You are on page 1of 4

COATINGS

What is a coating?

Coating is any mixture of film-forming materials plus pigments, solvents, and other
additives, which, when applied to a surface and cured or dried, yields a thin film that is functional
and often decorative

Polymers for Surface Coatings

Polymer-based surface coatings can be considered to be two-phase composite materials


consisting of pigment particles and other additives dispersed in a continuous matrix of polymer.

 Step-growth polymers
- formed by reaction between two dissimilar monomers
Examples: polyesters, epoxies, polyurethanes, polyamides, melamine,
and phenolic resins

 Chain-growth polymers
- formed by the successive addition of similar monomers onto the ends of
a growing chain
Examples: polyethylene, polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate), and
poly(vinyl chloride).

Emulsion Process
 specific chain-growth polymerization method utilized
extensively for coatings use
 involves stabilizing large droplets of a monomer (or monomers)
in water using soap as a surface-acting agent, or surfactant.

Polymer film-forming Process

Film Formation

 Process undergone by surface coatings upon its application through spraying,


brushing or other various processes.
 Liquid coating of relatively low viscosity is applied to a solid substrate and is cured
to a solid , high molecular weight, polymer-based adherent
 Film application thickness-
Ranging from 0.5 to 500 micrometers

3 Major Types of Film Formation

 Cross-linking film formation


 Formation based on the reacting polymer precursors to build up a three-
dimensionally cross-linked network.
 Complex reaction involving the addition of atmospheric oxygen to the fatty
acid leading to the formation of hydroperoxide derivatives which will
decompose upon the presence of driers (white lead or cobalt naphthalene)
to form free radical that will cross-link with the remaining unsaturated fatty
acid.
 Application Examples :
Middle ages- Drying oils
Modern times- Varnishes
Resins (tree gum and rosins)

 Evaporation-based film formation


 One of the fastest and simplest methods of film formation
 Liquid coating is applied to a substrate and the film forms solely by
evaporation, which leaves behind solid coating
 Molecular weight and properties of the polymer used in this type are fully
developed before dissolution in solvent.
 Having advantage of releasing large quantity of solvent to the atmosphere
(environmental hazard)
 Application Examples:
Nitrocellulose lacquers
Spray paints

 Coalescence-based film formation


 Formation of a clear polymer film after the dispersion is applied to a
substrate given that the polymer:
 Has particles of 0.05 to 1.0 micrometer size that dispersed in water
or organic solvent
 Is above its glass transition temperature
 Is rubbery in nature
 Application example:
 Latex

 Powder Coating
Mode of film formation takes closely related to water-based coalescence involving
the melting and fusing of solid paint particles.

Pigments

 Insoluble particulate materials that provide color, opacity, gloss control, and rheological
control.

1. WHITE (hiding) PIGMENTS


 Contribute light-scattering properties to coatings
 Reduced the probability that light will penetrate through a pigmented film to the
substrate
 Ex. Crystal form of titanium dioxide “rutile”

2. COLOR PIGMENTS
 Copper phthalocyanine-based greens and blues, quinacridone red, iron oxide red,
iron oxide yellow, dirarylide yellow, and perinone orange
 Scatters or absorb certain wavelength in the visible light spectrum

3. FILLER or extender PIGMENTS


 Occupies volume as filler in coatings to enhance the mechanical and thermal barrier
properties of the coatings
 has no contributory effect to optical properties except for gloss
 Ex. Talc, sodium carbonate, silica

Specialty Additives

-enhance the performance and use of coatings

1 RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTY ADDITIVES


 give precise control to fluid’s viscosity
 “thickeners” for they increase the viscosity of, or thicken, a coating when applied
in small amount

2. CATALYSTS AND DRIERS


 Help accelerate film-formation reactions

3. WETTING AGENTS
 Help the fluid phase to wet pigment particles during the pigment-dispersion
process
 Help reduce surface tension of the coating so that it properly wet the substrate
upon application

4. DEFOAMERS
 Defoamers breaks destabilize or break foams or bubbles which cause problems
on manufacturing, process and application

5. FUNGICIDES, BACTERICIDES

Properties of Organic Coatings

1. OPTICAL PROPERTIES
 OPACITY
The ability to hide substrate
 COLOR
The ability to reflect and absorb visible light of specific wavelength
 GLOSS
The ability to act like a mirror in the direct reflection of light

2. THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND ADHESION


 In thermomechanical aspects, the hardness, elastic modulus, glass transition and
toughness and abrasion resistance of the coating is often considered
 Higher Tg, higher viscosity, easier film-forming process

3. CHEMICAL- AND CORROSION-RESISTANCE PROPERTIES


 Coatings serve to protect substrates from the impact of the effects of the exposed
environment conditions.

4. EXTERIOR DURABILITY
 Special property of coating the serves as protection to a substrate from the exterior
exposures especially on solar radiation

Types of Coatings

1. PAINT
 a mixture of usually opaque solids, dispersed in a liquid medium which is
used as a protective and/or decorative coating for suitable surfaces, which
dries by the oxidation, polymerization, and evaporation.
2. VARNISH

 a liquid without any pigments or coloring agents. They are transparent and
applied as clear coats.

3. LACQUER

 a clear or colored wood finish that dries by solvent evaporation that


produces a hard durable finish.

Methods of Coating

 Vapor deposition
 Chemical and electrochemical techniques
 Spraying
 Roll-to-roll coating processes
 Physical coating processes