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UNIT 1 4 C had eaten (Being sick was a consequence of having eaten

too much beforehand. The past perfect situates the action
before the simple past.)
Reading 5 C wasn’t talking (Refers to an activity in the past)
1 1 cutting-edge ​ 2 facilitate ​ 3 pave ​ 4 advent ​5 current ​ 6 A used to be waiting (Refers to a past habit)
6 unnerving ​ 7 modifying ​ 8 flawed 7 C had (This happened before I had time to tell her. Past
perfect before simple past.)
2 The best description is 4.
8 B used to own (Past state)
3 1 C … how would you know which version of events to believe
4 1 became ​ 2 hadn’t given ​3 were applying ​4 had had ​
(para 1) links with You might trust your own memory over
5 hadn’t crossed ​6 had been working
theirs (C)
2 E … it is only recently that investigations into examples of Vocabulary
false memories and why we create them have begun
(para 2) links with Before these studies, we only had access 1 1 recall ​ 2 memories ​ 3 reminds ​ 4 jog ​5 memorising ​
to unsubstantiated accounts of false memories. (E) 6 block out
3 A … we end up rejecting ‘memories’ that we once believed 2 1 C (before six = early childhood)
to be true (para 3) links with we are persuaded that our 2 D (we just choose to forget = selective memory)
memory was faulty (A) 3 E (what my first teacher said = word for word)
4 D … One contributor recalls the following memory 4 A (smells = scent)
(para 4) links with This is just one of several examples in the 5 B (my brother = he)
collection (D) 3 1 selective memory (memory for some things and not others)
5 G … Another reason for determining a false memory is often 2 blocks out terrible memories (to forget something painful,
quite simply its implausibility (para 5) links with This is upsetting)
reinforced by one contributor’s explanation that he truly 3 jog his memory (try to remind him)
remembers flying when he was a child. (G) 4 I realise it’s difficult for him (I understand it is difficult)
6 F … it could be due to a psychological process in which our 5 He always recognises people (he sees people and knows who
memories record events (para 5) links with Alternatively, it they are)
could be caused by a difficulty in being able to differentiate 6 remembers their names (and he knows their names)
between the memory of something that physically 7 He commits phone numbers to memory (he remembers
happened and something that our minds created such as phone numbers)
a dream (F) 8 word for word (in exactly the same words)
4 1 subjectively ​ 2 vividly ​ 3 cited ​ 4 reinforced ​ 9 I should memorise the important phone numbers (to commit
5 implausibility ​ 6 contradict ​ 7 disconcerting ​8 reminisced to memory)
10 trigger memories (to cause me to remember)
Grammar 4 1 E ​ 2 C ​ 3 B ​ 4 D ​ 5 A
1 1 Miranda didn’t use to spend a lot of time watching TV. (We
didn’t have a TV)
2 Miranda’s parents had been writing books for a long time. 1 The correct answer is A.
(they had been writing all their lives) 2 Task 1
3 Sally didn’t feel very alone after Beth had left home. (When 1 E 
As the class monitor at school, I was responsible for giving
Beth left home I didn’t really think about it, I felt fine I think.) out the art materials.
4 Sally’s parents warned her that she would miss her sister at 2 G When I was at school, my teacher taught us an acronym
first. (Mum and dad were great and they did tell me that I was to remember the order of the planets to help us prepare for
going to feel a bit lonely for a while) a test.
5 Lucas contrasted his parent’s culture with the British culture 3 C 
I took up memorising card tricks so I didn’t get bored on
as he was growing up. (I think that as I was growing up I my own.
noticed the cultural difference more and more.) 4 F 
I used to keep my focus while I was swimming up and down
2 1 were working the pool by counting as high as I could.
2 seemed 5 A 
… , but I spent most of my childhood recovering from a
3 were minor brain injury after being in a car crash and for a time
4 had left this was the only way that I could remember things.
5 had been sharing Task 2
6 used to talk / would talk / talked 6 B 
… my skill for memorisation means I assist the host and
7 moved make sure they greet all of the attendees appropriately.
8 had been considering 7 H I don’t need to spend as long studying dates and facts now
9 were having that I have a system for remembering them.
didn’t spoil / didn’t use to spoil 8 A 
My friends live streamed it just so I could feel involved
3 1 A used to write (Past habit) – it was a great feeling after being so lonely when I was
2 B had hung up (Simon finished the call before his friend had younger.
time to talk about the concert.) 9 E 
I lost five kilos and got so much fitter when I was preparing
3 A didn’t always use to be (Past state. B is not possible for the last competition.
because ‘would’ is used to talk about habits but not states; 10 C Now I give talks at universities about how to use this
and cannot be used with stative verbs.) technique and I’ve even released a web series about it.
3 1 D ​ 2 A ​ 3 B ​ 4 E ​ 5 F ​6 C

© Pearson Education Limited 2018 183


Use of English 1 3 1 E ​ 2 C ​ 3 D ​ 4 A ​ 5 B

4 1 T ​ 2 F ​ 3 T ​ 4 F ​5 F
1 1 addicted to ​ 2 embarrassed by ​ 3 concerned about ​
5 1 Yes
4 inspired by ​ 5 amazed at ​ 6 scared of ​7 delighted with ​
8 based on 2 fast-moving, outstanding, electrifying
2 1 B (to apologise for) 3 heroic, huge, enigmatic, intriguing, fascinating, powerful
2 A (to be accomplished at) stunning, superb, threatening
3 B (to be concerned about) 6 1 Student 2 ​2 Student 3
4 C (to protect someone/something from)
5 A (to be remembered for)
Unit Check
6 B (to stop somebody from) 1 1 did you realise ​2 was trying ​3 had been running ​
7 C (to be undecided about something) 4 had drunk ​5 hadn’t been ​6 was staring
8 A (to be known for something) 2 1 used to ​2 didn’t use to ​3 would ​ 4 used to ​5 would ​
3 1 being (gerund after preposition) 6 would
2 not (expression; more often than not is the same as 3 1 was waiting ​2 was reading ​3 had always assumed ​
quite often) 4 stated ​ 5 had been treating ​6 took ​ 7 tried ​8 had done ​
3 make (collocation) 9 didn’t realise ​10 was being
4 after (preposition showing order of events) 4 1 by ​ 2 at ​3 to ​ 4 with ​ 5 from ​ 6 about
5 not (expression for suggestion) 5 1 remind ​ 2 recall ​3 memorise ​ 4 remembering, recognising ​
6 of (phrasal verb) 5 realised ​ 6 remember
7 If (zero conditional) 6 1 blocking out ​2 committing ​ 3 trigger ​ 4 have ​5 keeping
8 able (able to concentrate)
7 1 word for word ​2 vague memory ​3 committing ​ 4 refresh ​
4 1 alarmed at ​ 2 distressed by ​ 3 known for ​ 4 upset with ​ 5 ear-worms ​ 6 out of your head
5 overwhelmed by ​ 6 refrained from  ​7 adept at ​
8 committed to

Use of English 2 UNIT 2

1 1 reassuring ​2 descriptive ​
5 transferable ​
3 substantially ​
6 advisory  ​7 repeatedly ​
4 memorisation ​
8 recollection
2 1 1 D ​ 2 E ​ 3 A ​ 4 F ​ 5 G ​ 6 I ​7 C ​ 8 J ​9 B ​ 10 H
2 1 mentions the temptation of limiting questions to a
repeat description repetitive describable
particular topic?
describe repeat descriptive repeatedly 2 refers to an overconfidence in their abilities?
differ memorisation different memorably 3 points out the difference between their idea and the reality
of writing for quiz shows?
memory difference memorable differently
4 says that writing is a group effort?
5 mentions a previous intention to put minimal effort into the
3 1 description ​ 2 happiness ​ 3 satisfaction ​ 4 detachment ​ job?
5 recollection ​ 6 anticipation ​ 7 particularly ​8 differently 6 cites the need to use different resources?
4 verbs: restore, refresh 7 describes the difference between the show and the writing?
adjective: accessible 8 mentions the players in the studio and at home?
adverb: confidently 9 points out that a lot of general knowledge has already been
5 tested?
10 mentions the importance of confirming the validity of facts?
1 restore restoration restorable x
3 1 D Having other people around you who can point out that
2 refresh refreshments refreshing refreshingly you’ve written twenty questions about the same stretch
3 access accessibility accessible accessibly of ocean stops you from producing a script with the same
4 confide confidence confident confidently pattern of questions.
2 B  I hadn’t expected to hit a wall so soon into the job and it
was discouraging to discover that my supposedly endless
Speaking pool of facts dried up so quickly.
3 A  The truth? I couldn’t have been more wrong.
1 1 putting ​ 2 point ​ 3 could ​ 4 more ​ 5 other ​ 6 exactly
4 D For me, that team dynamic is important …
2 1 A ​ 2 D ​ 3 D ​ 4 A ​ 5 D ​ 6 A
5 A  I also hoped I’d have plenty of spare time to do some of my
3 1 That’s an excellent way of putting it. ​2 I couldn’t agree more ​ own writing during the day.
3 I agree up to a point 6 B  Falling back on search engines may seem like the easy
4 Comments 2, 3 and 4 are true. option, but the truth is you have to be smart.
5 Statement 4 is true. 7 D Even though the game show format is formulaic, we have
6 1 F ​ 2 T ​3 T ​ 4 T ​5 T ​ 6 T to constantly remind ourselves that the questions can’t be!
7 1 view ​ 2 highlight ​ 3 add to that ​4 That’s a really good point ​ 8 A … for both the show participants and the armchair
5 leads us on to ​6 I didn’t mean ​7 Absolutely ​ 8 in earnest contestants at home to answer isn’t as simple as you think.
9 A … you have to think of questions that haven’t been
Writing asked before.
1 1 hilarious ​2 terrifying ​3 thrilling ​4 dreadful ​ 10 C … allowing an incorrect question to make it on air means
5 exceptional ​6 fast-moving immediate dismissal …
2 1 electrifying ​
2 dazzling ​3 breathtaking ​ 4 inspirational ​ 4 1 saturated ​ 2 flipside ​ 3 tricky ​ 4 hit a wall ​5 gig ​
5 magnificent ​6 outstanding 6 off the ground ​7 tight-knit ​ 8 dismissal

184 © Pearson Education Limited 2018


Grammar 7 an honour … as the first female CEO of a well-respected data

security firm whose innovative solutions are trusted around
1 1 C (Having the courage is the subject of the sentence) the world – for me I’d say it’s an honour.
2 D (time is a noun followed by the infinitive) 8 strength … , but the message I want you to take away from
3 E (only to find show the result of what happens when people this talk is that we need setbacks to give us the strength to
chase after money) achieve what we really want.
4 F (I was brought up is passive + the past participle) 3 1 resonated ​ 2 dig deeper ​3 hunched over ​4 flaw ​
5 G (to have made is using to have + the past participle for a 5 knock-back ​ 6 adversity ​7 cliché ​8 setbacks ​
past concept) 9 braving the elements ​10 visualise
6 B (like is a verb which can be followed by the infinitive or the
gerund and the meaning changes) Time out
7 A (the verb manage is always followed by the infinitive) 4 1 F ​2 C ​3 D ​4 A ​5 B ​6 E
2 1 Create (goals)
2 to succeed (infinitive with to after verb want)
Use of English 1
3 to get (aim + infinitive) 1 1 other (the usual type)
4 learning (stop + infinitive or -ing form depending on 2 more (something superior)
meaning of sentence; the -ing form means to carry on doing 3 not enough (insufficient)
something ) 4 less than (not adequate enough)
3 1 to understand (struggle + infinitive) 5 the whole (the entire picture)
2 reading/to read (try + -ing or infinitive with to means a 6 half of (over half the amount)
recommendation to try/test something) 7 little (not very much)
3 to enable (promise + infinitive with to) 8 no (no interest; no + noun)
4 copying (like + -ing or infinitive with to; like + -ing means to 9 all of (referring to the issues mentioned)
enjoy doing an activity) 10 several (quantifying the amount of issues they choose from)
5 to follow (need + infinitive with to) 11 Every (individual students)
6 to throw (dare + someone + infinitive with to) 12 most (identifying the thing which is of highest importance)
7 doing (love + -ing or infinitive with to; love + -ing means to 2 1 few (negative statement; a few would be positive)
enjoy doing an activity) 2 most (nearly all)
8 to identify (endeavour + infinitive with to) 3 several (positive statement, more than a few options)
4 1 imagine being able (imagine + -ing form) 4 too few (not enough)
2 recall having given you (recall + -ing form) 5 all (not all)
3 correct 6 little (negative statement; a little would be positive)
4 appear to be finished (appear + infinitive with to) 7 plenty of (lots of, talking about the benefits of work
5 correct placements)
6 denied having eaten (deny + -ing form) 8 a few (positive statement; talking about benefits)
7 voted to go (vote + infinitive with to) 3 1 as (comparative statement)
8 endeavour to try harder (endeavour + infinitive with to) 2 off (talking about opposites; on or off the field)
3 without (expression: it goes without saying, meaning it is
Vocabulary obvious)
1 1 futile attempts ​2 lukewarm response ​3 vast majority ​ 4 so (so is mental training; mental training is also crucial.)
4 unprecedented success ​5 dismal failure ​ 5 of (consists of; dependent preposition)
6 formidable challenges ​7 impressive accomplishment ​ 6 able (able to + verb anticipate)
8 burning ambition 7 how (in what way)
8 doing (doing so substitutes understand and manage
2 1 cut their losses ​2 back to square one ​
3 stay on top of the game ​4 think big ​5 win win ​
6 get the better of ​7 if all else fails ​8 getting there
3 1 D ​ 2 C ​ 3 B ​ 4 E ​5 F ​ 6 A

1 1 a noun ​2 an adjective ​3 a noun ​4 a noun ​
5 a noun / noun phrase ​6 a noun / noun phrase ​
7 an adjective ​8 a noun
2 1 public recognition … what does success sound like to you?
… to me, its the public recognition that comes with sporting
2 devastated I tried to be optimistic even though I was
3 rest indoors I struggled the most with being forced to
rest indoors …
4 determination … so I just needed to redirect my
5 comfort zone … being out of my comfort zone has only
pushed me harder.
6 self-belief … its my self-belief that’s been vital in helping get
me here.

© Pearson Education Limited 2018 185


Use of English 2  affect some contestants badly. Others, however, thrive under
the pressure and it can be good preparation for working in
1 It is possible to add ‘very’ before the adjective in bold in these a notoriously insecure industry.
sentences: In general, I feel that perhaps the more important benefit is the
2 (They must have been very desperate to have considered once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to reach a wide audience. There
committing a crime.) are many performers who could well achieve great success if
6 (Everyone was very surprised when the teacher left in the only more people were aware of their talent. Shows like these
middle of the term.) give people a chance, and if they fail, then at least they can be
7 (Despite being very popular among his work colleagues…) reassured that they have tried or that perhaps this path was
2 1 obvious ​ 2 ridiculous ​ 3 exaggerated ​ 4 enjoyable ​ not quite right for them.
5 plausible ​ 6 believed ​ 7 disappointed ​ 8 limited
3 1 A ​ 2 D ​ 3 D ​ 4 A ​5 B ​ 6 B ​7 C ​ 8 B Unit Check
4 1 wholly ​ 2 virtually ​ 3 entirely ​4 dreadfully ​ 5 expressly ​ 1 1 playing ​ 2 wanting ​ 3 to take ​4 having ​ 5 to tell ​
6 reasonably 6 to do, playing
Speaking 2 1 talking ​ 2 take ​3 to calm ​4 to socialise ​5 staying out ​
6 to eat ​7 to drink ​8 having ​ 9 to feel
1 1 talk about 2 pictures 3 1 none ​ 2 little ​
3 any ​ 4 all ​5 the whole
2 talking about things that are similar and / or different 4 1 eternal ​ 2 colossal ​3 formidable ​ 4 square ​5 cut ​
3 when the interlocutor stops you 6 there
2 1 1 ✓ ​ 2 ✗ ​ 3 ✗ ​4 ✗ ​ 5 ✓ 5 1 unprecedented growth ​2 vast number ​
3 1 although, different 3 resounding success ​4 impressive accomplishment ​
2 whereas 5 burning ambition ​6 futile attempts ​7 dismal failure ​
3 major, however, more 8 get the better of you
4 similar, both, However
5 Although
6 that, whereas
4 Extract 6 (It speaks about all three pictures but the task asks
for comparison between only two.) Reading
Writing 1 1 A ​ 2 A ​ 3 B ​ 4 B ​5 A ​6 B ​ 7 A ​ 8 A
1 1 C (because of the use of surely) 2 1 In the first paragraph, the writer says that
2 D (uses contractions and the colloquialism the sooner the A the additional elements of the Angela’s collection were
better) well hidden.
3 D (gives an opinion) B the audience was impressed with how waterproof the
4 A (quotes a figure) jacket was.
5 B (because indicates an explanation) C initially, there was nothing to differentiate the jacket from
other people’s.
2 1 F (it should be formal or semi-formal)
D Angela had previously claimed to be inspired by the
2 F (only two)
3 T
2 In the second paragraph, the writer implies that
4 F (only if you wish to, and not all three)
A Angela had specific instructions from the art school.
5 T
B The art school took credit for Angela’s collection.
6 F (this is for FCE)
C Angela’s collection interprets the school’s policy.
3 1 nearly everyone’s life / most people’s life D Angela had to get permission from the school’s policy
2 probably makers.
3 can prepare 3 In line 36 centre-piece in refers to
4 Nearly all of us / Most people / Most of us A the overcoat.
5 would say B the reflective jacket.
6 nearly always / most often / usually C the sleeping bag coat.
4 1 B ​ 2 C ​ 3 A ​ 4 C ​5 B D the tent jacket.
5 Model answer 4 In the third paragraph, the writer says that Angela
A quick glance at any TV guide will reveal a high number of TV A uses only recycled materials.
talent shows across the channels. These are popular viewing, B  throws hardly any material away.
but it is debateable what benefits they actually bring to the C  gives her unused material to others.
contestants themselves. Even winners of the series may have D uses mass-produced materials.
one moment of glory and then seemingly disappear from sight. 5 In the fourth paragraph the writer implies that making
Clearly one major benefit to any aspiring performer is the something the fashion industry likes
immediate access to a national, or even in some cases, a global A is a benefit.
stage. Millions of people watch their performances and the B is an achievement.
audience may include producers or agents who could help C is profitable.
further a career. D isn’t important.
Another point, perhaps more contentious, is that contestants 6 In line 55 closer to home suggests that
need to cope with a fairly high level of stress. For many of A the writer is from the USA.
them, it can be a relentless sequence of learning new routines B the writer lives close to Angela Luna.
and trying to produce near perfect performances to vast live C the writer is writing from a foreign country.
audiences on a regular basis. The pressure is significant and can D the writer is visiting the USA.

186 © Pearson Education Limited 2018

3 1 A What I wasn’t expecting was for the art graduate to 3 1 made ​ 2 did ​3 Make ​ 4 make ​ 5 make ​ 6 do
remove the coat from the model and make it into a tent 4 1 I did a double take (gap 2)
right there on the catwalk. 2 to make amends (gap 5)
2 C … embodies her art school’s commitment to using design 3 made an exception for me (gap 1)
for social good. 4 make the best of the rest of the day (gap 3)
3 D to help keep homeless people warm and safe from the 5 make a mockery of my baking skills (gap 4)
bitter winter nights on the streets in a tent jacket 6 let me do my own thing (gap 6)
4 A … sourcing pieces from sustainable and repurposed
materials … Listening
5 B … the notoriously hard-to-impress fashion industry … 1 1 Why did Carol set up Community Kitchen?
6 A … such as in New York City, where the collection was 2 How does Carol feel about asking people to pay for the
designed … meals?
4 1 needs ​ 2 begins ​ 3 isn’t ​4 purpose ​ 5 has ​ 6 well-known ​ 3 What does Jason like most about his job?
7 any ​ 8 isn’t ​9 progressing ​ 10 requires 4 How does Jason feel about being an outreach worker?
5 What do Jason and Carol both think about the future of the
Grammar project?
1 1 D ​ 2 B ​ 3 E ​ 4 A ​ 5 C 6 How does Carol feel about the families who have meals at
2 1 like ​ 2 as ​ 3 as ​ 4 alike ​
5 like the community kitchen?
3 1 As (as something goes is an expression which is used 2 1 A … so many people were left without enough money to buy
before making a comparison of something with the subject proper food for their families.
mentioned.) 2 D We still have to charge in order to keep the project going …
2 the most (superlative as saying the best of all to date) 3 D Working on a project and seeing it come to life is definitely
3 as (as a team) the best part of my job.
4 like (similar to) 4 C 
I get a great sense of pride in seeing the achievements that
5 much more (comparing two different situations) the young people we work with make.
6 such as (for example) 5 B 
One of the fantastic things about this project is its
7 like (for example) sustainability. (Jason) I agree – we are able to buy
8 far (easily the most) ingredients from the money charged for each meal and we
9 alike (in a similar or the same way) have recently started making a small profit, too. (Carol)
the wider (comparative statement: the wider they can use 6 B 
I think it’s important for families to spend mealtimes
this method, the more money they can collect) bonding and talking about their day.
4 1 much more creative ways ​ 3 1 D ​ 2 B ​3 G ​4 E ​5 H ​6 C ​7 A ​8 F
2 look no further than ​3 as a way to help ​ 4 1 rewarding ​ 2 engaged ​ 3 empower ​ 4 insight ​
5 liaising ​
4 more impressive idea ​5 faster this happens 6 touches on
6 1 haven’t developed
2 doesn’t have to train
Use of English 1
3 want to give 1 1 helping ​ 2 have allowed ​3 let ​ 4 were allowed ​5 made ​
4 Not everybody carries cash 6 getting ​ 7 made ​ 8 having
2 1 helped ​ 2 made ​ 3 let ​4 made ​ 5 allowed ​
6 getting
Vocabulary 3 1 let ​2 get ​ 3 made ​ 4 have ​ 5 allows
1 1 transformed (very much changed person) 4 1 Generation Z are reported to be more entrepreneurial than
2 modify (make some alterations to) the Millennials.
3 re-vamp (make drastic changes to) 2 Teachers predict that young people’s use of social media will
4 adapt (change slightly) result in problems unless it is closely monitored by their
5 made (make a sacrifice; collocation) parents.
6 adjusting (changing the amount slightly) 3 The teacher told the students that they would all benefit
7 turning (evolving into; phrasal verb) from some careers advice.
8 turns (do a good turn; expression) 4 My brother advised me not to let my students make the
2 Leon Logothetis has made done a lot of good for people by same mistakes we made.
doing making a difference to a lot of people’s lives and at times 5 The number of successful, young entrepreneurs today is the
even moving turning them around. highest (that) it has ever been according to a recent report.
The former stockbroker has travelled the globe on a vintage 6 Students got their papers re-marked after complaining
yellow motorbike giving people a helping hand and generally about the marking scheme.
making doing acts of kindness. Leon believes that kindness
doesn’t have to be materialistic and that doing giving a
hug, giving praise or saying paying a compliment are acts of
kindness than can make a difference.
Leon says that kindness is about showing people that
they matter and that we can do this by simply making
doing someone a favour and making someone’s day a little
bit happier.

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Use of English 2 4 1 I feel that I must write (to you) because …

2 I appreciate that you have to give both sides of the question,
1 but …
-ary literary 3 I think you should / ought to retract your statement.
-ive instructive 4 If you could print an apology that would be ….
5 I think you may be mistaken.
destructive 6 I have a different point of view.
-al autumnal 5 Points 1, 4 and 5
global 6 Model answer
-able negotiable Dear Editor
After reading the article on your website today regarding
-ous courageous
the influence of the media and celebrity role models on the
humorous decisions young people make, I am writing to correct some of
-ible reversible your mistaken assumptions.
edible The main problem with your article, in my view, is that the
writer is over-generalising. Whereas I agree that some young
people may be negatively influenced by what is shown in the
2 1 reversible ​ 2 negotiable ​ 3 global ​ 4 literary ​5 destructive ​
media and celebrity lifestyle choices, I must point out that this
6 edible ​ 7 instructive ​ 8 courageous
is definitely not the case for all of us. While I admire certain
3 1 numerous ​ 2 explanation ​ 3 effectively ​ 4 beneficial ​ celebrities for their talent, neither I – nor any of my friends –
5 indecisive ​ 6 deprioritisation ​ 7 advantageous ​ would consider copying their decisions. I would hope that we
8 consciously appreciate the difference between their worlds and our own
4 1 C ​ 2 B ​ 3 B ​ 4 A ​ 5 B ​ 6 C and realise that we need to consider what is right for us in
Speaking completely unique circumstances.
In addition to this, I think it is worth mentioning that the
1 1 T ​ 2 T ​ 3 T media clearly has an influence on everyone; we all watch
4 F (It is not necessary to make a decision within the time the news and our opinions (which also inform our choices)
limit, only to be working towards one.) are inevitably based on what we learn. This is a truth that is
5 F (It is perfectly fine to agree to disagree, no consensus is impossible to ignore. However, to single out my generation as
required, only attempts at persuasion and/or reasoning being particularly affected by this is, as far as I am concerned,
behind a candidate’s point of view.) completely unfair and patronising.
2 1 and that’s because … I was quite shocked to read the article and I really feel that
2 the main reason I say that is because … you should address the unfairness by writing another piece.
3 my point is that if … The topic of influences and how they affect our decisions is
4 well for a start … interesting and deserves a much more balanced approach.
5 a good example is … Yours
6 you’ve just got to look at what happens if …
7 what we’ve got to remember is that … Unit Check
8 if you think about it …
1 1 much more likely ​2 than ​ 3 alike ​ 4 as ​5 better ​ 6 more ​
3 1 main reason I say that
7 as far as ​8 most ​ 9 like ​ 10 as
2 just got to look at what happens if
3 you think about it 2 1 worse ​ 2 best ​ 3 most challenging ​4 not as prepared as ​
4 point is 5 healthier ​ 6 better
5 a start 3 1 get ​ 2 had ​ 3 make ​ 4 let ​ 5 getting ​ 6 allowed ​ 7 forced ​
6 good example is 8 help
4 1 main reason I say that 4 1 revamp ​ 2 transformed ​ 3 amend ​ 4 adapt ​ 5 altered ​
2 just got to look at what happens if 6 evolving ​ 7 modify ​ 8 donate
3 you think about it 5 1 make ​ 2 turn ​ 3 make ​ 4 give ​ 5 do, pay ​6 give
4 point is 6 1 make ​ 2 doing ​ 3 do ​ 4 make ​ 5 make ​ 6 make ​ 7 make ​
5 a  start 8 do
6 good example is
5 1 C ​ 2 A ​ 3 B USE OF ENGLISH UNITS 1–3
Part 1
Writing 1 A (completely change because you exchange one life for
1 1 F (because there may be a more formal task, e.g. letter of another)
complaint / application) 2 B (a selective memory is one which remembers certain parts,
2 T usually the best parts, and forgets the rest)
3 T 3 D (similar to remember)
4 F (because the opening and closing should be the same
4 C (turn something around is to change something completely)
in both)
5 T 5 B (burning ambition is a collocation)
2 A 3 ​B 1 ​C 4 ​D 5 ​E 2 6 A (resounding success is a collocation)
3 1 case ​ 2 worth ​ 3 incorrect ​
4 insist ​
5 consider ​ 7 D (dismal failure is a collocation)
6 discover 8 B (cut (their) losses is an expression meaning to abandon a
course of action because it is going wrong)

188 © Pearson Education Limited 2018

Part 2 4 A The woman walks in wearing pyjamas and the other
9 addicted to (dependent preposition) shopper look on aghast. Correct (used for dramatic
10 how harmful (inversion) sequence)
11 had been doing (past perfect) B The woman walks in wearing pyjamas and the other
shopper looked on aghast. Incorrect (mix of tenses)
12 on the increase (phrase meaning to be growing)
5 A I’m thinking white walls, minimalist furniture and bold
13 as a way (preposition; as a means in the manner of) colours for this room. Correct (colloquial use of a stative
14 cut down on (phrasal verb meaning to reduce the amount of verb)
something) B I think white walls, minimalist furniture and bold colours
15 concerned about (dependent preposition) for this room. Correct
16 don’t let (let means allow/permit; allow and permit would both 6 A Is this bill including the wine and deserts? Incorrect
be followed by infinitive with to) B Does this bill include the wine and deserts? Correct
Part 3 3 1 C ​ 2 D ​ 3 A ​ 4 F ​5 B ​ 6 E
17 dissatisfied ​18 negatively ​ 19 necessarily  ​20 unsustainable  ​ 4 1 lead ​ 2 find ​ 3 complaining ​ 4 shakes ​5 leaves ​
21 dramatic  ​22 adjustments ​23 significant ​24 impulsively 6 portraying ​ 7 wearing ​ 8 get ​9 begin ​10 thinking
Part 4
25 block (out) the memory
26 was (extremely) embarrassed by 1 1 pleated ​ 2 flared ​ 3 skimpy ​ 4 ripped ​ 5 loud ​ 6 bootcut ​
27 only to find that 7 embroidered ​ 8 five-inch ​9 shabby ​ 10 designer
28 advised us not to eat 2 1 consistent (not contradicting my beliefs; compliant is
incorrect because it means obeying rules)
29 to put into becoming
2 individuality (expressing our character; individualism is
30 ended up with / ended up getting
incorrect because it is the collective noun for a group of

UNIT 4 3 indistinguishable (they all appear the same; incomparable is

incorrect because it means that something is so good that it
is unparalleled)
Reading 4 spitting (spitting image is an expression meaning exactly the
1 1 spot on ​2 norms ​ 3 stance ​4 purport ​ 5 ushering ​ same)
6 pretentiousness ​ 7 diehards ​ 8 disdain 5 equivalent (the same as; equal to has the same meaning,
2 1 D (Eva) I do think that the documentary got one thing right; but is used when making more specific comparison of size
you are more likely to see someone wearing the same thing or quantity)
as you because of this. (Adam) links with Although we may 6 carbon (carbon copies is an expression meaning identical)
share music preferences or fashion choices, that’s really 3 1 E ​ 2 B ​ 3 D ​ 4 A ​ 5 F ​6 C
down to passing trends (Eva) 5 1 F … a student from the faculty of Ecology and Marine
2 B (Helena) as it was implied that we were being pushed Conservation.
around online at the command of large companies 2 T For me it’s something creative and I get a lot of enjoyment
(Helena) links with not because we are manipulated to do from it.
so by some rogue computer programmers or power-hunger 3 F I never take any interest in high street fashion.
corporations (Eva) 4 T To be honest there are so many other areas which are
3 A (Luke) Instead of a thought-provoking documentary, it worthy of our attention. Just look around you – politics,
was just another ninety minutes of depressing speculation science, the arts …
(Helena) links with the doom and gloom it spreads about 5 T Also it’s so ephemeral, what is fashionable now will be
how things might be in years to come. (Luke) forgotten very soon.
4 A (Luke) I didn’t like the condescending attitude of the 6 F I feel sorry for fashion victims at times because I think that
documentary. (Luke) contrasts with I found it light- they are just being brainwashed by the media to think a
hearted and verging on amusing (Helena), presented in an certain way.
accessible manner, without being overly intense (Adam) 6 1 synonymous ​ 2 fit ​3 anonymity ​ 4 stood ​ 5 rebellious ​
and It goes without saying that the overriding feel of the 6 uproar ​ 7 far ​ 8 difference ​ 9 wavelength ​ 10 take
documentary was tongue in cheek, quite funny really (Eva)
3 1 scrapped ​ 2 condescending ​ 3 narrow-minded ​ 4 retail ​ Listening
5 tailor ​ 6 doom and gloom ​7 shift ​ 8 manipulated 1 Extract 1
1 Why does the woman mention the court case in the USA?
Grammar A to provide evidence for the link between names and
1 1 A ​ 2 B ​ 3 D ​4 C ​ 5 E confidence
2 1 A I look forward to hearing from you. Correct B to clarify her feelings about names and personality traits
B I look forward to hear from you. Incorrect (after to need C to explain a commonly held belief about names and
gerund) achievements
2 A I’m loving this dress. It’s so you! Correct (colloquial use of a 2 What do they both think about the process of choosing a
stative verb) name?
B I love this dress. It’s so you! Correct A It should involve more people than just the parents.
3 A I’m depending on you to help me revise for this exam. B It is a decision that shouldn’t be made under pressure.
Correct C Its importance is often underestimated.
B I depend on you to help me revise for this exam. Incorrect
(because it is a temporary situation)

© Pearson Education Limited 2018 189

Extract 2 5 I made a decision about the colour of the paint, but I’m not
3 How does the student feel about having to bring up this sure that it was the right one.
topic with the teacher? 6 I’m certain I heard Pam come in, but I think so.
A determined to be treated fairly 5 1 with
B uncomfortable about bringing the topic up 2 of
C frustrated that nobody is listening to him 3 so (rightly so is expressing strong agreement)
4 Why doesn’t he want to use an English name? 4 them (the brains)
A It’s too difficult for him to pronounce. 5 with (familiar with the gender stereotyping)
B It doesn’t reflect his personality. 6 same (same wavelength means thinking the same thing,
C It still wouldn’t help him fit in with the other students. being in agreement)
Extract 3 7 nor (neither … nor; negative comparison)
5 How did the man feel about his own name when he was 8 any (any more than; comparative)
A embarrassed that it was unusual Use of English 2
B lucky that people remembered it 1 1 read ​ 2 away ​ 3 round ​ 4 stand ​ 5 about ​6 live
C difficult to explain to people 2 A 3 ​B 6 ​C 4 ​D 1 ​E 2 ​F 5
6 What advice does the man give about choosing a name to 3 1 run ​ 2 catch ​ 3 come ​ 4 away ​ 5 put ​6 read
work under? 4 1 B (correct collocation with down)
A Check that it hasn’t been used before. 2 D (correct collocation to form phrasal verb)
B Make sure it isn’t too unusual. 3 A (correct collocation to form phrasal verb)
C Think carefully about the spelling. 4 B (correct particle for collocation)
2 Extract 1 5 D (correct adverb)
1 A If we feel negatively about our name, we can transfer those 6 A (correct meaning)
feelings to our sense of self. Take a recent court case in the 7 B (correct meaning)
USA of a boy … 8 C (correct collocation with together)
2 C … choosing a name for a baby is a huge responsibility and 5 1 get out of ​2 run out of ​3 catch up with ​4 put up with ​
I’m sure most people don’t even realise it … 5 do away with ​6 come up with
Extract 2
3 B I don’t want to make too much of a fuss and I’d rather not Speaking
have to mention this … 1 Pieces of advice 3 and 4 are correct.
4 B … I feel like I’d be losing my sense of identity and my
2 1 C ​ 2 D ​ 3 B ​ 4 E ​ 5 A
heritage if I adopted an English-sounding name.
3 1 There are several ways to come at this question.
Extract 3
2 That’s something I haven’t considered before.
5 A I used to resent having such an obscure name when I
3 Would you mind repeating that please?
was younger …
4 Well, there is no one answer to that.
6 B … you can come up with something unique, but still retain
5 I’m so sorry – did you say that people think it’s …
your identity.
6 A 2 ​ B 1 ​ C 3
3 1 B ​ 2 A ​ 3 A ​ 4 B ​ 5 B ​ 6 A ​7 B ​ 8 A

Use of English 1 Writing

1 A 2 (global / worldwide – international)
1 1 in doing so (so is a substitute for a verb phrase)
B 1 (learn what happens – see what’s going on)
2 If you have any (any is a substitute for a noun)
3 Women cry, and men do too. (too is a substitute for a C 3 (people from other countries who visit – people … take
verb phrase) their cultures with them)
4 Do you think so? (think so is a substitute for a verb phrase) 2 Points 1 and 2 are addressed. Point 1 is considered the more
5 describe each one (each one is a substitute for a noun) important (influence of the internet)
6 exotic ones (ones is a substitute for a noun) 3 1 B People get ideas from what they learn happens or is popular
2 1 a single decision! any in other countries (link between ideas and choices)
2 of the alternatives ones 2 A We can buy the same items from global retail stores
3 making decisions doing so worldwide (link between items and clothes)
4 decision one
5 also suffered from indecision did too
Unit Check
6 I am also indecisive am too 1 1 ’m thinking ​2 press ​ 3 love ​ 4 Am I wearing ​
7 I never know which dish to pick either neither do I 5 Am I projecting ​6 is always telling ​7 having ​ 8 Is looking
8 that I am indecisive so 2 1 so ​ 2 doing so ​3 any ​ 4 not ​ 5 did too ​6 ones
3 1 not (you don’t have a problem) 3 1 one ​ 2 any ​ 3 did ​ 4 ones ​ 5 so ​ 6 not
2 any (you don’t have any information) 4 1 skimpy shorts ​2 embroidered shirt ​3 flared jeans ​
3 if so (if you do have all the facts) 4 scruffy hair ​5 bootcut trousers ​6 pleated skirt ​
4 one (best alternative = singular) 7 five-inch heels ​8 loud pattern
5 doing so (eliminating the alternatives) 5 1 wavelength ​ 2 spitting image ​3 indistinguishable ​
6 If not (if you don’t act quickly) 4 individuality ​5 equivalent to ​6 rebellious ​
4 1 I enrolled for a course in psychology and my sister did too. 7 world of difference ​8 cause an uproar
2 I am very bad at making decision and so is my brother. 6 1 far ​ 2 carbon ​ 3 consistent ​ 4 with ​ 5 out ​6 to
3 Jon and I can’t agree and neither of us wants to admit we
are wrong.
4 If I finish the book in time I’ll lend it to you. If not, I’ll send it
to you by post.

190 © Pearson Education Limited 2018


UNIT 5 3 1 C ​ 2 B ​ 3 E ​ 4 F ​ 5 D ​6 A

5 1 Because it’s pricey/expensive.
2 A Persian style rug.
Reading 3 Glamping. Glamorous camping.
1 1 initial ​ 2 spouses ​ 3 prospective ​ 4 buy into ​5 generated ​ 4 Her grandparents 60th wedding anniversary.
6 defining 5 On the terrace.
3 1 D … the most forward-thinking brands are relying on the 6 No, she hasn’t.
simplest, most traditional form of advertising: word- 6 1 go without ​2 hoard ​ 3 hanging onto ​4 sentimental value ​
of-mouth (para 1) links with So, why this return to the 5 easy prey ​6 insatiable desire ​7 buy up ​8 a soft touch
promotional basics? (para D)
2 G Influencers have to believe in their own potential to sell
a product or a brand. (para G) links with Celine Leroy, a 1 Task 1
fashion and lifestyle blogger, claims to only accept offers A encouragement from friends and family
from companies whose products have something to do B reassessing priorities
with her brand identity (para 2) C experience living abroad
3 F  On the other hand, I turned down some lucrative offers to D listening to an expert
advertise products because they had nothing to with what E raising money for charity
I stand for (para 2) links with Many influencers will readily F meeting people with the same problems
turn down an offer that doesn’t fit with their ideology, even G talking with a foreign friend
if it means rejecting a large fee. (para F) H getting advice from peers
4 B  However, the freedom to choose what they will endorse Task 2
results in a level of authenticity (para B) links with In A don’t overreact to embarrassing situations
addition to freedom over who they work with, most B don’t shut out the people around you
influencers prefer to have freedom over how they work. C don’t get too comfortable
(para 4) D don’t expect to still have a social life
5 E … those tools were enough to enable them to become E don’t worry too much about mistakes
powerful marketing force (para 4) links with One such F don’t accept every piece of advice you’re given
successful blogger is Daniella Barbosa … (para E) G don’t lose your enthusiasm
6 A … building a relationship with someone with fewer H don’t listen to your careers department’s advice
followers could bring bigger returns in the long run 2 Task 1
(para 5) links with Even if an influencer’s audience never 1 F … until I started interning at the French consulate and
grows above the tens of thousands (para A) heard stories from kids who were struggling kids like I’d been.
4 1 bidding ​ 2 authentic ​ 3 lucrative ​4 engaged ​ 2 B … I drove past the remains of a roadside accident.
5 in the long run ​6 be indicative of ​7 exploit ​ 8 endorse It seemed like a sign …
3 A … my mates convinced me to keep going.
Grammar 4 D It wasn’t until I travelled to South Africa to listen to a talk
1 1 B ​ 2 D ​ 3 F ​ 4 G ​ 5 A ​6 C ​ 7 E by an industry leader that I realised that I was holding
2 1 A ​ 2 B ​ 3 A ​ 4 B ​ 5 C myself back.
3 1 The company was about to invest in artificial intelligence. 5 H Going to a networking event for entrepreneurs with similar
2 We knew that mobile technology would have a massive business models helped me move forward.
impact on society. Task 2
3 By 2030 big data will have become key to a company’s success. 6 C  That fear definitely pushed me harder.
4 I’m to take a course in advanced robotics next month. 7 F … trust your own intuition and what you are trying to
5 By September I will have been working here for five years. achieve.
6 Online banking will be used by everyone very soon. 8 B … it’s essential not to lose sight of other aspects of your life.
4 1 would ​ 2 will ​3 are going to be living ​4 will have created ​ 9 E Learning to embrace your mistakes is an important skill for
5 will be spending ​6 will be any entrepreneur.
10 G … so it’s important not to lose your passion for your idea …
Vocabulary 3 1 on the backburner ​2 prototype ​ 3 seek out ​4 intuition ​
1 Down 5 cliché ​ 6 embrace ​ 7 retreat ​ 8 overwhelmed
1 consume 2 collect Time out
Across 1 R (£150,000 start-up capital invested by Dragons) ​2 F
3 hoard 4 accumulate 5 acquire 3 R (£75,000 start-up capital invested by Dragons) ​
2 1 I could have gone mad in that shop. It was so me, I could have 4 R (£0 start-up capital invested by Dragons – but the company
bought up the shop. is now valued at millions) ​5 F ​6 R (£50,000 start-up capital
2 My mum is a bit low so I’m going to splash out and buy her invested by Dragons)
something nice.
3 I’d love some new clothes but I’ll have to go without until I
Use of English 1
get my allowance. (without) 1 1 examine ​ 2 investigate ​ 3 taking ​ 4 have ​ 5 establish ​
4 I’m going for the minimalist look and I’ll throw away anything 6 impose
that clutters up my flat. 2 1 about ​ 2 with ​3 of ​ 4 of ​ 5 to ​ 6 on
5 Those jeans don’t fit anymore but I’ll hang onto them in case 3 1 impose ​ 2 made ​ 3 examine ​ 4 play ​ 5 provided ​ 6 create ​
I lose some weight. 7 has ​8 Take
6 I love a bargain and I never pass up the opportunity to go
sales shopping.

© Pearson Education Limited 2018 191

4 1 themselves (reflexive pronoun referring to the street markets) 4 1 accumulated ​2 hoard ​ 3 acquired ​4 sentimental ​5 prey ​
2 to (correct collocation; rise to the challenge) 6 soft ​
7 hard ​8 down ​ 9 collect ​10 consume
3 than (comparative construction; more creative than before) 5 1 hanging onto ​2 clutter up ​3 pass up ​4 splashed out ​
4 for (dependent preposition; opportunities for) 5 bought up ​6 go without
5 by (dependent preposition; run by)

6 or (conjunction to connect two choice; either a trader or a
7 from (when talking about a wide range of things in a list,
to emphasise the variety we use the construction; from x Reading
through to y)
8 on (dependent preposition; impact on) 1 1 D ​ 2 G ​ 3 B ​4 C ​ 5 E ​6 H ​ 7 A ​ 8 F
2 1 T They make more sense on the stage than on the big screen;
Use of English 2 and in this case, an adaptation into a mini television series
1 1 turnover ​ 2 cover-up ​ 3 intake ​4 fallout ​
5 setbacks ​ is most appropriate.
6 crackdown 2 T How the screenwriter interprets a character’s personality,
reactions and even physical appearance is likely to differ
2 1 C ​ 2 E ​
3 H ​ 4 A ​5 F ​ 6 D ​7 B ​ 8 G
from an individual reader’s interpretation
3 1 D ​ 2 D ​
3 S ​ 4 D ​ 5 D ​ 6 S ​
7 D ​ 8 D 3 T A film version of a popular book… is more often than not
Speaking followed by an outcry that it is different from the book.
4 F Reimagining a book as another form of media is a
1 4 choose two out of three pictures to talk about ✓ complicated process …
7 use words and phrases to talk about what is similar and
3 1 B There is perhaps nothing more personal and difficult to
different about the pictures ✓
define than a reader’s relationship with a story; writing
2 B is correct (A is incorrect because the questions are printed on possesses a special power …
the photo sheet; B is correct because the questions will ask for 2 B Ultimately, an adaptation of a story deserves to be treated
speculation of some type and direct description takes too much as such
time and is not what is asked for.) 3 C A film version of a popular book usually generates huge
3 1 highly ​ 2 pure ​ 3 all ​ 4 faint ​
5 may ​
6 gather ​ 7 right ​ amounts of publicity in the lead up to its release and is
8 well ​ 9 would ​ 10 likelihood more often than not followed by an outcry that is different
4 1 Pictures A and B (the students in the classroom and the one from the book
where the children are playing shops) 4 A The lack of a rating system for books means that authors
2 B and C Thinking about the usefulness or effectiveness of the can put characters in a variety of situations that would not
two methods, it’s hard to say / When it comes to how they’re be permitted on screen
feeling, it’s highly likely … 5 A Books with more narrated scenes are more suited to
5 1 It’s highly likely that … ✓ adaptations for the theatre
7 I think I’m right in saying that … ✓ 6 D … the nature of television series allows the inclusion of side
8 It could well be that … ✓ stories that help piece together the story naturally, as in
9 I would say that … ✓ the original source material
4 1 musings (personal considerations you say aloud)
Writing 2 tedious (very boring)
1 1 F (should be formal as it is for someone in authority) 3 staple of (something that is used all the time)
2 T 4 on its own merits (based on what you see not on what you
3 T already know about it)
4 T 5 evoke (to produce very strong feelings)
5 F (it needs to be divided into sections with headings for 6 piece together (to join all the parts)
clarity and to guide the reader) 7 overcome (to control something that could stop you
6 T achieving something else)
7 F (a direct complaint would be too personal) 8 condense (to reduce significantly into something smaller)
8 T
2 1 (direct) and 2 (too informal)
3 4 sections (aim / description / evaluation of outcomes / 1 1 B ​ 2 F ​ 3 D ​4 A ​ 5 C ​ 6 E
recommendations) 2 1 hadn’t put ​2 hadn’t had ​3 would you do ​4 didn’t like ​
5 1 purpose ​ 2 outlines ​3 indicate ​ 4 consider ​5 might ​ 5 would have turned out ​6 had had ​7 wouldn’t know ​
6 to sum up ​7 recommend ​ 8 by doing this 8 didn’t happen
3 1 If it isn’t wasn’t for my brother, I would never have met my
Unit Check best friend.
1 1 will/‘ll be staying ​2 will have known ​3 to attend ​ 2 If you didn’t tell hadn’t told me, I would never have
4 will/‘ll have been going ​5 will see ​6 closes  remembered it was his birthday.
7 will/‘ll be flying ​8 will/‘ll have been living ​9 starts ​ 3 If I knew had known you hated cheese, I wouldn’t have put it
10 will notice on the pizza.
4 But for your help, I would have never had taken such a good
2 1 would ​ 2 was ​ 3 was about to ​4 will have been looking ​
5 will have seen ​6 am to see ​7 will be ​8 ‘ll be having
5 Supposing you failed the exam, will would you re-take it?
3 1 attitude to ​2 flooded with ​3 evidence of ​
6 If only I have had enough money, I would go on holiday with
4 information about ​5 based on ​6 causes of ​
my friends to Greece.
7 dissatisfaction with ​8 relationship with

192 © Pearson Education Limited 2018

4 1 read ​ 2 would have used ​3 had had ​4 have had  5 B I grew up in the countryside having adventures in the
5 will get ​6 smile ​
7 would love ​8 need woods fighting battles with sticks and making friends with
9 been able  ​10 had read the people who lived in the river (Melanie) I see a difference
in … the games that we used to play when we were
Vocabulary younger (Patrick)
1 Across 6 B It makes me uncomfortable to think that a generation
1 delusion ​3 fallacy ​ 5 dreams ​ 8 hallucinations  ​10 fantasy might miss out on the simple pleasures of running around
Down on a made up quest in favour of an electronics-based one.
2 imagination ​ 4 illusion ​ 6 realism  ​7 reality  ​9 image (Melanie) whereas there are no limits on what a child can
2 1 in ​ 2 on ​3 out ​ 4 up ​ 5 on ​ 6 for create using a cardboard box! (Patrick)
3 1 go to great lengths ​2 give us the impression ​ 3 1 momentum ​ 2 tapped into ​3 premise ​ 4 reinforcing ​
3 fallacy ​4 delusion ​ 5 get into character ​6 semblance ​ 5 differentiate ​ 6 enormously ​ 7 no harm ​8 bleak
7 put on a brave face ​8 through and through 4 1 G ​ 2 F ​
3 C ​ 4 A ​5 E ​ 6 B ​ 7 D ​ 8 H
Time out
Listening 1 H ​2 B ​3 D ​4 G ​5 F ​6 A ​7 E ​8 C
1 1 What does Patrick say about his previous work?
A He tended to paint rather than draw. Use of English 1
B He didn’t consider drawing for his sister. 1 1 most notably ​2 coupled with ​3 so as to ​4 since ​
C He wasn’t enthusiastic about doing children’s illustrations. 5 or rather ​6 under these circumstances  ​7 then again ​
D He preferred to illustrate comic books. 8 Provided that
2 How does Patrick feel about the way his idea developed? 2 1 C ​ 2 A ​3 F ​ 4 B ​5 D ​ 6 E
A proud that he can now run a successful business
3 1 since (purpose)
B surprised that it happened so quickly
2 or rather (reformulation)
C pleased that he can help so many people
3 Under these circumstances (consequence)
D overwhelmed by the number of purchases
4 most notably (example)
3 For Melanie, what should be avoided?
5 provided that (condition)
A depending on the owl to teach children how to behave
6 in order to (purpose)
B telling the owl how they feel instead of their parents
7 as well as (addition)
C leaving children alone for too long with the owl
8 Having said that (limitation)
D allowing children to spend too much time talking to the
4 1 due (due to the fact, phrase meaning because)
2 as (adverb meaning also called)
4 What does Melanie think about telling children made up
3 in (in order to is used with the infinitive form of a verb to
express the purpose of something)
A It has a negative impact on their creativity.
4 of (consisted of; a phrasal verb meaning to be made of or
B It isn’t the same as lying.
formed from something)
C It can be disappointing for children.
5 called/named (adjective meaning labelled)
D It is something that parents do too often.
6 about (preposition meaning connected with or associated
5 When asked about imaginative play, both Patrick and Melanie
7 these (pronoun used to indicate a state, the circumstances)
A sadness that it is being replaced by technology.
8 by (preposition used for saying how something is done)
B nostalgia for childhood memories.
C a desire to promote it in schools. Use of English 2
D frustration that it isn’t taken seriously.
6 What do Patrick and Melanie both think about electronic 1 1 mock ​ 2 above-board ​ 3 authentic ​
4 candid ​
5 disguise
games? 2 1 play ​ 2 believe ​3 honest ​4 cheat ​
5 fib ​
6 mocking ​
A They make life more enjoyable. 7 disguising ​ 8 scam
B They can’t replace the power of make believe. 3 1 1 B, 2 A
C They are better because they are more realistic than other 2 1 B, 2 A
games. 3 1 A, 2 B
D They are ruining modern children’s childhoods. 4 1 B, 2 A
2 1 C it seemed too silly and I thought of myself as more serious 5 1 A, 2 B
2 B I honestly had no idea that it would be used by so many
people in so many different ways
3 D While I wouldn’t recommend allowing children to become
too reliant on Oscar the Owl
4 B  make believe isn’t about tricking children into believing
something, its about presenting them with a situation and
then letting them take it from there

© Pearson Education Limited 2018 193

4 1 C (correct collocation) Part 2
2 B (correct meaning) 9 if (if we were to… second conditional)
3 B (correct collocation) 10 up (free up means to gain time; phrasal verb)
4 B (correct meaning with the morality) 11 like (sound like means to appear as if)
5 B (correct collocation)
12 other (in other words is an expression to re-phrase something
6 A (correct collocation)
previously stated)
7 B (correct collocation)
8 C (correct collocation) 13 off (switch off means turn off; phrasal verb)
14 be (we will be spending is the future continuous; looking at an
Speaking action which will be in progress at a point in the future)
1 1 historical films ​2 autobiographies ​3 celebrity photographs 15 back (look back means remember/recollect; phrasal verb)
5 1 The reason I say this is because … 16 have (I could have used is a past tense modal verb)
2 Why I think this way is because … Part 3
3 The reasoning behind this is … 17 truthfully ​18 limitations ​19 commitment ​20 increasingly ​
4 Let’s take an example … 21 curiosity  ​22 probability  ​23 disastrous ​24 foolish
5 You’ve only got to remember … Part 4
6 What I mean is if … 25 the thought of ​26 take on life ​27 it hard to
6 1 prime ​ 2 mean ​ 3 also ​4 instance ​
5 Take ​ 6 basically concentrate  ​28 put off cleaning  ​29 was about to leave ​
Writing 30 should you want to

1 1 F (otherwise you will lose marks)
2 F (usually for your teacher)
3 T
4 T Reading
5 F (do not quote directly – need use your own words)
1 1 inaccessible ​ 2 professes ​ 3 entice ​ 4 unashamedly ​
6 F (no, this is at FCE level)
5 successive ​ 6 accommodate ​ 7 refrain ​8 galvanised
3 1 points 1 and 2 ​2 point 2 ​3 yes
2 2 lighting and characters are not mentioned
Unit Check 3 1 A … rather clarifies the complexity of decision-making for
1 1 had known ​2 would have visited ​3 hadn’t seen ​ people who find themselves in a constant struggle to
4 would have believed ​5 realised ​ 6 would have paid ​ achieve a basic standard of living
7 need  ​8 to choose 2 A … the characters’ current desperation and hope for a
better future.
2 1 If it hadn’t been for my friend Marina, I wouldn’t have /
3 B … the music portrays the issues facing abandoned children
never would have read the book.
living in poverty, such as the upbeat ‘Food, glorious, food’,
2 If I were braver, I would go / try sky diving.
which captures the characters’ excitement at satisfying
3 If I see a strange event, I want to film it.
their hunger, the costume design also highlights the
4 Had I known it was going to be sunny I would have
difference between rich and poor.
brought sun cream.
4 D A popular choice for high school drama clubs due to its
5 If it hadn’t been for the detective, the mystery wouldn’t
handling of multiculturalism and identity …
have been resolved.
5 C Using a groundbreaking original script …
6 If I had passed chemistry, I would have been able to study
6 C … it helped pave the way for other playwrights to write
stories based on related subjects.
3 1 fantasy ​ 2 illusion ​ 3 hallucinations ​4 imagination ​ 7 B … the musical still emphasises the vulnerability and
5 realism ​ 6 image loneliness of children without a support network.
4 1 great ​ 2 slips ​ 3 into ​4 convincing ​ 5 impression ​ 8 B … to an equally difficult life as a street boy under the
6 semblance watchful eye of an older boy, who is skilled in pickpocketing.
5 1 taken her for ​2 making it up ​3 taken in ​4 make out ​ 9 A … the cycle of despair and poverty in which many French
5 put on ​6 take on citizens were trapped in France in the early 1800s.
C … its operatic score underlines lyrics addressing the
USE OF ENGLISH UNITS 1–6 struggles of working class America. The contrast involved in
Part 1 telling a tale that focuses on working class people through
1 A (be clearly better or different from the rest) a genre generally associated with upper classes makes this
2 C (push all the right buttons; be attractive, appealing to musical truly original …
someone) 4 1 opulent ​ 2 tackles ​ 3 trivialise ​ 4 dated ​ 5 rags ​6 bleak ​
3 A (have) 7 harrowing ​ 8 social cohesion
4 D (figment of our imagination is something which we imagine) Grammar
5 B (hang onto is a phrasal verb meaning to want to keep and
1 1 possibility ​ 2 possibility ​
3 necessity ​
4 certainty ​
not let go of something)
5 criticism ​6 certainty
6 A (give up is a phrasal verb meaning relinquish, surrender)
2 1 A ​ 2 A ​3 B ​ 4 A ​5 B
7 A (a fantasy world is one which is not true; the opposite of our
3 1 F ​ 2 F ​3 T ​ 4 F ​5 T
day to day lives)
4 1 needed ​ 2 could ​ 3 will ​4 may ​ 5 may ​6 ought ​
8 B (a take on something is an opinion, a point of view about
7 would ​ 8 might

194 © Pearson Education Limited 2018


Vocabulary Extract 3
You are going to listen to a conversation between a girl and her
1 1 hold back. ​2 have your say. ​3 sit up and take notice ​ brother about books.
4 Say it as it is ​5 in a word  ​6 a way with words  ​ 5 What is the girl doing?
7 tongue-tied ​ 8 for want of a better word A complaining about the predictability of stories
2 1 has got his own way (He has striven to remain anonymous B worrying about finishing reading a book for school
means he wanted to be anonymous. He is anonymous and so C defending her favourite story genre
he has succeeded in getting what he wanted.) 6 What do they both emphasise about a good stories?
2 In a word (Only using one word. This is an expression. For A the individuality of the writer’s voice
want of a better word is an alternative expression.) B the ability to recognise the writer’s influences
3 sit up and take notice (He has caused an impression on the C the memorable characters
art world with what he has done.) 2 1 C I loved going to her house and talking about fabrics and
4 word of mouth (He has become well known just from people patterns
talking to each other.) 2 B 
… it’s almost impossible to produce original designs on the
5 don’t hold back (They are forthcoming in saying how good kind of scale that large chains use.
he is and how proud they are of him.) 3 C 
There’s really no need to spend a lot of money on electronic
6 a spotlight on (This is an expression meaning focusing goods …
attention on something.) 4 B 
… which is a shame because it means that people with
7 put (Couldn’t put into words; they can’t find the words to genuinely good ideas that could become quality products
express how they feel) don’t stand a chance.
8 the last word (Means to be the last person to have an opinion 5 A 
… I’ve given up on so many books a few chapters in
about something and so the person with the most important because it’s blatantly obvious what is going to happen.
opinion.) 6 A 
… the best writers have their own unique style, you know
3 1 short and sweet (The opposite of long and rambling.) who is writing it instantly (Girl) and the strongest personal
2 verbose (The opposite of concise.) identity (Brother).
3 convoluted (Means not a linear argument, difficult to follow.) 3 1 pushing ​ 2 ploy ​ 3 shelled out ​4 tweaking ​ 5 blatantly ​
4 articulate (Means speech which is easy to understand.) 6 swiping
5 eloquent (Means speech which is carefully crafted, with
well-chosen words.) Time out
6 accessible (Means easy to understand, not complicated.) 1 A (Guglielmo Marconi received the credit)
4 1 A (articulate – express ideas well) 2 E (Thomas Edison received the credit) 
2 B (curt – using very few words in order to convey displeasure) 3 F (Alexander Graham Bell received the credit)
3 C (wordy – too many words / too long) 4 B (IBM received the credit)
4 B (convoluted – difficult / complicated to follow; not 5 C (Archie received the credit)
straightforward) 6 D (Karl Benz received the credit)
Listening Use of English 1
1 Extract 1 1 1 had been increasing ​2 had been released ​3 hadn’t known ​
You are going to listen to a conversation between a lecturer 4 had created  ​5 buying ​ 6 had decided
and a design student about a project on the originality of 2 1 was convinced that the painting he had bought was an original.
fashion. 2 recommended buying that we/I buy art from a reputable dealer.
1 How did the girl feel about being given clothes by her 3 wasn’t worried about whether it was a forgery.
grandmother? 4 complained that the painting was far too expensive.
A relieved to have fashionable clothes 5 estimated that the German artist copied about fifty
B inspired to create her own clothes European artists.
C pleased to be able to share her love of fashion 6 hope that their painting isn’t a forgery.
2 According to the lecturer, originality in fashion is being 7 regretted buying the painting
devalued because designers 8 encouraged me to go to the exhibition (because I would
A only know how to make minimal changes to existing enjoy it)
3 1 for ​ 2 for ​ 3 on ​ 4 what ​5 that ​ 6 to
B have to compete with large brands.
4 1 The first forgery is thought/believed to date back to the
C don’t have enough time to come up with new ideas.
High Renaissance.
Extract 2
2 He threatened to report the company to the police if the
You are going to listen to a conversation between two friends goods were counterfeit.
about electronic devices. 3 We were asked whether we thought (that) buying fake
3 How does the boy react to his friend’s new phone? designer goods affected the original designer.
A He complains that it looks just like his. 4 The three men are thought to have been selling fake goods.
B He argues that cheaper phones last longer. 5 He advised me to check the painting was authentic.
C He explains that his friend could have saved money. 6 She revealed (that) the painting was authentic because it
4 How does the girl feel about copycat products? had a signature on the back.
A annoyed that they are so easy to produce
B sad about their impact on originality
C frustrated that nothing is done about them

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Use of English 2 Unit Check

1 1 duplication ​ 2 breakage ​ 3 defence ​ 4 closure ​ 5 offence ​ 1 1 will have heard ​2 could have phoned ​
6 confusion ​7 treatment ​8 present, presentation 3 had needed to see ​4 shouldn’t have been waiting ​
2 1 E ​ 2 H ​ 3 A ​ 4 C ​ 5 F ​6 G ​ 7 B ​ 8 D 5 could have had ​6 should have ​7 might just as well ​
3 1 failure ​ 2 apologise ​ 3 confidence ​ 4 performance ​ 8 ought to have known
5 delivery ​6 suitably  ​7 arguably ​ 8 movement 2 1 She reassured me that I would pass the exam.
4 1 relationship ​2 criticism ​ 3 disturbance ​4 involvement ​ 2 He swore to look after it. / He swore that he would look after it.
5 impression ​6 survival 3 He warned me to be careful (with it) because it was hot.
5 1 impression ​ 2 disturbances ​ 3 involvement ​ 4 criticism ​ 4 She encouraged me to try it.
5 relationship ​ 6 survival 5 He expected them to arrive about 7 p.m.
6 She recommended that we buy an electric one.
Speaking 7 She announced that she was having/going to have a baby.
8 He grumbled that the lessons were (really) boring.
2 1 First, obviously ​2 Regarding ​ 3 because ​
4 Personally, having ​5 Moving ​ 6 whereas 3 1 D ​ 2 G ​ 3 E ​
4 C ​ 5 F ​ 6 H ​7 B ​ 8 A
3 The student did not follow advice 2. 4 1 sweet ​ 2 put ​3  sit ​4  words ​ 5 hold ​ 6 point ​7 say ​
8 walk
1 1 T
2 T UNIT 8
3 F (it uses persuasive language throughout to support ideas)
4 F (both are formal as they are to be read by people in Reading
authority) 1 1 laudable ​ 2 wordy ​ 3 brevity ​ 4 vilify ​
5 time constraints ​
5 F (both use headings to make the points stand out clearly. 6 no-holds-barred
Bullets can also be used, but sparingly) 2 1 expresses a similar opinion to A about the intentions of
6 T health campaigns?
2 2 refer back to the objectives of the proposal ✓ 2 holds a different opinion to the other commentators about
3 use different phraseology from the rest of the proposal ✓ the effectiveness of health campaigns?
3 1 D (use of the word: purpose, it outlines what the proposal 3 has the same opinion as D about more practical ways of
is for) dealing with health issues?
2 C (gives reasons, rationale behind the proposal) 4 holds the same view as C about the way campaigns address
3 E (gives examples of what could be done) certain age groups?
4 A (refers to the organisation) 3 1 D (Nicolas) Miguel says I do agree with the principle behind
5 B (summarises the main points) public health campaigns and Nicolas shares the same
5 Model answer viewpoint, saying the rationale behind health campaigns is
Introduction admirable
2 C (Irina) Miguel thinks that the more we are exposed to hard-
The purpose of this proposal is to present the idea of setting
hitting messages, the less effective they become. Gemma
up a school radio station which students could listen to during
says Campaigns need to be backed up with some real help,
their breaks and free time in the school day.
otherwise they are just pointless, and Nicolas believes
Reasons for having a radio station that the trouble is that they are often too little, too late. In
Students like to be involved in school life and keep updated contrast, Irina thinks that these types of health campaign
with school news. They can currently do this through the create a feeling of togetherness
school website and newsletters but a radio station would be 3 B (Gemma) Nicolas talks about When I noticed my younger
more immediate and also entertaining at the same time. brother falling into the same pattern, I talked to him about
What the station would broadcast steering clear of too many fatty foods and I think that
We believe that students would enjoy listening to class health campaigns should mirror this kind of model. Gemma
discussions or debates and hearing students talk about their gives a similar example and says Consider someone who
achievements and trip experiences. There could also be smokes because they are incredibly stressed; perhaps if the
interviews with teachers and local people. For example we could campaign centred on reasons for the unhealthy behaviour
invite local businessmen to give interviews about work prospects and provided support on ways to better manage this,
and careers advice. Other ideas would include phone-in people would be more likely to heed the warning.
programmes where students can discuss school issues and song 4 A (Miguel) Irina thinks that (young people) don’t like feeling
request sections with music by school bands and groups. like they are being talked down to. Miguel believes that
How the station would be run when you’re a teenager like me, it can sometimes feel like
We would suggest that the station is manned by student you are being bombarded with information on how you
volunteers from different year groups. There could be a school should live your life, as if you aren’t capable of making your
club dedicated to the station where students meet, plan and own decisions
record different items to be broadcast. 4 1 heed the warning ​2 put their mind to it ​3 jump on the
Summary bandwagon ​ 4 don’t give a second glance  ​5 steering clear ​
We strongly believe that a radio station such as this would 6 falling into the same pattern ​7 akin to ​8 principle
bring students together and involve them more in school life 5 1 heed the warning ​2 steer clear ​3 falling into the same
as well as giving students the opportunity to be involved in pattern ​ 4 jumping on the bandwagon ​5 put our minds to it ​
organising a very exciting project. We really hope that this 6 principle ​ 7 gave it a second glance ​8 akin to
proposal will be given consideration.

196 © Pearson Education Limited 2018


Grammar 2 adjective + noun: fussy eater, sweet tooth, balanced diet,

growing problem
1 1 D (The alternative impersonal passive form.) compound adjective + noun: long-term relationship, fire-proof
2 B (At the end of the sentence this adds impact.) vest, five-year old boy, long-standing tradition
3 A (The agent is unimportant. We don’t need to know who
compound adjective with adverb + noun: slowly cooked food,
talks about the stress threshold.)
increasingly dangerous amount
4 A (The agent is unknown or unimportant.)
5 C (The positioning at the beginning makes it impersonal.) 3 1 V ​2 F ​3 F ​4 I ​5 F ​6 I
2 1 be put off ​2 have been shattered ​3 thought to be ​ 4 1 slow-cooked food
4 will be halved ​5 need to be ​6 are said to increase ​ 2 Home-cooked food
7 weren’t made to be ​8 having jobs done 3 processed food
4 health problems
3 1 I was asked to answer some questions related to anxiety.
5 regular exercise
2 We were told to think of ways to deal with stress.
3 I was given a weekend away for my birthday. 5 1 for (collocation, praised for)
4 Readers were asked to send in ideas for relaxation. 2 look (phrasal verb; look back)
5 The guests were taken to a spa retreat for the day. 3 which/that (relative pronoun)
6 The event is being filmed later today. 4 not (not substitutes the phrase don’t have a sweet tooth)
7 We are told that knowing our stress threshold is important. 5 be (to be depressed)
8 He is being given an award this evening. 6 up (phrasal verb; come up with)
7 only (not only are they; conjunction used when listing
Vocabulary alternatives )
8 that (relative pronoun)
1 Across
4 rant 6 1 hectic ​ 2 guitar ​3 serious ​ 4 hour and a half’s ​
5 shriek 5 high-performing ​ 6 far-reaching ​7 little-known ​
7 giggle 8 best-kept ​ 9 updated ​ 10 well-trained
8 outrage
Use of English 2
1 wrath 1 1 contact ​ 2 reliance ​ 3 break ​4 gold ​ 5 adherence ​
2 smirk 6 acquaintance
3 snigger 2 1 close ​ 2 heavy ​ 3 tough ​ 4 solid ​5 casual ​6 strict
6 weep 3 1 D (correct collocation with to)
2 1 considerate ​ 2 empathise ​ 3 moan ​ 4 compassion ​ 2 A (correct meaning)
5 gloomy 3 A (correct collocation)
3 1 rip ​ 2 grin and bear it ​3 get it off my chest ​ 4 A (correct collocation)
4 shoot my mouth off ​5 long face 5 B (correct verb + noun collocation)
4 1 groan ​ 2 sympathise ​ 3 fed up ​4 laugh ​ 5 outraged ​ 6 C (correct meaning)
6 let rip ​7 shaken up ​8 weep ​ 9 ranting ​10 chuckling 7 D (correct collocation)
9 A (no preposition for other options)
Listening 4 1 F ​ 2 A ​ 3 B ​ 4 C ​ 5 D 6E
1 1 adjective ​ 2 adjective ​ 3 adjective ​ 4 adjective/noun ​ 5 1 suspicious nature ​2 standard issue ​3 poor second ​4 fair
5 adjective/noun ​ 6 noun ​ 7 noun ​ 8 noun game ​ 5 steady hand ​6 high price
2 1 aware ​ 2 excessive ​
5 dangerous ​
3 shameful ​
6 lifestyle ​
4 eternal fasts ​
7 mass market ​8 side effects
3 1 ailments ​ 2 upcoming ​ 3 scepticism ​ 4 trial and error ​ 1 1 B ​ 2 B ​ 3 A
5 manifests ​ 6 fasts ​ 7 wreaked havoc ​8 susceptible 2 Extract 1 – 1 A Extract 2 – 3 B Extract 3 – 2 A
Time out 3 1 I’m really sorry to interrupt, but …
2 Excuse me, can I just say that … ?
1 D ​2 B ​3 C ​4 C ​5 A ​6 B ​7 A ​8 A
3 I’m not sure I understand what you mean.
Use of English 1 4 Sorry, what was that?
5 Before you go on, I’d like to say …
1 balanced diet
6 Could you rephrase that, please?
fire-proof vest 7 I’m sorry, I didn’t catch that.
five-year old boy 8 I’d just like to add that …
fussy eater
growing problem
increasingly dangerous amount
long-standing tradition
long-term relationship
slowly cooked food
sweet tooth

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1 invite professionals to give talks
give easy practical cookery classes Reading
2 1 B 2 A 3 C The best introduction for the essay would be C 1 1 head up 2 charisma 3 squabbles 4 sizeable
3 one way this could be done / another option / the problems 5 get his head round 6 sought out 7 draining
associated with unhealthy eating / such as these 8 ideally placed
5 Model answer 2 4 is correct (only teenager B didn’t have a positive experience)
We are constantly being told that we need to start eating more 3 1 C We hit it off straight away and since the program finished,
nutritious and well-balanced meals. This, however, is not easy we’ve kept in touch.
to do. This is because we have got into bad eating habits for a 2 B … we wanted to work seriously and be challenged by
variety of reasons. We need to identify these reasons so that something that we might encounter in the future. To be
more guidance can be given to help develop healthy eating perfectly honest, I came away feeling disappointed and
habits. cheated.
One important reason is that we become used to certain eating 3 D … towards the end of the week we moved onto a group
patterns in childhood. Whereas many parents are careful in action project, which I preferred because it meant that we
what food they give their children, others are perhaps less could be in the driving seat!
aware and children become used to eating foods with a lot 4 A It showed us that we have to get on with each other and
of salt or sugar. Peer pressure is also a factor here, as children make the best of each other’s skills, after all, we can’t just
often want to copy what their school mates do and eating walk out of a job after an argument!
unhealthy snacks can be one of these things. 5 A … this term I’m going to join the events committee at
Another reason could be that when we get older and life school to help out with the student-led events that take
becomes busier it is very easy to slip into the habit of eating place throughout the year.
fast food from takeaway restaurants or ready meals that can be 6 B Unfortunately, this just had the opposite effect as it felt like
quickly cooked in the microwave. Whereas this is fine from time the organisers were trying too hard and were completely
to time, it isn’t that good for our health. out of touch with people my age.
All things considered, I really feel that the more important issue 7 D … every day we were there for eight hours, with at least
here is that of our childhood eating patterns as these often three different sessions per day.
define the way we look at food and mealtimes for the rest of our 8 B … after a couple of days I was already wishing that I hadn’t
lives. In fact, busy parents may also give their children fast food, bothered. The tasks that we were given were supposed to
which then becomes a pattern. It is a parent’s responsibility to equip us with real-life skills, but they were all intentionally
give their children well balanced, healthy meals and to this end ‘wacky’ to appeal to people in my age group
food education should be targeted at the family. 9 A It showed us that we have to get on with each other and
make the best of each other’s skills; after all, we can’t just
Unit Check walk out of a job after an argument!
11 Vitamin E is known to be good for the skin. 10 C The programme itself was nothing special…
2 Years ago, it was thought that salt was good for you. 4 1 rivalry 2 equip 3 got heated 4 outgrown 5 surpassed
3 Now it is thought that salt is related to high blood pressure. 6 outstanding 7 a blast 8 hit it off
The majority of walnuts we eat are exported from the USA.
A large amount of avocados we eat are grown in Mexico.
6 Children are usually encouraged (by people) to eat plenty of 1 1 A Never before had I spoken in public, but in the debating
fruit and vegetables. society I’m getting used to it.
7 A few years ago green tea was claimed (by doctors) to be a 2 B It’s the charismatic people that I have met that make the
miracle drink. drama club so amazing.
8 Many health myths have been shattered (by scientific 3 D What I love about clubs is that I meet people that I
discoveries). wouldn’t otherwise have met.
2 1 Home-cooked food 2 sweet tooth 3 processed food 4 A Not only are they fun, but it’s useful because it looks good
4 long-standing tradition 5 balanced diet 6 fussy eater on my CV.
7 freshly picked vegetables 8 growing problem 5 C It does sometimes feel draining playing sport every week,
3 1 up 2 lost, let 3 long 4 grin 5 off 6 mouth but I do feel in great shape.
4 1 depressed 2 groan 3 sympathise 4 gloomy 6 B It’s the fact that I am always learning something new that
5 consideration 6 compassion 7 moan 8 empathise I love.
9 stressed 10 grumpy 7 A In no way would I say that I am creative, but in this club I
am developing creative skills.
2 1 no way 2 not only 3 no sooner 4 What 5 Never
6 What 7 not once 8 no circumstances
3 1 A: What I love about ‘castellers’ is being part of a team.
B: No way would I ever have gone right to the top!
2 A: Never have I hurt myself when doing ‘castellers’.
B: Under no circumstances would I recommend this to
anyone who is afraid of heights.
3 A: Not only do I go every week, but I’ve joined a second
B: Only once did I miss a Sunday last year, when I was ill.
4 1 than 2 way 3 rarely/seldom 4 no 5 What 6 only
7 that 8 does

198 © Pearson Education Limited 2018


Vocabulary Use of English 2

1 1 tasks ​ 2 take ​3 collaboratively ​ 4 responsibility ​
5 stifled ​ 1 1 -en ​2 mis- ​ 3 over- ​
4 under- ​ 5 en- ​6 re-
6 ideas ​ 7 lead ​8 respect 2 1 ensure ​ 2 redo ​ 3 mishear ​ 4 overruns ​ 5 underestimate ​
2 1 take ​ 2 touch ​ 3 heads ​ 4 stops ​ 5 player ​6 place 6 overlook
3 1 resolution ​ 2 collaboratively ​3 requirement ​ 3 1 Originally ​ 2 tendency ​ 3 assumption ​ 4 personality ​
4 communication ​ 5 performance ​ 6 honed  ​7 survival ​ 5 unnatural ​ 6 enable ​ 7 impressive ​ 8 sharpen
8 implicitly 4 1 underpay ​ 2 overreact ​ 3 retrain ​4 mistake ​ 5 fasten ​
6 enforce
2 Task 1 Speaking
1 D I’m so determined to do well in an exam that I want to take 1 1 F (it’s by the interlocutor)
advantage of every spare second. 2 F (any picture can be chosen)
2 B … I’m afraid to stop in case I lose it and have to start again. 3 F (the answer should be brief but with a little detail)
3 H Most of my colleagues have lunch at their desks and 4 T
meetings are often scheduled for during the lunch period 5 F (questions requiring a personal answer are not appropriate
because people take it for granted that you’ll be in the at CAE)
office. 2 Pictures A and B.
4 E It’s not uncommon to spend the whole shift sorting out a 3 1 the similarities ✓
problem and because of the logistics involved, I can’t just 2 the differences ✓
take time out. 4 the advantages related to the second picture ✓
5 C I want to present myself as hardworking and proactive, so I 5 how the people in the first picture might be feeling ✓
don’t feel like I can ignore emails or phone calls because I’m 6 how the people in the second picture might be feeling ✓
taking a break.
4 Question 2 (1 requires a personal answer – not appropriate at
Task 2 CAE; 3 covers the original question and would not be asked;
6 D …otherwise I have difficulty remembering the content I’m 2 asks for speculation, could apply to all three, does not have a
studying. right or wrong answer and should not overlap with long turn.)
7 F It isn’t productive if it means that I can’t work properly for
the next day or two because I can’t focus on the task. Writing
8 G …which means I don’t get tired and avoid the typical mid-
1 2 an introduction detailing the purpose of the report. ✓
afternoon slump that I’d get if I didn’t get any fresh air.
3 headings for each section. ✓
9 A Driving home feeling so tired felt dangerous and I was
4 some facts about the school. ✓
terrified I’d crash into another car.
7 comments about the good and bad points of the
10 C  …otherwise I start getting awful headaches
experience. ✓
3 1 deliberate ​ 2 extreme ​ 3 same ​4 relaxed ​ 5 down ​ 8 suggestion(s) for improvement. ✓
6 prevented ​ 7 expected ​ 8 temporary
2 2 The aim of this report
Use of English 1 3 the placement / the work / recommendations
4 relatively small … 120 children
1 1 F ​ 2 I ​ 3 F ​ 4 F ​ 5 I ​6 F ​7 I ​ 8 I 7 Good: range of levels / teaching methods / useful / enjoyable
2 1 performance ​ 2 re-evaluation ​ 3 acquisition ​
4 increase ​ Bad: more involvement with the children
5 importance ​ 6 refusal 8 visit the school prior to the start … to discuss what … most
3 1 an argument that soft skills such as empathy and negotiation useful …
skills are essential for recruitment. 3 1 E (specific) ​2 C (general) ​3 B (general) ​4 D (specific) ​
2 by the complexity of the skill sets needed for twenty-first 5 A (general)
century jobs. 4 1 rule ​ 2 exception ​ 3 point ​ 4 part ​5 far ​6 whole
3 a rapid increase in people’s understanding of the importance
of soft skills. 6 Model answer
4 development in our knowledge of soft skills over the past The purpose of this report is to assess my recent work
five years. experience placement at a leisure centre and to make
5 a refusal by some people to acknowledge the relevance of recommendations regarding using this placement again for
soft skills in the workplace. future students.
6 have difficulty identifying soft skills. The Centre
4 1 Interviews tasks are often designed to test a person’s Holbury Leisure Centre has a fifty-metre swimming pool and
(level of) creativity in resolving problems. offers facilities for more than fifteen different sports. It is a
2 The failure to accept the importance of soft skills by some popular and busy centre, attracting people from the local
educationalists, puts some candidates at a disadvantage. community as well as accommodating regular visits from
3 The hard work by the candidate for the interview was schools. My placement was for a fortnight and on the whole I
evident in her presentation. feel I benefitted a great deal from what I did there.
4 There is some confusion as to the format of skills-based The work
interviews. I was given a variety of different jobs during the two weeks
5 Skills-based interviews aim to assess the performance which for the most part taught me a lot about how a leisure
of candidates / candidates’ performance in different centre is run and how it feels to work there. I appreciated
situations. learning about the different sports and also seeing how
6 There is stronger competition / more competition than the trainers interact with the public. I was also given the
there used to be for jobs in the digital marketing industry. opportunity to feed some ideas into the latest advertising
campaign for the centre, which was exciting. I was less happy
with the hours I spent teaching beginners to swim as I did not

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feel my supervisor fully supported me. In addition to this I felt Part 3
that the trainers relied a little too much on my help when they 17 considerable ​18 pursuit ​19 enthusiastic ​20 isolation ​
were short staffed. 21 unwillingness  ​22 typically ​23 happiness ​24 option
Recommendations Part 4
Overall, I believe that the centre is a good place for a work 25 dared not tell ​26 want of a better ​27 it is believed ​
experience placement and should be offered to future students. 28 good team player ​29 denied permission to ​
However, it is worth noting that any student placed there really 30 made a good impression on
needs to be ready to work very hard, as they may be called

upon to assist trainers at short notice.

Unit Check
1 1 In no way ​2 what ​ 3 not only ​4 Only once ​5 Never ​ Reading and Use of English
6 Not until ​7 no circumstances ​8 no sooner
Part 1
2 1 No sooner had I accepted the role of team leader than
1 B (committing to memory; expression meaning to remember
I started to regret it.
something well.)
2 Only once have I been chosen to be team captain.
3 Not only do I hate being the team leader, but I am also very 2 C (resounding success; collocation)
indecisive. 3 B (the individuality of a person tells us how they are unique)
4 At no time did I ever want to be the lead singer when I was 4 A (to earn respect means to gain respect from other people;
in the band / when I was in the band did I ever want to be collocation.)
the lead singer. 5 A (spitting image; expression meaning to look identical to
5 In no way would I say I am / am I a sporty person, but I do someone else)
like running. 6 D (identical twins are twins that are genetically and physically
6 Under no circumstances would I ever buy a lottery ticket, the same)
because I think it’s a waste of money. 7 A (indistinguishable from each other means it is impossible or
3 1 The complexity of relationships is what makes them very difficult to see a difference between them)
interesting. 8 A (the last word is an expression meaning to have the final or
2 There is a suggestion that you should choose friends who definitive pronouncement on a decision)
are different from you.
Part 2
3 The development of friendships depends on many factors.
9 to (one thing is similar to something else)
4 Competition between / among friends is not healthy.
5 There is an argument that friendships are our most 10 more (comparative structure The shallower our breathing the
important relationships. more we gulp for breath; The harder we work the more we gain)
6 The success of friendships depends on how much time and 11 for (something happens for a reason)
emotion we invest in them. 12 not (not always so substitutes it isn’t always due to sadness)
4 1 put somebody in their place ​2 take a back seat ​ 13 that (having said that is an expression meaning nevertheless or
3 team players ​4 lay down ​5 the buck stops here ​ in spite of that)
6 put our heads together 14 order (we use in order to to say it is possible to do something)

USE OF ENGLISH UNITS 1–9 15 be (crying can be a mood booster; modal verb can plus infinitive
without to)
Part 1 16 them (pronoun refers to tears)
1 A (words fail is an expression describing an emotional or Part 3
surprising reaction to a situation.) 17 qualifications (certificates to show your academic
2 C (grin and bear it is an expression meaning to accept achievements)
something without complaining) 18 increasingly (progressively, continuously more)
3 B (a smile which is smug and conceited) 19 enlighten (inform, tell, make aware)
4 A (build up trust with someone is to establish a relationship 20 achievement(s) (academic attainments, exams that someone
based on mutual trust) has passed)
5 C (to create an atmosphere; collocation) 21 conscientious (be careful, be attentive)
6 A (take the initiative; collocation) 22 inability (powerlessness, incapacity)
7 D (to take a back seat is to deliberately give up control) 23 underestimate (underrate, think less of something)
8 A (lead by example is to behave in an exemplary way which 24 cautionary (a warning)
shows others how to act)
Part 4
Part 2
25 Under no circumstances must / should you speak during
9 that (relative pronoun; referring to what was reported) the exam.
10 on (insist on; a dependent preposition) 26 I was under the impression that you had been given the job.
11 what (relative pronoun, referring to what she found) 27 Our general health is reported to be better than last year.
12 able (able to swim means capable of swimming) 28 The teacher threatened to give them extra homework if they
13 been (present perfect have been born) were not quiet.
14 up (come up with; phrasal verb) 29 It has been agreed that we will try harder in class.
15 be (passive structure; to be supported) 30 Tom might have left the computer on.
16 have (past modal verb talking about possibility; might have Part 5
been due to) 31 D … most people try to get the best balance between a secure
job and something that they get genuine enjoyment from; …
force most people to settle for either former or the latter.

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32 C … despite the superficial differences, these economies could be 52 B An in-depth analysis of the skills set and tasks inherent in the
linked by their apparent dependence on certain conditions … job needs to be done …
33 B The distinction between work time and leisure time becomes 53 A Think of your CV as a snapshot of you. Think of it as a visual
blurred, and you need to exercise a lot of discipline to commit image of yourself …
yourself to taking time off. 54 B A blanket CV … is not going to bowl over most bosses.
34 B … giving into the temptation to lower your price in order to 55 D Your CV is certainly not meant to be your autobiography and
secure a job can lead you into a cycle of low prices that is so two pages of A4 is the maximum you should be aiming for.
difficult to get back out of. 56 E The central core of your CV should be your competency profile
35 A Some people struggle with feelings of panic and a fear of as opposed to a list of exams you have passed.
destitution that can stem from such a lack of control.
36 B … just because something looks like an easy way to make Writing
money with minimal effort doesn’t mean that there aren’t
Model answers
hidden side effects.
1 Essay
Part 6
There is little doubt that the world is facing environmental
37 B It didn’t give us a full picture; the article simply listed a problems on a scale that will have inescapable consequences
series of facts (B) links with I don’t think that the article was for everyone on the planet. The question of how we deal with
objective enough (D) these issues is of immediate concern to us all.
38 A … if you are going to hand out potentially life-changing … For many people, these problems seem beyond our individual
consequences (A) links with There is no need to ruin young control and as a result people pass the responsibility of action
people’s futures for making a foolish mistake. (C) to others. This is a short-sighted approach; there is always
39 C … the article showed me that they operate on a much larger something individuals can do, from recycling to making
scale nowadays than I had realised (A) links with but I was choices about whether to use renewable energy or drive less
unaware that paid-for essays were so prevalent in higher polluting cars.
education nowadays. (C) On a global scale, countries can work together to help solve
40 D … to my mind unnecessarily severe, consequences to students these problems. Climate change takes no notice of borders; it is
(A) links with such unnecessarily extreme measures. (B) and affecting everyone wherever they live on the planet. Countries
I don’t believe that giving criminal records is the best route have historically had different priorities concerning the wealth
to go down. (C), whereas (D) has a positive view and says I and welfare of their own citizens. Now, they need to co-
believe that the writer’s suggestion of giving criminal records operate to deal with pollution of all types and share scientific
is a valid one. research to find ways we can overcome or learn to live with the
Part 7 consequences.
41 C … New York University’s Polytechnic School of Engineering Whereas scientists can give us the evidence to explain
carried out some interesting research (para 1) links with the what is happening to the planet, the way we deal with this
results showed that (C) is completely our responsibility. It is vitally important that
42 B For the general population, engaging our hands in constant as individuals we are educated about what is going on and
movement, for example by doodling or clicking a pen (para 2) how we can help, even in small ways. However, in my opinion
links with allowing part of your brain to engage in something we shall not be able to make significant progress without
seemingly banal and repetitive like those mentioned above (B) international agreements. I truly hope that countries will be
43 D … set up a blog through which he asked people what they able to set aside their differences and work together in the
usually play with when they are bored at work (para 3) links future for the good of everyone.
with Through such questions (D) 2 Proposal
44 E … the explosion in popularity of so-called fidget toys … Introduction
(para 4) links with Among the benefits of these tools (E) In order to help promote cultural awareness and
and However, not everyone is convinced that these are just understanding, my proposal is for an international food week at
harmless tools to distract idle hands (E) links with Some this school to take place in June.
schools in the UK have begun banning fidgeting toys (para 5) Organisation
45 A … annoying and showing off to their peers by doing tricks Instead of serving the meals that students usually expect
that they learn online (para 5) links with Peers of a student to find, the cafeteria could offer a range of choices from a
using a fidget spinner are often driven to distraction by the different country each day. Volunteer students might also
constant whirring and spinning (A) dress up in national costumes to help serve the food and in
46 F … their research can reach further than just the production addition to this, the cafeteria could be decorated in the national
of for-profit, market-specific fidgeting toys (para 6) links with colours of the country. There might be a small cost to the
understanding the science of fidgeting can have an impact on school involved as some ingredients may be more expensive
the design of digital interactions (F) and exceed the normal cafeteria budget, but it should not be
Part 8 significant.
47 E Refine your keywords and make sure your CV is keyword rich.
Many companies use software to scan CVs for keywords, so be There would be a student group set up to research different
keyword savvy if you don’t want to miss out on that perfect job meals and discuss with the cafeteria staff what would or would
not be feasible. The group could even survey other students for
48 C … make sure your CV portrays your unique marketing
suggestions as to what could be included on the menus. This
message which sells you and your brand.
group would oversee the decoration of the cafeteria and help
49 A Your CV should be enticing to the eye …
serve the meals. Before the week itself we would create and print
50 D Be ruthless about eliminating all superfluous information or out for the students information related to the history behind
wordy language. the different meals and any customs associated with them.
51 C There is nothing wrong with boasting …

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Summary 5 Report
This proposal would help promote students’ understanding Introduction
of different cultures in an enjoyable and educational way. The aim of this report is to summarise and evaluate the events
Everybody likes food and a country’s meals are certainly at the of the recent youth conference on the environment and to
heart of its culture. An international food week could spark comment on whether students should continue to attend
students’ interests to learn even more about other countries next year.
and I hope you will give this proposal full consideration. The day’s events
3 Review The youth conference was held on Saturday 7th April and
Documentaries are being made nearly every week about one was attended by myself and three other students from this
topic or another and it seems that their popularity is ever school. There were over six hundred students from various
increasing. However, there is no doubt in my mind that the schools in the country. As expected, a large part of the day was
stand-out documentary series of recent times, perhaps of this taken up with talks on various environmental problems, given
decade, has to be the amazing Planet Earth 2. by specialists in their fields. Most of the talks were followed
The original Planet Earth was made more than ten years by question and answer sessions. Part of the afternoon was
ago and used the most advanced technology of the time to dedicated to discussion groups where we talked about possible
film astonishing sequences of the natural world. The second future public awareness campaigns and also effective ways of
series, exploiting the very latest developments in technology is bringing environmental issues into primary education.
even more spectacular. A daring crew of cameramen bring us Value of the events
breath-taking shots that take us from isolated islands, through The majority of the talks were engaging and informative, with
mountains, deserts and grasslands to the amazing underworld the exception of a talk on climate change which was over
of our cities, and show us the challenges facing the animals in reliant on statistical data. The discussions and brainstorming
these places. sessions worked extremely well and contributions were
From an entertainment point of view this series keeps you on enthusiastic and creative. I am sure that all the participants
the edge of your seat, not wanting to miss one shot. No one gained a lot of insight into environmental problems and
who sees Planet Earth 2 could ever forget the slow-motion possible solutions from this conference. It was also very
shots of snow eagles fighting in the mountains, or the terrifying interesting to meet students with similar concerns from all over
spectacle of racer snakes chasing and killing baby marine the country.
iguanas. And throughout the series the familiar, soft voice of Recommendations
David Attenborough makes us aware how precious all these
Regarding future attendance, I would definitely encourage
animals and environments are, and reminds us of the desperate
anyone interested in the environment to go. Any concerns such
need to protect them.
as the dryness of the talk mentioned above will almost certainly
A series like this, so visually bold and exciting, can probably do be picked up on from our feedback forms. The conference
more to alert us all to the problems facing the environment organisers can be relied on to present an interesting and
today, than any book or political speech. If you haven’t seen it valuable day of events.
already, I recommend that you do. It will probably be one of the
most memorable documentaries you’ve ever watched. Listening
4 Letter
Part 1
Dear Sir
1 B It sounds more like a niche idea and may take off on a
I am writing to bring some important information to the small scale.
attention of your readers. This is regarding the proposed
2 B It would do you the power of good to really switch off with
development of the wild ground area between the river and
something so immersive.
Bassett Avenue.
3 A But I think that all sorts of people stand to benefit. Students,
Initially the proposal was to develop the space to create a
single people, single parent families, first time buyers.
pleasant green area with paths, flowers and benches where
people could walk and sit. A small playground was to be built on 4 B I’ve read that these houses are an inexpensive alternative, but
the east side of the area suitable for young children. However, I the expense of building them is not really cutting the costs.
have recently discovered that new plans have been put forward The smaller pieces need to be custom built which is a costly
to build a large number of houses on the site instead. Each business, and hence counterproductive
building will have several flats to rent and with views across the 5 C Perhaps if you look far enough its bound to happen. You know,
river this will be extremely profitable for the developers. fortuity. Quite frankly I like to spend my time and money on
I have to say that I am appalled by these plans. There are more intellectually challenging stuff!
already many housing developments in this area and the local 6 B I guess I did take the article at face value and I was really
roads would become even more congested were this proposal taken in by it. When you put it like that I suppose you have
to go ahead. What the area does need is a green space as per a point.
the original plan. People need somewhere to go to relax, and Part 2
this spot overlooking the river would be ideal. 7 science It’s no secret that my talent lies in arts-based subjects,
I am dismayed that these new proposals have not been easily rather than science
available for public view and discussion, and I hope that by 8 straightforward … in the end, I decided to concentrate on a
publishing this letter you will make people aware of what is more straightforward approach
going on. I have started an online petition against the proposed 9 explanation While their importance to our existence needs no
development and I would like as many signatures as possible so explanation, …
that we can persuade the developers to reconsider their plans. 10 ants … ants work together to carry things that are twice their
This development has to be stopped. size
11 connections I realise that not all of you will share my outlook on
nature and that these connections may appear to be weak
to some

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12 puzzling … we don’t spend enough time studying the lessons
that nature can teach us. You may think that our obsession with
trying to produce new ways of thinking and resolving problems
is praiseworthy. I’ve heard it described as unnecessary, but
everyone agrees with the idea that it’s puzzling
13 respectful While people around the world are often dismissive
of nature’s importance or are uncaring towards it, some
indigenous cultures are respectful of nature
14 inspiration Our tendency is to look to empowering quotes on
social media for inspiration, but next time you are feeling down
or confused, I recommend going to any wide open field or the
heart of a forest and take the time to really open your eyes to
what is around you.
Part 3
15 B … I considered opening by café but I wasn’t sure about my
abilities to make a success of it …
16 C … it’s not eaten by as many people in the UK …
17 B … I’m known amongst my friends for giving advice, so it came
naturally to me!
18 A … I feel fortunate that no two days are the same!
19 C (Samia) Allowing it to evolve organically took the pressure off
… (Mike) Not rushing into anything. I’m glad that I took the
time to get to know my customers, to be able to talk to them
about the gelato, to get their ideas and their feedback.
20 C I don’t have one end goal, instead I have lots of small goals
that lead up to something bigger, and that will always lead
onto something else.
Part 4
Task 1
1 F … focus on my passion for graphic design.
2 E When the opportunity came to secure a new partnership, it
felt like my hard work finally paid off
3 G … I came first place in a contest for start-ups …
4 A … I came across my grandmothers antique earring down the
back of the sofa months after I lost it.
5 D I ended up with a five-star hotel in the Bahamas for £200 …
Task 2
1 E … trust in your own intuition …
2 D … expanding your network of friends and acquaintances.
3 C Depending too much on other people …
4 A … most things can be avoided if you take extra precautions!
5 G … sticking to one path to reach it is more likely to set you up
for failure …

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