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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTARCT …………………………………………...……....………………………............... 3

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………...………………………............ 4

OBJECTIVE …………………………………………………....……………………….............. 6

THEORY ………………………………….…………………….……………………….............. 6

APPARATUS …………………………………….……………..………………………............ 10

2

PROCEDURE …………………………………………………...………………………........... 11

RESULTS ……………………………………………………….………………………............. 12

DISCUSSION …………………………………………………...………………………............ 14

CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………………………............. 15

REFERENCE ……………………………………………………………………………............ 16

ABSTRACT

Bernoulli’s theorem when applied to the steady flow of water in tapered duct

and to measure the flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a

rigid convergent or divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady

flow rates. The relation among the pressure, velocity and elevation in a

moving fluid (liquid or gas), the compressibility and viscosity (internal

friction) of which are negligible and the flow of which is steady or laminar is

indicated in Bernoulli’s theorem. The Bernoulli’s

Apparatus Test Equipment is used in this, in order to demonstrate the

Bernoulli’s theorem. The reading shown by manometer h* is the sum of the

pressure and velocity heads and the reading in manometer hi measured the

pressure head only. The time to collect 10L water in the tank was measured.

3

Lastly, the flow rate and total velocity was calculated by using both Bernoulli

and

Continuity equation and the difference in velocity for both equations was also

calculated from the data of the results. Based on the results taken, it has been

analyzed that the velocity of the fluid is increased when it is flowing from a

wider to a narrower tube as the pressure is lower at constrictions and the

pressure increased as the cross-sectional area increases.

INTRODUCTION

particular the conservation of mass and the conservation of energy. The first

of these when applied to a liquid flowing through a conduit requires that for

steady flow the velocity will be inversely proportional to the flow area. The

second requires that if the velocity increases then the pressure must decrease.

"as the speed of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) increases, the pressure within

the fluid decreases”. Bernoulli's principle is named after the Swiss scientist

Daniel Bernoulli who published his principle in his book Hydrodynamica in

1738.

4

Bernoulli’s Principle can be demonstrated by the Bernoulli equation.

The Bernoulli equation is an approximate relation between pressure, velocity,

and elevation. While the Continuity equation relates the speed of a fluid that

moving through a pipe to the cross sectional area of the pipe. It says that as a

radius of the pipe decreases the speed of fluid flow must increase and vice-

versa. However, Bernoulli’s Principle can only be applied under certain

conditions. The conditions to which Bernoulli’s equation applies are the fluid

must be frictionless (inviscid) and of constant density; the flow must be

steady, and the relation holds in general for single streamlines. In general,

frictional effects are always important very close to solid wall (boundary

layers) and directly downstream of bodies (wakes). Thus, the Bernoulli

approximation is typically useful in flow regions outside of boundary layers

and wakes, where the fluid motion is governed by the combined effects of

pressure and gravity forces.

conservation of energy. As a fluid moves from a wider pipe into a narrower

pipe or a constriction, a corresponding volume must move a greater distance

forward in the narrower pipe and thus have a greater speed. At the same time,

the work done by corresponding volumes in the wider and narrower pipes

will be expressed by the product of the pressure and the volume. Since the

speed is greater in the narrower pipe, the kinetic energy of that volume is

greater. Then, by the law of conservation of energy, this increase in kinetic

energy must be balanced by a decrease in the pressure-volume product, or,

since the volumes are equal, by a decrease in pressure.

5

Figure 1.0(Convergent Flow)

of Bernoulli’s equation. It is also used to show the validity of the continuity

equation where the fluid flows is relatively incompressible. The data taken

will show the presence of fluid energy losses, often attributed to friction and

the turbulence and eddy currents associated with a separation of flow from

the conduit walls.

6

OBJECTIVE

steady flow of water in a tapered duct.

To measure flow rates, static and total pressure heads in a rigid

convergent or divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady

flow rates

THEORY

Bernoulli’s principle theorem states that an increase in the speed of the fluid,

occurs at same time, whether with a decrease in pressure or potential energy

of the fluid. This only occurs for invincible flow.

which made from pure acrylic pipe of shifting roundabout cross section area,

known as a venture as shown in fig (2.0). The static pressure can be measured

by a series of wall tapping along the convergent duct, while a total head tube

7

is provided to traverse along the center lie of the test section. The

characteristics of the flow through both converging and departing are studied

by hydraulics bench, since this test can be used to approve those conditions in

which Bernoulli’s principle might be applied or in those condition in which

Bernoulli’s principle is not enough to describe the fluid behavior.

Figure 2.0(Venture)

sum of all form of mechanical energy along the streamline is the same as the

point of the flowing fluid.

For steady flows each particles slide along its path, and its velocity vector is

everywhere tangent to the path. The lines that are tangent to the velocity vector

throughout the flow feed are called the streamlines.

The fluid particles main properties are the pressure and weight. If the velocity

increase, means that the fluid is moving horizontally along a streamline and this

occurs at the lowest pressure, means Z1=Z2 will be canceled and the pressure

heads h1= P1/ 𝛾 and h2 = P2/ 𝛾 can be measured from a common chance datum

so that Bernoulli’s Equation simplifies as written.

8

The Bernoulli equation: kinetic energy + potential energy + flow energy =

constant.

𝑃1 𝑉12 𝑃2 𝑉22

+ = + = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾 2𝑔

But if the velocity decrease, the fluid is moving vertically along a streamline and

this occurs at the highest pressure, means Z1=Z2 (elevation head) and the

P/ 𝛾 (pressure head) and the velocity V2/2𝑔 (which represent the vertical

distance needed for the fluid to fall freely), all must be calculated according to

the equation:

𝑃1 𝑉12 𝑃2 𝑉22

+ + 𝑍1 = + + 𝑍2

𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾 2𝑔

This can be demonstrated when the fluid is moving from a region of high

pressure to a region of low pressure, the velocity of fluid might be high or low.

Friction is negligible along the streamline through the venture tube. (4)

Allowance for friction losses and conversion of the pressure, P1 and P2 into

static pressure heads, h1 and h2 yields:

9

𝑉12 𝑉22

ℎ1 + = ℎ2 + + ℎ𝑣

2𝑔 2𝑔

For dynamic pressure head when the mass flow rate is constant in closed

system

Wmeas 2 ghdyn.

10

APPARATUS

Description:

The equipment is designed and fabricated to demonstrate the Bernoulli’s

theorem. It consists of a test section made of acrylic. It had convergent and

divergent sections. Pressure tapings are provided at different locations in

convergent and divergent section. Present set-up is self-contained water

re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank, centrifugal pump etc. An

arrangement is done to conduct the experiment on different flow rates.

(2) Venturi tube with 6 measurement points

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(3) Hose connection, water supply

(4) Unions

(5) Air bleed screw

(6) Discharge valve

(7) Gland nut

(8) Probe for measuring overall pressure

(9) Adjustable feet

2.) Stopwatch

Description: The stopwatch that used for the timing to the flow

measurement of the water

Figure 3.1(stopwatch)

PROCEDURE

12

2. The discharge valve was adjusted to high measurable flow rate to fill the

manometer tube to make sure the air bubble inside the manometer is

free.

3. The water level was reduced by using air bleed screw.

4. The first flow rate was started by controlling the control valve.

5. After the level stabilizes, gently slide the hypodermic tube connected to

manometer H. So that its end reaches the cross section of the venturi

tube at A. The readings from manometer H and A was taken.

6. The step 5 was repeated for cross section (B, C, D, E and F)

7. After that, the water flow rate is filled into the measuring tube. The time

was taken by using the stopwatch.

8. The step 4 to 7 was repeated with two other flow.

9. The velocity was calculated using the Bernoulli’s and continuity

equation.

10. The difference between two calculated velocities was determined.

RESULTS

= 238.93 – 173

= 65.93m

H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6

[mm ws] [mm ws] [mm ws] [mm ws] [mm ws] [mm ws]

13

H total 238.9 238.9 238.9 238.9 238.9 238.9

H dyn (mm) 65.9 73.9 188.9 115.9 100.9 94.9

= √𝟐(𝟗. 𝟖𝟏)𝐱(𝟔𝟓. 𝟗)

= 35.9842 m/s

Wcal. = 𝐇 𝐭𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥⁄𝐀𝐫𝐞𝐚

𝟐𝟑𝟖.𝟗𝟑

=

𝟑𝟑𝟖.𝟔

= 0.705m/s

H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6

[mm ws] [mm ws] [mm ws] [mm ws] [mm ws] [mm ws]

W mea. 35.98 38.10 60.91 47.71 44.52 43.17

W calc. 0.70 1.02 2.82 1.40 1.06 0.70

14

DISCUSSION

mathematical statement when connected to the relentless flow of water in a

decreased pipe. Bernoulli's Principle is essentially a work energy conservation

principle which states that for an ideal fluid or for situations where effects of

viscosity are neglected, with no work being performed on the fluid, total

energy remains constant. This principle is a simplification of Bernoulli's

equation, which states that the sum of all forms of energy in a fluid flowing

along an enclosed path (a streamline) is the same at any two points in that

path. The total head for convergent flow is decreased from h1 to h6 while the

total head value for divergent flow is the lowest at h1 and the highest at h6.

However it is to be noted that there might have been some human and

apparatus related errors unintentionally done in the experiment process

which might have given us some deviated results from the actual results.

However, the results can be improved if some precautions are taken during

the experiment for example the eyes level must be placed parallel to the scale

when manometer readings are taken. Besides that, the valve is also needed to

be controlled slowly to stabilize the water level in the manometer. The human

reaction error while noting the time using a stop watch can be avoided by

using light gates to give out highly accurate results for the time measured.

Bernoulli’s theorem has several applications in everyday lives. In certain

problems in fluid flows when given the velocities at two points of the

streamline and pressure at one point, the unknown is the pressure of the fluid

at the other point. In such cases (if they satisfy the required condition for

Bernoulli's Equation) Bernoulli's Equation can be used to find the unknown

pressure. One such example is the flow through a converging nozzle.

15

CONCLUSION

From the experiment conducted, there are different cross-sections for each

tube H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, and H6. These differences resulted in varieties of value

obtained for stagnation head (H) and pressure head (hi). By using Bernoulli

equation to calculate the velocity, it can be said that the velocity of fluid

increase as the fluid is flowing from a wider to narrower tube and the velocity

decrease in the opposite direction. This also indicates that the pressure of

fluid decreases as the velocity increases. Therefore, the Bernoulli’s principle is

proven.

The Bernoulli equation forms the basis for solving a wide variety of fluid flow

problems such as jets issuing from an orifice, flows associated with pumps

and also turbines. Bernoulli’s equation is also useful in demonstration of

aerodynamic properties such as drag and lift.

From the data and results calculated, we can conclude that the Bernoulli

equation is valid for flow as it obeys the equation and the objectives are

successfully achieved.

16

REFERENCES

http://documents.tips/documents/bernoullis-theorem-

experiment.html

http://documents.tips/documents/bernoullis-55f8286f6e7ec.html

http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/use-bernoullis-equation-

to-calculate-pressure-diff.html

Prentice Hall (2012). Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers. Oxford

publications. Pg.34-39.

Douglas, J.F.Gasiorek, J.M. and Swaffield, J.A.(1999) Fluid Mechanics,

3rdedition. Longmans Singapore Publisher, Pg. 99-101

Giles, R.V., Evett, J.B. and Cheng Liu, Schaumm’s (2010)Outline Series

Theory and Problemsof Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic, McGraw Hill

Intl. Pg.559-620

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