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Process Heat Transfer Lab

Department of Polymer and Process

File Content

1. List of possible hazards……….…………………………………..3

2. COSHH Regulation……….………………………………………4
3. Note book Rubric………………..………………………………...7
4. Experiment Performance Rubric………………...…………...........8
5. Equipment Status……...…………..………………………………9
6. Equipment Detail………………………………………………….10
7. Lab Manuals………………...……………………….……………63
8. Lab Flexes…………………………………………………………84
9. Material Safety Data Sheets……………………...………………..94

List of possible hazards in Process Heat Transfer Lab

Following are the potential hazards and their remedies

S. No. Potential hazard Mitigation

Circuit breakers are installed with the
Electrical hazard units to avoid any personnel or
equipment damage

Fire CO2 type Fire extinguisher is

2  Electrical short circuiting (class C fire) recommended

The COSHH Regulations
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (1988)

The COSHH regulations impose a duty on employers to protect employees and others from
substances used to work which may be hazardous to health. The regulations require you to
make an assessment of all operations which are liable to expose any person to hazardous
solids, liquids, dusts, vapors, gases or micro-organisms. You are also required to introduce
suitable procedures for handling these substances and keep appropriate records.

Part of the above regulations are to ensure that the relevant Health and Safety Data Sheets are
available for all hazardous substances used in the laboratory. Any person using a hazardous
substance must be informed of the following:

Physical data about the

Any hazard from fire or
explosion Any hazard to health
Appropriate First Aid treatment.
Any hazard from reaction with other substances.
How to clean/dispose of spillage.
Appropriate protective measures.
Appropriate storage and handling.

Although these regulations may not be applicable in your country, it is strongly recommended
that a similar approach is adopted for the protection of the students operating the equipment.
Local regulations must be considered.


The equipment described in this instruction manual involves the use of water which under
certain conditions can create a health hazard due to infection by harmful micro-organisms.
For example, the microscopic bacterium called Legionella pneumophila will feed on any scale,
rust, algae or sludge in water and will breed rapidly if the temperature of water is between 20
and 45°C. Any water containing this bacterium which is sprayed or splashed creating air borne
droplets can produce a form of pneumonia called Legionaries Disease which is potentially
fatal.Legionella is not the only harmful micro-organism which can infect water but it serves as
a useful example of the need for cleanliness.

Under the COSHH regulations, the following precautions must be observed.

Any water contained within the product must not be allowed to stagnate, i.e. the water must be
changed regularly.
Any rust, sludge, scale or algae on which micro-organisms can feed must be removed
regularly, i.e. the equipment must be cleaned regularly.
Where practicable the water should be maintained at a temperature below 20°C or above 45°C.
If this is not practicable then the water should be disinfected if it is safe and appropriate to do
so. Note that other hazards may exist in the handling of biocides used to disinfect the water.
A scheme should be prepared for preventing or controlling the risk incorporating all of the
actions listed above.
Further details on preventing infection are contained in the publication “The Control of
Legionellosis including Legionnaries Disease”- Health and Safety Series booklet HS (G) 70.

The equipment operates from a mains voltage electrical supply. The equipment is designed and
manufactured in accordance with appropriate regulations relating to the use of electricity.
Similarly, it is assumed that regulations applying to the operation for electrical equipment are
observed by the end user.
However, due to the presence of exposed water and an electrical supply on this equipment, an
Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker has been incorporated (ELCB, alternatively called a Residual
Current Circuit Breaker or RCCB) as an integral part of this equipment. If through misuse or
accident the equipment becomes electrically dangerous, an ELCB will switch off the electrical
supply and reduce the severity of any electric shock received by an operator to a level which,
under normal circumstances, will not cause injury to that person.
At least once each month, check that any ELCB is operating correctly by pressing the TEST
button. The circuit breaker MUST trip when the button is pressed. Failure to trip means that the
operator is not protected and the equipment must be checked and repaired a competent
electrician before it is used.

Equipment status in Process Heat Transfer Lab

No. Equipment Quantity Status Remarks Recommendation

Thermal Working
1 1
Radiation Unit Condition

 Computer linked
Computer-linked Not in consoles are not
2 Cross-Flow Heat 1 Working operating.
Exchanger Condition  Computer software
is not updated.

Free and Forced Working

3 1
Convection Unit Condition

Minor  Valve leakages

Concentric Tube
4 1 Repairing must be repaired.
Heat Exchanger

Boiling Heat Working

5 1
Transfer Unit Condition

Computer-linked Not in  Computer software

6 Bench-Top 1 Working is not updated.
Cooling Tower Condition

Equipment Detail

Equipment Detail

Thermal Radiation Unit


Thermal radiation is a mode of heat transfer which differs significantly from the other two modes, namely
conduction and convection. The Hilton Radiation Unit consists of a pair of electrically heated radiant heat
and light sources, together with a comprehensive range of targets and measuring instrumentation.

The unit has been designed to demonstrate the fundamental laws relating to radiation. By performing a
series of simple experiments the student may verify the relevant equations and appreciate the behavior of

(Refer to Fig.2)

The unit consists of a horizontal .bench mounted track (1) fitted with a heat-radiation source at one end
and a light source at the other. Between the two sources may be placed either a heat radiation detector
(13) or a light meter (16). In addition, a number of accessories can be fitted for experimental purposes.
These include metal plates with thermocouples attached, (5,6), two vertically orientated metal plates (14)
to form an aperture, and a number of acrylic filters, (10,11,12), The radiation detectors and the
accessories are all clamped to stands (7,8,9,15) which enable them to be positioned at different distances
from the appropriate source. Distances are measured with a reversible scale (17) mounted on the front of
the track.

Electrical power for the two radiation sources is supplied from an instrument console (3) and is controlled
by a solid-state regulator. A step down transformer (2) provides a low voltage supply for the heat source.
Temperatures of the two metal-plates used in conjunction with the heat radiation source are displayed on
a digital read-out either reading being selected by a change over switch. In addition an infrared
thermometer is supplied that may be connected in place of one of the plate thermocouples. When selected
the display then shows the temperature “seen” by the infrared sensor. Output from the heat radiation
detector is displayed on a second digital read-out. The light meter is self-contained.







Equipment Detail

Computer Linked Cross flow

Heat Exchanger


Symbol Designation
A Area m2
Cp Specific Heat Capacity J kg-1 K-1
C A Constant -
D Active Element Diameter m
Fn A Correction Factor -
dP Manometric Head mm H2O
H Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient W m-1 K-1
K Thermal Conductivity W m-2 K-1
L Characteristic Length m
A Constant
M -
A Constant
N -
Nu Nusselt Number = hd/K -
P Pressure N m-2
Pr Prandtl Number = Cp μ/ k -
Heat Transfer Rate
Q Watts
Heater Element Resistance
R Ohms
Re Reynolds Number = Ud/v -
T Temperature (Customary) o
T Temperature (Absolute) K
U Velocity
m s-1
V Heater Voltage Volts
Μ Absolute Viscosity N s m-2
V Kinematic Viscosity m2 s-1
Ρ Density kg m-3
ɸ Heat Flux W m-2

In order to transfer heat between two fluids many forms of heat exchanger have been devised. In
one of the most common arrangements, heat is transferred between a fluid flowing through a
bundle of tubes and another fluid flowing transversely over the outside of the tubes. This
configuration is known as a Cross Flow Heat Exchanger and is shown schematically in Fig. I.

Various tube layouts have been developed to improve the efficiency of the cross-flow heat
exchanger and thereby reduce the physical size for a given heat transfer rate. However, the
objective of all of the arrangements is to promote turbulence in the fluid flowing across the tube
Overall heat transfer coefficient for a cross flow heat exchanger is made up of three components.
Firstly the surface heat transfer coefficient for the fluid flowing through the tubes, secondly the
thermal conductivity and thickness of the tube material, and thirdly the surface heat transfer
coefficient for the fluid flowing over the external surface of the tubes.
Enhancement of the first component may be achieved by increasing flow velocity in the tubes
while second can be increased by reducing the tube wall thickness, or using a material of higher
thermal conductivity. The third component may be increased by raising the stream velocity,
thereby increasing the external Reynolds Number of each individual tube. Alternatively, the tube
layout may be changed in order to maximize turbulence. This is achieved by ensuring that each
row of tubes is positioned such that turbulence induced by the preceding row is incident upon the
next row. Hence a cascade effect is produced such that the degree of turbulence increases with
the depth of the tube bundle.
The effect of turbulence is to enhance the surface heat transfer coefficient beyond the level
achieved by increased Reynolds Number alone. If the fluid flowing over the outside of the tubes
is a gas, then the effective heat transfer coefficient may be further increased by the use of
extended surfaces, e.g. fins. As cross flow heat exchangers occur in many varied forms
throughout industry, it is essential that engineers and technologists should be aware of the
performance of such units.

The simplest form of cross flow heat exchanger may be regarded as a series of identical heat
transfer surfaces in a transverse stream that each has an influence on, and is in turn influenced
by, its neighbor.
Therefore, in order to obtain a prediction for the heat transfer rate to or from a bundle of surfaces
in cross flow it is usual to initially consider a single surface in isolation as a basis for correlation.
A. Isolated Cylinder in Cross Flow
Two distinct types of convective heat transfer exist, these being laminar and turbulent.
In the case of laminar flow the fluid flows in filaments, or stream lines that do not mix. Hence
heat transfer from a surface in laminar flow must occur by conduction through the fluid itself.
Therefore the rate of heat transfer will be low and highly dependent upon the thermal
conductivity of the fluid.
In the case of turbulent flow mixing of the fluid occurs. Hence a "packet" of fluid may at one
instant be close to the heated surface and then rapidly transfer and dissipate in the stream, thus
transferring heat very quickly to the bulk of the fluid. Hence the higher the degree of turbulence,
the higher the rate of heat transfer.
For laminar flow it is possible to devise expressions for the mean surface heat transfer coefficient
in particular cases of geometry. For example, laminar flow in pipes and laminar flow over flat
However, for external flow over cylinders this is not generally possible and empirical methods
must be used.
Similarly, except for special cases, turbulent flow conditions do not lend themselves to simple
theoretical analysis and therefore alternative methods are required in order to evaluate surface
heat transfer coefficients for general flow conditions. One such method is to apply the principle
of dynamic similarity.
This, along with certain assumptions, proves that the following statements are valid for both
laminar and turbulent flow:
(i) The velocity distribution within two boundaries will be similar when the Reynolds
Numbers (ρUl/μ) are the same for both fields.
(ii) The temperature distribution within two boundaries will be similar when in addition to (i)
the Prandtl Numbers (Cp μ/k) are the same for both fluids.
(iii)When (i) and (ii) are satisfied, then the Nusselt Numbers (hl/k) for corresponding surface
elements will be the same and hence the average Nusselt Numbers will be the same for
both surfaces.
These conditions may be summarized by writing
(I) Nu = f(Re, Pr)
It follows, therefore, that empirical data obtained for a certain set of conditions on perhaps a
scale model heat exchanger may be equally applied to a full scale unit providing that the
geometry, Reynolds and Prandtl Numbers are equal.
In order to reduce equation (I) to a usable form, dimensional analysis may be used and this
results in the following general relationship,
(II) Nu = c Rem Prn
Generally in the case of gases the Prandlt Number varies little for the variations in temperature
and pressure normally encountered, and the Prandlt Number factor may be assumed part of the

constant C.
Therefore, by carrying out a series of tests on apparatus of a particular geometry at varying
Reynolds Numbers, it is possible to obtain values for the constants C and m.
For the case of an isolated cylinder in turbulent cross flow conditions, the following relationship
is generally accepted for Reynolds Numbers (based on cylinder diameter) between 4000 and
(III) Nu = 0.174 Re0.618
Alternatively, a more recently developed correlation applicable between Reynolds Numbers of
10 to 105 is,
𝜇𝑎 0.25
(IV) Nu = (0.4 Re0.5 + 0.06 Re0.666) Pr0.4 ( )

In this case an extra non-dimensional term involving the local and free stream viscosity has been included.
B. Tube Bundles in Cross Flow
In the case of an isolated cylinder in cross flow, the velocity used to calculate the Reynolds
Number of the flow is that of the stream approaching the cylinder.
However, for the case of a tube bundle obstructing the duct, it can be readily appreciated that the
velocity of the flow approaching the bundle will be far lower than the velocity between the rows
of tubes, the duct area having been reduced by some function of the transverse plan area of the
A characteristic reference velocity for a particular tube bundle is therefore taken, and an accepted
value is the stream velocity at the minimum free area.
For the schematic arrangement shown below, this would be established by determining the
minimum of the two areas denoted by the dotted or continuous lines.

Hence, if the empty duct has a cross sectional area of AD and the minimum inter tube area is AT, the velocity
through the heat exchanger will be,
U =Ux
It is this velocity that is” used to calculate the Reynolds Numbers used in the correlations .
As in the case of a single tube in cross flow, determination of a correlation for the mean convective heat transfer
coefficient for the tubes forming across flow heat exchanger must be carried out experimentally.
The tube position within the bundle adds a further variable to the general turbulent flow equation (II) and this then

has the form,
(V) Nu = C Rem Prn Fn

Where Fn is a function of the number of tube rows crossed by the transverse stream.
An accepted form of the generalized equation (V) is,
Nu = 0.273 Re0.635 Pr0.34 Fn
The Nusselt Number obtained from this correlation is a mean value for all of the tubes within a
bundle. Hence for design purposes a prediction may be obtained for the overall heat transfer rate
of a cross flow heat exchanger of a particular size and number of rows. The above equation is
applicable to a staggered arrangement of tubes, as in the previous figure, for Reynolds Numbers
between 300 and 200,000.
For a staggered tube bundle, Fn is found to vary in a manner shown in Fig.II below.

Thus it may be seen that as the number of rows crossed increases, the effect is an increase in the convective heat
transfer coefficient. This is effectively due to the turbulence behind each row adding to the turbulence due to the
stream velocity. However, as may be seen in Fig.II, a reduction in the rate of increase occurs beyond approximately
10 rows. The stream effectively becomes "saturated" in terms of turbulence.
As already stated, the foregoing correlation applies only to the staggered geometry shown in Fig.I. Similar
correlations exist for the various other geometries possible and these are generally available in textbooks, or from
C. Finned Tubes in Cross Flow
Generally the heat transfer coefficients for gases are low even for forced convection within tube bundles.
A method of enhancing the performance of a cross flow heat exchanger of a given volume is to fit transverse fins on
the outside of the tubes. This effectively increases the heat transfer area of each tube.
In a similar manner to plain tubes, experimental data provides the only method of obtaining generalized correlations.
In fact, for commercially produced finned tubes, the correlations provided by the suppliers are generally referred to.

(Please refer to the Schematic Diagram.)

Air Duct
A vertically mounted glass reinforced plastic duct of 65mm x 150mm cross section and
approximately 1.2m length is mounted on the intake of a powerful centrifugal fan. The fan runs
at constant speed and the air flow rate through it and the duct is controlled by an iris damper
situated on the fan discharge. Situated on the side of the epoxy coated steel motor frame is the
fan start-stop and overload cut out unit.
The duct has an opaque plastic front cover and situated at approximately mid position along its
length is a 200mm long opening. This opening allows the insertion of various clear plastic plates
holding tubes for testing in the air stream. The plates are retained by four stainless steel studs and
four brass knurled nuts.
Standard Tube Plates
(i) Single Tube Plate
This consists of a thick clear plastic plate with a centrally drilled 16mm diameter hole into which
the active element may be placed. When mounted on the air duct this allows investigation of a
single tube in cross flow.
(ii) Multi Tube Plate
This consists of a thick clear plastic plate with 27 fixed plastic tubes of approximately 16mm
diameter arranged on an equilateral triangular pitch. The tubes form six rows and near the center
of each row is a removable tube that may be replaced by the active element. Hence the effects of
adjacent tube rows on the rate of heat transfer from the active element may be measured.
Active Element
This consists of an electrically heated thick copper cylinder of nominally 15.8mm diameter and
50mm length. Embedded in the surface of the cylinder is a single thermocouple that senses the
mean surface temperature. The extreme ends of the heated cylinder are formed from a thermally
insulating material and these reduce errors due to wall effects.
Power is supplied to the element at a maximum of 70 Volts and with a fused, earthed and
thermally protected supply, the unit is safe for student use. Connection of the element,
thermocouple and earth to the instrument console is via a small five pin plug. The resistance of
the heater element is also engraved on this plug.
Heater Control
This is a variable rotary transformer that controls the voltage supplied across the active element
heater. The output from the unit is fused and is mounted on the instrument console.
Voltage Switch
This controls both the maximum voltage available from the heater control and the output socket
to which power is supplied.
In the 70V position power is supplied only to the large 5 pin socket in the center of the console
marked Heater Element It is this supply that is used for connecting the active element and the
optional fin plate element referred to at the back of this manual.
In the 35V position, power is supplied only to the 7 pin socket in the center of the console
marked Local H.T. Element.

Air Duct Vertically mounted glass reinforced plastic duct of 65 x
150mm cross section with bell mouth intake at its upper end.
Front cover of opaque plastic with a central opening of
200mm > length to receive one of two standard tube plate.
Fan Three phase centrifugal blower of 1.1 kW power input,
mounted on an epoxy coated welded steel frame. Air duct is
directly mounted on the frame and fan intake.

Fan Starter Three phase contactor with current operated overload and On
– Off buttons. Mounted on fan frame.

Air Flow Control A lever operated iris damper mounted on the fan exhaust.


Single Tube Plate A clear plastic plate with a centrally drilled hole to accept the
single active element. Plate dimensions such that it snugly
fits the 200mm opening in the air duct.

Multi Tube Plate A clear plastic plate with 27 fixed plastic tubes of 16mm
nominal diameter arranged on an equilateral triangular pitch
of 32mm between centres. Tubes form six rows. Near the
centre of each row is a dummy tube that may be removed and
replaced with the active element.

Electrically heated (maximum 70V) thick copper cylinder of nominally 15.8mm diameter and
50mm length. Heated area = 2,482 x 10-6 m2. Extreme ends are insulated to reduce errors due to
wall effects. Integral thermocouple senses surface temperature.


All instrumentation links to the interface housed in the console, which in turn links via an
RS423/232 compatible serial lead to the IBM or IBM compatible PC,

Console All electronic instrumentation and control is housed in a

plastic coated steel console with brushed aluminum front

Temperature Two Type "K" thermocouples, one integral to the heater to
measure element temperature, the other in the duct to record
temperature of the air stream.
Thermocouples have ambient reference temperature
connected to interface directly. Thermocouple conditioning
carried out by Hilton software.

Voltage Mains voltage measured directly by interface. Heater voltage

measured by current flowing through precision resistor.

Active Element Control Rotary variable transformer regulates voltage across active
element heater between 0 and 70V.
Air Flow Intake depression measured by differential pressure
transducer, mounted in interface. Voltage output proportional
to pressure. Range: 0 to 25 mm H2O. Software converts to
mass flow rate.

Voltage Switch Controls maximum voltage from rotary voltage transformer.

70V maximum supply for 5 pin Heater Element Socket 35V
for 7 pin Local Heat Transfer Element Socket.

The temperature of the active element is restricted by the thermal protection system to
approximately 100°C. However, this temperature is sufficient to cause a bum and when
removing the element from the tube plate it should always be held by the insulated portion.
Ideally, the heater control should be turned down so that the surface temperature has reduced to
approximately 50°C before handling the element
A spring clip is provided on the front of the air duct to hold the active element when not installed
in one of the tube plates.

Equipment Detail

Free and Forced Convection




Heat transfer by simultaneous conduction and convection, whether free or forced, forms the basis
of most industrial heat exchangers and related equipment. The measurement and prediction of
heat transfer coefficients for such circumstances is achieved in the Hilton unit by studying the
temperature profiles and heat flux in an air duct with associated flat and extended transfer
surface. The vertical duct is so constructed that the air temperature and velocity can be readily
measured, and a variety of "plug in" modules of heated solid surfaces of known dimensions can
be presented to the air stream for detailed study. A fan situated at the top of the duct provides the
air stream for forced convection experiments.

An independent bench-mounted console contains temperature measurement, power control, and

fan speed control circuits with appropriate instrumentation. Temperature measurement, to a
resolution of 0.1oC, is effected using thermistor sensors with direct digital read-out in °C.

Air velocity is measured with a portable anemometer mounted on the duct

The power control circuit provides a continuously variable, electrical output of 0-100 Watts with
a direct read-out in Watts.

Using the instrumentation provided, free and forced convective heat transfer coefficients may be
determined for:

A flat surface
An array of cylinders (pinned heat sink)
An array of fins (finned heat sink)

Each module may be used independently, on the bench, to establish free convection coefficients
for horizontal orientation. The apparatus is fully self-contained.

(Refer to Fig.1)

The apparatus consists of a vertical rectangular duct supported by a bench mounted stand (1). A
flat plate (3), pinned (4), or finned (5) exchanger may be installed in the duct and secured by a
quick released catch (18) on each side. Each exchanger incorporates an electric heating element
with thermostatic protection against overheating. The temperature at the base of each exchanger
is monitored by a thermistor sensor (19) with connecting lead (7).

The exchanger in use may be viewed through an acrylic window (14) in the wall of the duct. An
upward now of air may be generated in the duct with a variable speed fan (21) mounted at the
top. Air velocity in the duct, whether natural or forced, is indicated on a portable anemometer (2)
held in a bracket (15) on the duct wall. The anemometer sensor (16) is inserted through the wall
of the duct. A thermistor probe (6) permits measurement of the in-going and out-going air
temperatures, together with surface temperatures of exchanger pins and fins.

The temperatures are determined by inserting the probe through access holes (20) in the duct

An electric console (8) incorporates a solid state power regulator with a digital read-out to
control and indicate power supplied to the exchanger on test. The exchanger is connected to the
console via the supply lead (10). A variable low voltage D.C. supply is provided for the fan via
the supply 1ead (17). A digital read-out indicates the temperature using a thermistor probe
connected to a flexible lead (6). Power is supplied to the equipment via a supply lead (9)
connected to the rear of the console.



Equipment Detail

Concentric Tube Heat




The Hilton concentric tube heat exchanger has been designed to specifically demonstrate the
working principles of industrial heat exchanger in the most convenient way possible in the
laboratory class room. The apparatus requires only a cold water supply, fused electrical supply,
and a bench top to enable a series of simple measurement to be made by students needing an
introduction to heat exchanger design and operation. Experiments can be readily conducted in a
short period of time, with virtually no setting up operation, to accurate show the practical
importance of the following:
Temperature profile
Co- and counter-current flow
Energy balances
Log mean temperature differences
Heat transfer coefficients
The equipment consist of concentric tube exchanger in the form of a ‘U’ mounted on a support
frame. The external surface of the exchanger is insulated. Three temperature measuring devices
are installed in both the inside and the outside tubes, to measure the fluid temperature accurately.
To minimize losses in the system, the hot water is fed though the inner pipe, with the cooling
water in the outer annulus.
Control valves are incorporated in each of the two streams to regulate the flow. The flow rates
are measured using independent flow meters installed in each line.
The hot water system is totally self-contained. A hot storage tank is equipped with two immense
type heaters and an adjustable temperature controller, which can maintain a temperature to
within approximately ±1oC. Circulation to the heat exchanger is provided by a pump, and water
returns to the storage tank via a baffle arrangement to ensure adequate mixing. The cold water
required for the exchanger is taken from the laboratory mains supply.
A readily identifiable valve arrangement allows simple changeover between co- and counter-
current configurations.

(Refer to Fig. 1 and Fig. 2)

A supply of hot water at a temperature up to 80oC is maintained in a storage tank (1) at the rear
of the apparatus by two integral heating elements (2). The temperature of the water is monitored
by a sensor (4) adjacent to the tank outlet (5). Power to the electrical elements is regulated by a
controller (9) connected to the sensor to maintain a constant temperature. The controller is
mounted on the front panel for convenience and incorporates a liquid crystal display to show the
actual water temperature and membrane keys to set the desired water temperature. The storage
tank is fitted with a loose cover (7) to prevent the ingress of dust and reduce loss of water
through evaporation. Water is continuously recirculated through the tank by a pump (6), and

baffles (3) within the tank assist in mixing to promote a consistent temperature at the tank outlet.
Hot water for the exchanger is taken from the pump discharge and passes through the inner pipe
of the concentric tube arrangements (13) before returning to the tank for reheating. Flow through
this circuit is regulated by a control valve (18) and indicated on a flow meter (19). Thermometer
(15) and (17) installed at the inlet and outlet of the exchanger hot water circuit indicate the
respective water temperatures. A thermometer (10) installed in the top branch of the exchanger
indicates the temperature of the water in the hot water circuit at the mid-point of the circuit.
Cold water for the exchanger is supplied from an external source to the outer annulus of the
concentric tube arrangement via an inlet (21) and valve arrangement (16). Flow through this
circuit is regulated by a control valve (20) and indicated on a flow meter (23). After heating in
the exchanger the cold water leaves via an outlet (22). Temperatures through the cold water
circuit are indicated on three thermometers (12 and 14) co- or counter-flow configurations may
be obtained by the appropriate setting of the selector valves (16).
Valves (11) at the top of the exchanger permit air to be bled from the system and facilitate
drainage. A drain valve (24) permits the storage tank to be drained.
The pipework is drained by three valves positioned at:
i. Outlet of pump
ii. Before hot water control valve
iii. Before cold water control valve

To preserve the life and efficient operation of the equipment it is important that the equipment is
properly maintained. Regular servicing/maintenance of the equipment is the responsibility of the
end user and must be performed by qualified personnel who understand the operation of the
In addition to regular maintenance the following notes should be observed:
1. The equipment should be disconnected from the electrical supply when not in use.
2. Water should be drained from the equipment when it is not in use.
3. The exterior of the equipment should be periodically cleaned. DO NOT use abrasives or
4. The reservoir should be periodically cleaned to remove debris and deposits on the walls. DO
NOT use abrasives or solvents.

Equipment Detail

Boiling Heat Transfer Unit


Boiling and condensation are vital links in the transfer of heat from a hot to a colder region in
countless application. For example, thermal and nuclear generation in steam plants, refrigeration,
refining, heat transmission, etc.

When a liquid at saturation temperature is in contact with the surface of solid (usually metal) at a
high temperature, heat is transferred to the liquid and a phase change (evaporation) of some of
the liquid occurs.
The nature and rate of this heat transfer changes considerably as the temperature difference
between the metal surface and the liquid is increased.
Although “boiling” is a process familiar to everyone, the production of vapor bubbles is a very
interesting and complex process.
Due to surface tension, the vapor inside a bubble must be at a higher pressure than the
surrounding liquid. The pressure difference increases as the diameter of the bubble decreases,
and is insignificant when the bubble is large.
However, when the bubble is minute, an appreciable pressure difference exists. (An analogy may
be drawn with the inflation of a child’s balloon – it is difficult to inflate when the balloon is
small, but is becomes much easier as the diameter increases).
The pressure inside the bubble is the vapor pressure corresponding with the temperature of the
surrounding liquid. Thus, when no bubbles exist (or are very small) it is possible for the liquid
temperature in the region of the heat transfer surface to be well above the temperature of the bulk
of the liquid. (This will be close to the saturation temperature corresponding with the pressure at
the free liquid-vapor interface).
The formation of bubbles normally associated with the boiling is influenced by the foregoing.

Convective Boiling:
When the heating surface temperature is slightly hotter than the saturation temperature of the
liquid, the excess vapor pressure is unlikely to produce bubbles. The locally warmed liquid
expands and convection currents carry it to the liquid-vapor interface where evaporation takes
place and thermal equilibrium is stored.
Thus, in this mode, evaporation takes place at small temperature differences and with no bubble

Nucleate Boiling:
As the surface becomes hotter, the excess of vapor pressure over local liquid pressure increases
and eventually bubbles are formed. These occur at nucleating points on the hot surface where
minute gas pockets, existing in surface defects from the nuclear for the formation of a bubble.

As soon as a bubble is formed, it expands rapidly as the warmed liquid evaporates into it. The
buoyancy detaches the bubble from the surface and another starts to form,
Nucleate boiling is characterized by vigorous bubble formation and turbulence. Exceptionally
high heat transfer rates and the heat transfer coefficients with moderate temperature differences
occur in nucleate boiling, and in practical applications, boiling is nearly always in this mode.

Film Boiling:
Above a critical surface-liquid temperature difference, it is found that the surface becomes
“vapor locked” and the liquid is unable to wet the surface. When this happens there is
considerable reduction in heat transfer rate and if the hear input to the metal is not immediately
reduced to match the lower ability of the surface to transfer heat, the metal temperature will rise
until radiation from the surface plus the limited film boiling heat transfer, is equal to the energy
If the energy input is in the form of work (including electrical energy) there is no limit to the
temperature which could be reached by the metal and its temperature can rise until a failure or a
“burn out” occurs. If the source is radiant energy from, for example, a combustion process, a
similar failure can occur, and many tubes failure in the radiant section of advanced boilers are
attributed to this cause.
Immersion heaters must obviously be designed with sufficient area so that the heat flux never
exceeds the critical value.
The consequences of a “burn out” in a nuclear power plant will be readily appreciated.

Condensing Heat Transfer:

Condensation of a vapor onto a cold surface may be “film wise” or “drop wise”.
When film wise condensation occurs, the surface is completely wetted by the condensate and the
condensation is onto the outer layer of the liquid film, the heat passing through the film and into
the surface largely by conduction.
By treating a surface with a suitable compound it may be possible to promote “drop wise”
condensation. When this occurs the surface is not wetted by the liquid and the surface becomes
covered with beads of liquid which coalesce to form drops which then fall away leaving the
surface bare for a repetition of the action.
Heat transfer coefficients with drop wise condensation are higher than the film wise owing to the
absence of liquid film.
For a complete investigation of film wise and drop wise condensation at high heat fluxes, the
Hilton film and Drop wise Condensation Unit H910 should be used.
Boiling and condensation heat transfer are indispensable links in the production of power, all
types of refining and chemical processes, refrigeration, heating systems, etc.

There is constant pressure for more compact heat transfer units with high heat transfer rates and a
clear understanding of the boiling and condensing process is essential for every mechanical and
chemical engineer.
The Hilton Boiling Heat Transfer Unit has been designed to improve the understanding of
boiling and condensing heat transfer and enables both a visual and analytical study of these

(Refer to the schematic diagram Figure 1)
A high “watt density” electric heating element in a copper sleeve submerged in R14lb liquid is
mounted horizontally in a vertical glass chamber. The temperature of the copper sleeve is
measured by a thermocouple and digital temperature indicator.
The electrical input to the heater is controlled by a phase angle controller, the actual heat transfer
rate being displayed on a digital wattmeter.
A controller incorporated in the temperature indicator switches off the electrical input if the
temperature of the heating surface exceeds a pre-set value.
At the upper end of the chamber is the condenser, a nickel plated coil of copper tube through
which cooling water flows. The coil condenses the vapor produced by the heat input and the
liquid formed returns to the bottom of the chamber for re-evaporation.
A condenser water flow meter used in the conjunction with the glass thermometers measuring
the condenser water temperatures, enables the rate of heat transfer at the condenser to be
measured. The logarithmic mean temperature difference during condensation may also be
Glass thermometers are also mounted inside the glass cylinder to indicate the temperature of the
liquid and the vapor.

Panel High quality GR.P. moulding, on which the following are mounted.

Chamber Thick walled glass cylinder, approximately 80mm bore x 300mm

long, with nickel plated brass end plates. The chamber houses
heating element and the condenser coil.

Heating Element 600W "high watt density" cartridge heater swaged into a thick
walled copper sleeve to give a uniform surface temperature.
Effective heating surface area approximately 18 cm2.

Condenser Coil 9 Coils nickel plated copper tube. Mean surface area approximately

Heater Control Phase Angle Controller to give infinitely variable heat input to the
heating element.

Charging valve Fitted to lower end plate - to charge or discharge the liquid

(Please to Figure 1 – Schematic Diagram)
To assist in understanding operation, item names and relevant items on the schematic diagram
supplied are referred to in bold type in the following sections. For example, Condenser on Figure
The vent valve is normally only opened briefly to vent air from the system and this is referred to
Note that when the unit is in normal use or shut down both the vent valve and charging valve
should be in the closed position.

Normal Operation
Before starting any test check that:
(a) The cooling water is connected and ready for use.
(b) The pressure and temperature of the R141b agree with those at saturation conditions - if not,
it is probable that air is present and the air venting operation should be carried out.
(c) The electrical supply is correctly connected and that the unit is properly earthed.
Switch on the mains electrical supply to the unit. Check that the digital temperature indicator is
showing the same temperature as the liquid R141b thermometer. The instrument requires a few
minutes to warm up.

This unit has been designed to operate on R141b and no other fluid should be charged into the
An important feature of this unit is the use of glass the chamber shell. The shell has a safe
working pressure of 300 kN m-2 gauge and safety features are incorporated in the unit ensure that
this is not exceeded.
In all normal environments, R141b has a suitable pressure-temperature relationship.
R141b has been selected for use with the Boiling Heat Transfer Unit because of its saturation
pressure at the temperatures envisaged. Its values of p, and hr, make it suitable demonstrating
critical conditions at moderate heat fluxes.

During Use
Control the saturation pressure to the desired value by:
(a) Variation of the condenser water flow rate (or temperature), by use of control valve.
(b) Variation of the power supplied the heater, by use of the heater control.

Shutting Down After Use

(a) Switch off the electrical supply and disconnect from the mains.
(b) Circulate cooling water until pressure has fallen to atmospheric or below, depending on
ambient temperature.

Air Venting
A vent valve is situated on the top of the condenser and this allows air that has been admitted to
the system to be safely vented into the void inside the instrument panel.
Air that enters the system usually the charging valve as part of an experiment will be swept to the
condenser where it will collect around the condenser coils. The air will remain in this area and
effectively present an insulating barrier to vapor transfer, condensation md hence the heat
transfer. The net result will be a condenser pressure that is far greater than should be the case for
tie condensing temperature t3 indicated.
Unless demonstrating the effects of air in a condenser it will be necessary to vent the air from the
To vent from the condenser it is necessary increase the condenser pressure to approximately
50kN/m2 above atmospheric pressure.
With the heater power set to about 150 Watts, close the control valve on the condenser water
flow meter. This will cause the condenser pressure to rise. The time taken to reach 50 kN/m 2
above atmospheric pressure will depend upon the local ambient temperature.

Once 50 kNm-2 is reached the vent valve should be briefly opened and gas will be heard to enter
the void inside the panel. Close the valve well before the gauge pressure reaches 0 kN/m2. Open
the control valve on the condenser water flow meter and allow the condenser pressure to fall to
normal value.

Equipment Detail

Computer Linked Bench-top

Cooling Tower


The Hilton Computer Linked Bench Top Cooling Tower HC891 has been specifically designed
to give students an appreciation of the construction, design and operational characteristics of a
modem evaporative cooling system. The unit is also an excellent example of an "open system"
through which two streams of fluid flow (water and air) and in which there is a mass transfer
from one stream to the other.
The Bench Top Cooling Tower is completely self-contained and includes both the simulated
heating load and the circulating pump. It has much the same configuration as a full size forced
draught cooling tower, has the same characteristics, and stabilizes quickly.
Convincing energy and mass balances are obtained, and students can quickly investigate the
effects of
Air flow rate
Water flow rate
Water temperature
Cooling load
And Packing density
on the performance of a cooling tower.

(Please refer to the schematic diagram)
Water Circuit
Warm water is pumped from the load tank through the control valve and water flow meter to the
column cap. After its temperature is measured, the water is uniformly distributed over the top
packing deck and, as it spreads over the plates, a large thin film of water is exposed to the air
stream. During its downward passage through the packing, the water is cooled, largely by the
evaporation of a small portion of the total flow.
The cooled water falls from the lowest packing deck into the basin, where its temperature is
again measured and then passes into the load tank where it is re-heated before re-circulation.
Due to evaporation, the level of the water in the load tank tends to fall. This causes the float
operated needle valve to open and transfer water from the make-up tank into the load tank.
Under steady conditions, the rate at which the water leaves the make-up tank is equal to the rate
of evaporation plus any small airborne droplets in the air discharge.
Air Circuit
Air from the atmosphere, enters the fan at a rate which is controlled by the intake damper setting.
The fan discharges into the distribution chamber and the air passes wet and dry bulb sensors

before entering the packed column. As the air flows through the packings, its moisture content
increases and the water is cooled. On leaving the top of the column the air passes through the
droplet arrester which traps most of the entrained droplets and returns them to the packings. The
air is then discharged to the atmosphere via the air measuring orifice and further wet and dry
bulb sensors. Flow through the column may be observed through the transparent casing.
Three sets of different packings, each in its own casing, are available. These may be
interchanged quickly and without using tools.
A fourth empty column is available for use where students wish to investigate locally made
Additional Facility
The Bench Top Cooling Tower may be used to demonstrate industrial practice in which a
cooling tower is used to cool water from a process.
To do this, a small pump is installed to circulate cooled water from the load tank drain point,
through the process requiring cooling, and then back to the water distributor at the top of the
cooling tower.

Base Unit: All components arc mounted on a robust G.R.P. base plate
with integral instrument panel. Components include:
i. Air distribution chamber.
ii. A Sank with heaters to simulate cooling loads of 0.5,
1.0 and 1.5kW.
iii. A make-up tank with gauge mark and float operated
control valve.
iv. A centrifugal fan with intake damper to give 0.06kgs-1
max air flow.
v. A bronze and stainless steel glandless pump.
vi. A water collecting bask.
vii. An electrical control panel.

Packed Column: Four packed columns (A, B, C and D), each 150mm x
150mm x 600mm high, and fabricated from clear P.V.C., are
available. Columns A, B and C have pressure tapping points
and each contain eight decks of inclined, wettable, laminated
plastic plates, retained by water distribution troughs.

Column A has 7 plates per deck (giving 77m2 per m3)

Column B has 10 plates per deck (giving 110m2 per m3)
Column C has 18 plates per deck (giving 200m2 per m3)
Column D has no packings.

Column Cap: This fits on top of the chosen column and includes:
(i) An 80mm dia, sharp edged orifice and pressure
(ii) A droplet arrester.
(iii) A water distributor.

All instrumentation links to the on board interface. This in turn links via an RS423/232
compatible serial to an IBM PC or compatible computer.

Temperatures 2 pairs of wet and dry bulb type "K" thermocouples for air
entry and exit to tower. 2 type "K" thermocouples for water
entry and exit to tower.
Thermocouples have ambient reference temperature
connected to interface directly. Thermocouple conditioning
carried out by Hilton computer software.

Air Flow Measurement Sharp edged orifice with pressure tapping to differential
pressure transducer. Voltage output proportional to pressure.
Range 0-25mm H2O. Software converts to mass flow rate.
(Also used for packing pressure drop.)

Water Flow Electronic paddle type flow meter, gives pulsed output
voltage proportional to wafer flow rate.

Hilton software ensures that the system fails safe. Additional safety is ensured by

Sight Glass A sight glass fitted to the load tank indicate the watts' level
within the tank. During operation, this level must not be
allowed to fell below the minimum water level indicated.

Load Tank Thermostat The water temperature must not exceed 50°C and a
thermostat is fitted in the load tank to switch off the heaters
should this temperature be exceeded.

Heater Thermal Cut-Outs All heating elements are provided with automatically re-set
thermal protection devices which will operate in the unlikely
event of the element overheating.

Mesh Guard The fan intake is fitted with a wire mesh guard.

Overload Cut-Outs The mains and heater On/Off switches are miniature circuit
breakers and cut-out in the event of an overload due to a
short to earth or short circuit.

Residual Current Circuit Cuts off power inside the unit should the current in and out
Breaker differ by more Sian 30mA, as in a leakage to earth situation.

1. Whenever possible, distilled or demineralized water should be used for filling and
topping up of this unit. (This is to eliminate problems with scale and unsightly stains
resulting from water impurities.)
2. The water and air stream temperature must not be allowed to exceed 50°C.
3. The make-up tank must always be refilled before the depth of water falls below 50mm.
4. The make-up tank should be allowed to fall to about 50mm whenever the unit is
inoperative for more than two hours. (This is to ensure that any leakage past the float
valve does not result in an overflow from the load tank.)
5. The system should be completely drained and refilled with fresh water:
(i) After approximately 20 hours operation (more frequently in dusty conditions).
(ii) When the unit is to be inoperative for several days. This is to prevent the growth
of algae and the formation of sludge.
6. The pump must not be switched on unless the system is filled with water.
7. The two wet bulb reservoirs must be filled with distilled water.
8. If the water level in the load tank falls below the arrowed position, switch off the heaters
and investigate the cause.
9. Note: When the water flow rate is reduced there will be a reduction in the quantity of
water held by the packings and the level in the load tank will rise accordingly, closing the
float valve.
Although evaporation will eventually restore the correct level in the load tank, the
process can be accelerated by draining off water from the load tank drain until the level in
the makeup tank is seen to fall.

Cooling Tower Terms

Cooling Range The difference between the water temperature at entry to and
exit from the tower.
Cooling Load The rate at which heat is removed from the water. This may
be expressed in kW, Btu/h or k Cal/h.

The quantity of fresh water which must be supplied to the

water circuit to make good the losses due to evaporation and
other causes.

Drift or Carry Over Droplets of water which are entrained by the air stream
leaving the tower.
Packing or Fill The material over which the water flows as it fails through
the tower, so that a large surface area is presented to the air
Approach to Wet Bulb The difference between the temperature of the water leaving
the tower and the wet bulb temperature of the air entering.

Drain Down Water deliberately removed from the water system to prevent
the excessive concentration of dissolved solids due to
evaporation and sludge due to impurities from the

Basic Principles
Consider the surface of a warm water droplet or film in contact with as air stream.

Assuming that the water is hotter than the air, it will be cooled:
i. By radiation- This effect is likely to be very small at normal conditions and may be

ii. By conduction and convection - This will depend on the temperature difference, the
surface area, air velocity, etc.
iii. By evaporation - This is by far the most important effect. Cooling takes place as
molecules of H2O diffuse from the surface into the surrounding air. These molecules are
then replaced by others from the liquid (evaporation) and the energy required for this is
taken from the remaining liquid.

Evaporation from a Wet Surface

The rate of evaporation from a wet surface into the surrounding air is determined by the
difference between the vapor pressure at the liquid surface, i.e. the saturation pressure
corresponding with the surface temperature, and the vapor pressure in the surrounding air. The
latter is determined by the total pressure of the air and its absolute humidity.
In an enclosed space, evaporation can continue until the two vapor pressures are equal, i.e. until
the air is saturated and at the same temperature as the surface. However, if unsaturated air is
constantly circulated, the wet surface will reach an equilibrium temperature at which the cooling
effect due to the evaporation is equal to the heat transfer to the liquid by conduction and
convection from the air, which under these conditions, will be at a higher temperature.
The equilibrium temperature reached by the surface under adiabatic conditions, i.e. in the
absence of external heat gains or losses, is the "wet bulb temperature", well known in connection
with hygrometry.
In a cooling tower of infinite size and with an adequate air flow, the water leaving will be at the
wet bulb temperature of the incoming air.
For this reason, the difference between the temperature of the water leaving a cooling tower and
the local wet bulb temperature is an indication of the effectiveness of the cooling tower.
The "Approach to Wet Bulb" is one of the important parameters in the testing, specification,
design and selection of cooling towers.
Conditions within a cooling tower packing are complex due to the changing air temperature,
humidity and water temperature as (he two fluids pass through the tower - usually in a contra
flow fashion.
Cooling Tower Performance
The following factors affect the performance of a cooling tower:
i. The air flow rate
ii. The water flow rate
iii. The water temperature
iv. The air temperature and humidity at inlet (particularly the wet bulb temperature)
v. The type of packing used
vi. The area and volume of the packing
The Bench Top Cooling Tower enables these factors to be varied so that an overall appreciation
of cooling tower characteristics can be obtained.

The specific enthalpy of saturated water is assumed to be zero at the triple point (0.01°C and
0.00611 bar (611 N m-2), which is taken as datum.
Thermodynamic tables give the specific enthalpy of saturated water (hf) at a range of
temperatures above the datum condition, e.g. from tables (Ref.7, Page 66) at 20°C, the value of
h, is 83.9 kJ kg-1, the saturation pressure is 0.02337 bar (2.337 kN m-2) and the specific volume is
0.001m3 kg-1.
Water in the Bench Top Cooling Tower is at atmospheric pressure, usually about 1.013 bar
(101.3 kN m-2), and if the water is at say 20°C it must be "compressed liquid", as its pressure is
above the saturation pressure.
Specific Heat Capacity (Cp)
If water is cooled from say 50°C to 20°C at atmospheric pressure, its specific enthalpy will fall
from 209.3 to 83.9 kJ kg-1, i.e. a decrease of 125.4 kJ kg-1.
This is an average change ∆h/∆t of 125.4/30 = 4.18 kJ kg-1 K-1.
The rate of change of enthalpy with respect to temperature, (i.e. dh/dt) is given symbol Cp (often
called the specific heat at constant pressure).
Over the range of temperatures likely to be used in the Bench Top Cooling Tower, we may
therefore use for water,
∆h = Cp ∆t
and h = Cp t
where Cp = 4.18 kJ kg-1 K-1
Dalton’s and Gibbs Laws
Air is a mixture of "dry air" (oxygen, nitrogen and other gases) and water vapor.
The behavior of such a mixture is set out in the laws of Dalton and Gibbs from which the
following may be deduced:
(i) The total pressure of the air is equal to the sum of the pressures which the "dry air" and the
water vapor each and alone would exert if they were to occupy the volume of the mixture at the
temperature of the mixture.
(ii) The dry air and the water vapor respectively obey their normal property relationships at their
partial pressures.
(iii) The enthalpy of the mixture may be found by adding together the enthalpies which the dry
air and water vapor each would have as the sole occupant of the space occupied by the mixture
and at the same temperature.
The "water vapor", "steam” or "moisture" content of the air is denoted by its "HUMIDITY"

"Absolute or Specific Humidity'' (ω) is the ratio
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟

"Relative Humidity" (ɸ) is the ratio

𝑃𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑖𝑟
𝑆𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

"Percentage Saturation" is the ratio

𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒


Lab Manuals

To show that the intensity of radiation on a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the
distance of the surface from the radiation source.

Equipment set-up:

Set power control to wide position and allow approximately 15 minutes for the heater to reach a
stable temperature before beginning the experiment.

Summary of theory:
The total energy dQ from an element dA can be
imagined to flow through a hemisphere of radius r. A
surface element on this hemisphere dA1 lies on a line
making an angle ɸ with the normal and the solid
angle subtended by dA1 at dA is dwɸ = dA1/r2.
If the rate of flow of energy through dA1 is dQɸ then
dQɸ = iɸdwɸdA where iɸ is the intensity of radiation
in the ɸ direction.

Initial Values of Variables to be used

Distance from heat source (X) = 800 mm. Note that radiometer sensor surface is 65 mm from
center line of detector carriage and therefore center line position will be 865mm.

Record the radiometer reading (R) and the distance from the heat source (X) for a number of
positions of the radiometer along the horizontal track. It will take approximately 2 minutes for
the radiometer to stabilize after being moved to each new position.

Distance X (mm) 100

Radiometer Reading R (Wm-2)

Log10 X (mm) 2.00

Log10 R (Wm-2)

Typical results:

Distance X (mm) 800 750 700 650 600

Radiometer Reading R (Wm-2) 20 24 26 29 34

Log10 Distance X (mm) 2.90 2.87 2.84 2.81 2.77

Log10 Reading R (Wm-2) 1.30 1.38 1.41 1.46 1.83

To show that the intensity of radiation varies as the fourth power of the source temperature.

Equipment Set-up:

The power control on the instrument console should be set to maximum for this experiment.

Summary of theory:
The Stefan – Boltzmann law states that: q emitted = α (TS4 – TA4)
Where: q emitted = energy emitted by unit area of a black body surface (W m-2)
α = Stefan – Boltzmann constant equal to 5.67 x 10-8 (W m-2 K-4)
TS = Source Temperature of radiometer and surroundings (K)
TA = Temperature of radiometer and surroundings (K)

Incident Radiation and Emitted Radiation

The digital meter indicates the intensity of the radiation received by the radiometer (in W/m2)
and not the radiation emitted by the heated surface at which it is pointed.
Several of the experiments in the manual require the measurement of the radiation being emitted
by the heated surface.
Though beyond the scope of this manual it can be shown that the relationship between radiation
received by the sensor and radiation emitted by the heated source is as follows:

Hence as the sensor is removed from the heated surface and length increased the angle θ
The model is exact for a black circular emitter and receiver, as it is not possible to utilize circular
plates due to the shape of the heater available. An approximation is made to the “effective
diameter” of a circular plate that would be equivalent to the rectangular plates supplied.
This diameter is 126 mm and hence r = 63 mm.
qincident = qemitted 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃
From the diagram 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃 = ( )
𝑣 2 +𝐿2
Hence . qincident = qemitted
𝑣 2 +𝐿2
qincident = qemitted
(0.063)2 +𝐿2
OR 𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 (W/m2 ) = q emitted (0.063)2 +𝐿2
(0.063)2 +𝐿2
qemitted = 𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 (W/m2 ) (0.063)2
This relationship will be used in the appropriate experiments.
Note that the sensor surface is 65mm from the center line of the radiometer mounting rod.
Hence for the position of the radiometer sensor 65 mm must be subtracted from the marked
center of the detector stand.

Initial Values of Variables to be used
Distance from radiometer to black plate (X) = 200 mm
Distance from black plate to heat source (Y) = 50 mm
In accordance with the relationship:
(0.063)2 + 𝐿2
q emitted = 𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 (W/m2 )
L = 200 mm =0.2 m
Hence for
(0.063)2 + 0.22
q emitted = 𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 (W/m2 )

qemitted = Radiometer Reading (W/m2). 11.07

Record the temperature reading (T) and radiometer reading (R) at ambient conditions then for
selected increments of increasing temperature up to maximum within a practical range. Both
readings should be noted simultaneously at any given point.
It is recommended that while waiting for the black plate temperature to stabilize between each
increase of the heater power control the reflective disc is placed in the radiometer aperture to
prevent heating effects and zero drift.


Where T (K) = T (oC) + 273 and σ = 5.674 x 10-8 W m-2 K-4

Ambient Temperature (TA) = _________ oC

Temperature Radiometer
TS TA q = 11.07 x R q = σ (TS4 – TA4)
Reading (TS) Reading (R)
C W m-2 K K W m-2 W m-2

Compare calculated values for q. If the emissivity of the black plate is unity and the Stefan –
Boltzmann relationship holds true (i.e. temperature to the fourth power) then he calculated values
should be the same.

Typical Results:
Where T (K) = T (oC) + 273 and σ = 5.674 x 10-8 W m-2 K-4
Ambient Temperature = 21oC = 294 K

Temperature Radiometer
TS TA q = 11.07 x R q = σ (TS4 – TA4)
Reading (TS) Reading (R)
C W m-2 K K W m-2 W m-2
56 25 329 294 289 240
82 44 355 294 509 477
103 66 376 294 763 710
119 87 392 294 1007 915
153 135 426 294 1562 1444
203 226 476 294 2616 2488

The correlation between the two independent calculated values for q shows that the intensity of
radiation varies as the fourth power of the source temperature (Stefan – Boltzmann Law has been

To demonstrate the relationship between power input and surface Temperature in free

Equipment set-up:

A heated surface dissipates heat primarily through a process called convection. Heat is also
dissipated by conduction and radiation, however these effects are not considered in this
experiment. Air in contact with the hot surface is heated by the surface and rises due to a
reduction in density. The heated air is replaced by cooler air which is in turn heated by the
surface and rises. This process is called free convection. The hotter the temperature of the
surface. The greater the convective currents and the more heat (power) will be dissipated.
If more power is supplied to a surface, the temperature of the surface must rise to dissipate this

1. Place the finned heat exchanger into the test duct.
2. Record the ambient air temperature (tA).
3. Set the heater power control to 20 Watts. Allow sufficient time to achieve steady state
conditions before noting the heated plate temperature (tH).
4. Repeat this procedure at 22, 24 and 26 Watts.

Ambient air temperature (tA) = _______ oC
Input Power Heater Temperature (tH) tH – tA
W oC oC


 Plot a graph of power against surface temperature (tH – tA)


To demonstrate the relationship between power input and surface Temperature in forced

Equipment set-up:

In free convection, the heat transfer rate from the surface is limited due to small movements of
air, generated by this heat. More heat is transferred if the air velocity is increased over the heated
surface. This process of assisting the movement of air over the heated surface is called Forced
Convection. Therefore, a heated surface experiencing forced convection will have a lower
surface temperature than that of the same surface in free convection for the same power input.

1. Place the finned heat exchanger into the duct.
2. Note the ambient air temperature (tA).
3. Set the heater power control to 50 Watts. Allow sufficient time to achieve steady state
conditions before noting the heated plate temperature (tH). Set the fan speed control to
give a reading of 0.5 m/s on the thermal anemometer, allow sufficient time to achieve
steady stare conditions. Record heated plate temperature.
4. Repeat this procedure at 1.0 m/s and 1.5 m/s air speed.

Ambient air temperature (tA) = _________oC
Power input Watts = __________ Watts

Air Velocity Heater Temperature (tH) tH – tA

m/s oC oC


 Plot a graph of air velocity against temperature.


To demonstrate the working principles of a concentric tube heat exchanger operating under
parallel flow conditions.

Equipment set-up:

1. Turn on the electric and cold water supplies.
2. Then switch on the heater power to heat the water up to the set point temperature.
3. Check the valves position (for parallel flow).
4. After heating the water, switch on the pump.
5. Set the flow rates of cold and hot water streams using flow rate control valves.
6. Note down the inlet, mid, and outlet temperatures of cold and hot stream.

Summary of theory:
Power emitted = QH ρH CP H (tH in – tH out)
Power absorbed = QC ρC CP C (tC in – tC out)
Power lost = Power emitted – Power absorbed
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑑
Efficiency η = x 100
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑
∆𝑡1 − ∆𝑡2
Log mean temperature difference ∆tm = ∆𝑡
ln( 1 )
∆t1 = tH in – tC in

∆t2 = tH out – tC out
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑑
Overall heat transfer coefficient U=
ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎∗ ∆𝑡𝑚
Heat transmission area = 0.067 m2
Initial value of variables to be used:
Controlled hot water temperature = 60 oC
Hot water flow rate = QH = 2 liters/min
Cold water flow rate = QC = 1 liter/min
Readings to be taken:
Note the hot and cold water temperatures at inlet, mid-point and outlet once condition have

Readings -

tH in tH mid tH out tC in tC mid tC out

Calculations –
Power Power
Power lost Efficiency ∆tm U
emitted absorbed o
W % C W/ m2 oC

It will be necessary to refer to standard tables for values of density (ρ) and specific heat (CP).
Utilize appropriate conversion factors to ensure consistency of units when making calculations.

To demonstrate the working principles of a concentric tube heat exchanger operating under
counter flow conditions.

Equipment set-up:

1. Turn on the electric and cold water supplies.
2. Then switch on the heater power to heat the water up to the set point temperature.
3. Check the valves position (for counter flow).
4. After heating the water, switch on the pump.
5. Set the flow rates of cold and hot water streams using flow rate control valves.
6. Note down the inlet, mid, and outlet temperatures of cold and hot stream.

Summary of theory:
Power emitted = QH ρH CP H (tH in – tH out)
Power absorbed = QC ρC CP C (tC in – tC out)
Power lost = Power emitted – Power absorbed
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑑
Efficiency η = x 100
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑

∆𝑡1 − ∆𝑡2
Log mean temperature difference ∆tm = ∆𝑡
𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑒 1
∆t1 = tH in – tC out
∆t2 = tH out – tC in
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑑
Overall heat transfer coefficient U=
ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎∗ ∆𝑡𝑚
Heat transmission area = 0.067 m2
Initial value of variables to be used:
Controlled hot water temperature = 60 oC
Hot water flow rate = QH = 2 liters/min
Cold water flow rate = QC = 1 liter/min
Readings to be taken:
Note the hot and cold water temperatures at inlet, mid-point and outlet once condition have

Readings -

tH in tH mid tH out tC in tC mid tC out

Calculations –
Power Power
Power lost Efficiency ∆tm U
emitted absorbed o
W % C W/ m2 oC

It will be necessary to refer to standard tables for values of density (ρ) and specific heat (CP).
Utilize appropriate conversion factors to ensure consistency of units when making calculations.

Visual demonstration of the three modes of boiling.

Turn on the electric and water supplies and adjust power to very low settings (<20 Watts).
Allow the digital temperature indicators to stabilize.
Observe the digital temperature and the liquid temperature at frequent intervals.
Carefully watch the liquid surrounding the heater. Convection currents will be observed, and at
the same time liquid will be seen to collect and drip on the condenser coils, indicating that
evaporation is proceeding although at a low rate. Increase the power in increments, keeping the
vapor pressure at any desired constant value by adjusting the condenser water flow rate by the
control valve.
Nucleate boiling will soon start and will increase until vigorous boiling is seen, the temperature
difference between the liquid and metal being still quite moderate (<20K).
Increase the power input, and at between 300 and 400 Watts the nature of the boiling will be
seen to change dramatically and at the same time the metal-liquid temperature difference will
rise quickly. The rate of evaporation falls to a low level and the condenser water flow rate must
be reduced to maintain a steady condenser pressure. The heat input should now be reduced to
about 40 Watts. Careful examination of the heater surface will show that it is now enveloped in
an almost unbroken film of vapor and this is the cause of the reduced heat transfer rate.
The heat input should now be reduced to zero. It will be found that as the metal-liquid
temperature difference falls to about 80K the boiling suddenly becomes vigorous as film boiling
reverts to nucleate boiling.

Determination of heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient at constant pressure.

Adjust the heat input to about 50 Watts and adjust the condenser water flow rate until the desired
condenser pressure is reached. Note the power, vapor pressure, liquid temperature and metal
temperature. Increase the heat input to say 100 Watts, adjust the condenser water flow rate to
give the desired pressure and when steady, wait 5 minutes then repeat the observation.
Repeat in similar increments until the transition from nucleate to film boiling is reached. By
careful adjustment of heat input near this condition it is possible to make an accurate assessment
of critical conditions. When film boiling is established the heat input should be reduced and the
readings continued until the heater temperature reaches 160oC.
Typical results and graphs are shown:
Typical results at a pressure of 125 kN m-2 absolute:

Heat Input Q(W) 65 112 190 250 305 335 350 360 25 27 32 38

Liquid Temperature
37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 37
t2 (oC)

Metal Temperature
49 51 53 54 55 58 60 64 140 152 156 158
t1 (oC)

From which:

Heat Flux = Q/A

36 62 106 139 169 186 194 200 14 15 18 21
ɸ (kW m-2)
Temperature Difference
12 14 15 16 17 20 22 26 102 114 118 121
∆t (K) = t1 - t2
Surface Heat Transfer
Coefficient = ɸ / ∆t
3.01 4.44 7.04 8.68 9.97 9.31 8.84 7.69 0.14 0.13 0.15 0.17
h (kW m-2 K-1)
*Transition Region *

Note: The effective area (A) of the heat transfer surface of the heater is 1.8 x 10-3 m2.
These results are most conveniently plotted on a log-log graph as shown in Graphs.

Observation of the processes within a forced draught cooling tower.

The Bench Top Cooling Tower behaves in a similar manner and has similar components to a full
size cooling tower and may be used to introduce students to their characteristics and

Water System
i. The warm water enters the top of the tower and is fed into troughs from which it flows
via notches onto the packings. The troughs are designed to distribute the water uniformly
over the packings with minimum splashing.
ii. The packings have an easily wetted surface and the water spreads over this to expose a
large surface to the air stream.
iii. The cooled water falls from the lowest packing into the basin and may then be pumped to
a process requiring cooling (or in the Bench Top Cooling Tower, to the simulated load in
the load tank).
iv. Due to evaporation from the water, "make-up" must be supplied to maintain the quantity
of water in the cooling system. The falling level in the load tank may be observed.
v. Droplets of water (resulting from splashing, etc.) may become entrained in the air stream
and then lost from the system. This loss does not contribute to the cooling, but must be
made good by "make-up". To minimize this loss, a "droplet arrester", or "eliminator" is
fitted at the tower outlet. This component causes droplets to coalesce, forming drops
which are too large to be entrained and these fall back into the packings.
Air System
vi. Under the action of the fan, air is driven upward through the wet packings. It will be seen
that the change of dry bulb temperature is smaller than the change of wet bulb
temperature, and that at air outlet there is little difference between wet and dry bulb
temperatures. This indicates that the air leaving is almost saturated (i.e. Relative
Humidity - 100% as shown on the Psychrometric Chart). This increase in the moisture
content of the air is due to the conversion of water into steam and the "latent heat" for this
accounts for most of the cooling effect.
vii. If the cooling load is now switched off and the unit allowed to stabilize, it will be found
that the water will leave the basin close to the wet bulb temperature of the air entering.
According to the local atmospheric conditions, this can be several degrees below the
incoming air (dry bulb) temperature.
With no load, the water would be cooled to the incoming wet bulb temperature, but this
condition cannot be attained since the pump transfers about 100W to the water.

Lab Flexes

Material Safety Data Sheet