist Anjuman-i-Mohisban-i-Watan in Lahore with ►HOME RULE LEAGUES
its journal Bharat Mata.
• It was an Indian response to the First World War in a less
ABROAD changed but more effective way. The home rule leagues
• In 1905 Shyamji Krishnavarma set up Home Rule were based on Irish Home Rule Leagues which
Society and India House and brought out journal The represented a new trend of aggressive politics. Its pioneers
Sociologist in London. Savarkar and Lala Hardayal were Tilak and Annie Besant. Bal Gangadhar Tilak: He
became the members of the India House. wanted to reform administration but not overthrow the
• In 1909 Madan Lal Dhingra assassinated Curzon Wyllie. government. He set up his league in April 1916.

• Madame Bhikaji Cama operated from Paris and Geneva • Annie Besant: Besant’s home rule league began in 1916
and brought out the journal Bande Mataram. however by early 1915 she had already launched a
campaign to demand self government for India after the


war on lines of White colonies. She campaigned through ►LUCKNOW SESSION OF INC, 1916
her newspapers Commonweal and New India.
• The leagues resulted in getting the masses ready for
Gandhian style of politics. They also influence the It readmitted the extremists led by Tilak to INC. Other
Montague Chelmsford reform of 1917. The home rule development was the coming together of Muslim League and
leagues influenced Moderate and Extremists reunion in Congress Whereby Congress accepted Muslim League’s stand
1916. on separate electorates.

INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT: Satyagraha. He set up Tolstoy farm which was meant to

house the families of the Satyagrahis and to give them a
GANDHIAN ERA way to sustain themselves.
1. It was against the Indigo planters who forced on the
• The GOI Act, 1919 was based on Montague Chelmsford peasants the Tinkathia system. (Indigo to be grown on
reforms. Its main features included introduction of
3/20th of the land) and bought it on fixed prices.
dyarchy at the provincial level. The centre relaxed its
control over provinces by separating central and provincial 2. Gandhi joined by Rajendra Prasad, J B Kriplani among
subjects. The provincial subjects were further divided into others, reached Champaran.
transferred and reserved category. The transferred 3. As a result of his efforts the authorities were convinced to
subjects were to be administered by governor with the aid
abolish the system and as a compromise with the planters
of ministers responsible to the Legislative Council and
he agreed that only 25% of the money taken should be
reserved subjects were not responsible to it. It also
separated provincial budget from central budget. compensated.

• It led to introduction of bicameralism and direct AHMEDABAD MILL STRIKE (FIRST HUNGER STRIKE,1918)
elections in the country. Legislative Council was replaced It was against the mill owners to increase workers wages,
by bicameral legislature consisting of Upper House and
whereby Gandhi asked the workers to go on a strike and
Lower House.
demand a 35% hike in their wages. He undertook a fast unto
• The principle of communal electorates was further
death which led to the strike’s success.
extended to Sikhs, Christians, Anglo Indians and

• A new office of High Commissioner for India in London • It was against the authorities in Kheda who denied
was created. In Britain GOI 1919 made an important remission to the peasants despite crop failure and
change whereby the Secretary of State was henceforth to produce being less than 1/4th of the average.
be paid out of British exchequer.
• During Kheda Satyagraha many young nationalists like
Sardar Patel and Indulal Yagnik became Gandhi’s
1. Gandhi set up Natal Indian Congress and started the ►ROWLATT ACT, 1919
paper Indian opinion. • The act came into being in March 1919 which authorized
2. Gandhi was able to evolve his own style of politics i.e. a the government to imprison any person without trial and
method of passive resistance which he named


conviction in the court of law thus enabling the • The spread of the ideas of Marx and socialism resulted in
government to suspend the rights of habeas corpus. rise of a left wing in the Congress represented by Nehru
• Gandhi organized his first mass strike in India against this and S. Bose.
act. He led a satyagraha sabha and roped in younger • The Congress Socialist Party: The Congress Left Wing
members of Home Rule Leagues and the Pan Islamists. emerged as a ‘rationalist revolt’ against the mysticism of
• The act was followed by the horrific incident of the Gandhism on the one hand and dogmatism of
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (It was a peaceful protest Communism on the other. Their ideological inspiration
against the arrest of Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal.) in came from Marxism and Democratic Socialism and they
April, 1919 which led Gandhi to withdraw his movement. stood for anti-imperialism. They stood for complete
independence and Socialism; they wanted Swaraj not for
the classes but for the masses. The Congress Socialist
Party was not a rival political organization to the Congress
but was launched to work within the Congress. The CSP
MOVEMENT, 1919 condemned the Government of India Act 1935. It was
1. After the coming together of INC and Muslim League in because of the socialist pressure that the Congress
1916 the British were opposed by these two major mass Election Manifesto of 1936 contained a programme for the
movements. removal of the socio-economic grievances of the people.

2. Muslims all over were the world were angered by the • In July 1931, J.P Narayan, Phulan Prasad Varma and
treatment meted out to Turkey by British after First World others formed the Bihar Socialist Party.
War. In response in 1919 Khilafat Committee was formed • The Punjab Socialist Party came into existence in
under the leadership of Ali brothers, Maulana Azad, September 1933.
Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani. An All India Khilafat • The All India Congress Socialist Party was formally
Conference was held in Delhi in November 1919 to boycott started in October 1934 with a constitution and a specific
British goods. 15-point programme.
3. This was followed by the Nagpur session of INC in 1920 • Communist Party of India was formed in 1920 in
where the program of Non Cooperation Movement was Tashkent by M N Roy (first to be elected to the leadership
endorsed and Provincial Congress Committees on of Commintern. In 1925 Indian Communist conference was
linguistic basis were organized. held at Kanpur whereby the foundation of CPI was
4. The movement was hastily withdrawn by Gandhi in 1922 formalized. The Communist Movement involved in
after being overwhelmed by the Chauri Chaura incident conspiracy trials thrice, viz. the Peshawar Conspiracy
(Feb, 1922) wherein the agitated mob turned violent. Trial (1922-23), the Kanpur Conspiracy Trial (1924) and
the Meerut Conspiracy (1929-33). The Congress
members successfully opposed the enactment of the
►SPREAD OF MARXIST AND Public Safety Bill (1928)-a bill directed against the
Communists in India thus showing their support. By 1934,
SOCIALIST IDEAS the Communist Movement in India acquired some
Left movements in India developed in two main streams: respectability and Communist ideology may be said to
• Communism which functioned as a branch of the have been established in this country. In July 1934, the CPI
International Communist Movement and was by and was declared an illegal organization. Later, the
large controlled by the Comintern. Government of India declared the CPI a legal organization
again in 1942.
• The Congress Socialist Party which functioned as left
wing of the Indian National Congress and drew inspiration OTHER SMALLER LEFT-WING PARTIES INCLUDE
from the philosophy of Democratic Socialism. Both these • Revolutionary Socialist Party: The terrorists of the early
movements drew support from the anti-imperialist 20 Century provided the nucleus for the organization of
sentiments prevalent in India. this party which was launched in 1940. It stood for violent
overthrow of the British imperialism and establishment of
socialism in India. Ideologically, the RSP was closer to CSP


than the Communist Party. In the Gandhi-Bose tussle, the • It was the first Indian effort to draft a constitution. It
RSP supported Subhash Chandra Bose. recommended a dominion status, rejected separate
• The Bolshevik Party of India was established in 1939 by electorates and instead demanded joint electorates with
N. Dutt Mazumdar. reservation of seats for the minority in the centre and
states. It also recommended linguistic provinces.
• The Revolutionary Communist Party was launched by
Saumyendranath Tagore in 1942. • Jinnah retaliated to this report with his 14 points.

• The Bolshevik-Leninist Party was announced in 1941 by

a group of Trotskyite revolutionaries like – Indra Sen and ►INC SESSIONS: CALCUTTA AND
Ajit Roy.
• Calcutta, December 1928: Nehru report was approved by
►REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITIES and the leaders issued Delhi Manifesto in 1929 for
granting dominion status which Irvin rejected. The INC
DURING THE 1920’S retaliated threatening to launch Civil Disobedience
PUNJAB movement. Irvin had promised a round table conference.
• Hindustan Republican Association was formed in • Lahore, December 1929: The Congress decided to boycott
October 1924, Kanpur by Ramprasad Bismil, Jogesh the Round Table conference. Purna Swaraj now became
Chandra Chatterjee and Sachin Sanyal to organize armed the aim of Congress and 26th January was fixed as the first
rebellion to overthrow the government. Independence Day to be celebrated.
• This organization conducted the Kakori robbery in 1925
wherein Ramprasad Bismil, Ashfaqullah, Roshan Singh and
Rajendra Lahiri were hanged.
• It was reorganized in 1928 and named as Hindustan
Socialist Republican Association. In 192 9 Bhagat Singh • Acting on the Lahore session aims, Gandhi put forward his
and B K Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Legislative 11 demands to the government in January1930 which
Assembly against the passage of the Public Safety Bill and included abolition of salt tax, reduction in army
Trade Disputes Bill which aimed at curtailing the civil expenditure, civil services and land revenue among others.
liberties of citizens. With no response from the government he launched Civil
• Bhagat Singh organized Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha Disobedience Movement in February 1930.
in 1926 and was a complete supporter of Marxist ideas. • Gandhi began his Dandi March on March 12th, 1930 with
BENGAL a band of 78 members from Sabarmati Ashram and
reached the coast of Dandi to make salt and break the law.
1. Chittagong Armory Raid was conducted in 1930 under
He was later arrested.
Surya Sen assisted by Kalpana Dutt.
• Other leaders who broke the salt law in different parts
include C. Rajagopalachari (Tamil Nadu), K, Kelappan
(Malabar), Sarojini Naidu (Dharsana).
• In Peshawar Gaffar Khan (also called Badshah Khan
• It was of an all white seven-member Indian Statutory and Frontier Gandhi) started a volunteer brigade Khudai
Commission which intended to recommend the Khidmatgars or Red Shirts who were pledged to freedom
government whether India was ready for further struggle and non-violence.
constitutional reforms and on what lines.
• The First Round Table Conference held in Nov 1930-Jan
• The Madras session of INC in 1927 decided to boycott the 1931was attended by the Muslim League, Hindu
commission and organized hartals upon its arrival in 1928. Mahasabha, Liberals and the princes, however the boycott
►NEHRU REPORT, 1928 by Congress yielded no definite results out of it.
• To facilitate communication, Irvin offered the Gandhi Irvin
pact which placed the Congress on an equal footing with


the government. Under it, Irvin agreed to release the non entitled them to separate electorates. The Congress
violent political prisoners and withdrew salt tax among decided neither to accept nor to reject it. Gandhi went on
other provisions. Gandhi then agreed to suspend the an indefinite fast to oppose the award.
movement and participate in the next round table • Poona Pact: As a result of Gandhi’s efforts B R Ambedkar
conference. on behalf of the depressed classes abandoned separate
• A session of INC was held at Karachi in 1931 to endorse electorates. However, the seats reserved for depressed
the Gandhi Irvin pact. Here two important resolutions classes were increased. It was accepted by government as
were passed on Fundamental Rights and a National amendment to the Communal Award.
Economic Program.
• The Second Round Table conference convened in
London, 1931 yielded no results either and rather led to
MacDonald’s announcement of two Muslim majority • The third round table conference without the
provinces and a declaration of a Communal Award if the participation of Congress led to the formulation of the GOI
Indians failed to agree. Gandhi returned to India and Act 1935. Its main provisions included an All India
resumed the civil disobedience movement. Despite the Federation consisting of provinces and princely states
efforts, Gandhi had to withdraw the movement in April, as units. The act divided powers between the centre
1934. and its units in terms of three lists Federal, Provincial and
Concurrent. Residuary powers were held by the Viceroy.
• Gandhi set up an All India Untouchability League in
1932 and started a weekly Harijan in 1933. • It abolished diarchy and introduced provincial
autonomy and introduced bicameralism in six out of
eleven provinces. The act extended the principle of
communal electorates by providing representation of
depressed classes, women and labor.
PACT • The act also provided for the establishment of Reserve
• Communal Award: While the Sikhs, Christians and Bank of India and a Federal Court in 1937.
Muslims had already been listed as minorities, this award • Due to its rigidity the act was condemned by nearly all
declared depressed classes also to be minorities and sections and unanimously rejected by the Congress.

INDEPENDENCE AND contagious areas where Muslims are in majority into

independent states in which consistent units shall be

PARTITION autonomous and sovereign.

• August Offer, 1940: Linlithgow announced it to get
►SECOND WORLD WAR AND INDIAN Indian cooperation in the war. He proposed a dominion
status as the objective of India, expansion of the Viceroy’s
executive council and setting up of a Constituent
• When the Second World War broke out Congress declared Assembly. It was rejected by the Congress. In July 1941 a
two basic conditions to be fulfilled by the government in National Defense Council was set up with purely advisory
order to get its support. It said that after the war a functions.
constituent assembly should be convened to determine
• Cripps Mission, 1942: In March 1942 a mission headed by
the political structure of free India and secondly an
Strafford Cripps was sent to India with constitutional
immediate form of responsible government should be
proposals to seek Indian support for war. It offered to
established at centre. The offer was rejected by Linlithgow.
create an All India Union with dominion status, with
• Pakistan Resolution, 1940: Muslim League passed a right to withdraw from commonwealth. After the war, a
resolution calling for grouping of geographically constituent assembly elected by the provincial assemblies


will frame the constitution and any province not willing to Tokyo announced the formation of INA and Indian
join the Union could have a separate constitution and form independence league.
a separate union. It was rejected by both Congress and • The next phase of INA began with coming of Subhas
Muslim league. Chandra Bose in 1943. He had left Congress and formed
the Forward Bloc in 1940. In search of allies for India
independence he travelled to Russia (1941), Japan (1943)
►QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT, 1942 and finally Singapore (1943). In Singapore with the
assistance of Rashbehari Bose and others, he set up a
• Failure of Cripps Mission and possibility of Japanese
provisional Indian government with headquarters at
aggression led to the Quit India Resolution which was
Rangoon and Singapore. It also had a women regiment
ratified at the INC session at Bombay on 8 August 1942.
named after Rani Jhansi. INA died with the surrender of
• The Muslims on the other hand observed Pakistan Day
Japan in the Second World War.
on 23 March.
• Three upsurges happened between 1945 and 1946. Two
occurred in Calcutta over Indian National Army trials in
►C. RAJAGOPALACHARI FORMULA, 1945 and 1946. In February 1946 some 1100 naval
ratings went on a strike in Bombay.
• It recommended that Muslim League should immediately
support independence for India and cooperate in the ►CABINET MISSION, 1946
interim government. After the war Muslim majority areas
• It was sent by Britain’s then prime minister Clement Atlee
can decide by means of plebiscite whether or not to make
in February 1946 to find out ways for a negotiated,
a sovereign state.
peaceful transfer of power to India.
• The plan was rejected by Jinnah as he wanted Congress to
• The main points of the plan included the rejection for a
accept the two nation theory.
full fledged Pakistan. It grouped existential provincial
assemblies into three sections. Provinces were to have full
autonomy and residual powers. Princely states were no
longer under the paramountcy of British government
It was a draft proposal for the formation of an interim and were thus free to enter into an arrangement with the
government whereby Congress and League nominees to successor or British government. Meanwhile, an interim
have equal representation in the Central Legislature and 20% government had to be formed from the constituent
seats were reserved for minorities. assembly.
• The plan was accepted first by league and then by
Congress though both had interpreted the proposals
►WAVELL PLAN, 1945 differently. Later on 29th July 1946, League withdrew its
• A conference was convened under Wavell at Shimla in acceptance retaliating to a statement given by Nehru and
1945 to negotiate with the Indian leaders. gave a call for Direct Action Day on August 16th to
achieve Pakistan.
• It proposed to create an all Indian executive council except
the governor general and commander in chief. Hindus and • As a result, a Congress dominated interim government
Muslims were to have an equal representation and the headed by Nehru was sworn in on September 2 1946.
However, Wavell quietly brought Muslim league into
reconstructed council was to function as an interim
interim government later without giving up direct action.
government within the framework of GOI act 1935.
• The interim government period saw an enormous
upheaval in the communal sentiments and thus sensing
►INA AND POST WAR NATIONALIST trouble Attlee made an announcement on February 20

1947 wherein a deadline of June 30, 1948 was fixed for

transfer of power. It suggested that power may be
• The idea of Indian National Army was first conceived by transferred to one centre or in some areas to the existing
Mohan Singh in Malaya. In 1942, Rashbehari Bose in


provincial governments. Wavell was replaced by • Independence of Princely states was ruled out and they
Mountbatten as Viceroy. were to join either India or Pakistan. Bengal independence
was ruled out.
• The date of freedom was set to be 15th August, 1947.
►MOUNTBATTEN PLAN, 1947 • For the transitional period governments were to be carried
• Its major innovation was the immediate transfer of power out in accordance with the GOI Act, 1935.
on the basis of grant of dominion status thus obviating • A boundary commission under Radcliffe was organized
the wait to an agreement in the constituent assembly on a to delimit the boundaries between India and Pakistan.
new political structure.
• The plan suggested for Punjab and Bengal assemblies to
take decision on partition (partition was decided for these ►INDIAN INDEPENDENCE ACT, 1947
two provinces). Sindh was to take its own decision (it went
Pakistan became independent on August 14th and India got
with Pakistan) and a referendum was to be held in NFWP
its freedom on 15th August, 1947. M.A Jinnah became the
and Sylhet district (they also favored Pakistan).
first governor general of Pakistan while India requested Lord
Mountbatten to continue as Governor General of India.

GOVERNOR GENERALS AND • Under him, the Indian Forest Department was created and
the native Judicial service was recognized.
VICEROYS (1858–1947) ►LORD MAYO (1869–72)
►LORD CANNING (1856–58) • He introduced financial decentralization in India.

• He was the last Governor General and the first Viceroy of • He established Rajkot College at Kathiarwar and Mayo
India. College at Ajmer for the princes.
• Under him the Revolt of 1857 took place. As a result, he • Under him, the Statistical Survey of India was organized.
passed the Act of 1858, which ended the rule of the East • He also established the Department of Agriculture &
India Company. Commerce.
• He withdrew Doctrine of Lapse. • He was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a
• The Indian Councils Act of 1862 was passed under him, Pathan convict in Andamans in 1872.
which proved to be a landmark in the constitutional history
• Under him, State Railways were introduced and a census
of India.
was held in 1871, for the first time in Indian history,
• Under his tenure the Indian Penal Code of Criminal
Procedure (1859) was passed, the Indian High Court Act
(1861) was enacted and income tax was introduced for the ►LORD LYTTON (1876–80)
first time in 1858.
• He was the most infamous Governor-General who
• The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras founded
pursued free trade and abolished duties on 29 British
in 1857.
manufactured goods which in turn accelerated the drain of
wealth from India.
►SIR JOHN LAWRENCE (1864–69) • He arranged the Grand Darbar in Delhi (in 1877) when the
• Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe country was suffering from a severe famine.
under him. • He passed the Royal Title Act (1876) and presented Queen
• High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Victoria with the title of the Kaisar-i-Hind.
Madras in 1865. • Under him, the Arms Act (1878) was passed which made
• He expanded canal works and railways in India. mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms.


• He passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act (1878) that ►LORD MINTO II (1905–10)
put restrictions on vernacular publishers.
• His tenure faced the Swadeshi Movement (1905–08).
• He proposed the plan of Statutory Civil Service in 1878-79
and lowered the maximum age limit from 21 to 19 years. • The foundation of the Muslim League in1906 was also
under his tenure.
• The Newspapers Act, 1908 and Morley-Minto Reforms,
►LORD RIPON (1880–84) 1909 were passed under him.
• He repealed the Vernacular Press Act, 1882.
• Under him the First Factory Act of 1881 was passed, to ►LORD HARDINGE (1910–16)
improve labor conditions in India.
• Annulment of the partition of Bengal (1911) done under
• Hunter Commission (for education reforms) was
his tenure.
appointed under him in 1882.
• The capital was transferred from Calcutta to Delhi
• The Ilbert Bill controversy erupted during his time under
which Indian district magistrates were given the power to
try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later. • The Delhi Darbar and Coronation of King George V and
Queen Mary took place in 1911.

►LORD DUFFERIN (1884–88)

During his tenure the Indian National Congress in was
established in 1885. • Government of India Act (1919) and the repressive Rowlatt
Act (1919) passed under him.
• Jalianwala Bagh Massacre took place in 1919.
►LORD LANSDOWNE (1888–94) • Saddler Commission (1917) was formulated to look into
• Under him, the second Factory Act of 1891 was passed. the functioning of the University of Calcutta.
• He categorized the Civil Services into imperial, provincial • An Indian Sir S. P. Sinha was appointed Governor of
and subordinate. Bengal.
• The Indian Council Act of 1892 (introduced elections
which was indirect) was passed under him.
►LORD READING (1921–26)
• Appointment of the Durand Commission to define the line
between British India and Afghanistan (1893) was also • Criminal Law Amendment Act and abolition of cotton
under Lansdowne. excise was done.
• The Press Act of 1910 & Rowlatt Act of 1919 was repealed.
• He suppressed non-cooperation movement.
►LORD CURZON (1899–1905)
• He appointed a Police Commission in 1902 under Andrew
Frazer. ►LORD IRWIN (1926–31)
• He also set up the Universities Commission and according • Simon Commission announced in 1927 under his tenure.
to it the Indian Universities Act of 1904 was passed. • Other important developments were: Butler Commission
• He set up the Department of Commerce and Industry. (1927); Nehru Report (1928); 14 points of Jinnah (1929);
• The Calcutta Corporation Act (1899), the Indian Coinage Lahore session of Congress and ‘Poorna Swaraj’
and Paper Currency Act (in 1899) were passed under him. declaration (1929); Civil Disobedience Movement (1930);
Dandhi march (1930); Ist Round Table Conference (1930);
• The partition of Bengal took place in 1905 under him.
Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931).
• He created North West Frontier Provinces and the
Archaeological Survey of India.


►LORD WILLINGDON (1931–36) ►LORD WAVELL (1943–1947)

• Important events under his tenure include: 2nd Round Under Wavell’s tenure significant events include: C.R. Formula
Table Conference (1931); Civil Disobedience Movement 1944; Wavell Plan and Shimla Conference in 1945; End of 2nd
(1932); Announcement of MacDonald’s Communal Award World War in 1945; INA Trials in 1945; Naval mutiny in 1946;
(1932); 3rd Round Table Conference; Foundation of Cabinet Mission, 1946; Direct Action Day by the Muslim
Congress Socialist Party-CSP (1934); Government of India League on 16th August, 1946 and first meeting of the
Act (1935); Poona Pact was signed. constituent assembly which was held on Dec. 9, 1946.
• Burma separated from India through Govt. of India Act,
AUGUST 1947)
• Under him the Indian Independence Bill was introduced in
• Important events under his tenure include: ‘Deliverance the house of Commons and passed by the British
Day’ by Muslim League in 1939; Foundation of Forward Parliament on July 4, 1947
Block by S.C. Bose (1939); Lahore Resolution (1940); August
• The appointment of 2 boundary commissions under Sir
Offer (1940); Cripps Mission (1942); Quit India Movement
Radcliffe happened.
(1942) and the outbreak of Second World War in 1939.

GOVERNOR GENERALS OF • Under his tenure, Kashmir was acceded to India (Oct.
1947) and Gandhi was murdered on Jan. 30, 1948.


JANUARY 25, 1950)
• He was the last Governor General of free India and the
• He was the first Governor General of free India. only Indian Governor-General.

IMPORTANT PERSONALITIES • She did not attend the 1920 Session at Nagpur due to
growing difference with Gandhiji as she felt that

AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION Government of India Act, 1919 were a means to free India.
• Newspapers — New India and Commonweal.
IN INDIAN HISTORY • She prepared the Lotus Song, a translation of 'Gita' into
• Founded the Theosophical Society in India and started the
Home Rule League. ►ANAND MOHAN BOSE
• Established Central Hindu School and College at Banaras. • Founder member of the Indian Association of Calcutta
• President of the Calcutta Session of INC, AD 1917. (1876), Indian National Conference (1883) and Indian
National Congress (1885).
• Presided over the Madras Session of INC (1898).


►ARUNA ASAF ALI • He was the member of the Congress Enquiry Committee
set up to look into Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
• Nicknamed as Aruna Ganguli, she married to Asaf Ali,
• He founded the All India Swaraj Party in 1923.
Indian’s first Ambassador of the USA.
• He was elected as the first Mayor of the Calcutta Co-
• She was imprisoned during the Civil Disobedience
operation in 1924.
Movement (1930, 1932) and for participating in Individual
Satyagrah (1940). • He prepared the Das Formula for Hindu-Muslim Co-
• In 1942, she hoisted the Indian National Congress Flag
tricolour at Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank Grounds. • He was nicknamed as Deshbandhu Chittaranjan.

• Elected as first Mayor of Delhi, 1958. • His works include Malancha in 1895 (poems), Mala in
1904, Antaryami in1915, Kishore-Kishoree and Sagar-
• She was awarded the International Lenin Prize in 1964.
Sangit in 1913.
• Newspapers— Link and Patriot.
• Newspapers/ Journal-Narayana (Bengali monthly)
and Forward.
• He was the first Barrister in Bombay.
• Appointed to the Bombay Bench in 1895 and in 1902 and
also became the second Indian Chief Justice. • First to demand ‘Swaraj” in the Calcutta Session of INC,
• He advocated Tilak’s case on seditious writings in new
laters journal, Kesari. • Title — “Indian Gladstone”, “Grand Old Man of lndia’.

• Founder member of Bombay Legislative Council (1882) and • First Indian to be selected to the “House of Commons” on
INC (1885). Liberal Party ticket.

• Presided over the third INC Session in Madras. • He highlighted the draining of wealth from India by the
British and its effect in his book “Poverty and un-British
• He stressed upon modernization of Muslims and also
Rule in India “(1901).
served as President of the Bombay based Anjuman-i-Islam.


• Leader of the depressed class and an eminent jurist.
• He was a famous revolutionary activist, member of the
Hindustan Republican Association and leader of the • He founded the Depressed Classes Institute (1924) and
Hindustan Social Republican Army. Samaj Samata Sangh (1927).

• He gained his title “Azad” during the Non Co-operation • He set up a network college in the name of Peoples
Movement when he was arrested and the court asked his Education Society.
name, he repeatedly answered “Azad”. • Participated in all the Three Round Table Conferences and
• He was involved in Kakori Conspiracy of 1925, Second signed the Poona Pact with Gandhiji in 1932.
Lahore Conspiracy, the Delhi Conspiracy, the killing of • He was in the Governor General's Executive Council from
Saunders in Lahore and Central Assembly bomb episode. 1942 to 1946 and organized the Indian Labour Party and
• He shot himself while fighting with the police at Alfred Park Scheduled Caste Federation.
in Allahabad. • Chairman of the Drafting Committee of Indian
• As the first Law Minister of the Independent India, he
►CR DAS introduced the Hindu Code Bill.

• A lawyer by profession, he defended Aurobindo in the • He started ‘The Republican Party’ in 1956.
Alipur Bomb Conspiracy case. • Towards the end of his life, he embraced Buddhism.


►DR. RAJENDRA PRASAD • He was appointed as the Vice-Chancellor of Banaras

Hindu University.
• Participated in Swadeshi Movement (established Bihari
• He served as the editor of Hindustan, Abyudaya and the
Students, Conference), Champaran Satyagrah, NCM, CDM
Indian Union.
and Quit India Movement.
• Founded the National College at Patna.
• Minister in charge or Food and Agriculture in the Interim
Government (1946).
• A lawyer by profession, Motilal became an active supporter
• President of the Constituent Assembly.
of the Home Rule Movement in 1916 and started the
• First President of the Indian Republic. journal ‘The Independent'.
• Honored with ‘Bharat Ratna' in 1962. • He headed the Congress Commission looking into the
• Newspaper — Desh (Hindi weekly). Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
• He gave up his practice during NCM and was arrested
while following the visit of Prince Wales.
• He founded the Swarajya Party alongwith CR Das.
• Gandhiji regarded him as his political guru.
• He had renamed Anand Bhawan as the Swaraj Bhawan
• President or the Banaras Session of INC, 1905, supported and gifted it to the Congress.
the Swadeshi Movement.
• Founded the Servants of Indian Society in 1905, to train
people who would work as national missionaries.
• He was inspired by the ideas of Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

►JAWAHARLAL NEHRU • In 1906, he signed a memorandum against separate

electorates for Muslims.
• General Secretary of INC in 1928 and its President in 1929.
• Joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913 and played a
• The Independence resolution was passed under his
major role in signing or Lucknow Pact.
Presidentship at the Lahore Session.
• In 1917, joined the Home Rule Movement of Annie Besant.
• First Prime Minister of Republic India (from 1947 to 1964),
• His differences with Congress began after the entry of
also known as architect of Modern India.
Gandhiji in Congress. He opposed the Non-Cooperation
• He authored the Doctrine of Panchseel and believed in the Movement of Gandhiji.
policy of non-Alignment.
• In 1929, he proposed his Fourteen Point Demands.
• Books — ‘The Discovery or India', 'Glimpses of world,
• Lahore Session of Muslim League (1940) passed the
History’, 'A Bunch or old Letters', ‘The Unity of India’,
“Pakistan Resolution” demanding for separate state for
‘Independence and After', ‘India and the world’ etc.
Muslims. Jinnah stuck to League's demand in all the
• His autobiography was entitled as “Auto- biography".
negotiations with Britain, and finally Pakistan was formed.

►MADAN MOHAN MALVIYA • He was a poet, philosopher, educationist, internationalist
and a patriot.
• A moderate leader and a lawyer by profession, he served
the provincial and central legislature for many terms. • He has his elder brother, Satyendranath Tagore, the first
Indian to become an ICS.
• Through his efforts a memorial was built at the Jallianwala
Bagh site. • His first poem was published in the 'Amrit Bazar Patrika'
and then he wrote 'Banaphul' (story and ‘Bhanusinher
• He founded the Nationalist Party in 1926.
Padavali’ (series of lyrics).


• He founded Shantiniketan near Bolpore on December 22,

• He wrote 'Gitanjali', which fetched him the Nobel Prize in ►SACHINDRA NATH SANYAL
1913. • An associate of Ras Behari Bose, Sanyal organized a revolt
• He inaugurated Raksha Bandhan festival to oppose the by the soldiers of 7th Rajput Regiment in the United
Partition of Bengal (1905). Provinces.
• He founded the Vishva Bharati University. • He was the founder member of Hindustan Republican
• In 1915, British Crown granted him a ‘knighthood’ which he Association and was sentenced to life imprisonment in the
renounced after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Kakori Conspiracy Case in 1925.

• His compositions were chosen as National Anthem by two

(i) India — Jana Gana Mana ►SAROJINI NAIDU
(ii) Bangladesh — Amar Shonar Bangla • Popularly known as the “Nightingale of India”, she was a
nationalist and poetess from Uttar Pradesh.
• She was married to Dr Govindarajulu Naidu in 1893.
• Under the guidance of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, she became
• A revolutionary from Bengal, Bose organized several the first woman to participate in the India's struggle for
clandestine activities in UP, Delhi and Punjab at an early independence.
• She participated in the Dandi March with Gandhiji and
• He was associated with Hardinge Bomb Case and Lahore presided over the Kanpur Session of Congress in 1925.
Conspiracy Case after which he managed to escape to
• She was the first woman to become the Governor of Uttar
Pradesh State.
• He founded the Indian Muslim League and organized its
• Her famous poetries include - The Golden
first session at Bangkok in 1942.
Threshold (1905), The Feather of the Dawn; The Bird of
• He also served as the President of the Council of Action for Time (1912) and The Broken Wing (1917).
the formation of INA, and later handed it over to Subbash
Chandra Bose.
• Bose died in Tokyo on January 21, 1945.


1885 Bombay W.C.Bannerji First session attended by 72 delegates
1886 Calcutta Dadabhai Naoroji
Badruddin Tyyabji (fist
1887 Madras First Muslim president.
Muslim President)
George Yule (first English
1888 Allahabad First English President
1896 Calcutta Rahimtulla M. Sayani The National Song, Vande Mataram was sung for the first time.
1905 Banaras G.K.Gokhale
The INC split into two, one consisting of Moderates, led by
1907 Surat Rasbehari Ghosh
Gokhale and the other consisting of Extremists, led by Tilak.


1909 Lahore M.M.Malviya

The National Anthem, Jana Gana Mana was sung for the first
1911 Calcutta Pandit Bishan Narayan Das
Joint session with Muslim league in which the historic Lucknow
1916 Lucknow A.C.Majumdar pact was signed. Reunion of the Moderates and Extremists of
1917 Calcutta Annie Besant First woman President
1923 Delhi (sp.session) Abdul Kalam Azad Youngest President
1925 Kanpur Sarojini Naidu First Indian Woman President
1928 Calcutta Motilal Nehru First All India Youth Congress Formed

The decision to launch a civil disobedience movement to

achieve complete independence and to observe 26 Jan as
1929 Lahore J.L.Nehru
Independence Day was taken.
Nehru became the president for the first time.

Resolution on Fundamental rights and the National Economic

Program was passed
The Gandhi Irwin Pact was endorsed by the Congress in this
1931 Karachi Vallabhbhai Patel
Gandhi was nominated to represent Congress in the Second
Round Table Conference.
1937 Faizpur J.L.Nehru First session in a village
1938 Haripura S.C.Bose A National Planning Committed set-up underJ.L.Nehru.
S.C.Bose was re-elected but had to resign due to protest by
1939 Tripuri S.C.Bose Gandhiji (as Gandhiji supported Dr.Pattabhi Sitaramayya).
Rajendra Prasadwas appointed in his place.
1946 Meerut Acharya J.B.Kriplani Last pre-independence session of the INC.
1948 Jaipur Dr.Pattabhi Sitaramayya. First session after Independence.


CURRENT affairs&
►MONTAGU-CHLEMSFORD REFROMS • Some of his functions were taken away from him and
given to the High Commissioner for India who was to be
100 YEARS appointed and paid by the Government of India.
IN NEWS • The curtailment of the powers and functions of the
This year marks the century, of the special session held in Secretary of State was done, it appears, in deference to
Bombay by the Indian National Congress, to consider the the wishes of the Congress which has passed a resolution
Montford reforms. On 20 August 1917, Montagu, the new at the 1916 session.
secretary of state announced new reforms in Indian • The number of Indians in the Governor-General’s
administration. These reforms became the basis of the Executives Council was raised to three in a Council of
Government of India Act 1919, which introduced many new eight.
features in the Indian administration.
• The new scheme of Government envisaged a division of
KNOW MORE PREAMBLE TO THE ACT Subjects into the Central List and the Provincial List. A
• British India is to remain an integral part of the British List of Central subjects was drawn up which were to be
Empire. administered by the Governor-General-in-Council.
• Responsible Government in British India is the objective of • The Act set up a bicameral legislature at the Centre in
the declared policy of Parliament. place of the Imperial Council consisting of one House. The
• Responsible Government is capable of progressive two Houses now were to be the Council of State and the
realisation only. Central Legislative Assembly.

• In order to achieve Responsible Government, it is • The Council of State which was to be the Upper House was
necessary to provide for two things: the increasing to consist of 60 members, 26 of whom were to be
association of the Indians in every branch of nominated by the Governor – General and 34 were to be
administration and the gradual development of the self- elected, introducing thereby an elected majority.
governing institutions. • The franchise was extremely restricted due to income
• Concurrently with the development of self-governing qualifications or other mandatory conditions like a person
institutions in the provinces in provincial matters the must be on the Senate of a University or he must have
highest measure of independence of the Government of some past experience in some Legislative Council of India,
India, which is compatible with the due discharge by the or he must be title-holder.
latter of its own responsibilities. • The Act introduced what is called dyarchy in the
Provinces. Under this system, the subject to be dealt with
by the Provincial Government were divided into two parts:
Reserved and Transferred subjects.
• The Secretary of State for India who used to be paid out
• The Reserved subjects were administered by the Governor
of the Indian revenues was now paid by the British
with the help of the members of the Executive Council who
were nominated by him and who were not to responsible
to the Legislature while the Transferred subjects were
administered by the Governor acting with ministers


appointed by him from among the elected members of the ► STATUE OF UNITY VALLABHAI
Legislature and who were to be responsible to the
Legislature and were to hold office during his pleasure.
• The Act also introduced changes in the Provincial IN NEWS
Legislatures, called Legislative Councils; their size was To commemorate the contributions of Sardar Vallabhai
increased, their total membership varying from province Patel with respect to the integration of princely states, the
to province. Statue of Unity was unveiled. It is considered to be the
• The system of election introduced for the Provincial tallest statue in the world and is located near the banks of
Councils was direct, the primary voters electing the Narmada in Vadodara, Gujarat.
members. However, high property qualifications, the KNOW MORE
communal and class electorates and special weightage to • Sardar Patel was born in 1875 in Gujarat.
certain communities figured in the provincial franchise.
• He began his career as a barrister and had set up his legal
• The members could reject the budget, though the practice in Ahmedabad.
Governor could restore it, if necessary.
• He was an active freedom fighter and social reformer
AFTERMATH OF THE ACT during the British rule.
• So great was the discontent among the people of the India • He is famously known as the ‘Iron Man of India’ and
with the Minto-Morley Reforms that the British ‘Bismarck of India’, due to his efforts that led to the
Government had to resort to repressive measures to integration of princely states into the Indian Union
suppress the rising tide of discontent. within just one year.
• The Indian Press Act of 1910, the Seditious Meetings • Patel came in contact with Gandhi during the Kheda
Act of 1911 and the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act of satyagraha in 1918 and became his follower.
1913, were all aimed towards this end. The Defence of
• He took part in the Bardoli satyagraha (1928) wherein
India Act of 1915 which provided for the trial of
80,000 peasants in Surat protested against the land
revolutionary offenders by a strong bench without appeal
revenue hike.
and for the internment of suspects was a particularly
obnoxious measure. • He was given the title of SARDAR after Bardoli satyagraha.
• He also took part in the boycott of Simon Commission
and participated in the Salt satyagraha.
► WORLD PEACE DOME GANDHI • In 1931, he was elected as the President of Indian
IN NEWS National congress.
Vice-President M. Venkaiah Naidu inaugurated the world’s • In 1937, Patel guided the provincial government as the
largest dome at the Maharashtra Institute of Technology Chairman of the Congress Parliamentary
(MIT)’s World Peace University (MIT-WPU) campus at Loni subcommittee.
Kalbhor. • Sardar Patel was the first Deputy Prime Minister of
KNOW MORE independent India and held the portfolios of Home,
• The dome, took nearly 13 years to be build. Information and Broadcasting and State ministries.

• It is larger in area than the dome at St. Peter’s Basilica in • As a part of his duties he was given the mammoth task of
Vatican City making the latter now the second largest integrating the princely states, which were 562 in total.
dome. • He was assisted by VP Menon in this task.
• It is built to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary • Under the provisions of the Indian Independence Act of
of Mahatma Gandhi and will be considered as a world 1947, rulers had an option to either accede to any of the
peace monument. newly born dominions of Indian and Pakistan or to remain


• Patel however disregarded this provision, and followed an • His knowledge in metallurgy got him appointed at the
iron policy and did not recognize the right of any state to Mint in Calcutta, where there was dearth of qualified
remain independent. personnel in minting coins.
• And as a result, the cumbersome task was completed by • Wilson’s interest in Indian culture, its languages and its
August 15th 1947, barring few exceptions i.e. Hyderabad, ancient heritage was noticed by H.T. Colebrooke, another
Junagarh and Kashmir. (They also later acceded to India.) well-known Orientalist, who recommended Wilson in 1811,
to be appointed as Secretary to the Asiatic Society at
Calcutta, founded by William Jones earlier.
►ROSARY CHURCH • H H Wilson is credited with the formation of a Glossary
which is a multivolume compilation — Glossary of Judicial
and Revenue Terms in Persian, Arabic, Hindustani, Urdu,
Rosary Church also known as the Floating Church is an
Telugu, Tamil, Kanarese, Malayalam and every Indian
important part of the Indo-Gothic architecture. In this
Language. Hence, H.H. Wilson is euphemistically known as
respect, let us understand its basic features.
the ‘Glossary Man’.
• This glossary was first published by the East India
• Rosary church is located on the banks on Hemavathi Company administration itself in 1855.
(tributary of Kaveri) at Shettihalli village, Karnataka.
• Wilson was the first person who translated the Rig Veda
• It was built by the French missionaries for the wealth into English. He also published Kalidasa’s Meghadoota
British estate owners in 1860. in 1813 as well as Vishnu purana in 1840. In 1819, Wilson
• The Gothic style of architecture is implied in its compiled the first ever Sanskrit- English dictionary.
construction, which was developed in India by the British • Being a trained surgeon, he studied the ancient Indian
architects in the late 19th century. systems of surgery and practices in curing cholera and
• During the 1970’s, the Government of India constructed leprosy and published several works on such practices for
the Gorur dam and Hemavathi reservoir near this doctors in England.
church. • At the request of the East India Company officials, Wilson
• The construction of Gorur dam leads to flooding in the prepared a descriptive catalogue of the extensive
Hemavathi reservoir every monsoon. collection of Colin Mackenzie’s large volume of
• As a result, the Rosary church gets partially submerged manuscripts.
under water every monsoon, due to which it has • Wilson also published The Historical Sketches of the
acquired the name of the Floating Church. First Burmese War and A review of External Commerce
of Bengal as well as The History of British India from
► H.H WILSON 1805 to 1835.
Horace Hyman Wilson, was a multi-faceted man. He was a
great scholar in Sanskrit, a metallurgist, a qualified
surgeon and above all a first ranking Orientalist with IN NEWS
strong pro-Indian leanings. His love for Indian culture made th
75 anniversary of the Azad Hind Government which was
him one of staunchest opponents of Lord Macaulay’s headed by Subhash Chandra Bose.
infamous minutes (1835), wherein English was to be made
the sole medium of instruction in India.
• H H Wilson studied medicine at St. Thomas Medical School 1920 Cleared the Indian Civil Services examination
and Hospital in London. He secured an appointment as
1923 Became the Mayor of Calcutta
Assistant Surgeon with East India Company to work in
Calcutta and at 22, Wilson arrived in India. 1927 Founded the Independence League


1929 Elected as the President of All India Trade • He also worked as a writer and editor in Amritsar for
Union Congress Punjabi- and Urdu-language newspapers espousing
Marxist theories.
1930 Participated in the Salt Satyagraha movement
• He is credited with popularizing the catchphrase “Inquilab
1938 Elected as the President of Indian National zindabad” (“Long live the revolution”).
Congress at Haripura (Gujarat) session • 1926: Bhagat Singh founded the Indian socialist youth
1939 Elected as the President on INC second time at organisation Naujawan Bharat Sabha.
the Tripuri Session • 1924: Hindustan Republican Association was founded
which was later renamed to Hindustan Socialist
1940 Created Forward Bloc
Republican Association.
1943 Founded the Azad Hind Government or the • 1928: HSRA was joined by Bhagat Singh.
Provincial Government for Free India with its
• 1928, Lahore Conspiracy Case:
headquarters at Rangoon. He also gave the
ο SP Scott had ordered brutal lathicharge on Lala Lajpat
famous slogan ‘Give me blood, I will give you
freedom’ in Malaysia. Rai during protests against Simon commission, which
resulted in the death of the latter.
ο As a result, HSRA decided to avenge Lala’s death and
INDIAN NATIONAL ARMY Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Jai Gopal and Rajguru
• It was organized by Capt. Mohan Singh in Singapore in planned to kill SP Scott.
1942. ο However, they killed DSP J.P. Saunders, confusing him
• INA saw a vigorous phase after the arrival of Bose at as Scott.
Singapore in 1943. • 1929: Throwing bomb in the Central assembly, Delhi
• He recruited 60,000 Indian prisoners from Burma, Malaya ο Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in
etc. and internationalize the Indian freedom struggle the Central Legislative assembly to protest against
through violent means. Public safety bill.
• In 1944, Battalion No. 1 of INA captured Mowdok in ο This bill was introduced to stop Communist
Chittagong and hoisted a tri-colour flag on Indian soil. movement in India by cutting it off from British &
• INA surrendered with the surrender of Japan on 15 foreign communist organizations.
August, 1945 during the second world war. ο After bombing, they voluntarily surrendered.

• Singh was barely 17 when he published his first article, in

1924, in Matwala, a Hindi magazine from Calcutta. The
subject of his article was ‘Universal Brotherhood’,
• He was also conscious of the international revolutionary
Bhagat Singh was an Indian socialist revolutionary whose struggles and ideologies, which is evident in his three-part
two acts of dramatic violence against the British in India and article on anarchism (1928).
execution at age 23 made him a folk hero of the Indian
• In 1931, Bhagat Singh wrote a pamphlet “Why am I an
independence movement. His death anniversary was
Atheist” while in jail.
• From Bhagat Singh’s letters and writings, it is evident that
he was influenced by Karl Marx, Mazzini, Garibaldi,
• Bhagat Singh was born in 1907 in Punjab. Tolstoy, Rousseau, Voltaire and Gorky.
• He studied at the Dayanand Anglo Vedic High School • He strongly critiqued the practice of untouchability and
started by the Arya Samaj. communalism and advocated the idea of a plural and
• In 1923, he joined the National college at Lahore. inclusive India.


• Bhagat Singh expressed his disenchantment with the KNOW MORE

politics of Lala Lajpat Rai, whom he and other youth • Lala Lajpat Rai Ji was a great patriot and a man of
otherwise venerated. masses.
• He critiqued Lalaji’s growing proximity to the Hindu • He was born on 28th January 1865 at a small village of
Mahasabha and other communal forces during the 1920s. Dhudike in district Ferozepur, Punjab and was a
• Bhagat Singh was hanged in 1931 at a young age of 23. contemporary of great stalwarts including Mahatma
• 1931, Gandhi-Irwin Pact (Delhi Pact): Gandhi.

• Lord Irwin rejected Gandhi’s demand of commuting • He was popularly known as ‘Punjab Kesari’.
Bhagat Singh’s death penalty to life sentence. • Lala Lajpat Rai led the extremist wing of the Congress
• Bhagat Singh was hanged along with Rajguru & along with Bipin Chandra Pal and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The
Sukhdev, at Shadman Chawk, Lahore on 23rd three were affectionately called ‘Lal-Bal-Pal’.
March,1931, for the Lahore Conspiracy case. • He succumbed to severe injuries on 17th November 1928
• Now 23rd March is observed as Martyrs' Day or Shaheed after being assaulted by the police while leading a
Diwas in honour of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru. demonstration against the Simon Commission in
Lahore on 30th October 1928.
► ROSARIO CATHEDRAL • In collaboration with Mahatma Hans Raj, Lala Lajpat Rai
founded the DAV School at Lahore, 1886.
• He founded the Punjab National Bank along with Lala
Rosario Cathedral which is considered to be the oldest
Harkishan Lal at Lahore in 1894 and Lakshmi Insurance
Catholic cathedral in Karnataka has celebrated its 450
Company to give boost to export by Indian traders.
years. In this respect, let us understand some basic aspects of
this building. • He founded the Hindu Relief Movement in 1897 to
provide help to the famine -stricken people and thus
preventing them falling into the clutches of the
• The Holy Rosary Church was built by the Portuguese soon
after they landed in the city following victory in war, on
• He was also closely associated with the Hindu
January 5, 1568. It was then called the Factory Church.
• In the writings of Italian traveller Pietro della Valle, who
• In 1907, Lajpat Rai along with Ajit Singh resisted the
visited Mangaluru in 1623, mentions the Holy Rosary
Punjab Colonisation Bill due to which he was deported
Church, Our Lady of Mercy at Ullal, and St. Francis of Assisi
without trial to Mandalay, Burma.
at Farangipet.
• He established Punjab Shiksha Sangh in 1911 and set up
• The royal stone emblem of the Portuguese king, marking
the Radha Kishan High School at Jagraon in 1913.
their landing in Mangaluru, is at the entrance of the
cathedral. • The reform of the Hindu society especially caste and
gender relations, was his abiding mission. He also
• It is suggested that the Holy Rosary Church building was
crusaded for an end to “untouchability”.
desecrated and destroyed by forces of Tipu Sultan in
1784. • He visited England in 1905, 1908-10 and delivered many
public lectures. He also visited USA & Japan.
• A new structure was created in 1910 and its notable
feature has been the magnificent dome crowning the • He founded the Indian Home Rule League of America in
spacious sanctuary. October 1917.
• In recognition of his outstanding role in the freedom
movement, he was elected President of the Indian
► LALA LAJPAT RAI National Congress at the Calcutta session (1920).
• He was also elected as the first President of the All India
Trade Union Congress.
Celebrated the birth anniversary of Lala Lajpat Rai.


• Lalaji established at Lahore the ‘Tilak School of Politics in

1920 and the Quami Vidyapeeth in 1921.
• He founded the Servants of People Society to work for
social reform in May 1921.
• Lalaji was a prolific author and wrote many books. He also
founded and edited newspapers and journals.
• He was greatly influenced by the Arya Samaj and its
founder Swami Dayanand Saraswati. He also wrote a book
on the history of Arya Samaj (1915).
• He launched three English weeklies, The Regenerator of
Aryavarta (1883); The Panjabee (1904) and The people
• He also published an Urdu weekly Deshopkarak (1883)
and an Urdu daily Bande Mataram(1920).
• He also wrote a series of popular biographies on Mazzini,
Garibaldi and Swami Dayanand.
• He joined Swaraj Party in 1926 and was elected its
Deputy Leader in the Central Legislative Assembly.




Q1) Consider the following pairs: (b) Lothal

1. Harappa: R 37 Cemetery (c) Dholavira
2. Lothal: Dockyard (d) Kalibangan
3. Kalibangan: Bronze dancing girl
Select the correct pair/ pairs using the code given below: Q6) Which of the following Upanishads talks about the
(a) 1 and 2 itihasa purana tradition?
(b) 2 and 3 (a) Ken
(c) 1 and 3 (b) Mundaka
(d) All are correct (c) Taitriya
(d) Chandogya
Q2) Consider the following statements regarding religion
in the Indus Valley Civilization: Q7) Consider the following pairs:
1. Worship of male deity is identified through the VEDANGA AUTHOR
Pashupati seal. 1. Nirukta : Pingal
2. Pipal is said to have been worshipped. 2. Jyotisha : Lagadha
3. Large temples are found where daily rituals were
Which of the above pair/pairs is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(b) 2 only
(a) 1 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(b) 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
(c) 2 and 3
(d) All are correct
Q8) The Vedic priest, Brahma is considered highest of all.
In this respect, choose the veda with which he is
Q3) In which commodity was long distance trade carried associated.
out during the Indus Valley Civilization?
(a) Rigveda
(a) Cotton
(b) Samaveda
(b) Gold
(c) Yajurveda
(c) Lapis lazuli
(d) Atharvaveda
(d) Bronze

Q9) Consider the following statements:

Q4) Consider the following statements:
1. Mula Sangha was a Buddhist monastic order.
1. Harappan cities were not made on grid patterns.
2. Hinayana is also known as Shravakayana.
2. We find use of burnt bricks in this period.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
3. Harappan cities consisted of Citadel, lower town and
(a) 1 only
sometimes a middle town.
(b) 2 only
Select the incorrect statement using the code given below:
(c) Both 1 and 2
(a) 1 only
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 2 only
Q10) Consider the following pairs:
(d) 1 and 3
1. Bhagvati Sutra: Biography of Buddha
2. Lalitvistara: Text on Mathematics
Q5) The evidence of ploughed field is found in which of the
Which of the above pairs is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(a) Harappa
(b) 2 only


(c) Both 1 and 2 2. The forth Buddhist council was convened under
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ashoka.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
Q11) Consider the following statements: (a) 1 only
1. The 4th Buddhist Council led to formation of Hinayana (b) 2 only
and Mahayana sects. (c) Both are correct
2. The Hinayana sect believes in the worship of (d) None
Bodhisattva Avlokiteshwara.
Select the correct answer using the code given below: Q16) Consider the following Buddhist sites:
(a) 1 only 1. Pippalvina
(b) 2 only 2. Ramagrama
(c) Both 1 and 2 3. Pitalkhora
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 In which of the above sites are stupas constructed containing
Buddha’s relics?
Q12) With respect to religious philosophy of Jainism (a) 1 and 2
consider the following: (b) 1 only
1. Jain texts condemn the practice of caste system. (c) 2 and 3
2. The practice of Sallekhana was popular among Jain (d) 3 only
monks and nuns.
Select the incorrect statement/statements using the code Q17) Consider the following statements:
given below: 1. The Lomash Rishi cave contains a lion frieze.
(a) 1 only 2. This cave was patronized by Ashoka which he
(b) 2 only dedicated to the Buddhist monks.
(c) Both 1 and 2 Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
Q13) Which Chinese pilgrim travelled India during the reign (c) Both 1 and 2
of Harsha? (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(a) Fa hien
(b) Huan Tsang Q18) Terai pillar inscriptions talks about which of the
(c) I Ching following?
(d) Faxian (a) Kalinga war episode
(b) Ashoka’s dhamma
Q14) Consider the following rulers: (c) Ashoka’s respect for earlier Buddhas
1. Prasenjit (d) Ban on animal sacrifice
2. Ajatshatru
3. Amoghavarsha Q19) Consider the following statements:
Which of the above is/are followers of Buddha? 1. Ashoka chakra has 24 spokes.
(a) 1 and 2 2. Ashokan edicts are written in Sanskrit.
(b) 2 only 3. Devanam Piyadasi was a title adopted by
(c) 2 and 3 Chandragupta Maurya.
(d) 1 and 3 Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2
Q15) Consider the following statements: (b) 2 and 3
1. Dilwara in Mt. Abu is a famous Jaina temple. (c) 1 and 3


(d) 1 only
Q25) Which school of Indian Philosophy emphasizes on the
Q20) Consider the following statements: importance of Vedas and Vedic rituals?
1. Bali and bhaga were 2 important taxes during (a) Nyaya
Mauryan period. (b) Vedanta
2. Sita was tax on land. (c) Samkhya
Select the correct answer using the code given below: (d) Mimamsa
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only Q26) Consider the following statements:
(c) Both 1 and 2 1. Khajuraho temple was built by the Solanki dynasty.
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 2. The founder of the Eastern Ganga dynasty was
Q21) Consider the following statements regarding Vedanta Which of the above statements is/are correct?
school of Philosophy: (a) 1 only
1. The Brahmasutra of Badarayana compiled in the (b) 2 only
second century B.C. formed its basic text. (c) Both 1 and 2
2. Vallabhacharya was its propounder. (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only Q27) Consider the following statements:
(b) 2 only 1. The Nanaghat inscription talks about the rituals
(c) Both 1 and 2 carried out under the Satavahana dynasty.
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 2. Amoghavarsha wrote a text known as Kavirajamarga.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
Q22) The propounder of materialistic view of life was? (a) 1 only
(a) Shankaracharya (b) 2 only
(b) Ramanuja (c) Both 1 and 2
(c) Charvaka (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(d) Patanjali
Q28) The ladies did not veil their faces under the reign of
Q23) Recently which school of Indian philosophy became a which of the following dynasties?
part of UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage list? (a) Palas
(a) Samkhya (b) Pratiharas
(b) Nyaya (c) Rashtrakutas
(c) Vashisheka (d) Gangas
(d) Yoga
Q29) Tondis was an important port city under which of the
Q24) Consider the following pairs: following dynasties?
1. Yoga: physical and breathing exercises (a) Cholas
2. Nyaya: logic (b) Cheras
3. Mimamsa: beginning of Physics (c) Pandyas
Select the Incorrect pair/pairs using the code given below: (d) Chalukyas
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3 Q30) Consider the following statements:
(c) 3 only 1. Somapura Mahavira was constructed by Devapala.
(d) 2 only 2. Dharampala founded the Vikramashila university.


Which of the above statements is/are correct? Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only (a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only (b) 2 and 3
(c) Both 1 and 2 (c) 1 and 3
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) All

Q31) Which of the following temples are dedicated to Lord Q36) Consider the following statements:
Shiva: 1. Calicut was an important trading center under Cheras.
1. Brihadeshvara temple 2. The Portuguese sailor Vasco Do Gama landed in India
2. Lad Khan temple via Calicut.
3. Virupaksha temple Which of the above statements is/are correct?
Select the correct answer using the code below: (a) 1 only
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 (c) Both 1 and 2
(c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(d) None
Q37) Consider the following statements:
Q32) Which north Indian temple has a Dravidian type of 1. Tamralipti finds mention in the Buddhist text of
Shikhara? Mahavamsa.
(a) Lingaraja temple 2. It was visited by both Fa Hien and Xuanzang.
(b) Teli ka Mandir Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(c) Laksmana temple, Sirpur (a) 1 only
(d) Vishnu temple, Deogarh (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
Q33) Consider the following statements. (d) Neither 1 nor 2
1. Khajuraho temples are a group of Hindu temples.
2. It includes temples of panchayatana style. Q38) Which of the following port cities has yielded traces of
Select the correct answer using the code given below: Roman Arretine ware?
(a) 1 only (a) Tuticorin
(b) 2 only (b) Arikamedu
(c) Both 1 and 2 (c) Puhar
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Tamralipti

Q34) The stories of Buddha’s previous life are depicted on Q39) Who among the following was the founder of
the toranas of? Rashtrakuta dynasty?
(a) Sanchi stupa (a) Amoghavarsha
(b) Amravati stupa (b) Mihirakula
(c) Bharhut stupa (c) Dantidurga
(d) Nagarjunakonda (d) Indra 1

Q35) Which of the following are important elements of Q40) Who among the following wrote the biography of King
Hindu temple architecture? Harsha?
1. Shikhara (a) Kalidasa
2. Chatra (b) Dandin
3. Mandapa (c) Kalhana


(d) Banabhatta Q45) Consider the following pairs in the context of Ancient
Q41) Consider the following pairs 1. Dinar: A silver coin
1. Dasakumaracharita: Dandin 2. Shreni: Assembly of traders
2. Natyashastra: Ashvaghosh 3. Devadana: Tax free land given to soldiers
3. Meghdoot: Panini Select the correct pair/pairs using the code given below:
4. Panchatantra: Vishnu Sharma (a) 1 and 2
Select the correct pair/ pairs using the code given below: (b) 2 only
(a) 1 and 2 (c) 1 and 3
(b) 3 and 4 (d) All of the above
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) 1 and 4 Q46) Consider the following statements:
1. A total of 5 new monuments has been added under
Q42) Consider the following statements: ASI as Monuments of National importance in 2018.
1. Gurjara Pratiharas ruled from Kannauj. 2. In order to be a monument of National importance the
2. The Chola dynasty was founded by Rajaraja 1. building should not be less than 150 years old.
Select the correct answer using the code given below: Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (a) 1 only
(b) 2 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Q43) Consider the following terms regarding Mauryan Q47) Which of the following dances has been registered in
administration: the Guinness book of world records as the largest folk
1. Rajukas dance in the world?

2. Sannidhata (a) Raut Nacha

3. Pautvadhyaksha (b) Nati

Whom of the above was responsible for managing state (c) Bihu
treasury? (d) Padyani
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only Q48) Consider the following statements:
(c) 3 only 1. Makaravilakku festival is a 5-day annual festival
(d) None of the above celebrated in Kerala.
2. Thiruvabharanam, which are the sacred ornaments of
Ayyappan, is its main attraction.
Q44) Consider the following statements about
Samudragupta’s coins: Which of the above statements is/are correct?

1. He was shown playing veena on his coins. (a) 1 only

2. He was shown performing Ashvamedha sacrifice on (b) 2 only

his coins. (c) Both 1 and 2
Select the correct answer using the code given below: (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only Q49) Consider the following statements:
(c) Both 1 and 2 1. Lothal is an old port city of Harappan civilization
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 located in Maharashtra.
2. A brick dockyard and unicorn seal have been
excavated from Lothal.


Which of the above statements is/are correct? 1. Dhokra sculptures are made by the Damar tribes.
(a) 1 only 2. The technique used in making these sculptures is the
(b) 2 only lost wax casting technique.
(c) Both 1 and 2 Which of the above is/are correct?
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
Q50) Consider the following statements: (c) Both 1 and 2
1. Rakhigarhi is one of the biggest sites belonging to (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Harappan civilization.
2. It consists of four interconnected mounds. Q55) Consider the following statements:
Which of the above statements is/are correct? 1. Burra Katha is a story telling tradition belonging to the
(a) 1 only state of Telangana
(b) 2 only 2. Its themes includes stories of freedom fighters.
(c) Both 1 and 2 Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
Q51) Consider the following statements: (c) Both 1 and 2
1. Sarangakheda festival is a bi-annual horse-trading (d) Neither 1 nor 2
festival conducted in Maharashtra.
2. It is named after the favourite horse of Maharana Q56) Consider the following pairs:
Pratap. 1. Bathukamma Sarees: Telangana
Which of the above statements is/are correct? 2. Sungudi Sarees: Karnataka
(a) 1 only 3. Chirala textiles: Andhra Pradesh
(b) 2 only Which of the above is/are correct?
(c) Both 1 and 2 (a) 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
Q52) Consider the following statements: (d) 1, 2 and 3
1. The Bahubali Mahamastakabhisheka Mahotsav is
celebrated every 12 years. Q57) Consider the following dances:
2. Bahubali was the son of Rishabhdeva. 1. Chhau
Which of the above statements is/are correct? 2. Lakhon Khol
(a) 1 only 3. Theyyam
(b) 2 only Which of the above are masked dances?
(c) Both 1 and 2 (a) 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
Q53) Which of the following is known as the Second (d) 1, 2 and 3
(a) Manjusri Q58) Consider the following compositions:
(b) Avlokitesvara 1. Godan
(c) Padmasambhava 2. Ghaban
(d) Padmapani 3. Mansarovar
Which of the above were compositions of Munshi
Q54) Consider the following statements: Premchand?


(a) 1 and 2 (c) Odissi

(b) 2 and 3 (d) Kuchipudi
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3 Q64) Consider the following pairs:
Folk Dance State
Q59) A community known as Sahariyas is famous for? 1. Therukoothu : Tamil Nadu
(a) Its traditional agricultural practices 2. Jatra : Madhya Pradesh
(b) Its musical tradition 3. Gidha : Punjab
(c) Its tribal art forms
Select the correct code:
(d) Its weaving techniques
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
Q60) Consider the following travellers:
(c) 1 and 3
1. Ibn Batuta
(d) All
2. Abdur Razzaq
3. Marco Polo
Q65) With reference to Indian Classical dances consider the
Which of the above have visited Muziris? following statements:
(a) 1 and 2 1. Sangeet Natak Academy has given the status of
(b) 2 only classical dances to 8 dance forms.
(c) 1 and 3 2. The principles of Indian classical dances lie in
(d) 1, 2 and 3 Natyashastra written by Patanjali.
3. These dance forms only include feminine
Q61) Which of the following statement(s) about 'Mohini characteristics i.e. Lasya.
Attam" is\are correct: Select the incorrect statements:
1. It borrows heavily from both Kathakali and (a) 1 and 2
Bharatanatyam. (b) 2 and 3
2. It is performed by both men and women. (c) All are incorrect
(a) 1 only (d) All are correct
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 Q66) The style of peacock dancing in the rain belongs to
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 which Rajasthani painting school?
(a) Kota
Q62) Which of the following statement(s) about "Kathak" (b) Bundi
is\are correct: (c) Kishangarh
1. It was patronized and practiced by Wajid Ali Shah (d) Bikaner
2. Its main centers are Jaipur, Banaras and Lucknow.
3. Both men and women take part. Q67) Nihal Chand a famous master painter in Rajasthan
(a) 1 and 2 belonged to which school of painting?
(b) 2 and 3 (a) Kota
(c) 1 and 3 (b) Jaipur
(d) All of the above (c) Malwa
(d) Kishangarh
Q63) Tribhanga body position is associated with which of
the following classical dance form Q68) Najum-al-ulum, an illustrated manuscript belongs to
(a) Bharatanatyam which Deccan school of painting?
(b) Kathakali (a) Bijapur


(b) Hyderabad Q74) GI tags are provided under the mandate of which
(c) Ahmednagar international agreement?
(d) Golconda (a) Montreal Protocol
Q69) Select the place which served as the earliest centre for (c) Kyoto Protocol
Pahari school of paintings. (d) Beijing Declaration
(a) Guler
(b) Kullu Q75) The first Indian product to get GI tag was?
(c) Basholi (a) Tirupati laddu
(d) Kangra (b) Darjeeling tea
(c) Bikaneri bhujia
Q70) Consider the following statements: (d) Nagpur orange
1. Mughal School of painting began under Babur.
2. Under Akbar’s reign an atelier of painting was Q76) Consider the following pairs:
established. Handicraft State
3. Some Mughal paintings bear European influence. 1. Madhubani : Rajasthan
Select the correct code: paintings
(a) 1 and 2 2. Kalamkari : Andhra Pradesh
(b) 2 and 3 3. Chanderi : Odisha
(c) 1 and 3
Select the correct code:
(d) All are correct
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1 only
Q71) Ellora caves depict art of which faith/s?
(c) 2 only
(a) Buddhist
(d) 2 and 3
(b) Hindu and Buddhist
(c) Jaina
Q77) Consider the statements regarding the puppet form of
(d) Hindu, Buddhist and Jaina West Bengal:
1. They are known as Bommalattam.
Q72) Consider the following pairs: 2. They are small in size.
1. Vikramsila: Pala School 3. They are a mix of string and rod puppets.
2. Guler: Pahari School Select the correct code:
3. Kishangarh: Deccani School (a) 1 and 3
Select the correct pair/pairs: (b) 2 and 3
(a) 1 and 2 (c) 1,2 and 3
(b) 2 and 3 (d) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3
(d) All are correct Q78) The first evidence to the art of puppetry is found in?
(a) Malvikagnimitra
Q73) Which text is most popular in Jaina depictions? (b) Silappadikaaram
(a) Kalpasutras (c) Atharvaveda
(b) Bhagavati Sutra (d) Shilpashastra
(c) Mricchakatikam
(d) Kathakosha Q79) Consider the following statements regarding
Mudiyettu, theatre form:
1. It can be found in Karnataka.


2. It is celebrated in the month of Vrischikam (Nov-De(c) (c) 1 and 3

3. It is performed in kali and shiva temples. (d) All are correct
Select the correct code:
(a) 1 and 3 Q84) Consider the following statements
(b) 2 only 1. Musti yuddha is a martial art from the oldest city of
(c) 1 only India “Varanasi“.
(d) 1 and 2 2. It is unarmed martial art.
Select the correct statements
Q80) State the correctly matched pairs: (a) 1 only
Theatre form State (b) 2 only
1. Tamasha : Maharashtra (c) Both 1 and 2

2. Krishnattam : Tamil Nadu (d) Neither 1 nor 2

3. Bhavai : Gujarat
Q85) Consider the following statements regarding
4. Bhand pather : Assam
Hindustani Classical music:
(a) 1, 2 and 3
1. It consists of gharanas.
(b) 2 and 4
2. Jaipur gharana is the oldest.
(c) 1 and 3
Select the correct code:
(d) All are correct
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
Q81) Which article of the Constitution gives Hindi the status
(c) Both 1 and 2
of Official language of Union?
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
(a) Article 345
(b) Article 343
Q86) Gita Govind is composed by
(c) Article 334
(a) Jayadeva
(d) Article 357
(b) Kalidasa
(c) Panini
Q82) Consider the following statements:
(d) Amir Khusrau
1. Odia is the latest addition to Classical languages.
2. In order to be classified as a Classical language the
Q87) Which of the following are the members of Carnatic
language must have high antiquity of its early texts
music trinity?
and recorded history of over a period of 1500-2000
1. Tyagaraja
2. Muthuswami Dikshitar
Select the correct code:
3. Ustad Alia Rakha
(a) 1 only
Select the correct code:
(b) 2 only
(a) 1 and 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
(c) 1 only
(d) All of the above
Q83) Consider the following pairs linked with martial arts:
1. Thang ta : Manipur
Q88) Consider the following pairs:
2. Pari khanda: Bihar
1. Pankhida: Maharashtra
3. Gatka: Punjab
2. Chakri: Bengal
Select the correct code:
3. Tappa: Rajasthan
(a) 1 and 2
Select the correct code:
(b) 2 and 3


(a) 1 and 2 (d) Muhammad Bin Tughlaq

(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 Q94) Consider the following pairs:
(d) None 1. Ibn Batuta: Krishnadevaraya
2. Barabosa: Muhammad Bin Tughlaq
Q89) The 8ft lady sculpture found at Sun temple in Konark is Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
playing? (a) 1 only
(a) Tabla (b) 2 only
(b) Veena (c) Both 1 and 2
(c) Jhanj (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(d) Flute
Q95) Select the foreign traveler who has put his thoughts in
Q90) The Sufi order of Naqshbandis was started by a book named Remonstrantie.
(a) Badruddin Samaqandi (a) Jean De Thevenot
(b) Hamiduddin Nagori (b) Mannuci
(c) Hamiduddin Nagori (c) Al beruni
(d) Khwaja Baqi Billah (d) Pelsaert

Q91) Consider the following statements regarding Q96) Consider the following pairs:
Ramanuja: 1. Marco Polo: French
1. A statue of equality is being erected in Hyderabad to 2. Nikitin: Russian
honor him. 3. Al Beruni: Persian
2. He was a contemporary of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Which of the above is/are correct?
Which of the above statements is/are correct? (a) 1 and 2
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3
(b) 2 only (c) 1 and 3
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) 1,2 and 3
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Q97) Consider the following monuments:
Q92) With respect to the Vijayanagar empire consider the 1. Sasaram tomb
following statements: 2. Panch Mahal
1. Allasani Peddana wrote Manucharitam under the 3. Quila Kohna Masjid
patronage of Devaraya 1. Which of the above are ascribed to the Sur dynasty?
2. Krishnadevaraya was also known as Andhra Bhoja. (a) 1 and 2
Which of the above statements is/are correct? (b) 2 and 3
(a) 1 only (c) 1 and 3
(b) 2 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 Q98) Consider the following statements:
1. Alauddin Khilji constructed the Alai Darwaza and
Q93) An agricultural department called Diwan-i-Amir Kohi Buland Darwaza.
was set up by 2. Akbar constructed the Red Fort at Delhi.
(a) Feroz Shah Tughlaq Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(b) Alauddin Khilji (a) 1 only
(c) Sikandar Lodi (b) 2 only


(c) Both 1 and 2 1. The first Factory Act fixed working hours for child
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 below 14 years.
2. The first president of All India Trade Union Federation
Q99) Consider the following statements with respect to the was Lala Lajpat Rai.
Treaty of Allahabad: Which of the above statements is/are correct?
1. It was signed between the East India Company and (a) 1 only
Maharaja Ranjit Singh. (b) 2 only
2. Under this treaty, Ranjit Singh accepted river Indus as (c) Both 1 and 2
the boundary line of his dominion. (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only Q104) Consider the following statements:
(b) 2 only 1. Pagal panthis was a semi religious sect which rose
(c) Both 1 and 2 under Karam Shah.
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 2. This sect was dominant in Bihar.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
Q100) Consider the following movements: (a) 1 only
1. Wahabi Movement (b) 2 only
2. Deoband Movement (c) Both 1 and 2
3. Aligarh Movement (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Which of the above were Islamic revivalist movements?
(a) 1 and 2 Q105) Consider the following organizations:
(b) 1 only 1. East India Association
(c) 2 and 3 2. Madras Mahajan Sabha
(d) 3 only 3. Bombay Presidency Association
Select the correct chronological order for these events
Q101) Consider the following statements: (a) 1-2-3
1. The Vernacular Press act was repealed by Lytton. (b) 2-3-1
2. Bandi Jivan was authored by Chandra Shekhar Azad. (c) 3-1-2
Which of the above statements is/are correct? (d) 1-3-2
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only Q106) Consider the following statements:
(c) Both 1 and 2 1. Berlin Committee for Indian independence was
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 established in 1915 by Virendranath Chattopadhyaya
and Bhupendra Dutta.
Q102) Consider the following events: 2. Shimla Deputation in October 1906 was led by
1. Establishment of Supreme Court at Calcutta. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.
2. Introduction of Portfolio system. Which of the above statements is/are correct?
3. Introduction of open competition in civil services. (a) 1 only
Select the correct chronological order of these events: (b) 2 only
(a) 2-1-3 (c) Both 1 and 2
(b) 3-2-1 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(c) 1-3-2
(d) 2-3-1 Q107) Consider the following statements:
1. The left wing in the Congress represented by Nehru
Q103) Consider the following statements regarding: and Subhas Chandra Bose.


2. Congress Socialist party was a wing within the (b) 2 only

congress. (c) Both 1 and 2
Which of the above statements is/are correct? (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only Q112) Consider the following statements:
(c) Both 1 and 2 1. Dasam Granth, considered to be an important text of
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 Sikhism, is attributed to Guru Gobind Singh.
2. Recently, a commemorative coin has been released by
Q108) With respect to August Offer (1940) consider the the Prime Minister of India in honour of Guru Teg
following statements Bahadur.
1. It was put forward by Wellesley. Which of the above statements is/are correct?
2. The offer proposed a dominion status for India in (a) 1 only
order to seek their cooperation the Second World War. (b) 2 only
Select the correct answer using the code given below: (c) Both 1 and 2
(a) 1 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 Q113) Consider the following statements:
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 1. Chowmahalla palace was constructed in the 18th
century by Salabat Jung.
Q109) Consider the following statements: 2. This palace was the seat of Qutub Shahi dynasty.
1. William Bentick was credited with the suppression of Which of the above statements is/are correct?
thugees with the help of Colonel Sleeman. (a) 1 only
2. He abolished slavery. (b) 2 only
Which of the above statements is/are correct? (c) Both 1 and 2
(a) 1 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 Q114) Consider the following statements:
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 1. Atala mosque at Jaunpur was built under the Sharqis.
2. Jhanjari Mosque was built by Hussain Shah Sharqi.
Q110) Consider the following statements: Which of the above statements is/are correct?
1. Sarojini Naidu was the first women President of INC. (a) 1 only
2. Badruddin Tyabji was the first Muslim president of (b) 2 only
India. (c) Both 1 and 2
Which of the above statements is/are correct? (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only Q115) Consider the following statements:
(c) Both 1 and 2 1. Sheikh Muinuddin Chishti’s shrine has been included
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 in the Swacch Iconic places.
2. Sheikh Muinuddin’s most famous disciple was
Q111) Consider the following statements: Nizamuddin Auliya.
1. Phuti Masjid is an incomplete mosque located in Which of the above statements is/are correct?
Murshidabad. (a) 1 only
2. It was built by the grandson of Alivardi Khan. (b) 2 only
Which of the above statements is/are correct? (c) Both 1 and 2
(a) 1 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2


Q116) Consider the following statements: (c) Both 1 and 2

1. Asurgarh fort located in Bengal has recently yielded
2300 years old artefacts. Q120) Which of the following personalities played a crucial
2. The fort consists of four guardian deities protecting its role in the integration of princely states?
entrances. (a) Vallabhai Patel
Which of the above statements is/are correct? (b) Jawaharlal Nehru
(a) 1 only (c) V P Menon
(b) 2 only (d) M K Gandhi
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 Q121) Identify the personality who is credited with the
compilation of the Glossary of Judicial and Revenue
Q117) Consider the following publications: Terms in every Indian Language.
1. Bande Mataram (a) Charles Wilkins
2. Sanjeebani (b) Macaulay
3. The people (c) H. H. Wilson
Which of the above are associated with Lala Lajpat Rai? (d) Colin Mackenzie
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3 Q122) Consider the following statements:
(c) 1 and 3 1. The present structure of Golconda fort belongs to the
(d) 1, 2 and 3 Adil Shai dynasty.
2. Golconda was famous for its diamonds and gave the
Q118) Consider the following statements: world the famous Kohinoor diamond.
1. The Defense of India act was passed as a result to the Which of the above statements is/are correct?
opposition of Indians on the GOI act 1919. (a) 1 only
2. Dyarchy was introduced at the central level under this (b) 2 only
act. (c) Both 1 and 2
Which of the above statements is/are correct? (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only Q123) Bhagat Singh and B K Dutt threw a bomb in the central
(c) Both 1 and 2 legislative assembly as a protest against:
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (a) Simon Commission
(b) Public Safety Bill
Q119) Consider the following statements: (c) India’s entry to Second World War
1. S C Bose founded the Indian National army in 1942. (d) Trade Disputes Act
2. He created the Forward Block in 1940.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only


1. a 23. d 45. b 67. d 89. c 111. a

2. b 24. c 46. d 68. a 90. d 112. a

3. c 25. d 47. b 69. c 91. a 113. a
4. a 26. b 48. b 70. b 92. b 114. a
5. d 27. c 49. b 71. d 93. d 115. c
6. d 28. c 50. a 72. a 94. d 116. b
7. b 29. b 51. b 73. a 95. a 117. c
8. d 30. b 52. c 74. b 96. b 118. a
9. b 31. c 53. c 75. b 97. c 119. b
10. d 32. b 54. c 76. c 98. d 120. a
11. a 33. b 55. b 77. a 99. a 121. c
12. a 34. c 56. c 78. b 100. a 122. c
13. b 35. c 57. a 79. b 101. d 123. b
14. a 36. c 58. d 80. c 102. c
15. a 37. c 59. c 81. b 103. d
16. a 38. b 60. c 82. c 104. c
17. d 39. c 61. a 83. d 105. a
18. c 40. d 62. d 84. c 106. a
19. d 41. d 63. c 85. c 107. c
20. c 42. a 64. c 86. a 108. c
21. a 43. b 65. b 87. a 109. a
22. c 44. c 66. b 88. d 110. b